Alexandra's Parrot
Polytelis alexandrae

Alexandra's Parrot

Description

45 cm. length, including its long, narrow tail, and around 92 g. of weight.

The head of the Alexandra's Parrot (Polytelis alexandrae) is light olive brown color, heavily washed in blue pastel in the Crown area, the nape of the neck, and slightly below the eyes; the Chin and throat pale pink.

Mantle and scapulars Brown olive-tinged greenish and fine dark stripes; back and rump, color pastel blue; upper coverts greenish-gray tail. Upper coverts bright yellowish green wings, with a few more green feathers around the curve of the wing; Dark greenish blue primary coverts; primary blue-green with yellowish-brown, and dark brown margin leading edge for the vane inner (the third rémige primary has the tip spatula-shaped. ); secondary of pale blue-green with a yellowish margin (more pronounced in vane outer); greenish grey tertials with vane more obscure internal. Wing of bright green feathers, more yellow towards leading edge; undertail, wings greyish Brown with large pale yellow inner margin to the vane inner. Usually gray olive underparts pale, with the pink color of the throat which runs on top of the chest; belly and flanks washed clear bluish green; thighs and lower flanks with increase in pink; coverts yellow olive color infracaudales. Upper, tail Brown olive green near the axis and blue toward tip-washed, lateral feathers bluish grey and pink-tipped; undertail, Black tail with tips and margins of pink.

The beak is red with a grey periophthalmic ring; orange-yellow irises; grey legs.

Female has a shorter tail (average of 6 cm.. less than the male) and it lacks of spatula in the third tip rémige primary. The wing coverts are greener and more off. And the mantle shows less green Suffusion. Crown, back and rump are less blue.

Immature similar to females and males acquire the adult plumage in about 14 a 18 months.

  • Sound of the Alexandra's Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Perico Princesa.mp3]

Habitat:

Highly nomadic and little known in the wild.

Inhabits the deserts of sand from the arid Center of Australia, often far from water. Birds can reach an area which have been absent for many years, reproduce, and quickly exit again.

They are in the prairies of mounds, dry forests of coastal eucalyptus, thickets of acacia, mulga (Acacia aneura) and deserts with scattered Oaks (Allocasuarina decaisneana).

The birds are alone, in pairs or in small groups of up to 15 Member. There are also some records of large breeding colonies.

Reproduction:

The breeding season has been registered from September to January, Although the nesting can be irregular and probably depend on the rainfall of rain and is also sometimes colonial.

During courtship, the male raises some feathers on its Crown and extends its wings and tail.

Favorite nesting place is a large hole in a Red eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) lined with a pile of rotting wood dust (the desert oak It has also been used).

Of four to six white eggs make up the implementation, incubated by the female for a few 21 days. While the female is incubating, the male takes care of your power. The brood is fed during 5-6 weeks and become independent from three to five weeks after leaving the nest.

Food:

The birds feed on the ground and can be very meek. The diet includes seeds of Spinifex (Triodia mitchelli) and Herb mulga (Bipartite Danthonia). Also, According to sources, they can feed on nectar.

Distribution:

The Alexandra's Parrot are confined to the interior of Australia, where usually are very rare and few records. The species is an irregular visitor, It may not appear in parts of its distribution area for two decades or more.

Are distributed in Western Australia, from the North of the Great sandy desert to the West of the Fitzroy river, about Wiluna, Sandstone, Menzies and Coolgardie and East through the deserts Gibson and Great victory.

Occurs in the Northern Territory to the North of the area of Newcastle Waters and Stuart Plains, and to the South up to around Alice Springs.

In Queensland, It is very rare in the South-western end, but there is a recent record of breeding around Cloncurry.

In South Australia, extends to the East, about Oodnadatta, and there is a record of 1986 in the Great Victoria desert some 25 kilometers to the North of the Nurrari Lakes.

