The Cuban Macaw (Ara tricolor) ave a great era, He is having a length between 45 and 50 centimeters, the forecrown It was red and orange and yellow the nape.
Around the eyes He had white areas devoid of feathers. Face, abdomen, chest and the thighs They were also orange and legs and the tip of the bill brown. The upper portion was a brownish red with festooned with feathers in green, while feathers below tail, on top of this and the lower back region they were blue. Also this color combined with purplish red wings were.
The external appearance of both male and the female It was the same. As for the flight, as it described, takeoff opened and displayed in its entirety the splendid tail in a truly magnificent spectacle.
Little is known about the habits Cuban Macaw. Local people reported the Cuban naturalist, born in Germany, Juan Gundlach (1876) What anidaba holes in palm trees and lived in couples and family groups. He said he had a strong similar to that of the macaws in Central vocalization (Gundlach 1893).
apparently small populations bred in scattered locations.
Little is known about the reproduction of this species, unless they are nesting in holes palm trees and lived in couples and family groups.
They ate fruits, Palmas, tree seeds cinnamon (Meliá azedarach), tender shoots and buds (Wiley & Kirwan 2013).
Olson & Suarez (2008) skull suggest that the tablet back-ventral, in other macaw is an adaptation for a strong muscle attachment, is an indication that this species feeds on palm nuts extremely hard shell, and distribution of birds may have been closely related to the availability of this food source.
Distributed in the past by the island of Cuba, and probably the Isle of youth. It is said that there were many people in the Cienaga de Zapata to the South of Matanzas. There is no evidence of the historical existence of this guacamayo or another Hispaniola, where it has hinted at the existence of this species (although possibly they were observed on that island, the latest registered individuals 1820.
This species is known at the island of Cuba, but hunting led to its population to extinction. The latest reports of the species dating 1885.
Its extinction was caused by his hunting as food and the Deforestation for nesting capture young birds and their use as pet (Forshaw and Cooper 1989).
It said the last known specimen that existed was killed in La Vega, about the Cienaga de Zapata in 1864. Then testimonies of sightings occurred up 1885 which were not confirmed.
† Cuban macaw in captivity:
It is believed that the Cuban Macaw It was quite common in Cuba. First he began to increase his capture in order to give them to the Kings of Spain. As the nineteenth century progressed increased human population and this not only cut down the trees and forests deforested, but also he hunted the bird as Food- despite concerns that his meat tasted bad- ransacked their nests to take pets young birds. Thus they were eliminating their habitats, until he ended up becoming extinct.
– Cuban Macaw, Hispaniolan Macaw, Hispaniolan or Cuban Macaw, Hispaniolan, Cuban or Jamaican Macaw (English).
– Ara d’Hispaniola, Ara tricolore, Ara tricolore ou A. de Cuba, Ara tricolore, A. de Cuba ou A. de Gosse (French).
– Dreifarbenara (German).
– arara-vermelha-de-cuba (Portuguese).
– Guacamayo cubano (Spanish).
– Order: Psittaciformes
– Family: Psittacidae
– Genus: ARA
– Scientific name: Ara tricolor
– Citation: (Bechstein, 1811)
– Protonimo: Ara tricolor
Cuban Macaw pictures:
Cuban Macaw † (Ara tricolor)
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
The plumage general of the Glaucous Macaw(Anodorhynchus glaucus) It is light blue, almost turquoise top, with strong grayish hue in head and underparts.
Uppertail Blue-Green; undertail gray.
The bill It is dark blackish gray, the naked flames in the base lower mandible they are yellow, but paler than the periophthalmic skin; the irises is dark brown, the periophthalmic skin Nude yellow; the legs They are dark.
probably he occupied Gallery subtropical forests with cliffs, but also used lightly wooded savannas and rich in palm trees. The few contemporary records suggest it was naturalists gregarious.
It has been reported that anidaba on steep slopes or cliffs, or less generally in the cavities of trees and the average size of laying It was probably two eggs
the Glaucous Macaw They were distributed at the time by the south-eastern South America, where apparently they were recorded in average growth of major rivers, including Parana River, the Uruguay river and the Río Paraguay, with most of the evidence of a prior distribution in the province of Currents, to the North of Argentina; cases were also recorded in western Uruguay and Southeast of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná), and evidently in the south and east of Paraguay. The records of Bolivia They seem wrong. It is almost certainly extinct after a precipitous drop in the early nineteenth century. Only two records in the twentieth century.
• Current red list category of the UICN: In Critically Endangered.
• Population trend: Unknown.
• Population size : 1-49 individuals.
Justification of the red list category
This species was recorded in the last decade 1960 and it is likely that its population has declined dramatically as a result of hunt, Besides the degradation and habitat destruction. However, you may still exist, since not all its wide range of data, above wide, It has been adequately studied, and there have been persistent and convincing local reports. Any remaining population is likely to be small, and for these reasons it is treated as in Critically Endangered.
Justification of the population
It is assumed that any remaining population is small (counting less than 50 individuals) due to lack of confirmed records since the early 1960.
The settlement of the major river basins within its range was allegedly accompanied by the widespread loss of palms, whether by direct cleaning for agriculture or suppression of regeneration by livestock settlers. The palma de Horizontal, of the species probably fed, It was chosen to be cleared by early settlers because it was an indicator of good soil quality (Necklace et to the. 2014). Widespread loss of gallery forests could also have had an impact on the species (Necklace et to the. 2014). The size and appearance of the bird probably made him a prime target for hunters, and even capture pups as pets It could have been important. There is some evidence that were sold, but few to support various claims that there have been recent trade of live specimens.
Any current trade in eggs, skins and live specimens would obviously be extremely damaging.
Conservation actions underway
– Appendix I of CITES and protected by Brazilian law.
– There have been several attempts (so far unsuccessful) to rediscover the species.
– There are proposals for funding under way to try to fund a work program to confirm the presence of this species in the wild.
