Indian python
- Python molurus

The Indian python it is the dream snake for many terrarium keepers. His attractive appearance, its imposing size and its temperament, generally quiet, contribute significantly to this popularity.
Indian python
Indian python (Python molurus molurus) at the San Diego Zoo, EE.UU. – Tigerpython, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Content

Origin / Distribution

The Indian python (Python molurus) stretches across the lower half of the Asian continent. The western limit of the species is believed to be the Indus Valley. It can extend to the north, in Quingchuan county of Sichuan province (China), and to the south, in Borneo.

The Indian python appears to be absent from the Malay Peninsula. It has not yet been determined whether the populations scattered across several of the smaller islands are native or feral populations. (escaped pets).

There are two recognized subspecies of Python molurus that are separated by their geographical distribution area and by certain physical characteristics:

  • Python molurus bivittatus, (burmese python) Kuhl, 1820. The larger of the two. thought to range from Myanmar east through South Asia to China and Indonesia. It is not present on the island of Sumatra. Introduced specimens have been seen in the Florida Everglades.
  • Python molurus molurus (Linnaeus, 1758). She is native to India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka y Nepal.

  • Characteristics / Appearance

    The Indian python splits into two recognized subspecies, that can be distinguished by their physical characteristics. The burmese pythons, P. molurus bivitatus, They can reach a length of about 7,6 m (25 feet), and can weigh up to 137 kg (300 pounds). The Indian python, P. molurus molurus, smaller, reaching a maximum of 6,4 m (21 feet) of length and a weight of 91 kg (200 pounds). The skins of both subspecies are marked with a mosaic-like rectangular pattern that runs the entire length of the animal.. P. molurus bivitatus has a darker color, with shades of brown and dark cream colored rectangles stretching out on a black background. This subspecies is also characterized by an arrow-shaped mark present on the top of the head., which starts the pattern. P. molurus molurus has similar markings with light brown and tan rectangles set against a typically cream background. P. molurus molurus he only has a partial arrow-shaped mark on the top of his head. Each scale of P. molurus molurus is one color.

    The Indian python it is dimorphic, being the females of both subspecies longer and heavier than the males. Males have cloacal spurs., or vestigial limbs, larger than females. The cloacal spurs are two projections, one on each side of the anal opening, which are believed to be extensions of the hind limbs.

    Habitat

    The Indian python found in a variety of habitats including tropical forests, river valleys, forests, scrub, grassy swamps and semi rocky foothills. They are usually found in habitats with areas that can provide sufficient cover. This species is never found very far from water sources and seems to prefer very humid terrain..

    Behavior

    Indian python
    Indian python, Python molurus molurus, Family: Boidae, Location: Germany, Stuttgart, Zoo Garden – Holger Krisp, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    The Indian python is a solitary species. Mating is the only time these snakes are commonly found in pairs.. The Indian python usually moves only when food is scarce or when threatened. They can stalk their prey, first locating them by their scent or sensing the body heat of the prey with their thermal pits, and then following the trail. These snakes are mainly found on the ground, but sometimes they climb trees. The Indian python also often found in or near water. They are expert swimmers and can remain submerged without breathing for up to thirty minutes at a time.. During the colder months, starting in October and ending in February, the Indian python remains hidden and usually enters a brief period of hibernation until the temperature rises again.

    Developing

    the breeding of Indian python it is precocial when it is born. They become independent shortly after hatching.. They reach sexual maturity between 2 and 3 years of age, as long as they have the right body weight.

    Reproduction

    The Indian python reaches sexual maturity between 2-3 years of age, as long as you have the right body weight. At that time the courtship behavior can begin. During courtship, the male surrounds the female with his body and runs his tongue repeatedly over her head and body. Once they line their sewers, the male uses his vestigial legs to massage the female and stimulate her. Next, the female raises her tail for the male to insert a hemipenis (has two) in the female's cloaca. This process lasts between 5 and 30 minutes. About 3-4 months later, the female lays up 100 eggs, each weighing up to 207 g.. Right now, the female often coils around the eggs to prepare for the incubation period. Incubation lasts between 2 and 3 months.

    during incubation, the female of Indian python uses muscle contractions “shaking chills” to raise your body temperature slightly above the temperature of the surrounding air. It is very rare for the mother to abandon the eggs during incubation.. Once the eggs hatch, pups quickly become independent.

    Food

    The Indian python is carnivorous. Their diet consists mainly of live prey. Their staple foods are rodents and other mammals.. A small part of their diet consists of birds, amphibians and reptiles. when looking for food, the Indian python stalk its prey, ambush or carrion. These snakes have very poor eyesight. To make up for this, the species has a highly developed sense of smell, and heat pits within each scale along the upper lip, that feel the heat of the nearby prey. The Indian python kills its prey by biting and constricting it until it suffocates. Then they swallow the prey whole. To accomplish the feat of swallowing prey, it dislocates its jaw and stretches its highly elastic skin around the prey.. This allows these snakes to swallow food much larger than their own heads.. In cases of scavenging there is no constriction of the prey

    Life expectancy

    Half life in captivity 15,8 years

    Threats to the species

    State of conservation ⓘ


    Status Minor Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

    The Indian python (Python molurus) It is listed by the IUCN as low risk., near-threatened. Since the 14 in June of 1976, P. molurus is listed by the United States ESA as endangered throughout its range. The subspecies P. molurus molurus is listed as endangered in Appendix I of CITES. Other subspecies of P. molurus are included in Appendix II, Like all other species of Pythonidae.

    There is a large number of exports for the pet trade. The skin of the Indian python is highly valued in the fashion industry due to its exotic appearance. In its native range it is also hunted as a food source.

    The "Indian python" in captivity

    albino indian python
    Indian python bee – Xevi VFlickr

    The Indian python it is the dream snake for many terrarium keepers. His attractive appearance, its imposing size and its temperament, generally quiet, contribute significantly to this popularity.

    This species is listed in Appendix A of the European Species Protection Ordinance and you can't have it without permission. Many countries have also created legal breeding requirements so that the Indian python, as potentially dangerous wild animals, is cared for properly and competently and do not pose a danger to the public.

    The terrarium

    The most important thing is that the host enclosure contains the snake safely. After all, post requirements are less important once the snake has disappeared into that hole in the wall behind the washing machine because you forgot to secure it properly.

    The size of the terrarium should be large enough to allow the snake a reasonable amount of movement., but small enough to allow precise temperature and humidity control. The Indian python it is a terrestrial snake that spends most of its time on the ground, so the floor space of your enclosure will be more important to the animal than the height of the cage.

    A brood of Indian python You will need the space equivalent of a reptile terrarium of 40 litres. Larger individuals will need more space, of course. an animal of 90 kg will need a floor space of at least 250 cm x 120 cm.. I recommend that the enclosure have a floor space equivalent to four to six times the area of ​​the snake itself when in a flat coil. The cage should also have a door that allows easy access and can be closed safely.. A glass or plexiglass window is also important to be able to see. Some ventilation is desirable., although not as much as you might initially think. Heat and moisture are easily lost through the vents, especially those in the upper part of the enclosure. Small vents located on the sides of the cage will allow for proper air exchange.

    Timber, plastic and glass are acceptable materials for terrarium construction. Enclosures constructed of ABS plastic can be used, that have a smooth, nonporous finish that allows for easy cleaning and sterilization. Snake habitat products can make this difficult, so sometimes simplicity is the best option. All corners and edges must be rounded, so there are no hard-to-clean areas. Terrariums are light, have large tempered glass viewing areas and, the best of all, someone has already done. Regular and spot cleaning with proper reptile cleaning supplies is required.

    Substratum

    There are several decent substrates for snakes available. It is virtually impossible to provide a naturalistic vivarium for a large ball python., unless the strongest materials are used. Substrates are generally selected for utility rather than aesthetics. Newspaper is absorbent, fairly sterile and easy to get. Various woods are also acceptable, chips and crushed substrate products, although they tend to get dirty in humid environments.

    Heating and lighting

    The Indian python prefer temperatures of about 26 Celsius degrees. Slightly cooler temperatures are allowed at night. In fact, cooler night temperatures are essential for the breeding of the Indian python, in case you want to undertake this task.

