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Mudi
Hungría FCI 238 - Sheepdogs

Mudi

The Mudi is a single master dog, and a rare breed outside its native Hungary.

Content

History

The Mudi is the name of a canine breed of herding dog rare, originally from Hungary.

According to existing documentation, some currents maintain that the Mudi was formed in Hungary spontaneously, between the 19th and 20th centuries.

Others reply that the Pumi, the Puli and the Croatian Sheepdog, are close relatives of Mudi.

Are what, they are their ancestor and the form in which it existed, What is known for sure is that the Mudi, has survived this time thanks to the appreciation of the shepherds who praise his innate ability in which protection of livestock with regard.

In the year 1936 wrote the first breed standard, naming it Mudi.

The herd book is still open, that means that more and more dogs of this type, they live in their homeland, incorporated into breeding records.

The Mudi, is currently a "rare breed” there are few specimens in their native country, and outside of Hungary if there is…, very few inches.

In Hungary they have been fighting for years to keep the breed alive. As it has been the case with many breeds of dogs pastors, their copies have declined to the rhythm of the socio-cultural advancement.

Before, herds of cattle were numerous and sheepdogs…, essential, This situation has changed a lot from time to time and along the way we have lost many canine breeds specialized in working with cattle..

Physical characteristics

Usually weigh between 8 and 13 kg and measure between 38 and 48 centimeters to the cross.

The mantle is medium wavy or curly, with short hair on the face and legs. The colors accepted are black, Ash, brown, white, Fawn and merle.

The Mudi can have the tail short birth or birth with them long and cut them.

It is a very versatile dog, You can be on a farm, You can hunt, exterminate rodents, make guardian, dog herds and as dog boyero.

Although it is a much less popular breed than the Puli and the Komondor in your country of origin, owners always recognize his superiority due to his versatile talent and always friendly and working arrangement.

  • Fur: varies by region. The head and limbs are covered in short hair, straight and smooth. On other parts of the body there is hair of a length between and cm, dense, undulating and shiny. the undercoat is arranged in spirals and stripes.
  • Color: glossy black or white, but there are also white mantles with black stripes or black ones with white stripes, with medium-sized spots and uniform distribution.
  • Size: 35 to 47 cm..

The hair of the Mudi, Unlike other dog breeds, has much pigment. Surfaces devoid of hair, They must be totally black, However, the pads and nails are slate grey.

Character and skills

The Mudi is a very active race. If you live in the city, you need to take a brisk walk every day, or run.

It also, it would be beneficial for his health if he had an outdoor area where he can run to his heart's content, they need a lot of exercise to stay healthy… and happy.

To the Mudi She loves to play and Excel in all kinds of sports Canine as the Frisbee, for example.

Can also compete in the agility, obedience, Rally obedience, Schutzhund, show, flyball, and tracking. It has strong instinct and grazing capacity, with appropriate training, could also compete in grazing trials.

A Mudi can live in a house doing enough exercise, but always they need ample space to run and play. They are active and they can live, perfectly, in the open air.

Their life expectancy is around the 14 years.

Mudi Health

The Mudi is a generally healthy breed with a life expectancy of 12 to 14 years.

Health problems seen in the Mudi include epilepsy, Hip Dysplasia, cataract, elbow dysplasia and patellar dislocation.

If a breeder tells you they don't need to do those tests because they've never had any problems in their lines or because their dogs have been checked out by a vet or if they give any other excuse to skimp on genetic testing of their dogs, leave immediately.

Careful breeders screen their breeding dogs for genetic diseases and breed only the healthiest and best looking dogs, but sometimes Mother Nature has other ideas and a puppy develops one of these diseases despite good husbandry practices. Advances in veterinary medicine mean that in many cases dogs can still live a good life. If you are going to have a puppy, ask the breeder about the ages of the dogs in their lines and what their cause of death was.

Remember that after you have welcomed a new puppy into your home, has the power to protect you from one of the most common canine health problems: the obesity. Keeping a Mudi at the right weight is one of the easiest ways to extend his life..

Kuvasz grooming

The coat of the Mudi loose the dirt (and the hair, of course) and does not require frequent bathing. A weekly brushing is usually all that is needed and the coat does not need to be trimmed.

If your Mudi is like most, you will enjoy swimming in a pool, a lake or the ocean. Thereafter, rinsed with fresh water to remove chlorine, algae or salt and restore shine to your coat.

The Mudi sheds her coat in the spring and doesn't get it back fully until late summer.

The rest is basic care. Trim nails every few weeks or as needed. brush your teeth often – with a vet-approved pet toothpaste – for good general health and fresh breath.

Characteristics "Mudi"

Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a dog of the breed "Mudi" you know certain factors. Not all breeds of dogs are apt to live in an apartment, you must take into account his character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

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Health ⓘ

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Cat friendly ⓘ

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Intelligence ⓘ

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Versatility ⓘ

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joy ⓘ

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Mudi Images

Videos "Mudi"

Type and recognitions:

  • FCI CLASSIFICATION:Group 1 –> Herding dogs (except Swiss Cattle Dogs)
    / Section 1 –> Sheepdogs. Without working trial.
  • FCI 238
  • Federations:
    • FCI – Group 1 Herding dogs, Section 1 Sheepdogs
    • AKC – PASTORAGE
    • FSS
    • CKC – Group 7 – Herding dogs
    • UKC – Herding dogs

    FCI breed standard "Mudi"

    FCIFCI - Mudi
    Mudi

    Alternative names:

    1. Hungarian Mudi, Canis Ovilis Fenyesi (English).
    2. Mudi (French).
    3. Mudi (German).
    4. Mudi (Portuguese).
    5. Mudi húngaro (español).

    ▷ The world of Pets: Dogs, cats, birds, reptiles, amphibians

    Czechoslovakian Wolfdog
    Eslovaquia FCI 332 . Sheepdogs

    Czechoslovakian Wolf Dog

    Not a dog fit for everyone.

    Content

    History

    The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog has its origin in the crossing experiments between the “Carpathian Wolf” and the German Shepherd carried out in the former Czechoslovak Socialist Republic from 1955 under the supervision of the SR. Karel Hartl, a renowned Czech cynologist and breeder. The scientific objective of these experiments was to determine the characteristics of these hybrids. (physical appearance, behavior, utility, fertility…), while the military tried to create a breed with the strength of the wolf and the docility of the dog, that could be used as an attack dog.