Conservation Actions Proposed
– Conducting interviews with the local population, especially with parrots and ancient hunters assets, to assess the likelihood of any population remains.
– Getting ready to follow up any positive data from these interviews.
Glauco macaw in captivity †:
There is some evidence that were sold, but few to support various claims that there have been recent trade of live specimens.
30 cm.. length and a weight between 130 and 170 g..
The Red-shouldered Macaw(Diopsittaca nobilis) along with the other two subspecies belong to the Group of the small macaws often called dwarf macaws or mini macaws parrots.
They have forecrown, front of the crown and top of the eyes blue; rest of the head and upperparts, including the wings and the top of the tail, grass-green. Rojas the carpal joints and the leading edge of the wing
. Lesser and medium underwing-coverts red; large underwing-coverts brown; underside of flight feather Golden olive.
The underparts green, but more yellowish than the upper. The bottom of the tail Golden olive.
Bill blackish; bare skin of the lores and top of the cheeks white; irises orange-brown; black legs.
Both sexes similar; Perhaps a little smaller females.
The immature with the head completely Green: has no red color in the carpal joints.
Description 3 subspecies:
Diopsittaca nobilis cumanensis
(Lichtenstein, 1823) – Larger that the species nominal, at around 33 cm.. length. The forecrown more blue and the upper maxilla off-white.
Diopsittaca nobilis longipennis
(Neumann, 1931) – It is the largest subspecies, at around 35 cm.. length. Underparts more yellow and olive green
With they are distributed in a variety of open wooded habitats, including savannah with scattered shrubs and palm trees (for example of Mauritia) in Suriname, morichales and the coast plantations in Guyana, closed with palm groves of Mauritia on the inside of Brazil and margins of caatinga in the northeast of Brazil with palm groves of Mauritia.
A persistent feature in its preferred habitat is the presence of Palm trees, especially of the genus M. flexuosa, Orbignya martiana and Maximiliana maripa (the latter especially in the southern region of the Amazon). Also observed in wetlands with palms, Gallery forests and cultivated areas.
Avoid large expanses of closed canopy forests, but can be seen around human settlements and is common in the city of Georgetown, Guyana.
They reach the 1.400 metres in Venezuela, to the South of the Orinoco.
Gregarious, often in large flocks outside breeding season; If not in couples.
Nest in tree cavities, termite tree or in holes of palmas. Copulations registered in the month of October to the South-West of Brazil; Probably engender between February and June in Guiana. Clutch four eggs in captivity. The average period of incubation is of 24 days, the chicks leave the nest about 54 days after birth.
Its diet, probably, It is similar to its closest relatives, nuts are included in the, seeds, fruits and flowers, but with some signs of favorite seeds; known his preference for flowers of Terminalia argentea and Erythrina glauca, as well as the berries Cordia and fruits Euterpe. They also feed cereals and fruits in cultivated fields and are considered as one plague in some areas.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 910.000 km2
Endemic to the northeast of South America, from the East of the Andes toward the center of Brazil.
In East Venezuela they are distributed, mainly, to the South of the Orinoco (Delta Amacuro and parts of Bolivar), also at the East end of Monagas.
The few records of Trinidad they are probably elopements captive birds.
Are distributed through of the Guianas, in areas of seasonal forests (mainly near the coast) and in Brazil to the North of the Amazon in Roraima, Amapá and North of For. Returns disjoint inside of Brazil, to the South of the Amazon from the southeast of For and Maranhão the wetlands of Mato Grosso and to the South by the dry northeast in Piauí, Bahia and, According to reports in the South of Alagoas until Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Northwest of São Paulo (with a population introduced in the City of São Paulo).
They occupy the Center and East of Bolivia and Southeast of Peru, where there are records in the Heath pampas.
In general residents, with seasonal movements in some coastal areas (for example Guianas) and distributed irregularly, to the North of Amazon, where they remain scattered on the basis of suitable habitat.
In general common, especially in the Centre and northeast of Brazil, Although rare in the Guianas.
• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern
• Population trend: Stable
Global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).
The population of Red-shouldered Macaw suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.
Currently capture and trade of wild individuals is illegal.
Noble macaw in captivity:
They are the smaller macaws commercially available pet and enough popular due to its small size (only a little bigger that a cockatoo) and for its excellent ability to imitate sounds.
In captivity, These birds are sociable and friendly.
The Red-shouldered Macaw they are easy to breed in captivity birds. They have proven to be prolific players and they have brought successfully for many years. In his book “All about parrots“, the author Arthur Freud He points out that the first Red-shouldered Macaw It was bred in captivity in the United Statess in the year 1939 and again in 1940, the Lord and Lady Vance Wright. But it was the British success during the year 1949 by EMT Vane, the best known. In fact Vane He received the first breeding metal from the British Avicultural Society ’ s for his achievements with the Red-shouldered Macaw.
The Red-shouldered Macaw they are commonly kept as pets, but their number has been decreasing in nature due to the habitat destruction and to his capture to the pet market.
With regard to its longevity, According to sources, It is known that a specimen lived 22,9 years in captivity.
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(1) – A Red-shouldered Macaw at Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. This subspecies is also know at the Noble Macaw By Chad Bordes (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – The photograph shows a Hahn’s Macaw (D. n. nobilis) pet parrot perching on a finger By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Diopsittaca_nobilis_-pet-2.jpg:Evenprime at en.wikipedia. Photo by Walter Maier. Picture of family pet. Later version(s) were uploaded by Snowmanradio at en.wikipedia. (Diopsittaca_nobilis_-pet-2.jpg) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], from Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Two Red-shouldered Macaws in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil By Nori Almeida (originally posted to Flickr as Pantanal 2009) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Long-wing Macaw or Hahn’s Macaw); two in a cage By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as DSCN9927) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Two Red-shouldered Parrots at Lisbon Zoo, Portugal By Jorge Andrade from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Lisbon zoo (107)Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Red-shouldered Macaw (Diopsittaca nobilis), also known as the Noble Macaw By Snowmanradio (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A Red-shouldered Macaw at Bird Park, Kaluga region, Zhukovsky District, Russia By Remiz [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Three Red-shouldered Macaws at a zoo By DSuàr (To be coldUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Red-shouldered Macaw (this subspecies is also known as Hahn’s Macaw) at Jungle Island, Miami, USA By Chris Acuna from Miami, USA [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
50 - 51 cm.. length and a weight between 292 and 390 g.
