One of the most critical responsibilities for persons engaged in the care and protection of animals is to provide the most humane death possible for pets when euthanasia is needed. The term euthanasia comes from the Greek meaning good death. In order to be considered human, each technique must be carried out with little or no pain-free, rapid loss of consciousness, followed by a cardiac or respiratory arrest, and lately the death.
The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) recommended as the preferred agent for euthanasia of pets an injection of sodium pentobarbital prepared especially to be used in cases of euthanasia,. This method , When is conducted properly, is the most humane method, insurance, less tense, and it is the method preferred by the HSUS, The American Humane Association, and the American Veterinary Medical Association.
The shelter staff must consider many factors when choosing a method of euthanasia. The most important factor obviously , is the most humane method. Other considerations include the number of available staff, training offered to the staff responsible for euthanasia and statutory limitations. Once the preferred the refuge staff method has been chosen should be manener an exact inventory of drugs used to keep the proper amount and to comply with federal and State requirements.
The renew of euthanasia procedures evaluation is an obligation of the refuge managers, in order to ensure that animals are being treated properly, and verify that the employees are competent, sensitive and properly trained. Euthanasia must be entrusted to staff more aware and qualified, never to a person who is neglected, indifferent to the suffering of animals, or without training in animal behavior or euthanasia techniques. Employees must respond emotionally to the euthanasia of a large number of animals, at the same time maintaining a sense of affection and responsibility for the welfare of each cat and individual dog.
The injection of sodium pentobarbital, administered by trained personnel, It is the preferred method of euthanasia in dogs and cats.
The HSUS recommends that administrators of the refuge should make sure that staff who administered euthanasia to be adequately trained before running the euthanasia. The HSUS recommends that two people are here to carry out euthanasia: a charge of sustain and calm the animal and another to inject it.
Intravenous injection ((IV)) It is considered the method faster and more reliable euthanasia when it can be administered without causing fear or distress in the animal. The injection of sodium pentobarbital can be managed via interperiotoneal (IP) (within the peritoneal cavity) kittens and puppies when intravenous injections are difficult or little practice.
The administration of sedative to aggressive animals should be considered, terrified, wild or ferozes before the is administered sodium pentobarbital injection. Intercardiacas injections (IC) (within the heart) they are acceptable only in animals which are unconscious or in a deep state of anestetización. Because intra-hepáticas injections (IH) (within the liver) have not been the sufficiently studied, The HSUS is unable to recommend injections IH as an acceptable method. There are questions unresolved as to the accuracy of injection, the sensitivity of the bodies to the pain, its adaptability to multiple species, and the easy induction to the State of unconsciousness.
In addition, following injections are not acceptable methods of euthanasia: subcutaneous (under the skin), intramuscular (in the muscle), intrapulmonares (in the lungs), intrarenal (in the kidneys), within the spleen, within the membranes of the spine, intratoráxica (within the thoracic cavity), and any other type of non-vascular injections.
Sodium pentobarbital is a barbiturate of inventory II, which means that it is a substance controlled by the federal Government and can only be purchased using the registry and the Administration drug purchase order (DEA). The purchase is subject to the requirements of security, and federal inventory control. The use of this drug is carefully controlled by the laws and State regulations.
Any combination of pentobarbital with a crippling neuromuscular agent is totally unacceptable as a method of euthanasia. However, available on the market other combinations of products such as Beutanasia-D, which combines with other substances pentobarbital to accelerate the cardiac arrest.
Beutanasia-D is a drug of inventory III, which means that it can be obtained from the manufacturer by any person or entity with the DEA registration, ener without a purchase order. However, Inventory III drugs are subject to the same requirements of security and control of row that the drug inventory II.
T-61 is a combination of injecting drug users is unacceptable. This combination contains a local anesthetic, a general anesthetic and a crippling neuromuscular agent. In the United States has been removed from the market by manufacturers, but it still exists in Canada. This injection is designed to be administered intravenously at a rate of accurate injection (1CC by 5 seconds), which is impossible to maintain. Still the fact more important that if T-61 is improperly managed can cause great pain and paralysis to the respiratory system (asphyxia) the animal before it loses consciousness. Due to these limitations, T-61 is an unacceptable euthanasia method.
When carbon monoxide (CO) It is administered in a room properly manufactured and equipped, It is then considered a method of acceptable euthanasia for some animals; However, The HSUS believes that it is less appropriate than sodium pentobarbital.
The many limitations of the carbon monoxide makes a method more cost and more slowly than the fatal injection. The animals of less than four months old have shown resistance to the lack of oxygen (hypoxia). The use of the carbon monoxide as method of euthanasia is totally unacceptable in dogs and cats of elderly or less than four months old, sick or injured. Due to these limitations, There must always be another method that is acceptable.
Carbon monoxide must come in compressed gas cylinders, be used only in a room that has been manufactured commercially for purposes of euthanasia, and that is properly maintained. This room must be designed to minimize stress and allow the separation of animals. The rooms should not be on populados.
CO is a hazardous substance because it is odourless, colourless, has no flavor and is explosive. The be exposed repeatedly to CO, even at low levels, can result in different effects in the long term including but not limited to cancer, infertility and heart disease. CO bathrooms should be used under extreme precaucioes and guidelines should be established to ensure that animals are the most humane death possible at the same time the strictest safety and security personnel.
The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) It is not a method of acceptable euthanasia for pets. However, a commercially manufactured room and the use of a cylinder of compressed CO2 may be acceptable for certain wild species. Manufactured CO2 generated by any other method or dry ice is unacceptable.
The methods that the HSUS considered inhuman, unacceptable, and that is openly against include decompression, use of nitrous oxide, drowning, decapitation, cervical dislocation, bleed death now doing, electrocution, destruction of the spinal cord, death by gun (excluding that is performed in case of emergency, where is the transport of the animal impossible), air embolism, striccnina, hydrate of chlorine, caffeine , nicotine, magnesium sulfate, potassium chloridrato, chloridrato of succinylcholine (Sucostri, U-Tha-G, Anectine, Quelicin Chloridatro), and any combination of pentobarbital with a crippling neuromuscular agent.
The Humane Society of the United States is dedicated to the recommendation of all methods of euthanasia which are fast, without pain, and that they should try to minimize fear and apprehension in animals. For more information, Please write to The HSUS Companion Animal section, 2100 L Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20037 or call to (202)452-1100.