Seychelles Black Parrot
Coracopsis barklyi

Seychelles Black Parrot

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description:

35-40 cm. length and 132-153 g. of weight.

The Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi) They have a pale brown, less black than the plumage Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra), but gray / blue reflections in the outer layers of the primary feathers; pale brown patches with slight pale striae crown.

The tone becomes slightly paler in uppertail-coverts.

The underparts They are pale grayish brown. We can see some short lines in throat, while the chest and the belly show a diffuse pale obstruction. The tail is pale-grey.
The bill dark gray becomes paler during the breeding season. The eyes are dark brown, surrounded by a naked orbital gray area. Legs and feet are dark gray to bluish gray.

Both sexes are very similar.

Youth colorization:

Immature paler than adults with a yellowish tinge bill and tips of the feathers tail with pale gray.

Taxonomic status:

Formerly a subspecies of Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra), originating from Madagascar. Parrots Gender Coracopsis only found in the Western Indian Ocean.

Habitat:

Seychelles Black Parrot

The Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi) inhabits native and mixed woodland in Praslin, (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). It is also found in cultivated areas and residential areas with gardens, habitats that are suitable feed (A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). They are usually seen alone or in pairs.

Reproduction:

Their main breeding areas They are in a forest dominated by endemic palms coco de mer (Lodoicea maldivica). The tree species nests in cavities primarily in mer coconut dead, but also registered that nests in cavities and other palms living trees broadleaf (Reuleaux et al. 2014-), with reproductive activity October to March (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, Reuleaux et al. 2014-). Preferred deep cavities of hollow logs of L. maldivica with a dense cover canopy over the entrance (Reuleaux et al. 2014-). The reproductive activity It fluctuates widely between years (A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). In a study, the 53% of nests they were successful in 36 nesting attempts, with a 57% incipient year survival (Reuleaux et al. 2014-).

Food:

The Seychelles Black Parrot It feeds on a variety of plant species, most of which are endemic and native (Reuleaux et al. 2014b), mainly from the fruit pulp, seeds and buds, with occasional observations feeding on leaves, flowers, crusts and scale insects (Reuleaux et al. 2014b).

Distribution:

Extending its range (breeding / resident): 70 km2

The Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi) reside in Praslin, with occasional records in Curieuse (- 1 km to the North of Praslin), Seychelles (Reuleaux et al. 2013).

no individual was detected in curious during the specific counts for four days and during extra field work, so it is assumed that there is no resident population there (Reuleaux et al. 2013).

Conservation:


Vulnerable


• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : 340-600 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

This newly divided species is listed as Vulnerable because, but it appears to be stable or possibly increasing, their population is still very small, and therefore it is at risk of stochastic events and human impacts.

Justification of the population

Count surveys conducted in Praslin points in 2010 and 2011 They found a density of 0.14-0.24 individuals / ha, as resultadi giving an estimate of the Total population 520-900 individuals (confidence intervals 95%) obtained through distance sampling methodology (Reuleaux et al. 2013). After reviewing recent survey results, Rocamora and Laboudallon (2013) estimated total breeding population less than 200 couples, I am suggesting that there could be less than 400 mature individuals. Based on these data, it is assumed that there 340-600 mature individuals in the population.

Justification trend

They suspected that the population is stable the absence of evidence of any reduction or immediate threat. It is believed that the species has increased at least until the beginning of the century, but it is unclear if it is still increasing (Reuleaux et al. 2013, Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013).

Threats

It is believed that the decline of Seychelles Black Parrot before age 60 It was mainly due to predation by introduced rats and hunting conducted by settlers and farmers (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Other causes of increased mortality include capture as pets and trade, and bycatch when targeting other species.

The most serious current threats for the species include diseases such as disease Beak and feather, continuous nest predation by rats and cats, competition from introduced species of birds for food and nesting sites, Poaching of their primary nesting tree (coco de mer), and habitat destruction caused by fires, with potential threats including persecution, pesticides, bats and kinship networks (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

The forest fires They may represent the most serious threat to the species, with records since the beginning of the decade 1980 showing that approximately every 10 years a major fire occurs (The Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014). The availability of nesting cavities can be a limiting factor in years of very active reproduction, some females occupying suboptimal cavities.

Collection sea ​​coconuts probably reduce the area of ​​palm forest long term.

The presence of the Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) in Mahe, one of which is registered Praslin, increases the risk of disease.

The impacts of introduced species causing nest predation and competition for nesting sites can not be serious enough to limit the population; However, mice are increasing in Praslin.

The crazy ants or zanconas ants (anoplolepis gracilipes) not appear to have impacted the species so far, probably because they use dead palms, where the appropriate cavities Seychelles Black Parrot.