    Since the Indian python requires temperatures above what we consider comfortable in our homes, it is necessary to increase the temperature of the enclosure with a supplementary heat source. This heat can be provided in various ways. It is preferable to use a heating pad, like the Zilla heating pad, or heat tape under the enclosure. Heating pads or under-enclosure heaters are available at many pet stores that carry supplies for reptiles.. Provide safe and even heating for the smallest rooms. Thermal tape is also available and serves the same purpose, although it allows more flexibility to heat larger areas more economically. There are also various types of heat lamps for snakes., that are effective. There are many types of reptile heat lamps and accessories to choose from..

    However, it is important to give the snake some option to determine its own temperature. In nature, the animal could thermoregulate by moving freely between warmer and cooler zones. These options are limited in captivity, but by proper heater placement, it is possible to give the snake some control over its own temperature. Must have a hot side and a cold side. The hot side is specific to each species. Maximum thermal gradient can be obtained by placing the heater at one end of the enclosure rather than in the center. The snake will get hotter closer to the heater and will get cooler as the distance from the heater increases. This will give the snake a greater range of options to regulate its own temperature..

    It should be noted that the heater has two purposes. Provides a warm zone for the snake to increase its body temperature, but it also provides heat that increases the ambient temperature of the enclosure. Depending on the type, the size and construction of the terrarium, the heat loss from the cage and the temperature of the air outside the cage, the heater may need to be much hotter than the average temperature of the enclosure itself. This is cause for alarm for many newbies. It is perfectly acceptable to have a temperature of 38 degrees Celsius or more directly above (or below) from the heat source if this is necessary to maintain the desired room temperature. However, always make sure the snake can retreat to a cooler area when it sees fit.

    The room temperature can be regulated in several ways. In the first and most primitive, temperature can be controlled by initially selecting a heater with a wattage that provides the acceptable amount of heat. If the environmental conditions outside the enclosure are constant and the power of the heater is the same, the temperature inside the cage should also be. It is difficult to select a heater with exactly the necessary heat output, and the constant conditions outside the terrarium are not always as constant as they could be. A rheostat or dimmer switch can adjust the heat output of a heater by adjusting the power input, the other problem can be overcome by using a controller with a feedback system.

    Since a thermostat monitors the temperature of the enclosure and activates the heater to add heat when appropriate, is by far the best method for controlling cage temperature. There are two types of thermostats on the market for use in animal related applications. Conventional on/off type works like your home thermostat; senses when the temperature has dropped below a certain level and directs the heater to add heat until the set temperature is reached, such as the Zilla Terrarium Reptile Habitat and Heat Controller. A proportional thermostat is much like a rheostat with a feedback system.. Thermostat continuously monitors temperature and makes slight adjustments to heater electrical current. in this guy, the heat is always on, but only to the level necessary to maintain the set temperature. Proportional thermostats eliminate fluctuations caused by cycling on and off of conventional type thermostats and provide continuous heat from the heat source. The Indian python wild lives in areas of high humidity, and captive animals require the same. Adding heat to the enclosure can dry it out and measures must be taken to retain moisture.. A well built terrarium, with a container for water and a minimum of ventilation grilles, should keep the relative humidity above the 60 per cent, approximately. Wooden terrariums must be painted and sealed.

    Mesh-top terrariums are difficult to regulate. Heat rises and escapes through the top, which requires additional heat to maintain the proper temperature, which dries out the enclosure even more. Terrariums should have lids that limit heat and moisture loss.

    Feeding of the Indian python

    feed the Indian python it's quite simple. I feed a proper size meal whenever the snake is hungry. The breeding of the Indian python can an adult mouse eat during its first feeding, which is surprising to many novice snake keepers. Several sensory systems are at work in a python when it feeds. First of all, the food should smell like something to eat. In second place, the food must move in the form of a potential meal. And third, the food must be warmer than its surroundings. The Indian python eats only warm-blooded prey and has sensory organs (pits) to detect the slight amount of heat generated by the body from a potential food. A combination of these factors appears to be important in eliciting a feeding response in the newborn Python.. Pink mice don't normally move in a way that would interest a baby python., and although I think they must smell like mice, do not generate and retain body heat very well.

    Once a baby python has had its first meals, it may learn behaviors that allow it to recognize and eat pre-killed food items, or even chicken parts or processed snake food. It is sometimes recommended to feed snakes only dead food to avoid potential injuries that could be inflicted by the struggling prey item.. It's important to remember, However, that nearly every meal taken by a python in the history of the species has been live. Nature has prepared them well to deal with the possible problems associated with. However, frozen and pre-cut food makes things easier for us, and perhaps that should be the most important consideration.

    As the snake grows, will need more food, of course. During the first meals, a mouse offered once or twice a week will suffice. However, soon the snake will need more than one mouse at each meal. When the snake regularly eats several mice per meal, try to offer him a little rat. When a Indian python measure some 1 Metro, should be able to take a medium rat; with 1,5 m, a large rat would be appropriate. There is a young rabbit that is equivalent in mass to a very large rat; substitute one of these as the snake grows, and increase the size of the rabbits as the snake increases in size. Chickens are also a good source of food; the Indian python newborn can eat a day old chick, and to the 3 meters can eat an adult chicken.

    Water for the Indian python

    The Indian python should always have access to fresh water. A heavy ceramic bowl, It works well. It is not necessary for the snakes to be able to submerge in the water dish.

    Management and temperament Indian python

    The Indian python, due to its docile nature and undemanding requirements, it is one of the most suitable snakes as a captive animal.

    Snakes only have limited reasoning ability. Trust me, this statement is quite generous. Keepers can condition a snake to think (I am generous again) that every time the door of her cage is opened she will be fed. If the snake is infrequently handled and most of its interaction with its handler occurs during feeding time, This conditioning is reinforced. with the big snakes, especially, it is important that the snake learns to differentiate the time to eat from other times, and you from his dinner. The thought processes that have brought you to your current situation will matter little when the mouth of your snake clings to your forearm.. What this means is that it is a very good idea to be aware of your snake's location and orientation when feeding or when servicing its cage.. If a snake is hungry when I open the cage, I tap her on the nose with a rolled up newspaper. This is usually enough to let you know it's not time to eat.. It is also best not to house more than one snake per cage., and it is essential not to feed more than one snake in a cage at the same time.

    Buy one "Indian python"

    The Indian python is available in a variety of colors and patterns, with new traits and combinations of traits that are available more frequently. They are usually available from captive breeders or online reptile stores.. It is important to check local laws and regulations regarding the species.

    The price of a baby of this species ranges from 100 and 200 EUR.

    Videos "Indian python"

    Alternative names:

      1. Indian python, Black-tailed python, Indian rock python, Asian rock python. (English).
      2. Python indien (French).
      3. Heller Tigerpython (German).
      4. Píton-indiana (Portuguese).
      5. "Pitón de la India" (español).

    Eastern kingsnake
    - Lampropeltis getula

    Primary habitat varies by subspecies. The Eastern kingsnake can be found in forests, Meadows, deserts and urban areas.
    California kingsnake
    oven “California kingsnake” (Lampropeltis getula californiae) taken at Coyote Hills Regional Park in the San Francisco Bay – Calibas, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    Content

    Origin / Distribution

    The Eastern kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula) it is one of the only species of king snakes found in most of North America.

    There are seven subspecies of Lampropeltis getula in North America.

  • The Lampropeltis getula getula (Eastern kingsnake) found on the east coast of North America, from southern New Jersey and southeastern Pennsylvania to eastern parts of West Virginia, southwest to Mobile Bay, Alabama, and east to northern Florida.
  • The Lampropeltis getula floridana (Florida kingsnake) is located on the Florida panhandle south of Dade County.
  • Lampropeltis getula californiae (California kingsnake) is restricted to southwestern California and Baja California. in the Canary Islands (Spain), is considered an invasive species, being the native lizard of Gran Canaria, prey of that species.
  • Lampropeltis getula holbrooki (Speckled kingsnake) is located in southwestern Illinois, eastern Iowa and south-central Alabama.
  • The Lampropeltis getula nigra (Black kingsnake) lies west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi River; this includes the region from West Virginia to southern Ohio, southeastern Illinois and northern Alabama.
  • The Lampropeltis getula splendida (Desert kingsnake) would originate from Texas, Arizona and New Mexico, United States.
  • The Lampropeltis getula nigrita (Mexican black kingsnake) found in southern Arizona and northwestern Mexico.

