Nicobar Parakeet
Psittacula caniceps

Cotorra de Nicobar


Between 55 and 61 cm.. of length and a weight of 224 g..

The Nicobar Parakeet (Psittacula caniceps) has the crown, upper cheeks and ear-coverts pale grey; stripe black in the region perioftalmica through the lores up to the forecrown; the lower cheeks and the chin are black. Nape and upper mantle pale gray bathed in blue; rest of the upper region green grass pale.

Upperwing-coverts green; primaries and secondaries Green with dark tips. Underwing-coverts green. Underparts green, slightly paler than upper parts. The elongated feathers central tail green with grey tinge, outer green.

Upper mandible coral red, the lower black; cere dark grey; irises orange-red; legs dark gray.

The female has the bill black, the grey of the head and nape more strongly impregnated with blue, and tail slightly shorter.

The immature similar to females.


The Nicobar Parakeet It is difficult to locate visually through the dense foliage, Although its presence is revealed by their distinctive calls. Their flight is fast and direct.

They inhabit in the high rainforest. Generally held among the dense foliage on canopy, about everything when not fully.
They are perhaps most abundant in the coastal forests than inside.
Has also been recorded in areas with plants of Areca catechu and coconut plantations, which suggests a considerable tolerance of the species in habitats modified.
Usually, observed in pairs or in small groups.


Unknown breeding habits.


Unknown diet except for the fruits of Pandanus, abundant in the inhabited islands of the Nicobar archipelago.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 1,100 km2

Endemic of the Nicobar Islands, located in the Indian Ocean and belonging to the India. Registered since Great Nicobar, Montschall and Kondul. Resident. His status is unknown but they are potentially at risk due to habitat loss due to the expansion of rice cultivation; also affected its population because of the bird trade, Although there is little local use of these birds as pets and there are no known international traffic.


• Current red list of UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The population of the Nicobar Parakeet It is suspected that It may be waning as a result of the destruction of habitat due to the tsunami of the 2004 (K. Sivakumar in litt. 2007), due to the development of the island, and because the capture for the wild bird trade. However, more research is needed to establish with precision the trends.

Probably between 10,000 – 15,000 specimens on freedom.

The main threats to the Nicobar Parakeet they come by the large number of birds are trapped for the cage bird trade. On the other hand, the increase of settlements on the Islands It has led to increased pressure on natural resources and the planned development projects may seriously affect the habitat of this species. The tsunami of 2004 It destroyed large tracts of coastal forest that may have caused a further decline in the population. However, the data remains scarce, and the rate of regeneration of these forests is unknown (K. Sivakumar in litt., 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed:

    – Determine the impact of the trade in the species.
    – Calculate the rates of forest loss.
    – Protect remaining habitat areas.
    – Assess the impact of the tsunami of 2004.

Cotorra de Nicobar en cautividad:

There is not much information available; probably brought to the London Zoo at the beginning of 20th century; kept as pets, in an unknown number, by the local population of the Nicobar Islands

Since the Nicobar Parakeet is a species so rare, It is not recommended to keep them captive, It is preferable to place them in a breeding program well managed by expert hands.

Alternative names:

Nicobar Parakeet, Blyth’s Parakeet (English).
Perruche des Nicobar, Perruche de Blyth (French).
Graukopfsittich (German).
Periquito-de-nicobar (Portuguese).
Cotorra de Nicobar (Spanish).

Edward Blyth
Edward Blyth

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Psittacula
Scientific name: Psittacula caniceps
Citation: (Blyth, 1846)
Protonimo: Palaeornis caniceps


Nicobar Parakeet (Psittacula caniceps)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – John Gould [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Plum-headed Parakeet
Psittacula cyanocephala

Cotorra cabeciazul


Between 33–37 cm. in length and weighing between 56-85 grams.

The Plum-headed Parakeet or Plum headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) has the forecrown, lores, cheeks and ear-coverts bright red malva, fading to blue on lower cheeks, the crown and back neck, with black stripe “mustache” forming a collar black narrow, then bordered by a wide swath of pale green.

Mantle, back and scapulars dark green; rump and uppertail-coverts bright blue green.
Upperwing-coverts smaller and medium bright green with brown patch in the minors; greater coverts and alula darker and duller.
The primaries and secondaries dark green. Underwing-coverts bluish green, underparts brighter yellowish green. Upper, the tail bright color in the center, with white tips, slightly spatulate, outer feathers brighter yellowish green.

The Upper mandible orange-yellow, and the lower beak blackish, but pale flesh at chin; irises yellowish white; legs greenish-grey.

Head of the female grey-blue, in the beige throat and the sides of the neck, without black markings or maroon on wing-coverts; bill paler, tail somewhat shorter.

The greenish head of the immature sometimes tinged with gray; central feathers tail shorter.

The females reach adult plumage to 15 months; young male reach full adult plumage to 30 months.

  • Sound of the Plum-headed Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS:// Ciruela.mp3]


Preferred habitat Plum-headed Parakeet They are the mosaic of forests and farmland in the plains and hills, including rainforests deciduous, sal forest (Shorea) and subtropical Pine (Pinus roxburghii), usually below the 500 meters in the north of the range, but locally 1.500 m.

Move small flocks, although larger congregations are formed in places where food is abundant, particularly during ripening crop, and also, loudly, in communal roosts with bamboo thickets or other dense vegetation.

Mixed flocks foraging in company Malabar Parakeet and Slaty-headed Parakeet.


The Plum-headed Parakeet nests in holes in the trunk or hamstring, sometimes in an old nest extended “Woody Woodpecker” or “bearded”. In Pakistan, Tall Pines (Pinus roxburgii), dead or dying, They are favorite nesting.