Chicks predation by cats and dogs is probably limited, and post-harvest mortality is not currently a major concern. The persecution of the species by farmers is considered a minor threat.

Other risk factors for the species include their low genetic diversity and unexplained large fluctuations in reproductive activity of one station to another (Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

Conservation actions

Conservation actions underway

The species is protected by law from 1966 (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Endemic palms have been protected from 1991, and the restoration of native palm forest on Praslin and Curieuse is underway. The species is found in the Praslin National Park, created in 1979, and Vallée de Mai It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1983. The Background islas Ferdinand curious y They are administered as nature reserves, but no official protection. Between 1983 and 2005 boxes were provided artificial nesting (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016).

In Vallée de Mai there is a firewall around the core breeding, but it is not guaranteed to work in the event of a large fire that can not be contained quickly (The Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014), However, It has only proved partially effective when a fire destroyed several hectares of breeding habitat high quality 2010 (A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). Poaching coco de mer nuts it being countered with increased security and a program regeneration, and they have carried out awareness activities to reduce the persecution by farmers. Measures are being taken to eradicate the presence of the Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and also they are conducting tests for the virus Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease Virus (The Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

In 2009 a national plan of action was drawn up for the species, It is including plans to introduce the species Silhouette, along with captive breeding Frégate North Island there, if you can carry out a proper restoration and habitat management (reviewed by Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Other conservation identified for this species include control of introduced, the renovation and improvement of nests, monitoring the population and public awareness campaigns (reviewed by Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Analysis by statistical models is provided for 2014, after annual counts have been made for three years without interruption, and conclusions on the trend of the species will be published from 1982 (G. Rocamora in litt. 2014). Repeating the remote sampling survey is scheduled at intervals 5-10 years (A. REuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Carry out further surveys to get a more accurate estimate population size and to monitor the demographic trend. Conduct research on the impacts of potential threats. Protect additional areas of native forest of palms. Suitable restore native habitats. Continue awareness activities to eliminate any residual persecution.

"Seychelles Black Parrot" in captivity:

This species is protected by law from 1966. No copy of Seychelles Black Parrot It should be kept in captivity, unless it were under a controlled breeding program to bird species reinstate their habitat.

Alternative names:

Seychelles Black Parrot, Seychelles Lesser Vasa Parrot, Seychelles Parrot (English).
Vasa des Seychelles, Vaza des Seychelles (French).
Seychellenpapagei (German).
Seychelles Black Parrot (Portuguese).
Loro de Seychelles (Spanish).


Scientific classification:

Newton Edward
Newton Edward

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Coracopsis
Scientific name: Coracopsis barklyi
Citation: Newton, E, 1867
Protonimo: Coracopsis barklyi

Images “Seychelles Black Parrot”:

Videos "Seychelles Black Parrot"

Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Coracopsis barklyi (=Coracopsis nigra barklyi) by Joseph Wolf [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Coracopsis barklyi By Post of Seychelles ([1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Black Parrot
Coracopsis nigra

Black Parrot

Black Parrot

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description

35 - 40 cm. length and a weight between 215 and 315 gr.

The plumage of the Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra) It, usually, blackish brown (iridescent green Sheen during the breeding season) with inconspicuous grayish color marks in undertail- coverts and gray in vane external to the primary.

Bottom of flight feathers pale grey. Upper, the tail brown-black color; undertail, light grey: subterminal band Dark.

The bill color horn, more off-white to modify the moult; irises dark brown: periophthalmic ring grey-brown (does not reach the peak); legs dark brown.

Sound of the Black Parrot ✩ ✩.

Without sexual dimorphism.

Immature paler than adults with pale undertail- coverts and yellowish tint in the bill; Tips of the feathers of the tail pale grey.

Subspecies description

  • Coracopsis nigra libs

    (Bangs, 1927) – Paler and with the underparts Browner that nominal species; back bluish grey tinted. No dark subterminal band on the tail.

  • Coracopsis nigra nigra

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – Nominal species

  • Coracopsis nigra sibilans

    (Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, 1885) – Smaller, about 30 cm., and paler than the nominal species. Chocolate color replaces the nominal blackish brown. No grey in the vane the primary external

Habitat:

The Black Parrot are resident with some movements of foraging day.

It is found in a wide variety of forests and savanna areas, including ecosystems modified by man, wooded land of cities and towns, as well as primary forests, from the level of the sea up to 2,050 m altitude.

You can see more on the dense forests, swamp forest (including mangroves) and scrublands, that the Vasa Parrot, in order to avoid large areas of forests.