There is disagreement about its conservation status. The recent lack of records of large groups of reproduction, He cited as a possible indication of population decline, but there is little real information, and it suggests that the world's population can be estimated between 1.000 and 20.000 birds. A recent study suggests that the species could be irruptiva instead of nomad, and that a core of population can be resident in the area around the Tobin Lake, Western Australia.

Trade, fires, the change in the land use and the predation regimes, they have been cited as potential threats.

Protected by law.

A large number in captivity.

VULNERABLE

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Stable

The population of the Alexandra's Parrot It is estimated, with low reliability, in 5 000 birds breeding (Garnett and Crowley 2000).

There is no firm evidence to determine the general trend number of Perico Princess that exist. However, the rate appears to have decreased (Garnett and Crowley 2000), and recent sightings (in different places of Tobin Lake in the Great sandy desert) they have only been small batches (Garnett 1993; Garnett and Crowley 2000). On the other hand, historical records include reports of large flocks and large breeding colonies (Forshaw and Cooper 2002; North 1912; Parker 1971; Whitlock 1924).

The Alexandra's Parrot It has not been registered crossed with other species in nature. It is unlikely that any interbreeding occurs because the other two members of the genus Polytelis, the Superb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii) and the Regent Parrot (Polytelis anthopeplus), they usually do not occur in the same places as the Princess Parrot (Higgins 1999).

Remote areas occupied by species, his presence irregular in the majority of sites, and the lack of information about their movements, they make it difficult to accurately estimate the size of the population (Higgins 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Study the ecology of the species, about the Tobin Lake or the Great Victoria desert to determine the likely constraints on population size.

• Monitoring of sightings to characterize habitat and habitat models to verify the needs and historical responses to fire and precipitation of the entire distribution of the species.

• Use the information from the investigation to develop a management strategy.

• Protect the areas where the species breeding is recorded.

Perico Princess in captivity:

Not too noisy, good whistling, and friendly disposition. It is a robust bird able to tolerate reasonable temperatures. Susceptible to infections in the eyes.

According to records, a female lived 23,9 years in captivity.

Common in captivity.

Pure birds, with colors typical of their species are increasingly hard to find.

The Alexandra's Parrot they can be accommodated in a wide variety of sizes of aviaries. It is best to raise them as couples, They seem to play better if they can see or listen to another pair of the same species. An Aviary of 4 meters long is considered the minimum to properly accommodate these birds.

Have brought successfully as a colony of 3-5 couples in a large aviary.

Non-toxic hardwood branches can be placed in the Aviary of birds so that they can chew them. This entertains our parakeets, helping to minimize boredom and providing them with a little exercise for supico. Natural branches of different diameters, and placed in different angles, they can be used for hangers. These natural hangers can be chewed by birds and may need to be replaced periodically. Birds may chew flowers and fruiting bodies in the branches.

Its diet It requires a mixture of quality of food for parrots and a variety of fruits, such as the Apple and orange, as well as a variety of vegetables – maize, Chard, usually providing green food and green leafy vegetables. Sowing grasses, If they are available. Soaked or sprouted seeds if they are available.

Commercial dry pellets can be part of a balanced diet.

Some birds will eat insects, as mealworms, especially around the breeding season. Insects provide a good source of easily digestible proteins to adult and young birds. Insects can serve food to these birds on your daily diet.

The breeding season These parrots begins in March; the implementation is of 3 a 7 eggs, and incubation lasts approximately 20 days; the young become independent to the 50 days; occasionally breeding occurs 2 times a year. It is frequent that the female sexually mature in the first year, the male after the second year; couples can stay in adjacent aviaries each other separated by double metal fabric.