The Red-bellied Macaw(Orthopsittaca manilatus) is a medium-sized Macaw; has the forecrown and crown a bright blue, gradually faded to blue-green color in the area of the nape and on both sides of the neck. The the mantle and scapulars are green grass with impregnations color olive and yellow edges, producing, altogether, a flaky effect; the back and rump are green grass, with some feathers tipped pale bluish. The uppertail-coverts grass-green. The lesser and median coverts green grass impregnated with green olive with yellowish margins; alula and primary coverts green with vane outer blue; large inner coverts green.
The flight feather bordered with blue and green tips. Under, the wings with coverts yellowish-green and flight feather yellowish. The feathers of the throat and top of the chest are pale grey blue in the Center and yellowish-green in the margins; those of the lower area of the chest and top of the belly without tones pale in the Center, but with some feathers with margins off dark red; belly dark red; undertail-coverts bluish green. Upper, the tail green color in the Center with yellowish margins; upor down yellow.
Bill black; nude part of lores and cheeks yellowish white; irises dark brown; legs dark gray.
Sexes similar, the males, possibly, larger.
Immature clear tip in the bill and smaller patch of dark red color of the belly.
Lives in Savanna and flooded forest, where there are Palm trees, in altitudes close to the 500 m. Very dependent from the Palma de moriche or aguaje(Mauritia flexuosa), which feeds, staying almost invisible due to its Green plumage.
Occasionally wander in by cultivated areas and have been in the mangroves.
Gregarious, flocks of more of 100 observed birds. Usually, they rest in the branches of the Mauritia Palms, where they remain hidden among the foliage of leaves.
They nest in holes of las palmas dead found near or surrounded by water, often use the nests of the Orange-winged Parrot (Amazona amazonica), of Trinidad and Tobago.
The breeding season is from February to September in Trinidad and Tobago; from February to may in Colombia; from February to June in Guyana. The size of the put is of 2 - 6 eggs with a period of incubation of approximately 27 days. The young begin to feather already in the eleventh week. Take an average of 2 - 3 years to mature, remaining during that period very close to their parents.
The Red-bellied Macaw they communicate among themselves with calls when there is a localized food source.
They roost in Palm trees full of fruit and used its beak to peel hard fruits to expose the pulp. Are, Unlike the majority of parrots, seed predators, but partially, since they eat the fruit, leaving intact the endocarpio (Darnell and Bergstrom 2002; Janzen 1981; Kristosh and Marcondes Machado-2001).
Some lick attempt to fly with the seed at its peak, and unintentionally may fall between two palm trees. The fall of seeds and food behaviour, in order to avoid damaging the seed, It makes these macaws and other psittacidas agents of seed dispersal.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 7.150.000 km2
The Red-bellied Macaw is distributed to the North of South America to the East of the Andes.
In Colombia its range is from Goal and West of Vaupés until Putumayo and Amazon, spreading northeast of Venezuela until Trinidad and Tobago and Guianas, where apparently, they are restricted to coastal areas.
Are distributed to the East of Ecuador, Northeast of Peru, North of Bolivia and much of the Brazilian Amazon, to the East of For and from the West of Bay and Goiás until Mato Grosso. Apparently absent most of Venezuela and North of the Amazon basin of Brazil, in the basin of the Rio Negro.
A small population reported in the North of São Paulo, Brazil.
Probably residents in some areas, Although migratory in others, for example, in the Northwest of Bolivia, where been observed have to these macaws in the months of September to November, being absent from November to January.
Common local; the distribution is closely related to the palms of Mauritia. Probably stable population. However, in the northeast of Brazil fruit Mauritia It is used in the manufacture of confectionery and the trunks of Palms for some construction purposes.
Rare in captivity.
• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern.
• Population trend: Stable.
Global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as quite common.
The populations of the Red-bellied Macaw they depend of the Palms Mauritia for food and nesting. These trees are widely used for construction, and that is why you can have bad consequences for the future of the species.
These birds are threatened by the felling of these Palm trees and capture for the pet trade. However, This species tends to be common in most of their habitats, with the exception of Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela, where it is threatened by Habitat loss.
Ventrirrojo macaw in captivity:
Rare bird cage.
It is extremely difficult to keep these birds living in captivity, because, mainly, to your excitable personality, and its diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates.
The export and import for the pet trade often brings with it a mortality of the 100%; captive-bred chicks have a very low survival rate. A high percentage die at an early age kidney disease. Its acquisition as a pet is very questionable.
The only country which exports these birds in recent years is Guyana.
Due to the lack of commercial availability of nuts of moriche Palm, peeled unsalted peanuts have been used as a staple in the diet of these birds in captive. They must not be fed with the typical commercial seed, especially fat seeds such as of the Sunflower.
A nutritional analysis of the natural diet of the Red-bellied Macaw He revealed that this was made up of high levels of beta carotene, of carbohydrates and zero fat. This explains its propensity to obesity in captivity. Almost all parrots usual diets are too high in fat content, with what the Vitamin A supplements in the form of beta carotene they are essential.
Deficiencies of Vitamin A are usually made to notice very quickly, giving rise to many serious diseases, being able to get to many of them deadly.
The beta carotene is the only way of Vitamin A that do not require fat to be absorbed. The successful reproduction This species only has been able to achieve by adjusting your diet.
The young fed by hand are much quieter than adults and are able to metabolize fat more efficiently than adults. Once weaned, they remain in need of a very low fat diet.
There are no data of your longevity in captivity, Although in nature, possibly, they can live around the 40 years.