The nest chamber no liner except wood shavings produced during construction. Often reproduced in loose colonies. The male defends the nest site from other species (as the Rose-ringed Parakeet) for a few weeks before breeding. The female incubates alone. The breeding season It, mainly, in the months of December / January April; occasionally also in July-August Sri Lanka.

The laying is of 4-5 eggs, rarely 6.


Registered foods include flowering shrubs (Justicia adhatoda) and wild Granada (Punica granatum), nectar Salmalia, flowers Butea and Bassia, grains, including the sorghum and the maize, fig and apricot fruit, red peppers and chard seeds (Echinops and Cnicus). Preference for bamboo seeds in the Bandhavgarh National Park, sometimes destructive to crops.

Possibly frugívoras than their counterparts, preferring smaller seeds.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident) 2,780,000 km2

The Plum-headed Parakeet They live in low-lying hills Himalaya, from the North-East of Pakistan through Nepal, Bhutan and West Bengal and through substantially the entire India and Sri Irinka, besides the Islas Rameswaram.

Generally frequents though, apparently, reducing its population Sri Lanka due to loss of habitat, making birds now, to a large extent, they are absent in the lowlands. It has also reduced its population in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

Resident, but locally nomadic outside the breeding season, in response to the food supply; more predictable seasonal movements in some areas.


• Current red list of UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Decreasing

The Intermediate Parakeet (Psittacula intermedia) (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) It is now considered a hybrid between Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) and Slaty-headed Parakeet (Psittacula himalayana) (Rasmussen and Collar (1999))

The size of the world population Plum-headed Parakeet It has not been quantified, but the species, According to information, it is enough common in Nepal and in general, common in India (pit et to the. 1997).

Its population is suspected to be in decline due to ongoing habitat destruction.

Cotorra cabeciazul en cautividad:

Large captive population. Although this species is not exploited as much as sympatric (in the same geographic region) Alexandrine Parakeet, trade takes its toll on local populations across the range.

They are birds Smart and many can learn to speak, but not as easily as other larger parrots.

Most of the Plum-headed Parakeet enjoy being close to your caregiver, However, They do not like caresses.

They tend to be timid at the beginning; However, with the time, patience and daily interaction, They do become docile bird quite easily.

These tend to be parrots assets in an aviary environment and can become apathetic in an environment of cage. Their preferred environment should be an aviary, or an environment that allows them to travel and move freely in a safe environment.

In a communal aviary, usually they get along with other birds – However, You can be assertive with larger birds.

Unlike the rest of psittaculas, They are not very vocal and vocalizations, especially male, usually quite melodious.

It is not a difficult species create. Unlike many parrots, the-headed Parrot your partner do not bind for life.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a specimen lived for 18,8 years in captivity. The maximum longevity may be underestimated in this species. In captivity, estos animales pueden criar, approximately, to the 2 years of age.

Alternative names:

Plum-headed Parakeet, Blossom-headed Parakeet, Plum headed Parakeet (English).
Perruche à tête prune, Perruche à tête de prune (French).
Pflaumenkopfsittich, Plaumenkopfsittich (German).
Periquito-cabeça-de-ameixa (Portuguese).
Cotorra cabeciazul, Cotorra Ciruela, Cotorra de Cabeza Azul (Spanish).

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Psittacula
Scientific name: Psittacula cyanocephala
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Protonimo: Psittacus cyanocephalus

Plum-headed Parakeet Images:


Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) at Bogazici Zoo, By Nevit Dilmen Turkey (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) at the mini zoo, Kapparis. Standing on a nesting box in a cage By Glen Bowman (originally posted to Flickr as Cyprus-162) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) male in flight Location: Thattekad, Kerala, India By Lip Kee Yap [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – An adult female Plum-headed Parakeet at Flying High Bird Sanctuary, Apple Tree Creek, Queensland, Australia By paulgear (Picasa Web Ablums) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – plum-headed parakeet – Psittacula cyanocephala by Dhruvaraj S – Flickr

Sounds: Conrad Pinto (Xeno-canto)

Malabar Parakeet
Psittacula columboides

Cotorra de Malabar


Of 36 to 38 cm.. length.

Ilustración Cotorra de Malabar

The Malabar Parakeet (Psittacula columboides) has the lores and upper cheeks of green grass, blue tinge on the edges and in the dark pearl gray crown, the lower cheeks, the sides and rear of the neck; with wide black bands at the mustache which are attenuated to form a collar black, then bordered with a band of bright blue-green, which extends around the throat.

Mantle dove-grey fading to greyish-green on back and scapulars; rump and uppertail-coverts pale bluish green, sides rump yellowish.

Lesser coverts dark green, subterminally tipped dark grey edged buffish; inner median coverts green with pale buffish margins; alula and greater coverts blue. The primaries and secondaries blue, darker in the vane inner. Underwing-coverts bluish green. Throat bright blue green; yellowish blue discoloration in the rest of the underparts; dove-grey in the chest; blue tinge on the thighs. Uppertail centrally bright blue, tipped yellow, lateral feathers greenish-blue on vane outer, in bright yellow inner; undertail-coverts bright golden-yellow centrally, otherwise brown with yellow tip.

Upper mandible bright red with yellow tip, the lower brown, turning orange in the chin; irises light yellow; legs greenish-grey.

The female smaller, with little or no green in face and both mandibles brownish. Underparts greyish-yellow. Less grey in the the mantle and tail shorter.

The immature shows grayish green in place of grey-plumage of adults. Collar black and green absent band neck.

  • Sound of the Malabar Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS:// of Malabar.mp3]


To a large degree, the Malabar Parakeet It is confined in forests (primary and secondary) evergreen upland, but according to sources, also observed in other formations, including deciduous forest adjacent to bamboo and especially in plantations coffee and rubber abandoned, and often close to small areas of crops.