  • Subspecies overlap and interbreed in several different regions of North America.

    Subespecies Lampropeltis getula

    Lampropeltis getula getula (Eastern kingsnake) Lampropeltis getula floridana (Florida kingsnake) Lampropeltis getula californiae (California kingsnake) Lampropeltis getula holbrooki (Speckled kingsnake) Lampropeltis getula nigra (Black kingsnake) Lampropeltis getula splendida (Desert kingsnake) Lampropeltis getula nigrita (Mexican black kingsnake

    Characteristics / Appearance

    Since the physical description of Lampropeltis getula varies greatly between subspecies, Each of them will be described separately.. One measurement they all share is the length of the pups.: of 20 a 28 cm al nacer. The adults of the Eastern kingsnake (L. g. getula) They can reach a length of 61 a 153 cm.. They are big snakes, solid and shiny black with yellow crossbars (sometimes white) stretching along the snake. The head is solid black with several yellow or white spots decorating the scales on the head..

    The Speckled kingsnake (L. g. holbrooki) can reach a length of 51 a 132 cm in adulthood. They are black with “specks” yellow on their scales and along them. The underside is pale yellow to white with some of the black scales curling on the sides..

    The California kingsnake (L. g. california) can reach a length of 91 a 106 cm.. They have white crossbars that intersect with black spots along the back.. The head is normally white with a black upper part and some black scales on the side..

    The Florida kingsnake adult (L. g. floridana) can measure between 106 and 138 cm.. The only major difference between Florida and Eastern garter snakes is that they have 60 transverse bands, while the eastern ones only have 30. The belly is pale yellow with alternating patterns of black scales in the shape of a “zigzag”.

    The Black kingsnake (L. g. nigra). Adult specimens reach an average size of 90 a 122 centimeters in total length, with some reaching maximum total lengths of 147 a 183 centimeters. It is generally similar to L. getula getula, although it can be distinguished by its geography and appearance. Has a black body interspersed with widely spaced yellow or cream-colored specks, larger and more numerous along sides. the back, in some cases, it has no drawings and in others it has crossed bands. The belly shows a black and yellow checkered pattern (or cream). The ventral scales range from 197 and 222 in both sexes, and the subflows between 45 and 59 in males and 37 and 51 in females.

    The Desert kingsnake (L. g. splendida) can reach from 123 a 153 cm.. The shiny back of the snake is black or very dark brown., finely mottled blanco or amarillo. These pale specks form vaguely defined narrow vertebral crossbands, between which the intervening rectangular areas are black. Pale yellow scales may predominate along lower sides. The abdomen of adult and young snakes is mostly black, with white or pale yellow spots marking outer ends of ventral plates. The smooth dorsal scales are arranged in 23 a 25 rows in the middle of the body and the anal plate is not divided.

    The Mexican black kingsnake (L. g. nigrita) can reach a length of 106 a 132 cm.. They are black and shiny, with approximately 75 thin yellow crossbars. This subspecies also has yellow spots on the black scales that run down the sides of the snake..

    Life expectancy

    Little information is available on the longevity of Eastern kingsnake in its natural environment. Most of the available information comes from captive snakes. The Eastern kingsnake older wild had 9 years (reported in 1937). The Eastern kingsnake longest in captivity had 33,3 years.

    Habitat

    Primary habitat varies by subspecies. The Eastern kingsnake can be found in forests, Meadows, deserts and urban areas. The microhabitats of most subspecies include: under the wood, in rubbish heaps, barns, along stone walls, on sunny embankments, in stump holes or sunny clearings.

    The coastal subspecies, as the Florida kingsnake and some Eastern king snakes, can be found along the edges of swamps, marshes and levees. Other subspecies, as the California kingsnake and Mexican black kingsnake, limited to arid areas. Elevation also varies by subspecies. For example, the California kingsnake has the widest lifting range, from the Pacific coast to the 915 m. The Eastern kingsnake (123 a 305 m) and Black kingsnake (153 a 305 m) share similar limited elevation ranges. The Speckled kingsnake can be found at elevations up to 610 m.

    Behavior

    Eastern kingsnake
    Lampropeltis getula (common kingsnake) – James St. JohnFlickr

    The Eastern kingsnake it is diurnal. Its annual activity period is between the end of March or the beginning of April and October and the beginning of November.. They hibernate during the winter in caves., cracks in the rocks, mammal burrows, hollow logs and on old stumps. During the cooler days of spring and fall they can be found outside during the day basking in the sun.. They spend most of the day under leaf litter and other debris and spend the rest of the time traveling, sunbathe and hunt. The Eastern kingsnake not limited to the ground, but can climb trees and swim quite well. Fights between males are common (during mating season).

    Developing

    Snake eggs have a large amount of yolk that contains the fats and carbohydrates necessary for the development of the embryo.. Towards the final stages of development, the snake fetus absorbs the yolk. It also, the embryo extracts part of the calcium for the egg shell and uses it to form its skeleton. Once the skeleton is formed, the shell becomes thinner and more flexible. Oxygen exchange decreases over time, which in turn drives the hatchling out of the egg, using the “served” of the expired egg in the nose.

    after hatching, the young remain in the nest until they shed their skin for the first time. This usually lasts about a week. Next, the hatchlings scatter. Information on the period after hatching is scarce.. The Eastern kingsnake reaches sexual maturity at about half its maximum potential size, between 60 and 92 cm.. In captivity, can reach sexual maturity much earlier due to abundant food source and limited parasites and disease.

    Reproduction

    The males of the Eastern kingsnake compete for females. If two males are in the same area, both raise their heads, the neck and the front of the body and intertwine them. The males then try to press each other to the ground.. The losing male will withdraw and curl up in a prone position with his head resting on the ground.. The victorious male will return to the female waiting nearby and copulate.. Males are able to find females through pheromone trails.. when they mate, males lie on top of females and bite their necks. Next, males curl their tails under females until their vents line up. The male uses his hemipenis to enter the female's cloaca.. Copulation can last from several minutes to several hours.

    The Eastern kingsnake appears in spring, allowing females to lay their eggs when the weather is still warm enough for proper incubation. Its gestation period is about 60 days. In the hottest climates (for example, Florida), courtship can start as early as March. In the northern parts of the range, courtship is delayed until April or May.

    A female can produce a single clutch of multiple pairs.. Females can also produce more than one clutch per season as a result of more than one mating.. The female chooses the nesting site., which can include rotten logs and stumps, as well as piles of sawdust. The Eastern kingsnake breeds annually and has been known to produce more than one clutch per season. The breeding season is between March and August. The average number of offspring is 10 eggs per clutch (between 3 and 24). The average gestation period for females is 60 a 62 days (range of 50 a 80 days). The young can weigh between 9 and 14 g.. Females reach sexual maturity between the 2 and 4 years. Males reach sexual maturity between 1 and 4 years.

    after intercourse, male will leave female and not return to help with parental care. After the female lays her eggs, will disperse and will not return to the nest.

    Food

    The diet of adults Eastern kingsnake varies between subspecies and is very wide, but published reports are available on some representative subspecies. The Eastern kingsnake and of Florida they feed mainly on other snakes, including poisonous (coral vipers, copper heads, massasaugas and rattles), the Eastern garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), the Northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon), the Ring-neck snakes (Diadophis punctatus), the Smooth earth snakes (Virginia valeriae) and Worm snakes (Carphasphis amonenus). They also feed on Five-lined skinks (Plestiodon fasciatus), the White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and the eggs of the Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    Diet also varies by subspecies. The Black kingsnake It feeds mainly on the Hognosed snakes (Heterodon platirhinos), Red-bellied snakes (Storeria occipitomaculata), Black racers (Coluber constrictor), Black rat snakes (Pantherophis obsoletus), Fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus), Red spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), House mice (Mus musculus) and Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). The Mexican black kingsnake It feeds mainly on House mice (Mus), Rats (Rattus) and Southern desert horned lizards (Phrynosoma platyrhinos calidiarum). They also eat other non-venomous snakes, birds, vertebrate eggs, lizards, mice and rats. The California kingsnake feeds on mice, Gopher snakes (Pituophis), California alligator lizards (Elgaria multicarinata multicarinata) and Racers (Coluber).