Alternative names:

Alexandra’s Parrot, Gould princess parrot, Pilpul, Princess Alexandra’s Parrot, Princess Parrot (English).
Perruche d’Alexandra, Perruche, Perruche à calotte bleue, Perruche Princesse-de-Galles, Princesse-de-Galle (French).
Alexandrasittich, Alexandra-Sittich, Blaukappensittich, Grosser Alexandersittich (German).
Periquito-princesa (Portuguese).
Perico Princesa, Periquito Princesa de Gales (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Polytelis
Scientific name: Polytelis alexandrae
Citation: Gould, 1863
Protonimo: Polyteles alexandrae

Alexandra's Parrot pictures:

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Alexandra's Parrot (Polytelis alexandrae)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
– Anage: The Animal Ageing and Longevity Database – Genomics.senescence.info

Photos:

(1) – Pet Info Club – petinfoclub.com
(2) – Princess Parrot at Cincinnati Zoo, USA By Ted (originally posted to Flickr as DSC_0026) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Princess Parrot at Cincinnati Zoo, USA By Ted (originally posted to Flickr as DSC_0063) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A blue mutant Princess Parrot at Flying High Bird Sanctuary, Australia By paulgear (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – ©2013 Simon J. Tonge – calphotos

Sounds: Nigel Jackett (Xeno-canto)

Regent Parrot
Polytelis anthopeplus

Regent Parrot

Description

37 a 42 cm.. length and around 114 g. of weight.

Regent Parrot

The Regent Parrot (Polytelis anthopeplus) has the yellow head, tending to yellow olive in it crown and nape. Green olive the the mantle; scapulars of color Brown olive dark; floor area of the back and tail showy yellow, tending to yellow olive in uppertail-coverts. Smalls and medium corbeteras, Yellow; greater coverts of color black blue in them pens external, Red with yellow tips on the innermost feathers; tertiary black grey in vane inner; reddish pink, with yellow tip in the vane outer; primary coverts bluish-black; primaries and secondaries bluish-black, with black inner tubes. Wing feathers yellow; underside of flight feather brown, almost black. The underparts Yellow, more off the yellow olive in undertail-coverts with some brands Orange indistinct around it area anal.

The tail is of color black with infiltrations of color blue dark in the part superior of their feathers Central and of the threads internal of their feathers side.

The bill is pinkish-Red. The irises are of color brown orange; legs grey.

The female has the underparts grey and of color green it top. Lords and ear-coverts are of colour more greenish. The strip of color blue dark of the feathers is more broad and it extends to the under wing-coverts that are more than color yellow-green that in the male. The rump is green olive opaque, not yellow. The red dot of the wing is less developed and has less brightness. Tail of color green blue by over. It has a pink tip below.

The youth they resemble females, However, young males have more yellow in the head.

  • Sound of the Regent Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Perico Regente.mp3]

Description 2 subspecies.

  • Polytelis anthopeplus anthopeplus

    : (Lear 1831) – The nominal.

  • Polytelis anthopeplus monarchoides

    : (Schodde 1993) – The male has much more brightness that it nominal species, particularly, the yellow of the underparts.

Habitat and habits:

The Regent Parrot they reside mainly in the East, Although the birds disperse after breeding season.

More regular movements have been recorded in the Western population, with spread towards the South during the summer, and a concentration below the 32 ° S in the autumn.

The birds move to the northeast in winter; movements of up to 320 km have been recorded. Oriental birds are linked to the banks of the rivers, where is the red rubber (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) trees with mallee Shrublands partners (Eucalyptus gracilis). They are also distributed in forests of eucalyptus, areas with thin Cypress pine (Callitris preissii), orchards and vineyards.

In the West, the species is less dependent from the Mallee and they reside in mixed plots of acacia and eucalyptus (wandoo, salmonophloia) and within agricultural land.

The Regent Parrot they are not in the forests of the South-western area, Although there have been in the forest clearings.

Outside the breeding season, the birds can be found in noisy flocks of a hundred or more individuals, being in general cautious. They feed primarily on Earth.

Reproduction:

The nesting season takes place between January and August. These birds nest either in single pairs or in small colonies composed of a maximum of 18 couples. Before the mating, There are ritual offerings of food.

The site selected for reproduction is usually a great tree of the gum dead or dying, a 20 metres above the ground and near a permanent water course. These nests are often reused.