Partly inhabit between 450-1.000 m, but exceptionally above 1.600 m, and up to about 60 m.

Usually, observed in family groups or small flocks.

At lower altitudes it is associated with Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala), completely replacing it higher up and in wetter forest.


Escavan their nests on branches or trunks, at a height between 6 and 30 m, sometimes they take advantage of the holes made by woodpeckers or Barbs, expanding the cavity. Los Ceylon ironwood (Mesua iron) are his favorite trees.

Usual Clutch 4 eggs.

The breeding season It is between the months of January to March


Diet Malabar Parakeet It includes seeds and fruits, especially wild figs; regularly eat sprouts, flowers and nectar Erythrina and Grevillea.

They can be very destructive in crops of sorghum and fruit.


The Malabar Parakeet It is distributed by Ghats occidentales, India, on a narrow strip parallel to the west coast, from Pune (19 ° N), Maharashtra, through Karnataka, until Kerala and Tamil Nadu 8 ° 27'N southern.

Generally residents, but some nomadic movements They occur in response to the availability of food.


• Current red list of UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but the species, According to information, It common throughout the core of its range (pit et to the. 1997).

The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

The bird trade and loss of habitat have caused, apparently, a decrease in its population, However, It is not sufficient to place this species at risk.

Malabar parakeet in captivity:

The Malabar Parakeet It is uncommon in the pet trade.

This species was the subject of extensive trade, but now it is illegal in India. He was known in the pet trade as “Loro nonsense” and he gained a deceptive reputation as a top talker.

It is a parrot medium-noisy, occasionally noisy; initially timid; It becomes slowly confianda; newly imported birds are very likely; Care must be acclimatised; only it becomes active in a wide aviary; a common aviary with other species Psittacula only possible outside the breeding season; little bathing but enjoys flying light rain outside; He likes to chop fresh branches; times aggressive during courtship; sensitive to cold and wet conditions.

Pet food variety, including aerosols millet, fruit, vegetables, Sunflower seed mixtures, oats and millet.

Rarely achieved the captive breeding; Clutch 3 to 4 eggs; 23 days of incubation; incipient period 6 weeks; young independent after 21 days; sometimes aggressive breeding with her mother.

In terms of their longevity, It is known that a Malabar Parakeet lived during 11,2 years in captivity.Given the longevity of similar species, This longevity is probably underestimated for these birds.

Alternative names:

Malabar Parakeet, Blue-winged Parakeet (English).
Perruche de Malabar (French).
Taubensittich (German).
Periquito-de-malabar (Portuguese).
Cotorra de Malabar (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Psittacula
Scientific name: Psittacula columboides
Citation: (Vigors, 1830)
Protonimo: Palaeornis columboides

Malabar Parakeet Images:


Malabar Parakeet (Psittacula columboides)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Blue-winged Parakeet or Malabar Parakeet (Psittacula columboides) pair N. A. Naseer / / [email protected] [CC BY-SA 2.5 in], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Malabar Parakeet (Psittacula columboides). A male at Thattekad, Kerala, India By Lip Kee Yap [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Malabar Parakeet – Endemic to the Western Ghats By Suriyakumars (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – The Blue-winged Parakeet By Mailamal (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Malabar Parakeet or Blue-winged Parakeet (Psittacula columboides) By Joseph Lazer (Personal Collection) [CC BY-SA 2.5 in], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A painting of a Malabar Parakeet, also known as the Blue-winged Parakeet, (originally captioned “Palaeornis columboides. Pigeon Parrakeet.”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Sudipto Roy (Xeno-canto)

Meyer's Parrot
Poicephalus meyeri

Lorito de Meyer


21 cm. and a weight of 100-130 g..

The Meyer's Parrot (Poicephalus meyeri) has the forecrown, lores, cheeks, ear-coverts and ash Brown nape; crown bright yellow. The mantle feathers ash brown edges blue or cyan dye in some birds; scapulars brown ash, some individuals show Tips blue or greenish blue; rump bright turquoise or teal; uppertail-coverts green. Outermost children and wing-coverts above bright yellow, other variables showing green tints, especially towards Tips. The primaries and high schools ash Brown with paler narrow margins to vane outer.

Feathers of the wings, undertail, bright yellow in some birds, but grayish-brown in larger in other. The chin, the throat and top of the chest brown ash; remaining chest and belly turquoise or teal; the thighs yellow; undertail- coverts turquoise blue or greenish blue. Tail brown ash.

Bill dark gray or black; cere black; irises orange-red; periophthalmic skin desnuda negruzca; legs blackish.

Both sexes similar.

Youth more generally greenish brown. No yellow in the crown or the the thighs and the yellow area in the wings, at the top, It is lower. Wing coverts, undertail, green and brown with little or no yellow. The underparts más greenish. Iris dark brown.

  • Sound of the Meyer's Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS:// de Meyer.mp3]
Description Meyer's Parrot subspecies
  • Poicephalus meyeri damarensis (Neumann, 1898) – No Yellow crown. Paler than subspecies reichenowi. Intergrades with transvaalensis subspecies in the region of the delta del Okavango, Botswana and with subspecies reichenowi in Angola.
  • Poicephalus meyeri matschiei
    matschiei by Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Poicephalus meyeri matschiei (Neumann, 1898) – Brown is paler than in the subespecie satisfied and cyan dye to the margins of the scapulars less pronounced than in the species nominal. Green colors are blue (especially below). The female spot shows yellow feathers at the base of the lower mandible.
  • Poicephalus meyeri meyeri (Cretzschmar, 1827) – Species nominal
  • Poicephalus meyeri Reichenow (Neumann, 1898) – Similar to the subespecie matschiei but with the yellow crown generally absent. Paler blue in the rump. Size larger than the subespecie matschiei.
  • reichenowi by Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    reichenowi by Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Poicephalus meyeri saturatus (Sharpe, 1901) – Darker than the species nominal (especially the brown parts), rump less blue than the nominal, showing a bit of green in the feathers. The dark centers feathers on the bottom, giving it a mottled appearance. Intergrades with the subspecies matschiei in Tanzania.
  • Poicephalus meyeri transvaalensis (Neumann, 1899) – Brown clearer than in the subespecie matschiei, bluer still in rump and below. Yellow areas in the crown They are often reduced and, sometimes completely lacking (especially in males). It is thought that can hybridize with the Poicephalus cryptoxanthus.