    Threats to the species

    State of conservation ⓘ


    Status Minor Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

    The Eastern kingsnake figura comoespecie preocupanteen la lista federal de Estados Unidos. This may be because the Florida kingsnake, L. g. floridana, is in decline. Among the reasons for the decline are anthropogenic causes due to the extensive pet trade, road deaths and habitat loss.

    The fire ants invasive (Solenopsis invicta) are also harming the populations of L. g. floridana by competing for food sources such as turtle eggs.

    Benefits for the human being

    The Eastern kingsnake it is one of the most popular snakes to keep as a pet, Next to the Boa constrictor. They play an important role in controlling poisonous snake populations, that can pose a threat to humans.

    The "Eastern kingsnake" in captivity

    Speckled kingsnake
    Speckled kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula holbrooki) – Peter PaplanusFlickr

    The Eastern kingsnake or lampropeltis getula is one of the most common snakes in the United States, at least for a good reason: it is relatively easy to maintain.

    Due to its presence throughout North America, he has no problem living in captivity and is used to humans.

    It was one of the first captive-bred snakes.

    The terrarium

    First of all, these snakes eat other snakes, so ONLY ONE snake per Terrarium

    For one Eastern kingsnake baby, you can choose a terrarium of dimensions 60 x 40 x 40 cm.. For one Eastern kingsnake adult, choose at least one vivarium of dimensions 80 x 40 x 40 cm.. Make sure it has a secure, leak-proof opening. If there is a weak point, the Eastern kingsnake will find it and escape.

    Caveat: Do not keep together Eastern kingsnake juveniles or adults, since they could eat each other.

    In the case of females, cohabitation can be considered once they have reached a medium size (90 cm.).
    However, separate them to feed them.

    What to put in your terrarium?

    Place a hiding place in your nursery, a container of water (see humidity section below) and non-toxic plant ornaments (synthetic soles in case of doubt).

    Temperature and lighting

    The Eastern kingsnake does not need special lighting if the cage is in a room with natural light. Otherwise, use a light bulb, that will mimic natural sunlight.

    Be careful not to place the cage in or near a window where it is getting direct sunlight., otherwise it could get too hot and be fatal to your Eastern kingsnake.

    What temperature is ideal for a Eastern kingsnake?

    The temperature for a Lampropeltis getula during the day is 27 at 30°C at hot spot, and 24°C at the cold point. At night, the temperature is 24°C in the hot spot and 22-23°C in the cold spot.

    The Eastern kingsnake thermoregulates in nature. They move to find and hold (when they can) a preferred temperature. being cold blooded, get the temperature of their environment. In captivity, options are limited to what is offered. So, must have a hot and a cold end of his cage.

    There are many heaters, pads, cables and tapes available to do it. Some people use lamps for warmth, but this is not an efficient use of energy and has its drawbacks.

    What substrate do I use for a Eastern kingsnake?

    The ideal substrates for Eastern kingsnake are : reptile mat, and natural bark.

    Feed them in another box to prevent them from swallowing the substrate, o leave food on newspaper or paper towels.

    Avoid, at all costs, cedar-based sand or chips, since sand favors the growth of bacteria and cedar is toxic to reptiles and could cause your snake serious respiratory problems.

    what does one eat Eastern kingsnake?

    In nature, the Eastern kingsnake eats almost any animal or bird small enough to swallow whole, including other snakes.

    In captivity, ofréceles rodents like little mice (they are the most affordable and easy to get). Usually, se les da a las serpientes ratones recién descongelados orecién” dead. Live mice can do a lot of damage to your snake, or even kill her!

    Feed her twice a week when she is growing, and once a week when it reaches adult size.

    Regarding the size, it is better not to exceed the diameter of the snake's body. You should also not handle your snake until it has finished completely digesting its food..

    What type of humidity is ideal for Eastern kingsnake?

    Place a container of water deep enough for your snake to bathe half of its body, and without the water overflowing in the cage.
    This will help to get the necessary humidity (higrometría) for your snake: 60%. Calculate it with a hygrometer.

    Management and temperament Eastern kingsnake

    Although it is bred in captivity, the Eastern kingsnake can be aloof and fearful of humans. May defecate or urinate on you when you pick it up. This is a natural behavior to deter you (as a potential predator) to eat it. Si ves que está en “S”, don't get too close, is in attack mode (like an abo in pokemon).

    With regular and gentle treatment, your lampropeltis will feel more and more safe with you. Caress, moving away from his face, with a bit of friction to slow down their shaking, is the best way to start handling it.

    molt of the Eastern kingsnake

    The Lampropeltis Getulus if changes each 2-3 months approximately. It's easy enough to see when this is the case: sus ojos tendrán un aspectovidriosoblanco o azulado. Your snake will take a few days to completely shed its skin., so it is likely that he will do it in his hiding place. Check that everything is going well and that he is still eating/pooping during this period. Do not handle your snake when it is about to shed.

    If you see that it is difficult for it to detach from the skin and dry pieces stick to the scales, consider giving him a quick bath at room temperature to help him shed any remaining skin.

    Buy one "Eastern kingsnake"

    The California kingsnake it is the most popular subspecies among fans of terrarium animals. Its price in the exotic animal market ranges from 150 – 200 EUR.

    Videos "Eastern kingsnake"

    Alternative names:

      1. Eastern kingsnake, Common kingsnake, Chain kingsnake (English).
      2. Serpent roi (French).
      3. Kettennatter, Ketten-Königsnatter (German).
      4. Cobra-real oriental, Cobra-real comum, Cobra-real de cadeia (Portuguese).
      5. "Serpiente real común", Serpiente rey del este, Serpiente rey de la cadena, Serpiente rey oriental (español).

    Reticulated python
    - Malayopython reticulatus

    The great demand for exotic animals has grown, what makes the Reticulated python be captured in the pet market to be sold all over the planet.

    Reticulated python
    Reticulated python – Mariluna, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    Content

    Origin / Distribution

    The Reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus) it is native to Southeast Asia and western Bangladesh to southeastern Vietnam and on the Indo-Pacific islands west of New Guinea.. Other reports have shown the presence of the Reticulated python in eastern Sudan Africa and in northern Queensland and the Northern Territory in Australia. This species has been introduced to South Florida, as a direct result of the negative effects of pet importation.

    Characteristics / Appearance

    The Reticulated python is light yellowish to brown on the dorsal part of its body, with black lines extending from the ventral area of the eyes diagonally to the muzzle. Sometimes there is another black line on the snake's head that extends from the end of the muzzle to the base of the skull or nape of the neck.. Along the back of the Reticulated python there is a repeated pattern of black X's that create diamond-shaped patterns. Younger pythons have been reported to have latitudinal lines with black-rimmed spots along their body..

    One way to distinguish this species from similar ones is to examine the upper jaw near the front of the muzzle.. The reticulated python has the presence of a suborbital portion of the maxilla (upper jaw) that lacks a lateral or protruding figure.

    In general, this species has shown that females grow much larger than males in terms of size and weight.. The average female can grow up to 6,09 m and 90 kg in contrast to the male who has an average of 4,5 m long and up to 45 kg.

    Life expectancy

    Reticulated python
    Reticulated Python head. Photo taken at Serpentarium Blankenberghe BELGIUM. Natural biotope: rainforests of Asia. Goalsurfer, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    The Reticulated python it is rarely found in captivity and is more commonly found in the wild. Its large size makes it difficult to provide an area large enough to keep a healthy python in captivity.. However, on average, the Reticulated python lives longer in captivity because their environment and food sources are well maintained in a controlled area.

    The longest known life of a Reticulated python in captivity is 32 years. This species may have difficulty finding adequate food sources and environmental protection., which may explain why the life of a wild reticulated python is shorter than that of those in captivity. The longest life of a Reticulated python wild is from 23 years compared to 32 years in captivity.