The spawning includes of 3 a 6 white eggs You settle on a layer of decaying wood shavings. The female incubates alone during 21 days. His companion, he defected from the nest tree and joined a group consisting only of males, it comes to collaborate with food tasks. The chicks have white down. Usually, leave the nest after 5 a 6 weeks, but after feather, they remain in the family group for a few weeks yet.

Food:

The diet usually comprises seeds of grasses, herbs, fruit, berries, sprouts and flowers. They also take crops of cereals and dried fruits from orchards, as well as the grain spilled on roads.

In the East, males tend to feed in the mallee scrub (for example White Mallee Eucalyptus dumosa and Red Mallee Eucalyptus socialis) during the breeding season.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 1.520.000 km2

Confined to Australia, where in two very distant populations. In Western Australia are distributed mainly in the wheat belt, extending north to Ajana, on the inside of Laverton and Karonie, and down in Israelite Bay, on the South Coast; is also located to the South of Perth, but they have not fully colonized the wooded area Southwest.

In the southeast of Australia the range has shrunk in recent years. In the South of Australia, the species occurs along of the Murray River, around Morgan at the border of New South Wales, Victoria (seven colonies).

In Victoria are distributed in the Wyperfeld National Park and along the Wimmera River to the South of the Lake Hindmarsh, but the reproduction, probably, ceased to occur in the Lake Albacutya as recently as 1988.

In New South Wales is isolated along foci of the Murray River, and around the mouth of the Murrumbidgee River.

Along the border of New South Wales, Victoria, they are now grouped into four areas, and is absent 100 kilometres on both sides of Mildura; There are some couples throughout the North of the Darling river in Pooncarie, and along the Wakool River East.

There is a certain dispersion post-cria, but the birds is unlikely it lies to the northeast of Balranald or to the South of Castenaso, except perhaps during periods of drought.

Locally common in areas of riparian forest and Mallee (Eucalyptus gracilis).

The world's population is believed to be superior to the 15.000 individuals, but the subspecies of the East is by far the smaller of the two.

Completely protected by law in all but a few regions of the South-West.

A moderate number of captivity.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

  • Polytelis anthopeplus anthopeplus

    : (Lear 1831) – The nominal. Southwest of Australia.

  • Polytelis anthopeplus monarchoides

    : (Schodde 1993) – Interior West of the part of Southeast of Australia (Southeast of the South of Australia, Southwest of New South Wales and Northwest of Victoria).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Decreasing

The species has an estimated world population in 21.500 individuals (Garnett and Crowley 2000).
The population of the subspecies anthopeplusis It is estimated in 20.000 individuals.
The population of the subspecies monarchoides It is estimated in 1.500 individuals (Garnett and Crowley 2000).

The population of the subspecies anthopeplusis is probably stable as a whole, While the subspecies monarchoides It may be waning (Garnett and Crowley 2000).

Areas of degradation Mallee (eucalyptus), accidents on the road, occupation natural cavities of swarms of bees and persecution due to farmers, they are the threats more recurrent. Despite its original development in areas of the southwest through the development of agriculture, even in these areas, It is considered a slight decline. The hope comes from the fact that can go to colonizing New Territories in forest areas in the South-western end. By now, the species is considered not presenting no important problem. However, in nearly all regions, except in areas of intensive agriculture, benefits from the protection.

Regent parakeet in captivity:

It is a bird very quiet. It is customary to his carer quickly enough. Friendly, It will also tolerate other non-aggressive species. Very active in the morning and afternoon. They may be prone to infections in the eyes and feet.

A sample was still alive after 13,8 years in captivity. It has been reported that these animals can live up to 27,5 years in captivity but it has not been able to be verified; the same study reported that these animals can reproduce from around the first year of age in captivity.

It is not very common in captivity.

Alternative names:

Regent Parrot, Black-tailed Parakeet, Black-tailed Parrot, Black-throated Parrot, Blossom-feathered Parakeet, Mallee Smoker, Marlock Parakeet, Marlock Parrot, Mountain Parrot, Plaide-wing Parrot, Regal Parrot, Rock Pebbler, Royal Parrot, Smoker, Smoker Parrot, Yellow King-Parrot (English).
Perruche mélanure, Perruche à queue noire (French).
Bergsittich (German).
Periquito-regente (Portuguese).
Perico Regente, Periquito de Rock Pebbler (Spanish).