The Meyer's Parrot It is in a range of habitats from dry savannah forests to gallery forests and riparian forests of secondary growth around crops. Observed in forests dominated by Terminalia laxiflora and Doka Isoberlinia, thickets Combretum acacia grasslands; also Brachystegia and riparian forests Syzygium-Adina.

Avoid lowland rainforests in the basin Congo rainforests and other areas including the eastern highlands district Zimbabwe and Cork in Malawi.

Show a preference for the tallest trees in the drier savannah habitats – in particular specimens Adansonia. They may be restricted to gallery forests in the drier parts of its range and are usually found near the water.

Where it is sympatric with the Red-bellied Parrot (Poicephalus rufiventris), the Meyer's Parrot It is limited to riparian forests.

In Kenya, which it is largely in areas with higher annual rainfall 500 mm.

Sometimes observed in suburban areas.

In general, in the lowlands at altitudes of 1,250m in Ethiopia, 2.200m in east Africa and 1.500 meters in the highlands of eastern Zimbabwe.

They are distributed in pairs or small groups 3-5 birds (possibly couples); until 50 birds can congregate in areas where food sources in breeding season. Roosts in tree cavities. Generally shy and cautious.


Solitary nesters in tree cavities at a height between 3 and 10 meters above the ground, during the season, dry (for example Mar-June Zimbabwe, from May to September Zambia and Malawi, July Angola and in December or January Sudan).

The implementation is of 2 to 4 eggs.


The diet of the Meyer's Parrot fruit is, nuts and seeds, including Ficus, Sound abyssinica, Uapaca nitidula, Monotes glaber, Combretum, Grewia, Sclerocarya, Pseudolachnostylis, fruit of the great growth and riparian trees afzelia quanzensis and Melia volkensii, grown oranges and flowers Schotia brachypetala.

The pulp of the fruit is less important than the hard seeds and the arbolados share, the Meyer's Parrot is one of the few species consume seeds Brachystegia and other leguminous trees.

They also consume grain and is considered as crop pests in some areas.

Eat some insects, including caterpillars.

You can vary widely from areas in search of food during droughts.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 5.840.000 km2

The Meyer's Parrot They are distributed throughout the central and eastern Africa. From the North-East of Cameroon and South of Chad through the North of the Central African Republic, center Sudan and South and West Ethiopia, to the south through Uganda, Kenya Western, East of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, coming to Malawi, Zambia, Angola, Northeast of Botswana, Zimbabwe, western end of Mozambique, Namibia and northeast of South Africa.

A wild population, possibly, is distributed in the eastern province of Cape Town, South Africa, even if they are probably extinct.

Nomad in some areas during periods of drought, when they distributed outside the normal range; normally resident with local movements.

Meyer's Parrot subspecies distribution
  • Poicephalus meyeri damarensis (Neumann, 1898) – South of Angola, Northeast of Namibia and North of Botswana.
  • Poicephalus meyeri matschiei (Neumann, 1898) – Southeast Kenya through eastern and central Tanzania to Southeast Democratic Republic of the Congo, North of Malawi, Zambia and northeast of Angola.
  • Poicephalus meyeri meyeri (Cretzschmar, 1827) – Species nominal
  • Poicephalus meyeri Reichenow (Neumann, 1898) – North and Central Angola from Malange and sierra central until Huila, possibly also adjacent parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Poicephalus meyeri saturatus (Sharpe, 1901) – The Far East Democratic Republic of the Congo, through Burundi, Rwanda and east of Uganda, in West and Central East Kenya towards Meru and Local inside Tanzania to the South of the Parque Nacional Ruaha.
  • Poicephalus meyeri transvaalensis (Neumann, 1899) – Areas of northern and central Mozambique to northern Save river across the South of Zambia and central and southern Zimbabwe to northeast Botswana and West of Transvaal


• Current red list of UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The Meyer's Parrot It, in general, Common to very common and is the most abundant parrot in parts of its range (for example, Zimbabue and Angola), although few in other areas and absent from some apparently suitable habitats.

Its population has declined in some parts (for example Transvaal) where is thought to be a result of habitat destruction. I also persecuted in some locations due to crop damage (for example, in the center of Zambezi because of the damage inflicted to the maturation of the berries Boolean).

Lorito de Meyer en cautividad:

The Meyer's Parrot, is a bird common in captivity, quiet, tender, easy to carry and with a stable temperament.

They are birds social and they tend to bond with everyone in the family, unlike other species that may prefer one person to another. In general, No es voluble – once you liked someone, the person is a friend for life.

They are not as dependent on humans for entertainment like most parrots and therefore no son tan demanding.

They like being handled and petted on the head and neck. A baby fed by hand into an adult soft if treated properly, and it is not prone to bite, although it may provide a powerful bite if provoked.

You can learn a few words, although They are not known for their ability to speak. They can learn to whistle, making noises, and occasionally they will offer strong squeals. Fortunately, They are not likely to scream or make loud squawks, making good birds for apartment life. Some individuals learn household noises, as the beep of the microwave.