    Developing

    After laying the eggs, the female python incubates them in a nest for a while 90 days until they are ready to hatch. Newborn reticulated pythons use a specialized element called egg tooth, located on the upper lip, to open the eggshell. The young measure approximately 60 cm in length and weigh some 140 g.. Immediately after hatching, the python sheds from the skin. Then it will begin to hide and wait for rodents and small birds to prey on..

    Habitat

    The Reticulated python it lives mainly in tropical rainforests, wetlands and grassland forests, at a height of 1200-2500m. The temperature necessary for the correct gestation and survival of the reticulated python should be between ≈24º C and ≈34º C with large amounts of moisture present. The Reticulated python requires an area near an area of water to protect itself, as well as to succeed in predation. Pythons use water as protective camouflage to hide before ambushing their prey. Similar behavior is observed in wetlands, where these species are able to hide under the undergrowth to ambush their prey.

    Behavior

    It is known that the Reticulated python occupies areas that usually have a present or nearby water source. This allows you better movement due to its large size. Through the process of lateral progression, the snake is able to contract the muscles and release the muscles simultaneously to create the most commonly recognized serpentine pattern..

    Due to the large size of this snake, rectilinear movement, a type of movement in which the snake contracts its body and then unfolds in a linear motion, is most commonly observed because it allows its large size to move more quickly. Using the technique of constriction and deployment a python can climb trees. This is more common in smaller, younger individuals..

    Using a similar body movement, the Reticulated python, like all snakes, you must shed your skin to repair wounds or during the developmental stages of life. The molting of skin of snakes is necessary to facilitate the growth of their bodies. These snakes have an indeterminate growth.

    Reproduction

    Reticulated python
    Reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus). Kaeng Krachan District, Phetchaburi Province, Thailand – Rushenb, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    The male of the Reticulated python uses vibrations to signal its mating status to the female, that you will choose whether to mate or not. If she decides to mate, the male of this species rubs his body on the female and rubs her with his spurs. Spurs are vestigial hind limbs found in your abdomen. When the female is ready, will raise the tail and mating will occur. The female python can keep the male's sperm inside her until a later date., if weather conditions are not favorable. Females can also have several males mate with them in the same season..

    Although it is uncommon, parthenogenesis has been documented in captive pythons. Parthenogenesis is the process of mating without a male. The female fertilizes an egg inside, creating an offspring with identical DNA. It is an adaptation to reproduce even when there are no males.

    It is said that the breeding season of the Reticulated python focuses on the months of February and March. Shortly after winter pythons begin to prepare for breeding due to the increase in temperature and the promising summer heat. In most areas it depends on geography due to the need for warmer climates. So that, pythons reproduce according to the climate change of the specific area they inhabit.

    The breeding area that is inhabited must be rich in prey so that the female can have offspring. So, the Reticulated python needs a normally undeveloped and uninhabited area to maintain high reproductive performance. The viability of eggs depends on the mother's ability to protect and incubate them, as well as high humidity levels. Adult pythons are usually ready to breed once the male has reached a 2,5 meters in length and some 3,0 meters for females. This is in the range of 3-5 years for both sexes.

    If the food is abundant, the female of Reticulated python can have up to one clutch a year. In areas and seasons when food is not as abundant, the size and frequency of the clutches is one clutch each 2 or 3 years. The Reticulated python reproduces more frequently in areas of higher temperature for better gestation. In a year of breeding, a single female can produce 8 a 107 eggs, but the number is usually 25 a 50. The average mass at birth is 0,15 g (rank 0,12-0,17 g). The independence of the offspring is immediate.

    Food

    It is known that the Reticulated python it feeds mainly on mammals and bird species found in its geographical range. Documented prey types include small bats, tree shrews , and Cervidae deer, even Malay bears (Helarctos malayanus).

    The Reticulated python it is considered the snake most likely to consume a human being due to the numerous attacks on people in the wild and the attacks on the owners by this species. Through the organs of the fossa, specialized organs in certain species of snakes that detect radiant heat, the Reticulated python detects the location of the dam by the temperature relationship of the dam with the surrounding area. This allows the python to detect prey and predators without necessarily seeing them..

    Threats to the species

    State of conservation ⓘ


    Status Minor Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

    The Reticulated python is not endangered, However, according to CITES Appendix II, the trade and sale of your skin are regulated to ensure that your survival is not compromised. This species is not on the IUCN Red List.

    However, the Reticulated python is one of the most hunted snakes worldwide. Due to its large size, this species is hunted and sold internationally for its fur throughout the year. Apart from the skin, the Reticulated python it is so large in size that it is also hunted and sold for its meat..

    The "Reticulated python" in captivity

    Reticulated python
    A large reticulated Python feeding on 5 chickens at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah Reptile Park, Jakarta, Indonesian. Gunawan Kartapranata, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    The great demand for exotic animals has grown, what makes the Reticulated python be captured in the pet market to be sold all over the planet.

    It is important to remember that a Reticulated python Adult is technically capable of causing injury or death to a human being, However, attacks in nature are rare, and even rarer attacks in captivity, as long as the snake is well accustomed to manipulation, safely maintained and well fed.

    The terrarium

    You won't be surprised that you have to increase the size of your vivarium as your cross-linked grows., as well as making sure that the glass fronts are the most resistant, with locks to ensure there are no escapes or unauthorized access to the snake in your absence.

    The Reticulated python, like all snakes, they start out quite small when they are young, so any small or medium-sized land or tree nursery should be suitable, provided that the necessary heating equipment can be installed to reach those pleasant subtropical temperatures.

    But as they grow and get bigger., you will have to change to the biggest vivariums you can, and consider the possibility of a custom-made vivarium to provide adequate accommodation, just make sure you invest in a sturdy glass!

    Heating and lighting

    Most caregivers agree that a Reticulated python you will enjoy more of an environment with a temperature gradient around the 29 degrees Celsius, that allows you to move to the hot side or to the cold side to thermoregulate depending on how you feel.

    Although this temperature can be achieved with thermal carpets, most like to keep at least the hot end of their enclosures warm with a point lamp connected to a reliable thermostat to keep it within range.. However, do not forget to use a bulb protector, otherwise you Reticulated python could get too close.

    Substratum

    The driest substrates, like aspen, are usually the best, and some people even use unprinted paper, although we can't say that this makes the enclosure look great. The substrate of the Reticulated python should be changed relatively frequently when you relieve yourself, that in adulthood can be of large proportions.

    Food and feed

    As with most snakes, we recommend that you feed your Reticulated python outside of its normal enclosure to help dissociate your incoming hand with feeding, helping your snake know the difference between handling and feeding and helping to avoid being “marking”, which is a little worse than usual with this species.

    As a general rule, it is best to feed your Reticulated python with a frozen rat, or later with a rabbit of comparable size to yours, and repeat this every 7 a 10 days on average.

    Most homeowners get to buy a second freezer for their home, as frozen rats and rabbits are cheaper when purchased in bulk and stored.

    Buy one "Reticulated python"

    The price of a "Reticulated python" at the exotic animal market, depends on its sizes and the rarity of its color.
    A brood of "Reticulated python" can be sold for a price between 300 – 400 EUR, while adult snakes approach the 1000 EUR.

    Questions and answers about the "Reticulated python"

    Reticulated python
    A member of wildlife rescue removes a Reticulated Python from 4 meters in bangkok, Thailand. vvar, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    Has a Reticulated Python ever killed someone??

    like all pythons, is a non-poisonous constrictor. The Reticulated python have killed adults (and, in at least two cases, have eaten them).

    What are the predators of a "Reticulated python"?

    King cobras and crocodiles feed on the Reticulated python. Eggs and young pythons are vulnerable to predators, like hawks, the eagles, herons and small mammals.

    Why the "Reticulated python" it is called reticulated?

    The Reticulated python usually reaches a length of more than 4 m. Its color pattern comprises a complex diamond-shaped pattern that extends along the back.. This pattern in the form of a network is the origin of its name, Since “Reticulated” means network.

    How fast can a reticulated Python move??