Usually seen in small noisy groups, either flying or sitting on the tops of the trees; active on moonlit nights.

In Seychelles, However, the Black Parrot seldom form flocks and in general you seen alone or in pairs, except when the food, locally, they are abundant.

Is not known to form mixed flocks with the Vasa Parrot.

Reproduction:

Nest in the hollow trunk of tree or in a branch, usually above the 15 m.

Breeding probably from November to February.

Clutch of 2 - 8 eggs.

Food:

The Black Parrot they feed on seed, berries, fruits and nuts; more fruit-eating bats that the Vasa Parrot.

Specific items reported on food include fruits of Afzelia bijuga and Chassalia, seeds of Cinnamosma fragrans, flowers of Symphonia and some types of leaves.

In Madagascar, According to sources, It has reported consumption of Insect Galls on the part of the Black Parrot.

They attack crops and in the Comoros they are real pests in cocoa plantations, feeding on immature pods.

The main food of the population of Praslin include: Verschaffeltia splendida, Averrhoa bilimbi, Phoenicophorium borsigianum, Deckenia nobilis, Chrysobalanus icaco and Ficus rubra.

Distribution:

Endemic of Madagascar, The Comoros archipelago (Grand Comore and Anjouan) and Praslin island (Seychelles), where it was possibly introduced.

Distribution of subspecies

  • Coracopsis nigra libs

    (Bangs, 1927) – Can be found in the West of Madagascar.

  • Coracopsis nigra nigra

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – Nominal species

Conservation:


Status


• Current red list of UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The species that are found in Madagascar and the Comoros they are generally described as common.

Officially treated as pests in Madagascar where the Black Parrot they are persecuted because of the damage caused in crops; Also hunted as food and as domestic fowl.

Despite their intense persecution, apparently they are not at risk and are distributed in many protected areas of Madagascar.

The size of the world's population has not been quantified.

The subspecies of the Praslin island (Seychelles), found in the The Valle de Mai nature reserve, is located in critical condition (probably less than 100 birds). Competition for nesting sites with the Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) can be one of the threats of the remaining birds.

The “Black Parrot” in captivity:

It is possible to keep them in community with its kind, but outside the breeding period. At the beginning you can be shy. It is a Active Parrot and nervous, generally Extrovert Once accustomed to people and environment, tends to be entrusted, Although depends on also his way of breeding enough (natural or by hand) and earlier experiences.

As a pet can be a magnificent company, loving, playful and very smart.

With regard to its longevity, sources they indicate that a sample lived 34.1 years in captivity.

Alternative names:

Black Parrot, Lesser Vasa Parrot, Lesser Vasa-Parrot (English).
Vaza noir, Perroquet noir (French).
Rabenpapagei (German).
Papagaio preto (Portuguese).
Loro Negro (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Coracopsis
Scientific name: Coracopsis nigra
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protonimo: Psittacus niger

Images “Black Parrot”:

————————————————————————————————

“Black Parrot” (Coracopsis nigra)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Loromania

Photos:

(1) – Madeira_botanischer_garten_Coracopsis_nigra By Hedwig Storch (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Lesser Vasa Parrot (also known as the Black Parrot). Two in a cage with a nestbox By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as pic-264) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Lesser vasa parrot (coracopsis nigra) in Anjajavy Forest, Madagascar By Charlesjsharp (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Lesser Vasa Parrot or Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra); picture taken at Mangily, Western Madagascar By Axel Strauss (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Male Lesser Vasa Parrot in an aviary at Tropical Birdland, Leicestershire, England By Snowmanradio (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Mike Nelson (Xeno-canto)

Greenfinch
Chloris chloris

Verderón

The plumage of the Greenfinch It is a striking green, more intense in the breeding season, with the sides of the tail and the obispillo, yellow..

It is a bird which fits easily in captivity.

His Twitter is very articulated and intercalates some typical call notes, It is punctuated by a sustained nose whistle, It seems as if were produced by a forced inspiration. It also mimics the songs of other birds.

This species is found mostly in areas open to the presence of trees, as for example clear forest, huertas, cereal crops, Gardens, … It can be seen frequently in areas with human presence.
This species is present from sea level up to the 1. 900metros, Although the most commonly found among 0-800 m.

They are gradually increasing populations of this species due to the adjustment to urbanized areas.

It is one of the 10 species with greater distribution in Spain.

In captivity a couple needs at least one cage of a meter in length or greater. It is not good to stay in a smaller space because aggression problems may occur between them.

Food almost entirely seeds, wild fruits and berries.

Sources:

Wilkipedia
cinerea.org