The Meyer's Parrot they are ready to breed at the age of 3 to 4 years and reproduce easily in captivity.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, Meyer lived a parrot 34,2 years in captivity.

Alternative names:

Meyer’s Parrot, Brown Parrot (English).
Perroquet de Meyer, Perroquet brun, Youyou de Meyer (French).
Goldbugpapagei, Goldbug-Papagei (German).
Papagaio de Meyer, Papagaio-de-meyer (Portuguese).
Lorito de Meyer (Spanish).

Philipp Jacob Cretzschmar
Philipp Jacob Cretzschmar

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Poicephalus
Scientific name: Poicephalus meyeri
Citation: (Cretzschmar, 1827)
Protonimo: Psittacus Meyeri

Meyer's Parrot images :


Meyer's Parrot (Poicephalus meyeri)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – A Meyer’s Parrot at Birds of Eden, Western Cape, South Africa. It is eating what looks like a piece of bread By SandyCole (mailto:[email protected]) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two Meyer’s Parrots in Zimbabwe By Oce Eeco (DSC_0108Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Brown parrot also known as Meyer’s Parrot (Poicephalus meyeri) by Papooga – Flickr
(4) – A Meyer’s Parrot near Kwara Camp, North-West District, Botswana By Benjamin Hollis from Seattle, WA, USA (Meyer’s parrotUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A Meyer’s Parrot in Akagera National Park, Rwanda By Lip Kee Yap [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Derek Solomon (Xeno-canto)

Niam-Niam Parrot
Poicephalus crassus


25 cm.. length.

The Niam-Niam Parrot (Poicephalus crassus) has the head and nape Brown olive; the ear-coverts Silver. Feathers of the the mantle and tertiary Brown with dark green margin; back, uppertail-coverts and bright green.

Lorito nianiam
Upper, wing-coverts dark green; secondary more internal dark green; rest of the flight feather Brown with vane dark green external. Throat and top of the chest Brown olive opaque; bottom of the chest, the belly, the the thighs and undertail- coverts green.

Feathers of the tail dark brown tipped with dark green margins.

Bill yellowish, upper mandible darker than black-tipped; irises yellow; legs blackish.

Both sexes similar.

Hood grayish brown of the immature It shows strong brands of color yellow olive; the the mantle is greener. Underparts paler and more yellowish in adults. Secondary internal lined with yellow. More pale the upper mandible the adults and with grey tip.

It was thought that the Niam-Niam Parrot (Poicephalus crassus) It could form a species within the Group of the Poicephalus meyeri, Poicephalus rueppellii and Poicephalus cryptoxanthus, and possibly other. In the past, treated as species Poicephalus cryptoxanthus, that is morphologically very close.


Frequents wooded areas of Savannah, forest-savanna mosaic, wet sheets and Syzygium-Adina forests in the savanna to the 1.000 m.

Common in areas close to water. Observed in pairs or in small groups. Regular daily movements take place even in the mountainous areas where the Niam-Niam Parrot visit tall trees to feed.


Few details about the reproductive biology, but believes that nest between August-September during the rainy season.

Courtship and implementation not described.


Its diet It is little known but includes a wide variety of seeds; reported foods include millet, and beans.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 343.000 km2

North of Central Africa to the South of the Sahara. Believed to inhabit also in Cameroon Eastern (where is the status unclear) through the Center and South of the Central African Republic, South-West end of Chad and the north end of the upper area of the Democratic Republic of the Congoto the southwest of Sudan (Bahr-el-Ghazal).

Sedentary with local movements. Little-known state, but thinks it's usually common, Although most scarce in the southwest of Sudan.


• Current red list of UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The size of the world's population has not been quantified. This species is one of the lesser known African parrots, but it is assumed that it is common in its area of distribution.

The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

Lorito nianiam en cautividad:

Very rare in captivity.

It is a parrot of middle voice, shy and suspicious. Young birds are more accustomed to the caregiver.
New birds susceptible to the stress or illness.

Is necessary for their well-being a regular supply of fresh wood; susceptible during the acclimatization period; resistant once acclimated.

Alternative names:

Niam-Niam Parrot, Niam niam Parrot (English).
Perroquet des Niam-niams, Perroquet des niam-niam (French).
Niamniampapagei, Niamniam Papagei (German).
Papagaio Crassus (Portuguese).
Lorito Niam niam, Lorito Niam-niam, Lorito nianiam (Spanish).

Richard Bowdler Sharpe
Richard Bowdler Sharpe

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Poicephalus
Scientific name: Poicephalus crassus
Citation: (Sharpe, 1884)
Protonimo: Pionias crassus


Niam-Niam Parrot (Poicephalus crassus)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Photography: Caijin Wen – link

New Zealand Kaka
Nestor meridionalis

New Zealand Kaka


45 cm.. length and an average weight of 550 g..

Illustration of a Kaka.

The New Zealand Kaka (Nestor meridionalis) they are some great parrots with a tail of medium length and a plumage predominantly Brown and Red.

The adult male has the crown whitish grey color and the neck with a greyish Brown appearance due to large brown feathers that surround you.

The under eye and the sides of the neck has a bluish grey clear. The lores are greyish Brown, that contrast with the ear-coverts strongly tinged with orange. The sides of the chin they have reddish-brown infiltrations.

The feathers of the upperparts are greenish Brown with darker stripes and stripes. Those in the back of the neck are crimson red with yellow and more Brown bases terminations.

The the mantle, sometimes, has some red spots. Rump and uppertail-coverts are red with dark brown trim. The lower area of the wings and axillary they are also red.

The feathers of the chest are olive brown in colour with reddish edges subterminales. Belly and undertail-coverts are red with dark edges.

The tail is brown with lighter tip.

The bill is brownish grey, more powerful that the of the Kea. The cere Brown it is decorated with a few whiskers. The irises is dark brown, legs dark gray.