    The first births took place in 1958 at the border guard kennel in Libejovice, in the south of the country. Brita the wolf and the German Shepherd Cezar z Brezoveho Haje gave birth to 5 Puppies: Brent, Berta, Bono, Betty y Bessy.

    Betty was selected to continue the line at the Libejovice kennel, while his sister Berta was sent to the Samorin kennel (now Malacky) with the same goal. Their pups were used as patrol dogs by border guards, confirming that these hybrids were healthy, functional and fertile.

    After this initial success, the Brita Wolf was able to mate again with a new male German Shepherd named Kurt z Vaclavky. Like this, in 1960, Defender, Bigan, Trophy, Bill and Bima were born in the Libejovice kennel. The male Bikar was chosen to be sent to the Pohranicni kennel in Slovakia to continue this second lineage.

    The experiment stopped at 1965, not without some success: hybrids were able to reproduce, socialize with humans and be trained for different tasks. At the end of the experiment, 16 of these dogs remained in the care of the army, While 18 were given to civil breeders.

    Then new lines were created, as..:

    – Astra (female german shepherd dog) and Argo (Carpathian wolf male) in 1968;
    – Lejdy (female Carpathian wolf) y Boyar from Schotterhof (male german shepherd) in 1972;
    – Urta with the Guardian Guard (third generation hybrid female) and Sarik (male Carpathian wolf) in 1974;
    – Xela with the Guardian Guard (third generation female hybrid) and Sarik (Carpathian wolf male) in 1983.

    The name “Czechoslovakian Wolfdog” seems to have become commonplace to designate these hybrids as early as the 1980s. 1960, but it wasn't until 1982 that the efforts of Mr.. Karel Hartl were finally officially rewarded when this new breed was recognized by the Czechoslovakian Dog Breeders Committee, the canine organization of reference in the country.

    It developed quite quickly and to 1991 not less than 1552 Czechoslovakian wolfhounds were entered in the national register of pedigree dogs.

    In 1999, the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog was recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI).

    In the news, are mainly found in Central Europe, but its popularity is growing rapidly in various Western European countries such as Italy, Germany, Spain and France. In France, for example, little more than 3.000 representatives of the breed have registered with the LOF (Book of French Origins) between 2010 and 2016, and the trend is increasing. His growing renown leads him to the gates of 10 Most popular dog breeds in France.

    On the other hand, the Czechoslovak Wolf dog has not actually crossed the English Channel: it is only one of the breeds recognized by the Kennel Club, the British organization of reference, and the FCI only has one approved kennel in the whole country.

    In United States, the AKC (American Kennel Club) partially recognizes it from 2001: their representatives can participate in competitions organized under the aegis of the organization, but they cannot register in the breed dog registry. On the other hand, the UKC (United Kennel Club) fully recognizes it, and has been doing it since 2006. It also, in 2011 an official breed club was established (el Czechoslovakian Vlcak Club of America). There are currently some 200 specimens in american territory.

    Physical characteristics

    It is a dog of strong constitution, medium-sized and rectangular in structure. It is similar to the wolf in constitution, movement, colors, cloak and mask. The head, symmetrical and well muscled, is shaped like a truncated wedge. the eyes are small, macaroons, amber, with well-attached eyelids.
    Ears are erect, thin, triangular and short. The tail is implanted high, but it hangs straight. When the dog is excited, lifts it up in a sickle.

    Fur: The coat is straight and adherent. In winter it has a very dense undercoat.
    Color: From yellowish gray to silver gray, with characteristic white mask.
    Size: Males measure at least 65 cm.. the females, minimal 60 cm..

    Character and skills

    The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog he is very devoted to his family, including children. But, their rather dominant nature can be problematic for young people. In any case, it is important to socialize him from an early age and never leave a young child alone with a dog, regardless of race.

    He is also sociable with his companions and other pets who live under the same roof., since he is used to their presence relatively early. On the other hand, woe to the cats, small dogs and other rodents that are unfamiliar to you and would have the bad idea to venture into your territory, or that they will meet during a walk: his hunting instincts were then all chances to regain the advantage.

    It also, he is as affectionate with his entourage as he mistrusts strangers: there is also necessary an education and socialization of the puppy started from an early age to avoid any later problem.

    Having a highly developed sense of hierarchy, must face as soon as possible with his “leader of the pack”, who should show their dog his place in the family hierarchy . The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog he is a dog that cannot stand loneliness, greatly preferring to live in the company of their pack, that is, his family. You are very likely to be unhappy if you have to be alone for long periods of time and are at risk of running away to join your family, or feeling excluded from the “in the sense” and lose trust in his master.

    It also, the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog it is a very durable and active breed of dog, able to accompany his master even over very long distances that can exceed even those of a marathon, and whatever the weather conditions. In fact, being able to exercise daily is necessary for your physical and psychological well-being, and allows to avoid the risk of damage caused by the dog . It is an ideal companion for a sports lover who would like to, for example, jogging with your dog , go hiking with your dog or even ride a bike with your dog.. On the other hand, even more than for any other race, your handler should make sure to always be out front and thus show your dog who is the “leader of the pack” .

    On the other hand, a person who prefers to spend his free time in front of a screen or immersed in a book is exposed to some difficulties if he thinks about adopting a Czechoslovakian Wolfdog

    It also, by needing space, the latter is not a recommended breed of dog in apartments : it is much better to have a house with a garden. It is not uncommon to see him playing and sleeping there whatever the weather: it's not very hard, and is able to perfectly withstand bad weather. On the other hand, it is recommended that said garden be perfectly fenced, to avoid the risk of the dog escaping and wandering on public roads.

    The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog very little, if he barks. But when it does, it is impossible not to notice: similar to his ancestors the wolves , its howl is loud and can be heard over long distances. Daily, when you need to express yourself, opt for other means, like moans and grunts .

    Like this, this loyal and active dog will make a firm human companion happiness, sporty and available, but it is not recommended for people who have never had dogs before or who are often absent. In fact, the majority of failed adoptions are due to the fact that the human has not known how to impose himself as "leader of the pack" and / or has not been sufficiently available and active for his partner.