Edward Lear
Edward Lear

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Polytelis
Scientific name: Polytelis anthopeplus
Citation: (Lear, 1831)
Protonimo: Palaeornis anthopeplus

Regent Parrot Images:

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Regent Parrot (Polytelis anthopeplus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
– Anage: The Animal Ageing and Longevity Database – Anage entry for Polytelis anthopeplus

Photos:

(1) – A juvenile Regent Parrot (Polytelis anthopeplus) at the Bird Walk (Walk-in Aviary), Canberra, Australian National Territory, Australia By Polytelis_anthopeplus_2. jpg: JJ Harrison ([email protected])derivative work: Diliff (Polytelis_anthopeplus_2. jpg) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – An adult male perched by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx
(3) – A juvenile Regent Parrot (Polytelis anthopeplus) also known as the Rock Pebbler, Black-tailed Parakeet, Smoker, Marlock Parakeet and sometimes Regent Parakeet By Rainey06au at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Two Regent Parrots in an aviary in Australia. It is also known as the Rock Pebbler, Black-tailed Parakeet, Smoker, Marlock Parakeet and sometimes Regent Parakeet By Kristina (originally posted to Flickr as Parrots) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A Regent Parrot in Flying High Bird Sanctuary, Australia. The parrot is feeding on seeds from the left hand of small boy’ s outstretched arm By paulgear (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – The Cape Parrot (Polytelis anthopeplus) Started by Dallas – Gros-becs.net

Sounds: Scott Connop (Xeno-canto)

Superb Parrot
Polytelis swainsonii

Superb Parrot

Description

40 cm.. length between 132 and 157 g. of weight.

Superb Parrot

The Superb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii) has the front, crown, Chin and throat of bright yellow; back of the bright green Crown with turquoise blue wash: headphones coverts and Lords, green. Bright green upper parts. Upper, the wings, bright green, with dark diffusion in the inner margins of the vane internal and blue diffusion in vane outer (fine yellow rear margin for flight feathers); bluish carpal edge: light blue primary coverts; primary elongated.

Wing of bright green feathers; bottom of blackish brown flight feathers. Underparts pale bright green, with thin bright red Ruff between throat yellow and green at the top of the chest. Upper, bright green tail, with dark elongated Central feathers Slightly bulbous tips. outer feathers with bluish edges vane outer. The lower part of the tail is black.

Bill, coral red; yellow-orange irises; Blackish legs.

The female is completely Green, with a bath pink Brown throat and with the headphones cinnamon and the Crown of blue-grey. The mantle is more off, more greenish Brown, contrasting with the Green rump and dark flight feathers. The underparts are paler, orange-red legs. She also has distinctive pink trim and pink tips to yellow vane internal bottom of the queue.

Yellow IRIS.

Immature as females but with Brown iris. Males attain adult plumage in about 12 months.

  • Sound of the Superb Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Perico Soberbio.mp3]

Habitat:

A part of the population of the superb Parrot is migratory, wintering in the North of the breeding areas.

The habitat preferences of the breeding populations varies slightly from East to West within the slopes of the Great dividing range and open areas in forests of eucalyptus, It is the dominant vegetation type. Here the species nests away from water courses, and it uses a variety of tree species.
In the region of Riverina, to the West, the birds are bred almost exclusively on the banks of the rivers, in forests of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, feeding on nearby forests of Eucalyptus bicolor, Eucalyptus melliodora and White Pino-CIPRES (Callitris columellaris).

They sometimes also found in farmland and villages.

The size of the flocks are usually small, but groups of up to 100 individuals have been recorded after the breeding season.

The superb Parrot feed in the trees, in the understory, and also in land, where can be accessible, feeding on grain spilled at the edges of roads and maintenance of the company of the Yellow Rosella and cockatoos.