The adult female presents a bill shorter and one mandible less curved top.

The youth they are similar to adults, but have a small yellow spot at the base of the lower mandible.

  • Sound of the New Zealand Kaka.

Subspecies description

  • Nestor meridionalis meridionalis (Gmelin, 1788) – Nominal species
  • Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis (Lorenz von Liburnau, L 1896) – It measures 42 cm approximately. Variation of the nominal (Nestor Meridionalis). More small, in general, and plumage more off. The red band of the neck is more small and dark. The back of the wings olive color is more dark.


The New Zealand Kaka (Nestor meridionalis) they frequent the compact forests of low to medium height, where there are mainly podocarp and beech trees of the genus Nothofagus. Occasionally they come into gardens and orchards, especially in winter.

These birds they tend to live at altitudes between 450 and 850 meters in the summer and from the sea level to the 550 meters in winter. However, from time to time, You can climb up to the 1.500 m.

The New Zealand Kaka they live in pairs or in small groups of up to ten birds.

These birds are not as well known as the Kea (Nestor notabilis), Although in some places come to feed in the hand of the tourists.

We can often see them at the top of trees or simply flying over the canopy.

The birds that are found in the air almost always heard before to be seen.

The New Zealand Kaka they are active during the morning and afternoon. At the hottest time of the day, around noon, They lie between the foliage of the trees.

Around the darkness, they perform a series of acrobatic flights, before returning to their roosts. Shouts and calls can be heard well into the night.

In some areas, the New Zealand Kaka they are sedentary. However, most of the times are erratic or short altitudinal migrations. These birds are able to fly long distances. They fly to vigorous banging of wings.


The season of nesting is from September to March, but it is above all active between November and January.

The nest is located in a tree cavity between 3 and 9 meters above the ground. The couple sometimes extends with its beak entry hole.

The spawning contains 4 or 5 eggs white. These are deposited on a layer of sawdust covering the lower part of the cavity.

The incubation, that lasts a few 24 days, It is performed only by the female. She leaves the nest at dawn and dusk to be able to be powered by your partner. A wizard, sometimes, You can participate in the feeding of the female during the period in which incubates.

In the North, the pups have white down, While the of the South they have grey down at the bottom.

The juveniles they acquire their full plumage in ten weeks.

For the duration of the stay in the nest, they are fed by both parents.

The breeding success rate is relatively low and rare time lay more than one egg per year.


The New Zealand Kaka It has a long tongue terminated tip, What helps you to extract nectar from the flowers and to collect molasses.

In the Spring, in the South of the island, the New Zealand Kaka almost passes the 30% of their time in the trees (Beech) where feeding of honeydew produced by the local cochineal (Ultracoelostoma assimilates). In other stations, This food is a less important resource due to competition with the WaSP, which is also a great consumer.

The larvae of beetles of long antennae they are also a good source of nutrition.

Throughout the year the New Zealand Kaka, regularly, frequent trees, where it used its powerful curved beak to hunt insects hidden beneath the bark.

When populations of opossums are scattered, the New Zealand Kaka they spend nearly the 60% of their time feeding on flowers and berries. In addition, consume sprouts, seeds, nectar and SAP.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 71.100 km2

This species is endemic of New Zealand.

Distribution of subspecies


• Current red list of UICN: Danger

• Population trend: Decreasing

This species has a very irregular distribution. In the majority of places, is rather sparse, but in other places, It is common at local level, especially in some coastal islands.

Its population It is estimated between 3750 and 15,000 specimens.

The main threat is the habitat degradation. It stays within primary forest fragments, showing its very low adaptation to artificial habitats.

The New Zealand Kaka not nest every year in a systematic way. When I was try to reproduce in captivity, the success rate was not very high (on average the 56% eggs not hatched ).

Clutches often suffer from the predation on the part of the weasels It was introduced on the island. For all these reasons that the species is classified as VULNERABLE.

Kaka en cautividad:

Very rare in captivity.

In terms of their longevity, According to sources, a specimen in captivity lived during 15 years.

Taking into account the longevity of the similar species, the maximum longevity of these birds might be underestimated. Other sources indicate that these birds can live up to the 35,5 years in captivity, something that is plausible, pero que no ha sido verificado; el mismo estudio informó que los New Zealand Kaka can reproduce a partir de los 7 years of age in captivity.

Alternative names:

New Zealand Kaka, Common Kaka, Kaka (English).
Nestor superbe (French).
Kaka (German).
Kākā (Portuguese).
Kaka (Spanish).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Strigopidae
Genus: Nestor
Scientific name: Nestor meridionalis
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus meridionalis

New Zealand Kaka images:


New Zealand Kaka (Nestor meridionalis)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Kākā (Nestor meridionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Kaka_(Nestor_meridionalis)-_Wellington_-NZ-8.jpg: PhillipC [CC BY 2.0 or CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – North Island Kākā, at Auckland Zoo, New Zealand By Small [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A New Zealand Kaka in Karori Wildlife Sanctuary, Wellington, North Island, New Zealand By Rosino (the colorful kākāUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Nestor meridionalis meridionalis, South Island Kākā, on Stewart Island, New Zealand By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Kaka-parrot_-Stewart-Island.jpg: giles.breton [CC BY 2.0 or CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Kaka in flight. Karori Wildlife Sanctuary, Wellington, New Zealand. I, Tony Wills [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Illustration of a Kaka By J. G. Keulemans, in W.L. Buller’s A History of the Birds of New Zealand. 2nd edition. Published 1888. (New Zealand Electronic Text Centre) [CC BY-SA 3.0 nz], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Fernand DEROUSSEN (Xeno-canto)

Malherbe's Parakeet
Cyanoramphus malherbi

Malherbe's Parakeet


19 to 22 cm. length and a weight between 40 and 52 grams for males and between 30 and 41 grams for females.