    Last, It should be remembered that this recent breed of dog is still under construction, so excessively fearful or aggressive subjects may appear.

    Price “Czechoslovakian Wolfdog”

    The price of a puppy Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is of some 1250 to 1500 EUR.

    creators of "Czechoslovakian Wolfdog"

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    Characteristics "Czechoslovakian Wolfdog"

    Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a dog of the breed "Czechoslovakian Wolfdog" you know certain factors. Not all breeds of dogs are apt to live in an apartment, you must take into account his character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

    Adaptation ⓘ

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    friendly dog ​​ⓘ

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    Need for exercise ⓘ

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    Intelligence ⓘ

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    Versatility ⓘ

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    Type and recognitions:

    • FCI CLASSIFICATION:
    • Group :
    • Section : . .

    Federations:

  • FCI ,
  • AKC ,
  • ANKC ,
  • UKC

  • FCI breed standard "Czechoslovakian Wolfdog"

    FCIFCI - Czechoslovakian Wolfdog
    Dog

    Alternative names:

    1. Czechoslovak Vlcak (English).
    2. Československý vlčiak (French).
    3. tschechisch československý vlčák, slowakisch československý vlčiak (German).
    4. Československý vlčák (Portuguese).
    5. Československý vlčák, PLC (español).

    Photo:
    Czechoslovakian Wolfdog by UsernameNotInUse / CC BY-SA

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    German Shepherd
    Alemania FCI 166 . Sheepdogs

    The German Shepherd It is one of the most popular dog breeds, the world's largest and versatile.

    Pastor Alemán

    Content

    Characteristics "German Shepherd"

    Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a dog of the breed "German Shepherd" you know certain factors. Not all breeds of dogs are apt to live in an apartment, you must take into account his character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

    Adaptation ⓘ

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    Social need ⓘ

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    History

    The dog German Shepherd It is today the most widespread dog breed in the world.. It appeared in its current form towards the end of the 19th century, thanks to the tremendous work of the German captain Max von Stéphanitz. Created from different German Shepherd Dogs, the breed was last improved in 1893 with blood of Scottish Sheepdogs.

    But, its origins go back to antiquity, since tacit (54-120 d.C.), Roman historian and senator, you already mentioned sheepdogs in Germania. A little later, in the 7th century, Germanic laws punished with a fine of 3 solidis (a few 20 euros today) to anyone guilty of the murder of a sheepdog.

    In 19th century Germany, there was no homogeneous breed of sheepdog. Rather, there were regional types, as the shepherds from württemberg, the thuringian guy, but also different dogs in Bavaria or Hesse. In the decade of 1870, under the direction of Bismarck, while the French tried to select different regional types of sheepdogs, the Germans preferred a national race, intended to be a symbol of German thoroughness and quality. Like this, already in 1877, some breeders made an initial selection of two types: the Württemberg Sheepdog, tall and massive, thick dark hair, strong head and floppy ears, and the Thuringian Shepherd Dog, short gray hair, with medium bone structure and straight ears.

    Phylax was founded in 1891, the first association dedicated to the Dog German Shepherd. But, dissolved into 1895 due to numerous dissensions. In fact, some breeders wanted to keep a line of Thuringian Sheepdogs, while others wanted to mix Thuringian Sheepdogs and Württemberg Sheepdogs, in order to obtain a fast and reliable dog with a balanced and resistant character.

    In 1897, Max Frederic Emil von Stephanitz, a cavalry officer who had returned to civilian life after his marriage and is considered the “father” of the race, bought a property near Grafrath, Bavaria. He decided to set up a dog-breeding operation there., mainly focusing on the improvement of sheepdogs, wanting to create a perfect and intelligent working dog with keen senses and superior working ability. He participated in dog shows presented by other breeders and bought his first dog in 1899, Hector Linkrshei, later changing his name to Horand von Grafarth. The latter, with a gray and yellow coat and of the type of Thuringian Shepherd dog, was the first German shepherd dog registered in the Breed Book of Origins. Used it as a stud, starting point of the German Shepherd breed, and produced with him 53 layers of 35 different females, giving 149 puppies also registered in the Book of Origins of the breed.

    The 22 in April of 1899, from Stephanitz founded the German Shepherd Dog Club, the “Verein für Deutsche Schäferhund“, also known in abbreviated form as SV (Shepherd Club). The 28 in September of 1899, the first breed standard was published during its first general assembly in Frankfurt.

    This first text was completed in the meetings of the members in 1901 and 1909, at the meeting of the management board and advisory committee in Wiesbaden in 1930, and at the meeting of the breeding commission and the board of directors in 1961. The text was revised again in the framework of the WUSV (World Union of Clubs for German Shepherd Dogsand, o World Union of German Shepherd Societies). The standard was finally revised and restructured in 1991 by a legally binding decision of the executive and advisory boards.

    Von Stephanitz announces in its standard the line of conduct that will be maintained until today, what is that a German Shepherd it's mostly a working dog. According to him, “a dog German Shepherd is any sheepdog that lives in Germany and that, by constantly exercising its qualities as a shepherd dog, achieves perfection of body and mind, perfection appreciated only in terms of utility”.

    While the 19th century was marked by the industrial revolution and many sheepdogs disappeared along with the pens in the course of industrialization and urbanism, From Stéphanitz converted his protégé and worked to persuade the German authorities to use this breed of dog. Its robustness, his exceptional sense of smell and unwavering obedience convinced the German police to use him. The German Shepherd was found in the army, police, Customs, but also in the administration, ports and railways.

    World War I gave the German Shepherd the chance to prove yourself: whether they served as sentinel dogs, sanitary dogs, patrol assistants or messenger dogs, more than 100.000 German Shepherdss were mobilized like dogs of war.

    After the war, thanks to the stories of veterans who recounted the exploits of this breed of dog, the excellent reputation of German Shepherd spread all over the world. At the same time, the first German Shepherd Guides appeared to help those disabled by the war.

    In 1920, Georges Barais, a French textile manufacturer, created the Société du Chien de Berger d’Alsace (the end of hostilities was too close to give the dog its original name), before its name was changed to Société du Chien de Berger d’Alsace less than two years later.