Is not a bird to keep in captive. A responsible attitude should be to put these beautiful birds in breeding programs so that future generations can enjoy them.
(1) – Red-bellied Macaw Orthopsittaca manilata in Goiânia, Brazil By A C Moraes (originally posted to Flickr as Tocci) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two Red-bellied Macaws flying near the Amerindian Reservation of Santa Mission, Guyana By Feroze Omardeen [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A little girl in San Martin, Peru with a pet juvenile Red-bellied Macaw on her right shoulder By Michael Nickel (originally posted to Flickr as girl with lorito) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Buchirroja Guacamaya ( Orthopsittaca manilatus) by Marcello Magnussen – wiki_aves_colombia
(5) – Cubs maracanã do buriti in the nest, Orthopsittaca manilatus by Osvaldo Scalabrini
Of 37 - 45 cm. length and a weight between 240 and 250 g..
The Yellow-collared Macaw(Primolius auricollis) already it was described by American ornithologist John Cassin in 1853.
Similar to the Blue-headed Macaw, is distinguished by a characteristic Yellow collar Golden, most notable in the area of the nape. This thin yellow line of feathers surrounding the back of the neck, It is that gives this species its name.
Previously considered you inside of the genre “ARA” by having the face it bare of feathers and also was known scientifically as “propyrrhura Macaw”
It is a small Macaw; has the forecrown, the feathered portion of the cheeks and the front of the crown dull blackish-brown color, becoming a blue-green shade at the rear of the crown and both sides of the neck. The neck is covered with a large golden yellow necklace. All the upperparts are green with blue markings in some feathers.
The small and medium-sized coverts are green. The alula and primary coverts they are completely blue. The primaries are blue, the secondaries are green with a strong blue tint in the vane outer. The underwing-coverts are, in its entirety, olive yellow, with the exception of the lower part of the flight feather It is yellowish.
The underparts are green. Upper, the Central tail feathers are reddish brown at the base, in the middle of green and blue at the tip. The outer tail feathers most are blue. The bottom of the tail is opaque yellow.
The bill is blackish with a tone slate finish. The bare skin about lores and cheeks It is white with a straw tone clear. The irises are orange, legs pink meat.
Both sexes similar.
The youth they resemble their parents. However, they have a bill grey with a white Peak; irises grayscale and the legs pale grey. The immature you have the collar area of the nape reddish.
The Yellow-collared Macaw they attend a wide variety of habitats from forests. Found in the tropical rainforests that cover the hills of the Andes, but also in dry areas of deciduous and grasslands with scattered trees. They are also present in the tree edges and savannas.
Unlike the majority of the species of parrots, the Yellow-collared Macaw support very well the profound changes occurring in their habitat.
They are relatively common in the waste groves situated in the middle of farmland and around major urban centres.
Mainly noted below 600 m, - 1.700 metres above sea level in the Northwest of Argentina.
Generally they live in pairs or in small groups, even outside the breeding season. Larger meetings may have place when food is abundant or when gather in the dormitories at night. Within these large herds, the matched pairs are less visible than other species of macaws.
They feed on trees and shrubs, Although they occasionally do on land
The season of nesting is in December in Argentina. The nest It tends to be located in the cavity of a tree, sometimes up to 20 meters above the ground. The spawning usually included in 2 - 4 eggs.
In captivity, the incubation lasts a few 23 days. The reproductive cycle is particularly long, Since the young leave the nest to the 7 weeks, After the hatching.
Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 1.950.000 km2
Endemic to the center of South America. The distribution of the Yellow-collared Macaw includes the Northwest of Argentina, in the East of Jujuy and North of Salta (reports of Missions and Formosa they are not correct) going northward through the East and North of Bolivia, in the departments of Santa Cruz, Beni and Tarija, is also distributed by the North of Paraguay, mainly to the West of the Río Paraguay, but largely absent in the drier areas of the Chaco.
For the most part residents, Although apparently, seasonal movements in some areas.
In general is a common Macaw and he persists in areas where significant habitat modification has taken place. Scarcer at the edge of its range in Paraguay.
They have been the subject of international trade, but its population does not seem to be affected by the capture.
• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern
• Population trend: Growing
The species is not threatened at the global level. Global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common”
At the beginning of the Decade of 1980, in Bolivia, the capture of birds for aviaries reached the alarming figure of over of 3.200 birds per year. Fortunately, the traffic is prohibited from 1984.
It is considered rather low, the population of this species in Paraguay and North of Argentina, but in recent years the trend has been reversed, and the species has colonized new areas.
Vireo macaw in captivity:
Fairly common, above all in the EE.UU, less frequent in other parts.
Charming, clever, and comedian, These small macaws offer all the personality of a great green Macaw in a smaller size, being more affordable and easier to take care of. It is an extremely Intelligent and easy to train.
Many Yellow-collared Macaw are gifted talkers, and they are able to say several words and phrases. Some owners have pointed out that this little Macaw is able to speak more clearly than other larger species. Even so, our Macaw should not be purchased only by his ability to speak; This ability is never a guarantee.
Reproduce well in captivity. The breeding season It is usually in the spring and early summer, Although some couples are played almost throughout the year. The implementation size It is usually of two to four eggs, but sometimes more. The incubation period is of 23 - 27 days. Some additional high fat seeds, as the Sunflower seed, should be added to the diet during the breeding season to stimulate reproduction.
Pair-bonds are strong, but not necessarily for life.
– Yellow-collared Macaw, Cassin’s Macaw, Golden-collared Macaw, Golden-naped Macaw, Yellow collared Macaw, Yellow-naped Macaw (English).
– Ara à collier jaune, Ara à nuque d’or (French).
– Halsbandara (German).
– ararinha, Maracanã-de-colar (Portuguese).
– G. Acollarado, Guacamayo Acollarado, Maracaná cuello dorado, Maracaná de Cuello Dorado (Spanish).