The Malherbe's Parakeet (Cyanoramphus malherbi) they are small bright green parakeets, equipped with a long tail and with a bluish green colour wash in belly and chest.

The wings they have the primary coverts and the edges to the primary external of azure-blue. The crown is lemon-yellow colour and the front band, it reaches the eyes, is orange, as well as two patches on each side of the rump.

The bill is bluish grey, with the tip of black. The eyes are red and the legs are brown.

The colors tend to have a brighter tone in the males.

The youth they are more opaque, especially the patch of front band and the crown, which may be absent. The tail It is short for several weeks after feather. The bill is a pale pink color that darkens gradually when the young bird matures. They have darker the eyes, a reddish brown tone.


The Malherbe's Parakeet tends to be quiet and difficult to observe. A short and strong chatter or a soft contact call quieter can denote his presence, but the location of the bird can be extremely difficult. The Malherbe's Parakeet often confused with the Yellow-fronted Parakeet.

Even though have been recorded in subalpine bushes and thickets of Matagouri open zones (Discaria toumatou), the Malherbe's Parakeet they are predominantly in the forest.

They usually feed in the canopy, but also under frequent places with low vegetation and soil.


The Malherbe's Parakeet can reproduce in every month, with a main breeding season between December and April; incubation peak is in January.

Clutch size media is of approximately 7 eggs, but register a wide range (range of 1 to 10). Egg-laying is asynchronous in the range between eggs of 2 days. The incubation lasts from 21 to 26 days, and the period of breeding ranges between 35 and 45 days.

The females They seem to choose the nesting sites, as well as carrying out all the preparation, incubation and breeding, the male provides most of the food during incubation.

It is suspected that the female only feeds the chicks during the first 10-14 days, just as they do other species Cyanoramphus. Once past this period, both sexes take care, equally, feeding the pigeons.

There may be second clutches If there is enough food available, for example, during the sowing of beech, or if the first attempt failed. The female may lay a second clutch when first chicks have, approximately, 2 weeks of age. This leaves the male as a single for the chicks and the female incubandora.
Second clutches are not uncommon; When is food plentiful, some couples can reproduce 3 or 4 times on.

The nests are accessed normally through holes in knots of branches and the main trunk of a tree.

They use all species of you have to build the nest, predominantly the Red beech (69% nests monitored in the continent, n = 138) and dead trees (20%).
Nests may have more than one meter of depth. Records placed nests in heights that range between 2,5 and 26 m.


The Malherbe's Parakeet consume seeds, flowers, buds and small invertebrates (mealybugs and caterpillars). In a year of abundance of fruits, the seeds become the dominant element of their diet, and they seem to be the main food for young people.

Invertebrates seem to play an important role in the diet of this species of parakeet which for the Yellow-fronted Parakeet.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident) 360 km2

To the Malherbe's Parakeet les is in areas where the South beeches (Nothofagaceae), in forest valleys in the South Island, the valleys Hawdon and Poulter in the Arthur's Pass National Park and the South Branch of the Hurunui Valley in Lake Sumner Forest Park. Are unevenly distributed within these valleys; absent in many parts, but in some other places can be quite common.

They have been transferred to four islands: Maud and Blumine in Marlborough Sounds, Chalky Island in Fiordland, and Largest Island / Tuhua on Bay of Plenty.


• Current red list of UICN: Critically Endangered

• Population trend: Decreasing

This species is the smallest of the class Cyanoramphus along with the Yellow-fronted Parakeet.
The Malherbe's Parakeet It is the kind of rare parrots of New Zealand. The population was wiped out by rats and stoats introduced by men.

Also the changes in habitat due to the ungulates and opossums they have affected the species.

Some diseases have been discovered in two of the areas in which live.

It is in progress conservation actions such as the predator control in the three valleys of the continent and the protection of the trees hosting the nests.

The captive breeding programs they have helped to release the birds in 4 Islands cleared of predators. This work is still in progress.
On the Mainland, all populations are monitored closely by the Department of conservation.

The total population It was estimated in 290/690 individuals at the beginning of 2013.
The continent has between 130 and 270 specimens and Islands surrounding between 160 and 420.

Perico Maorí Montano en cautividad:

Usually they are not in captivity.

Un pequeño programa de cría en cautividad fue establecido en 2003.

Alternative names:

Malherbe’s Parakeet, Alpine Parakeet, Malherbe’s Parrot, Orange-fronted Parakeet (English).
Perruche de Malherbe, Kakariki de Malherbe (French).
Malherbesittich (German).
Kakariki-fronte-laranja (Portuguese).
Perico Maorí Montañés, Perico Maorí Montano (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Cyanoramphus
Scientific name: Cyanoramphus malherbi
Citation: Souancé, 1857
Protonimo: Cyanoramphus Malherbi

Malherbe's Parakeet pictures:

Malherbe's Parakeet (Cyanoramphus malherbi)


  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Malherbe's Parakeet photos:

(1) – This is one of several birds being bred in captivity at Isaac Peacock Springs wildlife refuge.
Christchurch, New Zealand By Jon Sullivan from Christchurch, New Zealand [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Orange-fronted parakeet. Adult male in captivity. Isaacs Wildlife Trust, Christchurch. Image © John Kearvell by John Kearvell – nzbirdsonline
(3) – Orange-fronted parakeet. Captive adult female. Isaacs Wildlife Trust, February 2012. Image © Sabine Bernert by Sabine Bernert – nzbirdsonline
(4) – Orange-fronted parakeet. Juvenile feeding. Nelson, January 1983. Image © Department of Conservation (image ref: 10028825) by Dave Crouchley, Department of Conservation Courtesy of Department of Conservation – nzbirdsonline
(5) – Orange-fronted parakeet. Adult male (left) and female in captivity. Isaacs Wildlife Trust, Christchurch. Image © John Kearvell by John Kearvell – nzbirdsonline

Masked Shining-Parrot
Prosopeia personata

Masked Shining-Parrot


47 cm of length and weight approximate of 322 g..