    The dogs of German Shepherd were in great demand in the postwar years, so much so that dog breeders from German Shepherd they produced them in great numbers to satisfy their fellow citizens, as well as foreign countries that became more and more passionate about the breed. The result was a departure from the type, with bigger and bigger dogs, high, with legs of doubtful character.

    To avoid these excesses, in 1922 created the Körbuch, a selection book that complements the Book of Origins. Only dogs suitable for breeding could be registered in it, after being examined by a judge.

    During World War II, the German Shepherd It was used on all fronts and by all the armies of the world. Unfortunately, After the war, unfairly associated with the Nazis, caused mistrust and lost interest to foreign buyers. Hitler himself owned several German shepherds, including female Blondi, who accompanied him until his death in April 1945.

    It was not until the decade of 1950 that the breed began to develop again. The modern history of German Shepherd started with the German Championship of 1951, where the consecration of a subject with a different morphology strongly marked the physical evolution of the race. Rolf from the Osnabrücker Land it was a very distinctive dog, characterized by morphological innovations, especially on neck and shoulder strength.

    The decade of 1970 it also marked a second turning point in the breed's history, with the appearance of the silhouette with the sloping back.

    Today, due to the popularity of this breed, his herd is no longer homogeneous, since there are exposure lines on one side and work lines on the other.

    Physical characteristics

    Videos "German Shepherd"

    Is also known by the name of Ovejero German or Dog Police, due to the use that the security forces give them in many countries where they even have specific units called K-9.

    The German Shepherd, is a dog robust and flexible, slightly elongated, with muscular body, its powerful jaws close in scissor, which, You can generate a force of more than 180 kg beating races as the Pitbull, the Akita Inu or American bulldog.

    There are many variants of color in German shepherds, as black, black and Brown edges, Red and black, but always visible his mantle of black, hence many called him black cloak.

    The height at the cross, is between 60 and 65 cm. male, and the female between 55 and 60 cm.. The weight of the male, round the 30 and 50 kg, and in the female between 22 and 40 kg. Their life expectancy is around the 12 years.

    Pastor of cows and sheep with great intelligence and tireless trot. He has excelled in numerous works useful to man, such as: guardian, guide dog, policeman, attack dog, drug detector, etc.

    It is a robust animal, agile, good muscular, awake and full of life. His physical proportions must be related not only to his appearance but also to his temperament..

    You must be a well balanced dog, with a harmonious development of the anterior and posterior members. A good specimen like at first sight; is also very strong. Although it can sometimes be a bit dominant and aggressive depending on the way in which educates.

    Regard to the Bless you of these dogs, It is important to monitor its post vaccination schedule that are susceptible to Contracting distemper. As is common in large dogs, this breed is susceptible of suffering Hip Dysplasia.

    Responsible crossbreeding is necessary to prevent this type of defects from spreading from generation to generation to have healthy specimens that do not suffer pain and are useful for work. This breed typically requires the hips from puppies to be passed by X-ray, and that the X-rays are certified and approved by the clubs responsible for the breed (the body that regulates this breed is the Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde e.V. (SV) Headquartered in Augsburg, Germany), When the Cub reaches maturity (approximately at the 2 years of age), so that there is an adult suitable for reproduction.

    Character and skills

    It is a very good companion dog with children., It is very balanced and easy to train.

    The training and socialization they should start from the first time the puppy reaches the family. The training for this breed is essential, is not recommended at all that is purchased if the future owner does not have the time needed to train it or take it to train a puppy.

    You need to practice exercise continuously It is a breed of working. German shepherds are in sports like the Schutzhund, which is a good alternative to help keep you healthy and balanced both physically and mentally.

    The German Shepherd It is one of the most popular dog breeds, the world's largest and versatile. Nato worker, affectionate with family, excellent guardian, blind guide, animal rescue, patient and protective of children. Courage, intelligence, unselfishness and loyalty are among the many virtues that characterizes this can.

    The field trips, Beach or mountain are necessary and recommended especially if you are allowed to run to suit, at least, twice a month. Like this, your strong muscles will stay in shape and help preserve your psychic balance, being a breed particularly biased to temperamental disorders which in extreme cases they degenerate in neurosis.

    It is advisable to, make your first bath to the 3 months of life, in a warm place, where the dog run no risk of harm is, using neutral soap or shampoo.

    As well, It is important to feed it with good quality feed. We must prevent overfeeding it has a voracious appetite that can lead it to gastric problems, If not treated properly it can trigger chronic diarrhea.

    It is advisable to go to the vet at least once a year for a general Checkup. Daily brushing is necessary to avoid the dead hair to hang its limbs and neck, This also allows fur keep bright, healthy and beautiful.

    Education “German Shepherd”

    The dog German Shepherd has a flexible temperament, but lively and quite dominant, which makes learning the basic commands mandatory. But, obedience seems innate in him, and his education is facilitated by his desire to satisfy his teacher. The latter must also be willing to invest properly in the education of his dog.

    A dog German Shepherd poorly trained or untrained, a guard dog by nature, can become a limitation for his master and his family, as they will tend to be suspicious or even aggressive. So, it is important to socialize him and get him used to strangers or public places from an early age.

    Health “German Shepherd”

    The German Shepherd it is a robust breed by nature. But, infatuation with her since the end of World War II has led some breeders to German shepherds to be produced in quantity without taking into account genetic defects, what has weakened her. So, we can find in some lines bone or joint problems, such as hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, degenerative myelopathy or osteodystrophy. This is why it is always advisable to ensure that stallions are free from these conditions before adopting a puppy..

    The dog German Shepherd you also have a genetic predisposition for hypothyroidism (a disease of the endocrine system), for the disease of von Willerbrand (a disorder of blood clotting), for persistence of the arterial canal (a congenital heart defect), or for certain skin conditions (atopia, flea allergy, pioderma…).

    Finally, like all large breed dogs, the dog German Shepherd may suffer from stomach inversion or twisting. That is why exercise after meals should be avoided.

    Care “German Shepherd”

    Dogs German shepherds they lose a lot of hair, and its annual molt, in spring and autumn, It is important. During these periods, the dog should be brushed daily to remove excess hair, avoid knots and air the skin. Outside, brushing two or three times a week with a suitable comb is recommended.

    Bathing is not recommended (except when the condition of the coat requires it), as this can weaken the waterproofing of the coat.