– Parabachi de cuello amarillo, Maracaná de cuello dorado (Bolivia).
– Marakana (Guaraní).
– Maracaná cuello dorado (Paraguay).
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(1) – A Golden-collared Macaw at Kakegawa Kacho-en, Kakegawa, Shizuoka, Japan By Takashi Hososhima from Tokyo, Japan (A bird of dexterityUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two Golden-collared Macaws (also known as Yellow-collared Macaws) at Pana’ewa Rainforest Zoo, Hawaii, USA By Pat McGrath from Lihue, U.S.A. [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Golden-collared Macaw (also known as the Yellow-collared Macaw). A pet parrot By rebeccakoconnor [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Golden-collared Macaw (also called Yellow-collared Macaw) parents with a juvenile By Benutzer:Robert01 on German wiki (Bild:Goldnackenaras on German wiki.) [CC BY-SA 3.0 of], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Golden-collared Macaw (also known as the Yellow-collared Macaw); two captive By TJ Lin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Ara primoli = Primolius auricollis (exemplaire de la bibliothèque patrimoniale de Gray (France) by Francis de Laporte de Castelnau [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
The Blue-winged Macaw(Primolius maracana) It is increasingly rare and exotic.
This small Macaw has the forecrown marked with a narrow band of black color that fades into blue in the area of the crown; the ear-coverts and both sides of the neck are blue, becoming green in the area of the nape.
Upperparts olive green with light tint in the rump and in the uppertail-coverts. Small, large and medium-sized inner coverts are green; the large external coverts blue.
The flight feather blue color above, (a bit of green in high schools), of yellow olive color below. The underparts green, slightly more yellow than the upper. Upper, the tail mostly blue, but the green central feathers, Red opaque in the Center, and with blue tips; undertail, the tail opaque yellow olive.
The bill horn, Black base; bare skin of the lores and cheeks top of grey colour with bluish and dye crossed in front lines of small black feathers: the irises yellow; legs grayish pink.
Both sexes similar; female possibly smaller and duller plumage compared to males.
The immature they have a paler plumage and less red coloration in the forecrown. The red spots in the abdomen and back they are stained yellow. Edges of color Horn in its bill. The tail is short and the eyes brown.
They inhabit in tropical and subtropical forests of Evergreen and deciduous forests (including the rainforest of the Atlantic and the Savannah of the Closed) with apparent preference for forest edges or forests near water.
At the north end of Bay, Brazil, inhabits wooded galleries of Tabebuia caraiba in the area caatinga next to the Spix's Macaw, where the birds avoid flying over open field, preferring to remain among the trees.
There are reports of these birds - 1.000 meters above sea level. Generally in small flocks, except when playing.
Evidence of breeding in December (Brazil) and February (Argentina). Nest in the cavity of a tree. The average size of the clutch is three to five eggs and the period of incubation is of 25 days.
Observed birds take the seeds of Melia azedarach introduced in the northeast of Brazil; no more details about the diet, Although it is known that they also forage in the fields of cereals and maize, which leads to his persecution by farmers.
Distributed by East of South America from south Amazon.
– Twenty birds have been released in Bahia, Brazil, with the intention of correlate differences in the ability to survive in nature with differences of history in captivity (Waugh, 1997).
Conservation Actions Proposed:
– Collate data from past records of specimens to provide an improved assessment of the distribution and status of the Blue-winged Macaw.
– Monitor known populations to assess trends.
– Investigate the impact of the trade.
– Protect habitat in areas known to hold high concentrations of the species and develop breeding programs in captivity to extend even more this.
Maracana macaw in captivity:
During the decades of the seventies and eighties, the Blue-winged Macaw It was considered quite uncommon in captivity in United States and in other countries. The Busch Gardens of Florida they were one of the first installations of breeding successfully and is probably responsible for that this species is so common in aviaries around the country today. The fact is that the Blue-winged Macaw It has become very common and is currently also in the pet market while it is considered vulnerable in the wild.
Evidence shows that the Blue-winged Macaw It adapts well to captivity. Despite the apparent inbreeding, This species is still prolific in captivity, and we have obtained a minimum of three (or possibly more) generations in Aviary everything United States.
Today several generations are produced in captivity this species. As this species is very rare in nature, they are increasing the quantities in captivity. This species would be a perfect candidate for future release programmes.
They have reports an exemplary live after 31 years in captivity. In captivity, these animals can be raised from the 6 years of age
Mutations in captivity:
There are rumors in Europe the existence of a variety of Lutino. Although there is no evidence of the fact through any photography of the same or other forms of documentation. No other mutation has not been documented.
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Macaws. A comprehensive guide by Rick Jordan
(1) – Blue-winged Macaw (also known as Illiger’s Macaw) at Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria, Spain By Teijo Hakala from Jyväskylä, Finland (PapukaijaUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Blue-winged Macaw (also known as Illiger’s Macaw). Two captive By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as illiger’s macaw) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Blue-winged Macaw (also known as Illiger’s Macaw). Two captive By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as illiger’s macaw) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Illiger’s Macaw also called Blue-winged Macaw (Primolius maracana) at Iguaçu Bird Park, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By Arthur Chapman [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Blue-winged Macaw (also known as Illiger’s Macaw Monte), Two in a tree hole in Alegre, For, Brazil By Sidnei Dantas (originally posted to Flickr as Primolius maracana) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Of 41 cm.. length and a weight which varies between 207 and 294 g..
The rare and beautiful Blue-headed Macaw(Primolius couloni), with its striking and vivid plumage Green and blue, Unfortunately, now hardly seen in nature.
As its common name suggests, the head is blue, the forecrown with a narrow band of black color that will fade in blue on the area of the crown; the ear-coverts and both sides of the neck are blue, fading to green in the area of the nape. Upperparts olive green with light tint in the tail and in the uppertail-coverts. Small, large and medium-sized coverts green interiors; the large coverts Blue exterior. The flight feather are blue top (with a bit of green in high schools), by below, Yellow olive. Underparts green, slightly more yellow than the upper. The upper part of the tail is an intense Brown, while the underparts is yellowish-green.