Masked Shining-Parrot

The colorful Masked Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia personata), has a plumage Green on most of his body, the front of the crown, lores, cheeks and chin, are black.

The upperparts are bright pale green (with a brighter sheen on the Crown and nape). Large external coverts, primary coverts and primaries are blue with vane inner Dark. Wing feathers green. Throat, top of the chest, flanks, and undertail- coverts green; Center of the chest and the belly bright yellow, a few feathers with the Green Tip, yellow shading in the Orange patch It is located in the lower part of the belly. Upper, the tail green; black for the part below.

The bill black; irises orange-red; legs Blackish grey.

The male has the head and the bill larger that the female. The young birds have, peaks paler, less black in the face and irises brown.

El Papagayo Enmascarado (Prosopeia personata) is a large parrot, long tail which is only on an island, in Fiji.

  • Sound of the Masked Shining-Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS:// Enmascarado.mp3]


They are distributed Since the sea level, until the 1.200 m altitude, in the forest reacor and secondary growth of the Windward areas and intermediate vegetation, You can also find them in orchards of villages, agricultural fields and mangroves; Often observed along the edges of the forest near farmland and trees that border the water courses of the forests.

The Masked Shining-Parrot they are usually sociable and finds them alone, in pairs, or out of season breeding in herds of up to 40 birds.

Birds are sometimes interviews flying rapidly through the forest or wandering above the canopy. Are noisy birds and they are often heard before to be seen; similar to the Red Shining-Parrot, they perform often calls at the first sign of any human intruder, and they are generally shy and difficult to move when they are perched on a branch.


The breeding season occurs between July and September. The nest It is a hole or crack in a tree, or a cavity at the top of a stump. Two or more eggs White deposited inside a hollow form the implementation; the hole is expanded by making use of its powerful beak. Birds emit a strong odor.


The Masked Shining-Parrot they tend to rest the high parts of the trees, but descend to lower floors to feed on berries, and pick up the fruits of the soil; they can also attack fields.

The diet includes mainly fruit, for example, Mango (Mangifera indica), guava (Psidium guajava), Ficus figs and bananas, Although they can also be powered from flowers, insects, seeds and berries, as well as the cultivated grain.

When feed, They manipulate food with their legs using their beaks to catch small branches. They are powerful and it has been flying with a Mango between its claws.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 10,500 km2

The Masked Shining-Parrot they are endemic in Fiji, distributed only on the island of Viti Levu (Although the species also has been recorded in the nearby island of Ovalau in the past). In Viti Levu, It is not uncommon to see them on the inside of forests, including the surroundings of Nadarivatu and in the North of the Mount Tomanivi. In the center of Nadrau and to the East of the district Vunidawa.

The world population considered that it may be on the 5.000 specimens, but in decline due to habitat loss.

Required large trees for nesting are being felled., and tracts of mature forest are fragmented now in many areas.

The possible detrimental effect of interspecific competition from the introduced Crimson Shining-Parrot remains study.


• Current red list of UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The most serious threat affecting the Masked Shining-Parrot It is the decline of forests in which inhabits, with less than the 50 per cent of the forests of Viti Levu remaining. This deforestation has led to the fragmentation of remaining forest areas. The huge trees felled during the deforestation are required by the Masked Shining-Parrot nest.

Other potential threats to this species include potential competition with the introduced Crimson Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia splendens). The Masked Shining-Parrot It can also be trafficked for the pet trade, Although the related species, as the Crimson Shining-Parrot It is believed that they are most popular).

Conservation of the Papagayo Enmascarado.

The Masked Shining-Parrot is protected by the law of Fiji. However, the legislation in force for the capture of wild parrots is difficult to enforce. This Parrot also appears in the Appendix II of the Convention on international trade in endangered species (CITES), which means that international trade in the species must be carefully monitored.

The Masked Shining-Parrot It lives in several reserves and parks, where can you get some protection against deforestation. It has been proposed that community forest reserves must be encouraged in Viti Levu, to prevent further deforestation, and that the population figures of the Masked Shining-Parrot in these protected areas should be monitored. However, None of these measures has been put into action

Papagayo Enmascarado en cautividad:

Rarely found in captivity.

According to sources, It is known that one as a specimen of this species lived 11,8 years in captivity.

Alternative names:

Masked Shining-Parrot, Masked Parrot, Masked Shining Parrot, Yellow-breasted Musk Parrot, Yellow-breasted Shining-Parrot (English).
Perruche masquée, Perruche masquée masquée (French).
Maskensittich, Masken-Sittich (German).
Prosopeia personata (Portuguese).
Papagayo Enmascarado (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Prosopeia
Scientific name: Prosopeia personata
Citation: (Gray, GR, 1848)
Protonimo: Coracopsis ? personata

Masked Shining-Parrot images:


Masked Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia personata)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Masked Shining Parrot , Birds Gallery, Natural History Museum, London By John Cummings (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – By Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Masked Shining Parrot Prosopeia personata Kula Eco Park – Viti Levu, Fiji © 2007 Sarah – The Online Zoo
(4) – Masked Shining Parrot Prosopeia personata Kula Eco Park – Viti Levu, Fiji © 2007 Sarah – The Online Zoo
(5) – A bird resting in a tree by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx
(6) – A close-up of the head of one bird by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx

Sounds: Matthias Feuersenger (Xeno-canto)

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