    This type of movement works both on the ground and in trees.. However, pythons can't move very fast: only 1 mile per hour (1,6 kilometres per hour) on open ground. But since they don't have to chase their food, don't need to move quickly.

    What's bigger, the green anaconda or the Reticulated Python?

    The green anaconda of South America, member of the boa family, It, kilo per kilo, the largest snake in the world. Your cousin, the Reticulated python, may reach a slightly longer length, but the enormous circumference of the anaconda makes it almost twice as heavy.

    Do Reticulated Pythons Climb Trees??

    An oversized snake has shown its unique ability to climb trees and is as fascinating as it is slightly disconcerting.. Filmed in what is believed to be Thailand, the body of the snake, that has been identified as a Reticulated python, is rolled around the trunk of a tree.

    How long is the longest Reticulated python??

    The Reticulated python longer than is known was found in 1912 and measured the staggering number of 10 m, that is to say, more than half the length of a bowling alley and makes this snake longer than the height of a giraffe.

    Does the Reticulated Python bite??

    The Reticulated python bite first. Next, “literally in a few seconds”, envelops a person's body with its powerful spirals, cutting off blood circulation to the brain, blocking the airways and preventing the chest from expanding. For one or all of these reasons a person would die quickly..

    How long can a reticulated Python hold its breath??

    They are also excellent swimmers, and can remain submerged up to 30 minutes before surfaced to take in air.

    How long can a reticulated Python go without eating?

    A Reticulated python adult can survive up to 6 months without eating, but such a long period can be disastrous for the health of the reptile.

    Is an aggressive Reticulated Python?

    The Reticulated python It is a large predatory animal.. As such, they prefer large prey, among which humans are known to be, so they should be considered aggressive.

    How do you manage the Reticulated Python??

    The Reticulated python young, bred in captivity, it is the easiest to tame. Once the snake is taken out of its cage, hold it in your hands and allow it to crawl through your fingers. Spending time with a young retic acclimatizes her to his touch, smell and company

    Videos "Reticulated python"

    Alternative names:

      1. Reticulated python, Retic (English).
      2. Python réticulé (French).
      3. Netzpython (German).
      4. Píton-reticulada (Portuguese).
      5. "Pitón reticulada" (español).

    Oriental wolf snake
    - Lycodon capucinus

    Although the Oriental wolf snake it is poisonous, this poison is relatively mild. Even when they bite humans, the impact is usually not harmful.
    Oriental wolf snake
    Lycodon capucinus. Male from the city of Same, Manufahi Distict. Mark O’Shea, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    Content

    Origin / Distribution

    The Oriental wolf snake (Lycodon capucinus) this species is known to occur in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet Nam, south china, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Bali, Sulawesi and the Lesser Sundas.

    Characteristics / Appearance

    Its body is relatively slim and its flattened head is larger than its body.. Its dorsal skin is brown, with yellowish markings forming a pattern nominally “lattice”. There is a pale yellow band around the neck, and the suprablabial labial scales are also yellowish. His underside is pale.

    Habitat

    The Oriental wolf snake it is a lowland forest species. Its habits are both terrestrial and arboreal and it can be found, for example, in the dark crevices of fig and other trees.

    The species is also known as domestic snake, since it usually lives in old properties, such as colonial-era bungalows and buildings near wooded areas. In these places, it is supposed to feed on domestic geckos.

    Behavior

    Although the Oriental wolf snake it is poisonous, this poison is relatively mild. Even when they bite humans, the impact is usually not harmful. Most bites cause pain and swelling, and do not cause any serious harm. It is a rather nervous snake when it is picked up or handled and will not hesitate to bite. It can also move its tail in a back-and-forth motion much like a rattlesnake when threatened..

    It is a fossil animal, who loves digging in the dirt, but most often found in open ground, on rocks or in low vegetation. Sometimes shows semi-arboreal behavior. It's a nocturnal creature, more active at night, but it is also observed during sunrise, and climb the walls of any building. Most captive specimens become tame after some time and with proper handling.

    Food

    The Oriental wolf snake is carnivorous. They feed mainly on small lizards, as the Geckos, and they are also among the main predators of the skinks. They can also eat small frogs, If they are available.

    Reproduction

    Little is known about the reproductive habits of the Oriental wolf snake. Usually, put between 3 and 11 eggs per clutch. The young are born fully developed and are totally independent at birth.

    Threats to the species

    State of conservation ⓘ


    Status Minor Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

    The IUCN has classified this species as “Least concern“. Although it is a very common snake, rarely seen. The continuing destruction of primary and secondary forests, the conversion of fertile land into agricultural and residential areas, as well as the indiscriminate killing of human beings can threaten the survival of this animal.

    It is endangered in many parts of mainland Asia and peninsular Southeast Asia..

    on christmas island, which is part of Australia, where it was introduced around 1982, It is an invasive species that threatens some native species such as the Mangrove skink or, in the case of Cryptoblepharus egeriae, has already caused its extinction in the wild. In Timor Oriental, The species was introduced in the 1980s. 1960 and in 2018 first observed in New Guinea. It may also have spread to Micronesian islands.

    The "Oriental wolf snake" in captivity

    The Oriental wolf snake not a good pet, gets nervous when handled by humans and bites if threatened. They are also difficult to feed in captivity because they often eat lizards., frogs and skinks.

    The terrarium

    This species is relatively small, so it does not require very large habitats. Since they dig under the ground, it is important to provide them with several different hiding places and a soft substrate to burrow in, like the sand. These snakes do not eat small mammals, and you have to feed them with lizards, skinks, frogs or other natural prey.

    Buy one "Oriental wolf snake"

    The price of a "Oriental wolf snake" at the exotic animal market, oscillates on the 200 EUR.

    Videos "Oriental wolf snake"

    Alternative names:

      1. Oriental wolf snake, Common Wolf Snake (English).
      2. Serpent-loup Oriental, Serpent-loup commun (French).
      3. Kapuzen-Wolfszahnnatter (German).
      4. Serpente lobo oriental, Cobra-lobo comum (Portuguese).
      5. "Serpiente lobo oriental", Serpiente lobo común (español).

    Gold-ringed cat snake – Mangrove snake
    - Boiga dendrophila

    The toxin of the Mangrove snake, call denmotoxina, it is especially useful for hunting its main prey, birds.
    Gold-ringed cat snake
    Gold-ringed cat snake – Cymothoa, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    Content

    Origin / Distribution

    The Gold-ringed cat snake – Mangrove snake (Boiga dendrophila) It is widely distributed in Southeast Asia., including Indonesian, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Viet Nam, Cambodia and the Philippines. is native, but not common, in singapore. A population of mangrove snakes was also accidentally introduced to Texas.

    Taxonomists currently recognize nine subspecies of mangrove snake. However, it is still debated whether some of them are distinct species, or if there are more subspecies to be determined. The nine recognized subspecies occupy different parts of the snake's range and exhibit slight color variations..

    Subspecies

    • Boiga dendrophila occidentalis – Indonesian (BABi, Batu Archipelago, Girls, Sumatra)
    • Boiga dendrophilaannectens – Indonesian (Kalimantan); Brunei; Malaysia (East Malaysia).
    • Boiga dendrophila dendrophila – Indonesian (Java).
    • Boiga dendrophila divergens – Philippines (Luzon, Polillo)
    • Boiga dendrophila gemmicincta – Indonesian (Celebes).
    • Boiga dendrophila latifasciata – Philippines (Mindanao)
    • Boiga dendrophila levitoni – Surigao del Sur (and others from the Visayas)
    • Boiga dendrophila melanota: Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesian (Sumatra)
    • Boiga dendrophila multicincta: Philippines (Balabac, Palawan)

    Characteristics / Appearance

    This slender snake is primarily black with yellow scales around the face and bands around the body.. The yellow bands do not usually meet on the back or under the belly. the eyes of the Mangrove snake they are big, with narrow, vertical slits, which has earned it another common name: yellow ringed cat snake. The structure of the eyes allows you to see better at night, when active and hunting.