The bill is black, Ivory at the end; the bare skin of the lores and the top of the cheeks is gray with bluish and dye crossed ahead by very small lines of black feathers: the irises yellow; legs grayish pink.
Both sexes are similar, the male, possibly, largest average.
The immature with the irises dark. The bill is completely black and the legs more grey. The skin of the face and lores (area between the beak and eyes) is white. Depending on your age, have queues shorter.
In close relationship with the Yellow-collared Macaw (Primolius auricollis) and the Blue-winged Macaw (Primolius maracana); It was sometimes considered congener with the latter. Monotypic.
The Blue-headed Macaw distributed by tropical rainforests, at altitudes between 150 and 1,550 m. They prefer habitats altered or partially open, mainly on the edges of forest along the rivers, in the clearings and in partially wooded areas surrounding; There are also records of these macaws in marshy areas of forest with Mauritia Palms.
This species prefers possibly the wooded foothills of lowlands.
He is not very sociable: The flocks with larger number of individuals occur between June and October, usually traveling in pairs or groups of three individuals; apparently, not associated with the Chestnut-fronted Macaw.
Known that the reproduction of these birds is correlated with the period of greatest abundance of food due to the breeding of pigeons (before and after leaving the nest) It requires a lot of energy expenditure.
Records of their reproductive period are not, However there has been during the months of April to June shown to the parents with their chicks and that in Peru, species Mauritia flexuosa “Guaje” and Dipterix odorata “odorata” they are key to your reproduction.
In captivity they reproduce couples chosen by them and have of two to three eggs, two chicks being generally viable.
The Blue-headed Macaw they feed mainly on seeds, mature and immature fruit, and flowers, occasionally supplemented with bark and other inputs.
Unlike many other birds, the parrots of the New world They seem to not be able to modify your diet to predominately insectivora, reason why are intimately linked to the patterns of flowering and fruiting (Brightsmith et to the, 2008). They have a strong dependency of the colpas clay.
Distributed by the Western basin of the Amazon at the West end of Brazil (in Acre, from time to time), Peru Eastern and in the Northwest corner of Bolivia.
In Bolivia have been found in Peace and perhaps in the South of Beni with indications that the birds are distributed regularly to the South, in the Eastern foothills of the Andes to the South of Bolivia.
Local and erratic in its distribution, but apparently quite common in some places. Perhaps the enlargement of its range is fairly limited in the southwest of the Amazon due to the degradation of forests.
Rare in captivity.
• Red list category of the UICN current: Vulnerable
• Population trend: Decreasing
Until recently it was considered fairly common, but a review in 2006 by BirdLife International suggested that it was rare, with a decrease in the total population to the 1.000-2.500 individuals. For this reason, It has been put into the category in danger of extinction in the 2007 (Red list of the UICN).
Parts of the distribution of this species are still little known, but Tobias and Brightsmith (2007) It has been suggested that the previous estimates were too low, with the likely real number of 9.200 - 46.000 mature individuals. It is suggested that vulnerable It could be a category more appropriate for this species.
The Blue-headed Macaw commonly found in the markets of Brazil, still valuable, prices above the 12.000 $, and in high demand due to their rarity.
Information about the actual state of conservation of the species. In addition, This project, that is being conducted under a partnership with the Government of Peru, includes other project, in this case for the conservation of the Grey-cheeked Parakeet, catalogued as “in danger”.
The two projects include the definition of methods for determining the density of populations in key places, the evaluation of the level of the illegal trade in birds, and the promotion of the local social consciousness in relation to the illicit trade of these species.
The field team is carrying out assessments of populations and habitat analysis, and at the same time they updated the assessment of the threats weighing on the two species. The general population trend of the Blue-headed Macaw is one very gradual decrease, but it seems that the species can withstand certain levels of their forest habitat change. By censuses in consecutive years, the population of the Grey-cheeked Parakeet It has not undergone further decline despite the severe fragmentation of the preferred dry forest.
Blue-headed macaw in captivity:
Very rare in captivity.
Couples are formed according to the preferences of the copies, couples chosen by the breeder will not work. The diet is based on the seasonal fruits and vitamin supplements.
The Parque de las Leyendas Zoo in Peru, captive breeding, It has no objective reproduction but the exhibition of animals that are twelve in total. Births have been but manualâ studies have not been performed. In the month of March to April of the 2010, This project through the SERNANP quoted Zoo scientific staff conducted the studies of biometrics of this species and are establishing the protocols for the reproduction studies.
Are no data about your longevity, Although similar species such as the Blue-winged Macaw have records having lived 31 years in captivity and having raised from the 6 years of age.
The illegal traffic This species is a serious problem that affects their conservation.
– Blue-headed Macaw, Blue headed Macaw, Coulon’s Macaw (English).
– Ara de Coulon (French).
– Blaukopfara (German).
– maracanã-de-cabeça-azul (Portuguese).
– Guacamayo Cabeciazul, Maracaná de Cabeza Azul, Guacamaya cabeza azul (Spanish).
– Parabachi cabeza azul (Colombia).
– Guacamayo de Cabeza Azúl (Peru).
46 cm.. length and a weight between 285 and 387 g..
The Chestnut-fronted Macaw(Ara severus) It is a medium-sized Parrot with a plumage predominantly Green.
The male and female are almost identical and juveniles are hardly different from adults.
In the male adult, the feathers of the crown and the neck they are heavily infiltrated blue. The forecrown, chin and the area of the cheeks bordering with the bare skin of the face are brown. The curvature of the wing, carpal edge and small lower coverts are bright red. The bottom of the flight feather shows a dark red-orange color.
The tail is reddish brown with a blue tip. The bill greyish black. The bare skin of the face is creamy white with thin lines of small black feathers. The irises is yellow, the legs grey.
The youth they are like the of adults, but have the tail shorter and the irises is grey.