    Images “German Shepherd”

    The German Shepherd videos

    Type and recognitions:

    • FCI CLASSIFICATION:
    • Group :
    • Section : . .

    Federations:

    • FCI – Group 1 Herding dogs, Section 1 Sheepdogs
    • AKC – PASTORAGE
    • ANKC – Group 5 (working dogs)
    • CKC – Group 7 – Herding dogs
    • ​KC – Pastoral
    • NZKC – Working dog
    • UKC – Herding dogs


    FCI breed standard "German Shepherd"

    FCIFCI - German Shepherd
    Pastor

    Alternative names:

    1. German Shepherd Dog (English).
    2. Berger d’Alsace, berger alsacien, Chien-loup d’Alsace (French).
    3. (German).
    4. Lobo-da-alsácia (Portuguese).
    5. Pastor ovejero (español).

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    Polish Tatra Sheepdog (Tatra Shepherd Dog)
    Polonia FCI 252 - Sheepdogs

    Pastor de Tatras

    The Polish Tatra Sheepdog is intelligent, quiet and independent, loyal and protective.

    Content

    History

    The breed of dog Polish Tatra Sheepdog, It originated in the region of Podhale, in the area of the Tatra mountains of Poland, hence its name.

    The race lived the Polish mountains since thousands of years ago, but there is no exact date to record the start of the race. There are theories that suggest similar terraces that inhabited the mountains mixed together and from there arose the Polish Tatra Sheepdog.

    Other historians, They suggest that it was born from dogs imported by Phoenician traders from the East and probably came to Europe from Africa.. They also argue, that the Phoenicians used these dogs as merchandise to exchange for valuable products, as glass, Silver and tissues.

    As well, other historians recount that the Romans used in battles and also as guard of prisoners, and that the nobles used to use it as a companion and guard dog.

    Although there is much controversy regarding the origin of Polish Tatra Sheepdog, breeders of race in Poland, they assure that it comes from a Mastiff-type dog.

    Historically, the Polish Tatra Sheepdog has been very successful among pastors for various reasons, but one of them, and perhaps the most remarkable - in addition to its inteligencia-es the color of his cloak, that allowed shepherds to quickly identify it from a bear or a wolf, for example.

    It also, owners used to trim the dog's hair and use it like wool.

    While the grazing of sheep will be the most important task of this dog, Historically, It wasn't the only job I did.. As well, they used it as a personal guard dog, of factories and private in general property.

    But despite all these wonders that describe the Polish Tatra Sheepdog, After the world wars was on the verge of extinction.

    It was the Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI) who prevented that you happen starting in the year 1960 an exhaustive breeding program in order to avoid the extinction of the breed.

    Thanks to this action, the race was slowly stretching to far and wide throughout Europe, for the year 1981 the race was already present in Canada.

    Although it is currently bred more frequently and remains relatively stable, the Polish Tatra Sheepdog still known as a rare breed, It is estimated that there are only 3000 copies of the race around the world. Most are in Poland, they have with 600 registered copies, the if United States with 300 registered copies, and then countries like France, for example in the year 2003 registered 150 births this race.

    And in Poland, approximately 150 of those 600 specimens, are they still used for grazing.

    Physical characteristics

    The Polish Tatra Sheepdog, is a dog from large size, is very similar to the Newfoundland but completely white.

    The males they have a height to the cross ranging from 65 to 70 cm. and females -slightly smaller- they have a height ranging from 60 to 65 cm.. The weight is proportional to its size, but it is usually located 39 to 59 kg.

    In one head huge, with a wide barrel and slightly arched Vault but with well marked but not abrupt stop.

    Their eyes are showy and medium-sized, they transmit - by the general-una smart look, lively, the shape of the eyes is gently almendrada and gives us the feeling of that would sleep, transmits tenderness.

    The ears they have an average length and are triangular, fitted with long hair.

    The tail, planted at mid-height has a length that reaches at least the hock.

    The the mantle of the Pastor of Tatras, is of double layer. The subpelo, is dense and fluffy, and the outer layer is a fairly notorious long mane around the neck.

    Character and skills

    His instinct, through hundreds of years of ageing, was to protect livestock, reason why easily adopt a family as a herd if it were.

    It is a companion dog and very protective of their own (whether families or herds). It is not an attack dog, but perceived threats to the distance and try to scare it through intimidation, using as I support his strong bark.

    Although maintained similarities in appearance and temperament with at the Pyrenean Mountain Dog and with the Kuvasz (Hungarian). The Polish Tatra Sheepdog it is less distant than those two races mentioned, tends to be more attached to his offspring and is more attached to his own.

    The Polish Tatra Sheepdog, is a quiet dog, very powerful but aware of his strength shows sensitivity to the weakest (for example, children).

    Temperament is very balanced, It independent and autonomous but very easy to educate and always ready to learn.

    With children is, especially, cheerful and friendly. It will take care of them like its young, displaying its strong protection instinct backed by its history..

    Observations

    In the mountainous regions of Poland, where this precious dog usually lived, shepherds used to place an iron or spiked collar to protect it from wolves. It was a way to avoid bites that wolves usually allocated to the neck or throat of its prey. In the news, they still used kind of necklaces.

    In United States, the dog Polish Tatra Sheepdog it is considered a rare breed. And is not recognized by the American Kennel Club.

    Images “Polish Tatra Sheepdog”

    Videos “Polish Tatra Sheepdog”

    Type and recognitions:

    • FCI CLASSIFICATION:
    • Group :
    • Section : . .

    Federations:

    • FCI – Group 1 Herding dogs, Section 1 Sheepdogs
    • UKC – Herding dogs

    FCI breed standard "Polish Tatra Sheepdog (Tatra Shepherd Dog)"

    FCIFCI - Polish Tatra Sheepdog (Tatra Shepherd Dog)
    Pastor

    Alternative names:

    1. Tatra Mountain Sheepdog, Owczarek Tatrzański, Owczarek, Podhalański, Polski Owczarek, Podhalan, Tatra (English).
    2. Berger de Podhale (French).
    3. Tatra Schäferhund, Tatrahund, Tatra-Hirtenhund sowie Podhalaner (German).
    4. Polski Owczarek Podhalański (Portuguese).
    5. Pastor polaco de Podhale (español).