    The Mangrove snake it is slightly venomous with rear fangs. Like other members of the family of colubrids, has a Duvernoy's gland, which is distinct from the venom gland and is composed of cells that produce saliva. Duvernoy's gland is located at the posterior end of the eye with a duct that connects to the rear fangs., which are enlarged and have grooves through which the poison flows. This is a common adaptation of snakes with rear fangs. The fangs are angled backwards to aid in biting and holding onto prey., although sometimes it is necessary to chew the prey so that the poison is injected correctly.

    The toxin of the Mangrove snake, call denmotoxina, it is especially useful for hunting its main prey, birds. In a study published in 2006 in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, scientists found that the muscles of mice were not as susceptible to the Mangrove Snake's immobilizing venom as the muscles of birds. Snake venom is not lethal to humans, but can cause painful swelling and skin discoloration.

    Although intoxication in humans is mild, visually, due to the alternating black and yellow transverse bands and the triangular cross section of the body, the Gold-ringed cat snake – Mangrove snake can be confused with the Banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), which is extremely poisonous.

    Habitat

    The Mangrove snake gets its name from the areas it inhabits: forests of mangrove, river areas and lowland forests. They spend most of their time basking in the sun on tree branches. 30 meters or more, but they descend to the forest floor at night to hunt.

    Food

    These snakes hunt a wide variety of prey., like other snakes, lizards and frogs. Most often they seek out small mammals, like bats and birds (and her eggs).

    Reproduction

    The Mangrove snake lays its eggs in tree holes. Their clutch size is an average of 10 eggs, but it ranges between four and 15. After a gestation period of about 45 days, the pups are born. The pups measure about 20 centimeters long and have a color similar to that of adults.

    Behavior

    Mainly occurs in mangrove or river habitats. During the day it remains motionless on the overhanging branches, but at night it becomes active, approaching the ground and feeding on other vertebrates, as rodents, small birds and their eggs, frogs, bats and, sometimes, other snakes. She is also an expert swimmer.

    It is a venomous species with rear fangs. Although during the day it can seem quite tame, don't get too close, as some individuals may have an unpredictable temperament.

    Threats to the species

    The population and trade study together with the education and information campaign, and habitat protection and restoration could help conserve populations of these mangrove snakes

    The "Gold-ringed cat snake – Mangrove snake" in captivity

    Mangrove snake, best pet snake?

    The Gold-ringed cat snake it is a potentially aggressive snake, mostly nocturnal. Even captive-bred specimens can be nervous and can strike repeatedly. Although many specimens calm down and allow manipulation, they are usually easily stressed and may refuse food for long periods of time if disturbed. The manipulation, of course, must involve safety precautions for the handler, due to the nervous nature of the snake and the fact that a bite can cause pain and injury.

    The most important thing when acclimating wild-caught animals is peace and quiet, preferably kept alone in a relatively small, dark terrarium.

    The terrarium

    Depending on the size of the adults, the measures of the terrarium can oscillate between 80 x 60 x 80 cm and 120 x 70 x 100 cm.. the climbing branches, best planted in abundance and providing hiding places, relax the animals. spray liberally, animals prefer to drink the spray water. Daytime temperature 27-29 °C, nocturnal 23-25 °C, humidity 60-90 %. Fluorescent tubes, wall or ceiling heating, substrate, for example, coconut fiber mixed with moss or coconut shreds or other loose, absorbent substrate.

    Food

    rodents, birds, eggs, fish, frogs, lizards, Snakes. If the wild birds do not want to eat, quail eggs or even chicken eggs often help.

    Posible problems

    Puddles can cause skin and lung infections.
    Wild-caught birds are always infested with endoparasites, usually protozoa and gastrointestinal or pulmonary nematodes, which should be treated with metronidazole or panacur respectively. Use ivermectin against nematodes.
    Tendency to cannibalism even in individuals of the same size.

    Breeding and reproduction

    It is possible to keep them in pairs, but see the keyword “food”. I highly recommend single tenure, which should only be kept for mating attempts. 5-15 eggs, hatching (pups of 35-40 cm.) after 110-120 days to 27-29 °C.

    Buy one "Gold-ringed cat snake – Mangrove snake"

    The price of the "Gold-ringed cat snake – Mangrove snake" at the exotic animal market, ranges between 300 – 700 EUR.
    Unfortunately, it is very difficult to find and obtain healthy animals.

    Videos "Gold-ringed cat snake – Mangrove snake"

    Alternative names:

      1. Mangrove snake (English).
      2. Serpent des palétuviers (French).
      3. Mangroven-Nachtbaumnatter (German).
      4. Cobra-Dos-Mangues (Portuguese).
      5. "Ularburong – Serpiente del manglar" (español).

    Rice paddy snake
    - Hypsiscopus plumbea

    The Rice paddy snake, mostly nocturnal, comes out at night to hunt fish and amphibians.
    Rice paddy snake
    Rice paddy snake (Enhydris plumbea); California. 40cm TL. From Karawang, West Java – Wibowo Djatmiko (Wie146), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    Content

    Origin / Distribution

    The Rice paddy snake (Hypsiscopus plumbea) it is one of the most widespread Asian water snakes. Previously it was called Enhydris plumbea, but the name was changed 2014.

    In mainland Southeast Asia, the Rice paddy snake is present in Myanmar, Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam), Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. out of region, found in parts of India (Islas Andaman) and south China (including Taiwan). In insular Southeast Asia it is present on the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Bali, Sulawesi and possibly on other islands further east.

    Characteristics / Appearance

    Gray color on the upper part of his body, although in some populations its upper part can be olive gray, dark brown or green. There may be small dark spots along the vertebral line. Its underside is yellow, sometimes with black spots.

    Its body is robust and cylindrical in section., its short head is barely wider than its body and its tail is short. His eyes are located on the top of his head.

    Habitat

    The species usually inhabits calm or shallow bodies of water, like rice paddies, open swamps, bogs, streams and ditches.

    Behavior

    The Rice paddy snake, mostly nocturnal, comes out at night to hunt fish and amphibians. They usually remain motionless in shallow stagnant water and also burrow into mud.. They also show a characteristic jump when trying to move quickly to escape.. They are quick to bite, starch, defecating and squirming excessively. They are not considered dangerous to humans.. They are slightly poisonous, but there are no known cases of poisoning or serious reactions in humans.

    Threats to the species

    No known conservation issues. It is a common species in Thailand, although its population in Taiwan is in danger.

    The "Rice paddy snake" in captivity

    The Rice paddy snake attacks aggressively when cornered on the ground, but its small size prevents it from causing much damage. Although it's a snake with back fangs and some venom, the poison has a limited effect on humans, being able to cause some swelling in the worst cases.

    Buy one "Rice paddy snake"

    The price of a "Rice paddy snake" at the exotic animal market, ranges between 80 – 100 EUR.

    Videos "Rice paddy snake"

    Alternative names:

      1. Rice paddy snake, Rice paddy snake, Plumbeous water snake, Boie’s Mud Snake (English).
      2. Serpent de riz paddy (French).
      3. Reisfeldschlange, Plumbeöse Wasserschlange (German).
      4. Cobra arroz em casca, Serpente de água plumbeous (Portuguese).
      5. "Serpiente acuática de vientre amarillo", Serpiente de arroz con cáscara, Serpiente de agua plomiza, Serpiente del arroz, Serpiente de arrozal (español).

    Puff-faced water snake
    - Homalopsis buccata

    The Puff-faced water snake inhabits freshwater bodies, like swamps, forest ponds and streams.
    Puff-faced water snake
    Homalopsis buccata of East Kalimantan – Rob Steubing, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

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    Origin / Distribution

    The Puff-faced water snake (Homalopsis buccata) is distributed from India, Bangladesh and Myanmar to most of Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. In Indonesia it is present in Borneo, Sumatra and Java.

    Characteristics / Appearance

    The Puff-faced water snake is dark brown above, with narrow pale brown transverse bands with black edges, in young specimens of yellow color; pale head with a dark triangular or V-shaped mark on the muzzle, an A-shaped spot on the occiput and a dark band on each side that passes through the eye and extends to before the eye. The lower surface is white or yellowish, with dark brown spots along each side; the tail has brown spots. Head and body length 820 mm; tail 230 mm.