The Chestnut-fronted Macaw may be confused with two species: the Blue-winged Macaw, Although this has a frontal band and stain abdominal Red and the Red-bellied Macaw Although it differs by having the facial skin yellow, and the abdomen red. On the other hand, These parrots are smaller and have a yellow color under the wings.
While they are sometimes in clearings or on the edge of this habitat, the Chestnut-fronted Macaw, in general, avoid the great forests never invaded by water. They prefer areas that are periodically flooded, secondary forests, galleries of trees bordering watercourses, oil palm plantations, meadows and pastures where there are still some clumps of scattered trees.
It depends on the region, These birds live in very different elevations of up 1000 metres in Colombia, 1500 meters in the South of Ecuador, and only 350 metres in Venezuela.
The Chestnut-fronted Macaw, usually, they live in pairs or in small groups. However they can form large gatherings when dorms are set or when food resources are abundant.
The Chestnut-fronted Macaw, sometimes, they eat in the company of the Ventrirrojo Macaw (Ara manilata).
During the day, they are essentially arboreal, preferring to remain at the top of the trees and in the canopy, where they remain well hidden in thick foliage. They are best observed at dawn and dusk, as they follow regular routes between their places of rest and feeding sites.
They fly directly, with fast rhythms revealing red underneath his wings stain.
They are birds sedentary. In some mountain areas, However, undertake altitudinal migrations.
Given the large size of its distribution area and large variation in latitude, nesting takes place at different times depending on the region, from March to may in Colombia, February-March in Panama, and from September to December in Suriname.
These macaws usually They nest in cavities of dead Palm trees, often just above the water, but they can also lay their eggs in a rock crevice.
The spawning usually includes 2 or 3 eggs. There is little information of this bird in the wild, but it is known that in captivity the period of incubation lasts a few 28 days. The reproductive cycle is particularly long, the chicks remain in the nest for a minimum of 9 weeks.
The birds are fed into silence in the canopy where they can be difficult to detect.
The Chestnut-fronted Macaw are distributed to the East of Panama and by South America reaching the center of Bolivia.
In East Panama they are in the tropical zone (records in the West to the North of the Canal area they are probably due to leaks), on the slope of the Pacific from the South of the Andes to the South of Ecuador (of Guayas - Pichincha) and in the Northern lowlands of Colombia, South to the upper area of the Valley of Sinú River, extending into the foothills of the Colombian Andes, in the valleys of the Cauca and Magdalena until Antioquia.
To the East of the Andes they occupy the Amazonian lowlands of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia in Peace, Beni, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, going east of the foothills of the Andes through the West and South of the Amazon (Although they are not known in the North of Brazil, for example, in Manaus or along the rivers Black and Branco).
Propagate through the tropical zone of Venezuela in Zulia and from the West of Apure until Aragua, Northwest of Bolivar and the Amazonas along the Orinoco, reaching the Guianas and Amapá, Brazil.
To the South of the Amazon is extended by the Mato Grosso, Brazil. A record to the South of Bahia is not confirmed.
Resident with seasonal movements of altitude in some areas (for example, West of Ecuador and North of Venezuela).
Pretty common in much of their range, and while the deterioration of habitat has caused serious decreases in population at the local level (for example, in the Valle del Cauca, Colombia and West of Ecuador), moderate deforestation has resulted in increases in other areas.
Although there are no reports in Guyana Since the beginning of the 19th century, the Chestnut-fronted Macaw they are still common in Suriname, especially in some coastal areas.
The species is kept in captivity, but the demand is not very big.
• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern
• Population trend: Stable
The Chestnut-fronted Macaw they are quite common throughout much of its range birds. Apparently, they are able to survive to the selective deforestation and even capitalize.
In Bolivia, international trade in parrots had caused significant problems with this species in the past, but since the beginning of 1980, their trade is prohibited.
Severe Macaw in captivity:
Recently, the Chestnut-fronted Macaw have joined the ranks of other birds kept in captivity. For a time, most of the breeding birds of this species was acquired through imports of wild specimens. Today this has changed, and most of these macaws to today come from captive-bred generations. As recent its captive-breeding, the majority of These parrots will retain much of their natural behaviors.
These small macaws are popular due to their friendly disposal and most likely will continue to grow in popularity in the future.
While they have not had hundreds of years of selection to tame their personalities, These macaws can be a fantastic pets if they are fed by hand and are well socialized from a young age.
They are creatures very curious, so they need a lot of mental stimulation to be healthy and happy. They should have on hand, Games, toys, and daily interaction with your caregiver to make sure that you do not bored.
The majority of the Chestnut-fronted Macaw they form links monogamous and they need to live with more birds in order to be able to form a family. Won't these birds well if they are isolated from family and some even become neurotic if their mental needs are not met.
A future buyer of a Chestnut-fronted Macaw You should plan on integrating this beautiful bird in his life to ensure the achievement of all the emotional and cognitive needs.
In general, the majority of the Chestnut-fronted Macaw do not like being touched in excess, Although all birds are different and have their own personality. Assess your bird to see what what works best. These birds enjoying caresses next to the back of the neck, along their beaks, or around your eyes. They can be happy on the shoulders of its owner. Jewelry or shiny objects amaze quickly to this curious Parrot. For this reason, All chains, Earrings, watches, bracelets , etc … they should stay away from our Macaw, It might break if the bird decides to play with them.
Despite these parrots they fall into the category of small macaws, they maintain a high level of noise. It is not an ideal pet for apartments. If you decide to buy one and you live in an apartment, It may be a good reason to argue with your neighbors, Since these birds are noisy. Loud sharp sounds can easily be heard some apartments below and are expected during the early hours of the morning, at noon, and before the sunset. This is what they do in their natural habitat.
Yes a Chestnut-fronted Macaw It is continuously shouting for the attention of their owner, These calls should be ignored.. The bird is reacting to the way who knows how to get his attention. The best thing is to give attention during moments of tranquility that is account that this works best.