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    Croatian Sheepdog
    Croacia FCI 277 . Sheepdogs

    Croatian Sheepdog

    With a great instinct for working with the herd.

    Content

    History

    The Croatian Sheepdog It was described for the first time in 1374 by the Croatian bishop Peter Bichof. According to some sources, the breed was created in the eastern part of Slavonia, the vast agricultural plain of Croatia, to act as a guard and herding dog. Peter Bichof stated that the Croatian Sheepdog It was imported from the East by the Croats around the 7th century.

    It was the vet Stjepan Romic, considered the father of the race, who initiated the systematic breeding of the Croatian Sheepdog in 1935 en Djakovo (Croatia). His role was all the more important since he had previously carried out various investigations on the dog and had managed to unearth writings dating from various periods of the 18th century.. These documents describe the Croatian Sheepdog as it is known today.

    The breed was officially presented at 1949 in Zagreb (Croatia), and the first standard of the Croatian Sheepdog was written by Otto Rohr in 1951. He was recognized by the International Cynological Federation (FCI) in 1967, later for him United Kennel Kingdom (UKC) in 2006 and, finally, by the American Kennel Club (AKC) and Central Canine Society (SCC).

    Despite this recognition by the main canine organizations in the world, the Croatian Sheepdog has not really spread internationally: it is hardly seen outside of its home country and remains unknown to the general public. These may include, the Central Canine Society (Kennel Club inglés) just signed up 38 Croatian shepherds at the LOF (French Origin Book) between 2010 and 2016, an average of just 5 dogs a year.

    Physical characteristics

    The Croatian Sheepdog is a dog at the lower limit of medium size. Short hair on the head and limbs is the characteristic sign of the breed.. The head is quite light with a cone shape. The stop is poorly marked. The eyes are medium in size, macaroons, with a lively expression; the color goes from brown to black. The ears are triangular, raised or semi-raised, medium length and set slightly to the side. Straight ears are referable and cutting is not allowed. The tail is implanted a little high, with long thick hair. It is cut so that it does not have a length greater than 4 cm in adult error.

    • Fur: hair length is 7 to 14 cm on the spine. The face is always covered with short hairs. The ears have short hair on the outer face and long on the inner. The hair is relatively soft, wavy and even curly. The undercoat must be dense.
    • Color: predominantly black although some white spots on the throat or chest are admitted.
    • Size: of 40 to 50 cm..

    Character and skills

    The Croatian Sheepdog is lively and alert, without being nervous. They are also smart, brave and loyal.

    Very obedient, they are also exclusive: they only have one master, to which they remain very attached and whose attention they demand. In fact, it is necessary for its balance.

    Sheepdogs par excellence, has an innate sense of herding and is a very hardy dog. Some ranchers claim that you can knock down all the cattle just by saying their name, no need for further instructions. His approach to the herd is a bit tighter and harsher than that of other sheepdogs, but still very effective. It can bite the animals in its charge, but does not cause injury. This aggressive tendency can be easily worked on during training. It also has the defect of barking easily, especially if his master is absent, hence the importance of training him from a young age.

    The dog lives very well with children. Energetic and playful, the Croatian shepherd gets along wonderfully with them and lavishes affection on them. His extraordinary attachment predisposes him to protect them, even to overprotect them. Not just anyone can get close to them. On the other hand, being a dominant dog by nature, can generally only live with other animals (dogs, cats, etc.) if he is used to their company from a young age.

    Last, are among the dogs adapted to life in a flat, whenever they carry out intense daily activity. In fact, like all sheepdogs, the Croatian shepherd needs to learn and be stimulated mentally and physically. They have been bred to work with humans and, Therefore, have developed the ability to interact with them, making them a learning breed. If they lack activity, can become noisy and even destructive.

    Education

    The intelligence of Croatian Sheepdog, its desire to please its owner and its predisposition to work make it an easy breed to train. This workout should be both gentle and firm.

    Health

    The Croatian Sheepdog has robust health and is very resistant to disease, especially if you spend the nights in the shelter of aboxofdog.In fact, most of his health problems are due to injuries related towork.

    But, may be subject to certain canine diseases that more generally affectactive and energetic dogs:

    • Theknee patella luxation: the joint swells and becomes painful, with early appearance of acanine arthritis.Treatment can range from the occasional use of pain relievers to knee surgery. It is a common disorder inshepherds dogs, they are very active.
    • Thetorsion of the stomach: all dogs can be affected by this disease, but croatian shepherds, they areBig Dogsand they exercise a lot, they are particularly vulnerable.
    • Last, females may have difficulty giving birth. If so, this implies endangering not only the dog, but also to unborn puppies, it is usually necessary to perform a cesarean section under general anesthesia., an owner who wantsraise your bitchYou should think carefully before consulting themating offers.This is a decision that should not be taken lightly., for both financial and safety reasons.

    Life expectancy

    12 to 14 years

    Grooming

    All owners of a Croatian Sheepdog they should brush their dogs regularly to remove dead hair and detangle pups. During the moulting season (Spring and autumn), this brushing should be done even once a day.

    If your dog has gotten too dirty due to the weather and / or his activity, it is necessary to give him a bath. But, this should not be done at regular intervals, since the bath irritates the skin of the animal and removes the oil layer that protects its fur. So, the rule is to avoid bathing the dog, except when really necessary.

    It may also be necessary to trim the dog's nails. But, if your pet does his daily exercise, this should not be the case, because dirt or harder surfaces will naturally erode them.

    It also, do not forget to deworm and vaccinate your dog regularly. How your dog is often outdoors for long periods of time, and is in frequent contact with other dogs and animals, are more likely to come into contact with many bacteria and viruses.

    Price

    The price of a puppy Croatian Sheepdog is usually between 800 and 1000 EUR.

    Characteristics "Croatian Sheepdog"

    Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a dog of the breed "Croatian Sheepdog" you know certain factors. Not all breeds of dogs are apt to live in an apartment, you must take into account his character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

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    Type and recognitions:

    • FCI CLASSIFICATION:
    • Group :
    • Section : . .