Reproduction:

The breeding season of the Superb Parrot is from September to November.
Male parade making small greetings and nodding his head. Both members of the couple make ritual exchanges of food.

The nest is usually a hollow, full of scrap wood, at the top of a tree dead or alive and a considerable height that is usually between 11 and 51 meters above the ground. The individual sites tend to be reused.

The Superb Parrot, they often nest in colonies ranging up to six couples. Spawning contains 4 or 6 eggs which are incubated for at least 20 days. The chicks are altricial and leave the nest after 30 days.

Food:

The diet includes fruits and flowers of Acacia and eucalyptus, fruit shrubs (for example Exocarpos); seeds of crops, pastures, weeds and grasses

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 95.300 km2

The Superb Parrot they are endemic in Australia, where are distributed only in New South Wales and the north end of Victoria.

The species are concentrated in two main areas: on the South-West slope of the Great dividing range (regions of Cowra, Boorowa, Cootamundra and Yass), and in the area of Riverina, New Wales of the itsr. In this latter range extends along of the Murrumbidgee River, from There is a a Darlington Point, Narrandera and Wagga Wagga.

Also found in the North of Goolgowi and the Lachlan River, and in South, in the rivers Edward and Murray (Barham. Deniliquin, Tocumwal, Cobram, Getafe and Albury).

In the North of Victoria, concentrated along the rivers Goulburn and Ovens, and in the area of Barmah Forest.

Wandering birds occasionally appear more to the West, along the border of Victoria and New South Wales.

The Superb Parrot, normally they are not reproduced above 33 ° S, but at least part of the population disperses northward to 33° S at the end of the breeding season.

These birds are found from April to August in the northeast of New South Wales from Gunnedah a Narrabri, Gilgandra and Coonamble, and between river systems to the West (Barwon, Namoi, Macquarie, Castlereagh, Marthaguy Creek).

Occasionally, alleged migratory birds, They fly to the West, about Tottenham and Hermidale.

Escapes have been recorded around Sydney and Melbourne.

A moderate number of captivity.

Protected by law.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

Its population, apparently, fell in 1920 as an accidental effect of a poisoning by the crop protection.

A panel of experts considered that it was very likely that the population in 2010 exceeds the 10.000 mature individuals. The current estimate ranges in the Strip between 10.000 and 20.000 specimens.

The general trend of the population of the Superb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii) is uncertain, but there is no evidence of a continuous decline.

In Australia is also classified as vulnerable species the law of protection of the environment and conservation of the biodiversidadad of 1999. Their conservation status also varies between States, for example in the law of Victoria (1988) is considered to be threatened species.

Perico Soberbio in captivity:

Take it easy, relatively little aggressive with other birds, and very social.

Una muestra vivió 15,1 years in captivity. According to sources, these animals can live up to 24,2 years in captivity, It is possible to, but the source is not verified; the same study reported that these animals can reproduce in approximately 2 years of age in captivity.

Pretty common in captivity, above all in Australia.

Alternative names:

Superb Parrot, Barraband, Barraband Parakeet, Barraband Parrot, Green Leek, Scarlet-breasted Parrot (English).
Perruche de Barraband, Perruche Barraband, Perruche superbe (French).
Schildsittich (German).
Periquito-soberbo (Portuguese).
Perico Soberbio, Periquito de Barraband (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Polytelis
Scientific name: Polytelis swainsonii
Citation: (Desmarest, 1826)
Protonimo: Psittacus Swainsonii

Superb Parrot images:

————————————————————————————————

Superb Parrot (Polytelis swainsonii)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
– The Animal Ageing and Longevity Database – Polytelis swainsonii

Photos:

(1) – By paulgear (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Image Credit: Stuart Harris – Canberra Birds
(3) – Image Credit: Julian Robinson – Canberra Birds
(4) – Image Credit: Stuart Harris – Canberra Birds
(5) – Image Credit: Julian Robinson – Canberra Birds

Sounds: Ding Li Yong (Xeno-canto)