Unfortunately, many times a homeowner will come to the incessant screams of your Macaw in order to calm the neighbors below; However, This attention usually works in opposite way and the bird will continue to making noise because you know it will work.
Under no circumstances, the owner should be snapping the beak of the bird, spray it with water, or shout it when is making excessive noise. Such tactics only make the problem worse and parrots do not understand this type of punishment. On the other hand, owners should focus on something more positive for the bird and reward it in some way when it is quiet. With the time, the bird will recognize that this positive behavior works much better.
Despite these parrots can be noisy, in general, they are those who speak better of all macaws. A Chestnut-fronted Macaw You can speak with clarity and memorize a lot of words and phrases. They are possessors of some sharp voices that are a delight to listen. It must be said that the purchase of a parrot for his ability to speak is not the best idea, Since some parrots can never learn to talk and its owner can feel extremely disappointed. In its place, the best is to opt for a bird by its adorable and nice personality, If she starts to talk, then it will be an added advantage.
The breeding of the Chestnut-fronted Macaw It is not very difficult. While it is true there is time for the union of these birds, not much effort is needed to achieve that they reproduce successfully. It is always recommended do not use domestic birds on a breeding program, since once domesticated, they usually do not reproduce successfully.
The best candidates are those who have been exposed to other severe macaws and have lived within a Aviary.
When approaching the season of reproduction in spring and early summer, a bonded pair will be more vocal. During this time a female will look for a nesting site to raise their future pigeon. In the majority of cases, This is usually a vertical wooden nest box or metal placed in a corner of the cage. Inside the box must have a ladder to be sure that the female can be up and down without damaging their eggs. The bottom of the box should also have some kind of fluffy base such as wood chips that are not toxic to the Parrot; However, some female birds choose to remove wood chips. If this occurs, the owner must again enter a handful of chips in the nest box until you put the first egg since this keeps the egg and prevents it from moving around and damage to. The box should also be placed so that the owner has easy access to the eggs and chicks. The majority of the cases are suspended out of the cage with doors that open on the side of the box or the top.
The egg laying It's every other day until your clutch is completed. On average, a typical clutch will consist of between 2 - 4 white eggs. The female incubates eggs during 27 - 28 days. Just before hatching, the chickens will make a small hole from the inside of the egg in order to be able to breathe. This will alert the mother of arrival. Some mothers eat the shell to help recover the calcium that is lost while it incubated, However, others completely ignore it.
Once the chicks are hatching, the mother is left with the chick for several weeks until they can produce their own body heat and increased demand for food of baby birds. Until then, the male work tirelessly to ensure that the offspring, the female, and himself, food. This moment of hard tension until that all babies are weaned; approximately 70 days.
In the wild these birds feed on all kinds of food and it is important that we try to imitate their natural diet. This makes it a healthier bird. From time to time, We must provide palm nuts their beaks are designed to eat the fleshy external parts of these fruits. These dried fruits contain oils and enzymes you require our birds. A base diet of Pellet and seeds also must provide.
They have to be powered also with fresh fruit and vegetables on a daily basis. Fruits such as oranges, Kiwis, handles, Apples, grapes, peaches and Plums they are great accessories for the bird. Many of these fruits can be cut into squares and presented as a skewer of a our Macaw, Since he likes to play with fruit and the sampling of all flavors.
The vegetables as the pumpkin, maize, carrot, Kale, Spinach, celery and they are usually an enjoyment for the majority of parrots. These vegetables can be cut during the dinner and were placed in the refrigerator during the future feed. In this way you will save time. Other healthy items are the beans and legumes; Although, beans and vegetables always must be cooked before feeding your bird. If a severe Macaw is cared for properly, and feeds with a variety of different foods that are healthy, It can live up to the 45 or 50 years.
– Chestnut-fronted Macaw, Brazilian Green Macaw, Chestnut fronted Macaw, Severa Macaw, Severe Macaw (English).
– Ara vert, Ara à front châtain, Ara sévère (French).
– Rotbugara (German).
– Maracanã-guacu, anacã, ararica, ararinha, ararinha-de-fronte-castanha, maracanã, maracanã-açu, maracanã-guaçu (Portuguese).
– Guacamaya Cariseca, Guacamayo Severo, Maracaná Grande (Spanish).
– Guacamaya cariseca, Cheja cariseca (Colombia).
– Maracaná (Venezuela).
– Loro arara, Guacamayo frenticastaño (Ecuador).
– Tereche grande, Parabachi, maracaná grande (Bolivia).
– Shivaí (Chimane).
– Maracana Guasu (Guarani).
– Avensó (Embera).
– E-ara (Piaroa).
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Venezuelan of information on biological diversity system – Macaw Maracanã (Ara severus)
(1) – Cheatnut-fronted Macaw (Ara severus) at Jungle Island of Miami By DickDaniels (http://carolinabirds.org /) (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Chestnut-fronted Macaw stretching leg and wing By Sandysphotos2009 (20100123_187Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Chestnut-fronted Macaw or Severe Macaw in south Columbia By anthrotect (originally posted to Flickr as ) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Chestnut-fronted Macaw at Santa Fe Zoo, Medellín, Colombia By Steven (Quueee?Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A Chestnut-fronted Macaw at World Parrot Refuge, Coombs, British Columbia, Canada By Herb Neufeld (P1120046Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A Chestnut-fronted Macaw at Niabi Zoo, Coal Valley, Illinois, USA By Bill & Vicki Tracey from Rochelle, Illinois, usa (At the ZooUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Chestnut-fronted Macaw (also known as Severe Macaw) at at World Parrot Refuge Center, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada By Darlee Byron (Well.. Hello!Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Chestnut-fronted Macaw | Maracanã (Ara severus) by Fernando Flores – Flickr
(9) – A Chestnut-fronted Macaw in Miami, Florida, USA. It is probably feral By Don Faulkner (Chestnut-fronted MacawUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Ilustración Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
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