    Federations:

    • FCI
    • UKC
    • AKC

    FCI breed standard "Croatian Sheepdog"

    FCIFCI - Croatian Sheepdog
    Pastor

    Alternative names:

    1. Hrvatski ovčar, Kroatischer Schäferhund (English).
    2. Berger de Croatie (French).
    3. Kroatischer Schäferhund (German).
    4. Hrvatski Ovčar (Portuguese).
    5. Perro de pastor croata (español).

    Photo:

    croatian sheepdog Mawlch Gera by Michala Mračková / Public domain

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    White Swiss Shepherd Dog
    Suiza FCI 347 - Sheepdogs.

    Pastor Blanco Suizo

    The White Swiss Shepherd Dog is a dog of great temperament, attentive and guardian and never nervous.

    Content

    History

    The White Swiss Shepherd Dog a breed of dog is pastor of Swiss origin. Share origins with the German Shepherd, but has been recognized provisionally as a breed apart by the FCI.

    The 3 in April of 1899, the first dog German Shepherd, as we know it today, It was officially registered. This dog was a completely white male which was used by ranchers and sheepherders for grazing because it was very easy to distinguish it from the wolves.

    The first news about a hatchery White Swiss Shepherd Dog are earlier than the year 1900 and its origin is found in Alsace-Lorraine, to be more exact in the Royal Court of the Habsburgs. In their enclosure they had a kennel of purebred white shepherds.

    After the creation of the race German Shepherd, all colors were accepted. It was in the first decades of the 20th century, When were the white copies excluded, Therefore, persecuted and almost wiped out in Europe.

    Back in the years 70, Switzerland had imported the first specimens of white shepherds, while in Germany - as we said above- as these dogs did not meet the standard of the German Shepherd as we know it today, White shepherds were almost wiped out.

    The first Club of White Swiss Shepherd Dog was founded in the decade of 1970 in United States. For which reason, the race returned to appear in Europe. At first in Switzerland and Denmark, and later in Germany. Little by little, European Cynological societies began to open their stud books for the White Swiss Shepherd Dog.

    A dog born in 1966, it was the first White Swiss Shepherd Dog which was registered in Europe, in Switzerland.

    The breed was recognized in Switzerland of 1991, followed by the Netherlands in 1992. Czech Republic, Austria and Denmark, They also recognized the breed.

    Switzerland, Despite the low popularity of this breed, He recovered the race and also assumed the same motherhood, so in the 26 in November of the year 2002 the Federation Cynologique Internationale acknowledged - on a provisional basis- to the White Swiss Shepherd Dog, as a separate breed.

    Physical characteristics

    The White Swiss Shepherd Dog, to the naked eye and as far as the physical, He is a German Shepherd in all rule, It is only slightly more elongated and less angular.

    According to him standard, the White Swiss Shepherd Dog, is a dog from size medium, powerful, muscular and robust. According to the standard, males must have a tall cross ranging from 60 to 66 cm., females are slightly smaller their stature is about 55 to 61 cm..

    It has the ears large, straight and triangular. The tail scimitar-shaped, is low and at rest reaches the Hock.

    It is the eyes they are fed and slightly oblique tend to be of color dark brown or purplish-brown fire.

    And perhaps, The most outstanding feature of this beautiful dog is its white mantle of double layer and medium long length. Dense and well separated hair.

    The colour of the mantle is white. The nose, the lips and pads are absolutely black.

    In the year 1933, the white color of the coat was pointed out as a defect that had to be eliminated by the German Shepherd Club of Germany, of America and Canada.

    There are even theories, in the news, that continues to hold the white color is due to a physical defect, to a pathology but that type of theory lacks foundation and the first proof of it, It is a very healthy dog.

    Its white color comes from a simple recessive gene that both parents must be carriers to continue the color, that is the reality.

    Character and skills

    The German Shepherd, not only the color of the mantle but also in its character differ.

    While it is a dog of great temperament he displays never nervous, But if attentive and vigilant. It tends to be suspicious with strangers but never aggressive.

    It is a dog friendly, very Intelligent and learn with ease.

    It´s fair to his family and -as we said- he can be cautious with strangers, but should never show shy or fearful behavior and less aggressiveness. Some people think that the Arctic Wolf mixed with the breed, and that's where his caution comes from, but that only a legend.

    It is a balanced dog, very good watchdog and has even been trained as a guide dog on occasion.

    It is a great companion for everything physical exercise that is its scope, loves to play with sticks, balls, run…

    While its origin speaks of a shepherd dog, today despite the fact that in some countries it is still used in such tasks, is widely accepted as a companion dog.

    It adapts perfectly to the home, fond of children but remember that need exercise like all dogs, This always necessary if we want to keep happy balanced our puppies. Let's not forget that he is a working dog that needs physical and mental challenges.

    The White Swiss Shepherd Dog gets along well with other dogs and, as well, It is usually good in agility competitions, search, rescue and obedience. They are also used as assistance dogs.

    The character of White Swiss Shepherd Dog it is softer than the German Shepherd, But if you take genius to protect his family, will not hesitate it to.

    White Swiss Shepherd Dog Images

    White Swiss Shepherd Dog videos

    Type and recognitions:

    • FCI CLASSIFICATION:
    • Group :
    • Section : . .

    Federations:

    • FCI – Group 1 Herding dogs, Section 1 Sheepdogs
    • ANKC – Group 5 (working dogs)
    • ​KC – Pastoral
    • NZKC – Working dog


    FCI breed standard "White Swiss Shepherd Dog"

    FCIFCI - White Swiss Shepherd Dog
    Pastor

    Alternative names:

    1. Berger Blanc Suisse, White German Shepherd (English).
    2. berger blanc (French).
    3. Berger Blanc Suisse (German).
    4. Pastor branco suíço (Portuguese).
    5. Perro de pastor suizo blanco (español).

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    Beauceron
    Francia FCI 44 . Sheepdogs

    Pastor de Beauce

    The Beauceron It is one of the best job in the world dogs.

    Content

    History

    The Beauceron, It is a breed of dog originating in the French Brie region; This race is quite old and well known in France.

    True that the canine world, the history of this beautiful dog is not of the noveladas. The Beauceron, It was presented for the first time in a dogshow in the year 1897, but the race is actually quite old.

    The specimens of Beauceron older, the first to set foot on our land, they had hard and coarse hair, but the characteristic that stood out the most was his marked aggressiveness.