    Habitat

    The Puff-faced water snake inhabits freshwater bodies, like swamps, forest ponds and streams. Of nocturnal habits, feeds mainly on small fish or frogs.

    Behavior

    It feeds on small crustaceans, fish and amphibians, that it captures using its venom and its jaws, instead of constriction.

    Threats to the species

    State of conservation ⓘ


    Status Minor Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

    The Puff-faced water snake is piscivorous, so she is attracted to fish farms and, often, it is considered a pest.

    This snake is frequently hunted for human consumption, for feeding farm crocodiles and leather goods. Millions of Homalopsis skins are exported to the United States and China each year.

    No conservation measures are known for this species, although it is known to be present in several protected areas, including the National Park of U Mnh Thuong. Further research is needed to resolve the taxonomy of this group. It also, further research is needed on their abundance, trends and catch levels to ensure that a threat status is not triggered in the future. This species can be bred in captivity.

    The "Puff-faced water snake" in captivity

    Not suitable for neophytes more than anything due to the presence of medium strength venom. Caution is advised in its handling given the delicacy of the skin but, in general, its handling is quite easy.

    The terrarium

    Terrarium of 60 x 40 x 60 cm or even higher (it is also recommended 120 x 70 x 100 cm.), being aquatic arboreal, with a substrate of 5 cm of coconut fiber, moss and foliage that provides hiding places and greater absorption. Insertion of many plants and branches is recommended, to allow the creation of dark hiding places highly appreciated by this variety, allowing greater acclimatization and enrichment for the animal. Daily nebulizations should be abundant since these snakes love to drink both from a bowl of water and from the water deposited in the glasses or inside the terrarium..

    It is a diurnal tree snake that loves to be in the low branches and in the water where it spends a lot of time..

    Daytime temperature 26 – 27 °C; 23 – 24 °C at night; humidity 80/85%.

    Buy one "Puff-faced water snake"

    The price of a "Puff-faced water snake", in the exotic anomaly market, ranges between 100 – 150 EUR.

    Videos "Puff-faced water snake"

    Alternative names:

      1. Puff-faced water snake, Masked water snake (English).
      2. Homalopside joufflu (French).
      3. Boa-Wassertrugnatter (German).
      4. Homalopsis buccata (Portuguese).
      5. "Serpiente acuática enmascarada", Serpiente de agua careta, Serpiente de agua de Borneo (español).

    New Guinea ground boa
    - Candoia aspera

    The New Guinea ground boa it is mainly nocturnal and moves on the ground and is only occasionally found in trees.
    New Guinea ground boa
    Boa du Pacifique – Candoia Carinata PaulsoniThomas BersyFlickr

    Content

    Origin / Distribution

    The New Guinea ground boa (Candoia aspera) is present in Papua New Guinea, Irian Jaya, various Indonesian islands, the Moluccas, the bismarck archipelago, the Solomon Islands and the Tokelau Islands.

    Subespecies list

    • Candoia aspera aspera (Günther, 1877)
    • Candoia aspera schmidti (Stull, 1932)

    Characteristics / Appearance

    The New Guinea ground boa It is a species of relatively small boa. On average, this snake only reaches a few 60 cm., the individuals of 80-100 cm are a big exception. The scales are strongly rough/ribbed and they have a stocky physique and the tail is relatively short – only 7-8% of the total length. The reason why this species in English is sometimes called “Viper boas” It is because of the similarity in terms of complexion and pattern with the death adder (Acanthophis) which also occurs in the same area. They blend in perfectly with their surroundings and camouflage well.

    Habitat

    Its natural habitat consists of moist lowlands, forests and swamps where the water level is under the influence of the tides and the rainy season. It is not uncommon for these regions to be seasonally flooded.

    Behavior

    The species is mainly nocturnal and moves on the ground and is only occasionally found in trees.. Animals often hide under vegetation or leaf litter. when they are threatened, they curl up with their heads hidden in the center. They feed on skinks, other lizards, frogs, small land mammals and birds. The New Guinea ground boa it is viviparous.

    Threats to the species

    This species is found in the pet trade and populations in Indonesia are subject to CITES quotas..

    Yuwono (1998) recorded trade in this species from Indonesian New Guinea, and that thousands of specimens could be collected if needed.

    Natusch y Lyons (2012) observed trade in this species from Jayapura and the Vogelkop in New Guinea Indonesia. Between September 2010 and April 2011 fifteen and forty-four individuals were recorded, respectively, in wildlife trades. The quota for this species was 500 from Papua and 800 from West Papua.

    There is no Papua New Guinea quota.

    It is unlikely that there are major threats to this species. Found in the pet trade, but this is unlikely to pose a significant threat.

    The "New Guinea ground boa" in captivity

    The terrarium

    Exo Terra terrarium
    Exo Terra terrarium 90 X 45 X 45 cm.

    Since these snakes barely climb, the height of the enclosure is not as important as a suitable floor area. Because of his shy nature and reclusive lifestyle and earthly needs, this snake “would fit” to be housed in the well-known “shelf” for snakes. However, you can also opt for a naturally decorated terrarium (bioactive). This is not only very pleasing to the eye and has a lower level of maintenance. You will also be able to observe them better at night, when they are active, and we all agree that this is a big and important part of reptile farming, observing their interesting behaviors.

    A very suitable terrarium for New Guinea ground boa is the terrarium Exo-Terra Glass from 60x45x30 to 90x45x45. These have enough surface area for a single animal, they are well ventilated and have a good closing system.

    Substratum

    Give it a substrate at least 8cm deep as these animals love to dig. The best thing to choose is a substrate that retains moisture well, such as coco peat soil or coconut chips.. Optionally, can be mixed with reptibark, cypress bark or mulch. Keep the soil moist at all times, but not wet. If the environment gets too dry, the snake will have trouble shedding properly.

    Humidity

    Keep the humidity medium around 70-80% and do regular nebulizations to maintain this level. As these snakes love to get soaked, it is important to provide them with a container of water large enough for them to submerge completely. Keep in mind that these snakes usually defecate in the water. Therefore, change the water daily and disinfect the drinker once a week.

    Terrarium decoration

    Decorate the terrarium with various hiding places like caves for reptiles, cork logs and tropical wood. In the terrarium you can also add live plants such as small Ficus and Scindapsus. Plants help a lot to maintain humidity, they provide additional hiding places and are a nice way to decorate the terrarium.

    Temperature

    The heating can be placed on one side by means of a heat radiator or a ceramic heater connected to a thermostat to avoid too high temperatures. A spot heat lamp is not recommended because these animals do not naturally bask. Lighting with a low power bulb, such as a compact daylight lamp or fluorescent tube, will mimic the natural day-night rhythm. This species requires a moderate but fairly constant temperature. In its natural habitat there is little difference between day and night temperatures. You have to provide an average temperature of 26-28 degrees centigrade with a hot spot of 30-32C. At night the temperature can drop to 24C.

    Food

    Their natural diet consists mainly of various species of frogs and small lizards such as geckos and skinks., they will only sporadically eat a small rodent. Due to this natural diet, especially the Candoia newborns seem reluctant to accept small rodents at birth. Therefore, sometimes it is necessary to help or force them to eat a few times before they begin to feed themselves. Another possibility is to aromatize a mouse (live) pink with a lizard or a frog. Candoia hatchlings often react to the scent and soon start feeding on these scented prey. Once the hatchlings have had several of these scented prey, the number of odors can be reduced so that they become fully accustomed to feeding on rodents. Wild-caught adult animals seem to easily change to small rodents (live).

    Buy one "New Guinea ground boa"

    Depending on the country where a "New Guinea ground boa", its price can range between 200 – 600 euros in the exotic animal market.

    Videos "New Guinea ground boa"

    Alternative names:

      1. New Guinea ground boa, Viper boa (English).
      2. Boa vipère de Nouvelle-Guinée, Boa vipère (French).
      3. Neuguinea-Boa, Viper-Boa, Pazifikboa, Südsee-Boa (German).
      4. Jibóia-da-nova-guiné (Portuguese).
      5. "Boa terrestre de Nueva Guinea", Boa de tierra de Nueva Guinea, Boa viperina (español).