    With the passage of time, Select mediantes, breeders have succeeded in lowering the level of aggressiveness, but even so, it is not an easy dog ​​to train, it retains certain ferocious traits.

    At first the Beauceron It was used to hunt wild boar but later developed the ability to guide herds, being able to defend it from any attack by a predator; is a great guardian.

    Physical characteristics

    The Beauceron, often confused with the Dobermann due to the combination of color bronze and fire of his cloak. This coincides with the fact that the most widespread variety of the Beauceron.

    Despite the similarity in the colors of the coat, it has many differences with him Dobermann, the Beauceron It is a dog with a more rustic and robust structure, the hair is also different and the tail does not cut.

    Another differential characteristic, It is that the hind legs should stand double spur. This is one distinctive feature of the race.

    The height males will of 65 to 70 cm and the females of 61 to 68 cm.. The approximate weight is between 40 and 50 kg. Females tend to be lighter.

    It has a aspect rustic, Wolf. Long head and flat, the muzzle and skull have the same length, dark eyes to harmonize with the fur, their ears hang naturally if they have not been cut.

    They have the long neck, the elongated body and deep chest. Their limbs are strong.

    The Beauceron has two layers of hair, the exterior is strong, thick, thick and smooth (Although they tend to present ripples around the neck). Internal hair layer is more dense and velvety, color grey mouse and must not be seen through the upper layer.

    The colors supported are the black and tan and the Harlequin.

    Character and skills

    According to experts, It one of the best job in the world dogs, and all dogs of pastor is one who is more prepared for the defense.

    Then, his character allows you to carry out defense, foster, useful but it is good to take into account that it is not a dog to be in the hands of inexperienced or too permissive.

    He has a very independent character and a strong instinct for responsibility that allows him to make his own decisions. If he notices the slightest insecurity in his master, he will not take long and seconds to make the decisions himself..

    With the strangers will be very suspicious, for this reason it is very important that the owner of the dog can control it because if it feels minimally intimidated it can be very biting.

    If you receive adequate training and education will be an excellent companion.

    Observations

    Before purchasing a copy of Beauceron, We must take into account that it is not an easy dog. The person who decides to have a copy of this breed as a pet should be able to train him and raise him with full security.

    The dog needs to know who is charge, It is also important to understand that all members of the family are heads of the herd, because if you can not pass it only obey one person whom he recognizes as head of the herd and the rest of the family will ignore or or them even try to impose.

    Images “Beauceron”

    Videos “Beauceron”

    Characteristics "Beauceron"

    Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a dog of the breed "Beauceron" you know certain factors. Not all breeds of dogs are apt to live in an apartment, you must take into account his character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

    Adaptation ⓘ

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    Rated 2.0 out of 5
    2.0 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

    Intelligence ⓘ

    Rated 5.0 out of 5
    5.0 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

    Versatility ⓘ

    Rated 5.0 out of 5
    5.0 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

    Child friendly ⓘ

    Rated 3.0 out of 5
    3.0 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

    Surveillance ⓘ

    Rated 4.0 out of 5
    4.0 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

    joy ⓘ

    Rated 5.0 out of 5
    5.0 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

    Type and recognitions:

    • FCI CLASSIFICATION:
    • Group :
    • Section : . .

    Federations:

    • FCI
    • AKC
    • ​KC
    • UKC

    FCI breed standard "Beauceron"

    FCIFCI - Beauceron
    Pastor

    Alternative names:

    • Alternative names: French Shorthaired Shepherd / Beauce Shepherd / Berger de Beauce / Bas Rouge (Red Stocking)

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    Berger Picard
    Francia FCI 176 . Sheepdogs

    Berger Picard

    The picardy shepherd dog it is a little-known breed despite all its qualities

    Content

    History

    The origins of the Picardy Sheepdog are ancient (is represented in a painting from the 8th century) and, However, there is no certain news of race before the year 1899, when he first appeared at an exhibition (where she was not judged because nobody knew her). The first French club for the protection of the breed did not appear until the year 1955.

    Physical characteristics

    It is a dog of medium to large dimensions, well proportioned, rustic looking yet elegant, characterized by its primitive shapes and rough hair. The head is provided with the size; the stop is very light and the forehead, slightly convex. The nose is strong and not too long, It should not end in a point. The nasal spout is straight. He has fine mustaches and a nice beard.

    Ears are inserted high, they are wide at the base and their bearing is upright, with the tip forward. The eyes are more or less dark, depending on the color of the coat. The neck is strong and muscular. The thorax, alto. The total length of the trunk is slightly greater than the height at the withers. The tail reaches to the hock. At rest the dog carries it low, and on the move, highest; forms a slight curve at the tip.

    Fur: hard, rough, of 5 to 6 cm length.

    Color: grey, dark grey, grey blue, gray red, dark or light leonado, light dark, no white markings to stand out.

    Size: males, of 60 to 65 cm.; females, of 55 to 60 cm..

    Character and skills

    The picardy shepherd dog He is very happy and playful as a family, especially with the children, while he is rather reserved with strangers. It is very faithful to its owner, whom you would like to be constantly next to and to whom you show your affection in every possible way.

    It is much less nervous than other sheepdogs. It is equipped for all guard functions, defense and utility. It is very versatile, which means it is suitable for any task, either as a pastor, either guardian, and able to adapt to being a simple companion dog.
    It is a pity that it does not stand out from the aesthetic point of view, which does not favor its diffusion, because it has one of the safest and most balanced characters known, provided it is in the hands of a firm and determined owner.

    Type and recognitions:

    • FCI CLASSIFICATION:
    • Group :
    • Section : . .

    Federations:

    • FCI ,
    • AKC ,
    • CKC ,
    • UKC

    FCI breed standard "Berger Picard"

    FCIFCI - Berger Picard
    Pastor

    Alternative names:

    1. Berger picard, Picard, Picardy Shepherd, Picardy Sheepdog (English).
    2. Berger picard, Picard (French).
    3. Berger de Picardie, PICARDIE-SCHÄFERHUND (German).
    4. Pastor-da-picardia, Berger Picard (Portuguese).
    5. Berger Picard, Berger de Picardie (español).

    Photo:

    Berger Picard, charcoal fawn (fawn) by I follow / Public domain