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Crimson Shining-Parrot
Prosopeia splendens

Crimson Shining-Parrot

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description:

42 cm. length and 280 g. of weight.

The Crimson Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia splendens) is very similar to the Red Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis). has the head and underparts red intense and bright, slightly darker in ears; broad collar rear violet-blue, which becomes turquoise toward the trailing edge. The rest of upperparts bright pale green with darker edges and fine bright in back and wings. Coverts medium green, greater coverts blue green; primary coverts and primaries deep blue-violet with black on innerwebs; secondaries blue to green in the innermost feathers. Underwing-coverts marked blue-green and red; axillary pale green. Uppertail green with blue tip, violet blue with side feathers innerwebs blackish; undertail black. Bill black; irises red-orange; legs black.

The male has the bill and head bigger

taxonomy:

It was generally considered consanguineous with the Prosopeia Tabuensis, but may be closer Prosopeia Personata. Monotypic.

  • Escarlata sound Papagayo.

Habitat:

It is found in forests, farmland and villages, both in the lowlands and hills.

Reproduction:

Food, habits and reproductive behavior presumably similar to those of the Red Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis) With which, until very recently, was considered consanguineous.

Food:

Similar al al Red Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis).

Distribution:

Extension of the distribution (breeding/resident): 910 km2

It is endemic Fiji, where it is found naturally in islas de Kadavu (including around Vunisea) and Ono. It has also been introduced in Viti Levu and probably in the Group Yasawa and Ovalau in the past (There are no recent records).

Conservation:


Vulnerable


• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable

• Population trend: decreasing.

The species may be declining in Viti Levu due to trade, although at present the possible negative effects of competition are not known with Masked Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia personata). It is estimated that the world population lies between 5.000 and 10.000 specimens. NEAR THREATENED.

Justification of the population

Although recent fieldwork on Kadavu has not focused specifically on this species, seems to occur in population densities similar to those of Masked Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia personata) (86 Crimson Shining-Parrot They were recorded in Kadavu 38 standardized observation times in the two studies BirdLife, similar to the average 1,9 of the Masked Shining-Parrot /time recorded in 18 sites across the Viti Levu). The Masked Shining-Parrot It was estimated at around 29 in native lowland forest birds / km2 (Jackson y Jit 2004). The area of ​​dense forest and medium density Kadavu it's around of 225 km2 (National Forest Inventory 1991-1993), so a reasonable estimate of the population Crimson Shining-Parrot would be 6.000 birds or 4.000 mature individuals.

Conservation Actions Underway

Appendix II of the CITES. It is protected by law in Fiji, which has recently been revised, the old Law Poultry and game has been partly overtaken by the Law on Protection of Endangered Species, which provides protection (SPREP 2000, D. Watling a slightly. 2007). Conservation projects have reduced the trade in this species (Jackson y Jit 2004). Four communities have declared a protected area covering community 1.535 hectares of forest and local volunteers monitor bird populations and assess the state of the habitat on their own initiative (V. Masibalavu a slightly. 2007). Conservation actions aimed at fire prevention (including awareness following the amendment of the decree concerning arson) have improved in recent years (V. Masibalavu in litt. 2012, M. Tabudravu in little. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Establish standards for maintenance of parrots in captivity to reduce demand (SPREP 2000). Monitor the numbers caught and transported to Suva. Determining population densities in various habitats. Investigate breeding needs and success. Promote the creation of community forest reserves. Use as set species to promote ecotourism in Kadavu.

"Crimson Shining-Parrot" in captivity:

Captive numbers are unknown., and everything indicates that captive breeding has rarely been achieved. It is caught in small quantities, and islanders returning to the capital, Suva (Watling 2000), the birds are carried as a gift, and there is at least some illegal trade abroad (J. S. Kretzschmar a lie. 2000).

In the nineteenth century it was imported by zoos in London, Berlin and Hamburg. In the United States, He kept San Diego Zoo, which was partially successful with the offspring when a young man born in 1973,

As they are at serious risk of extinction, only the most experienced should attempt to keep them in their aviaries, and all captive bred should be better placed in breeding programs to establish a larger population and participate in the conservation of this bird species.

Alternative names:

Crimson Shining Parrot, Crimson Shining-Parrot, Kadavu Shining Parrot, Kandavu Shining Parrot, Kandavu Shining-Parrot (inglés).
Perruche écarlate, Perruche masquée écarlate (francés).
Fidschi Sittich, Fidschisittich (alemán).
Papagayo Escarlata (portugués).
Papagayo Escarlata, Papgayo Escarlata (español).

Clasificación científica:

Peale, Titian Ramsay


Orden: Psittaciformes
Familia: Psittaculidae
Género: Prosopeia
Nombre científico: Prosopeia splendens
Citación: (Peale, 1848)
Protónimo: Platycercus splendens

Imágenes Papagayo Escarlata:

Videos del "Papagayo Escarlata"

Fuentes:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Par
Birdlife

Fotos:

(1) – Auckland Museum [CC BY 4.0]

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Red Shining-Parrot
Prosopeia tabuensis

Red Shining-Parrot

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description

45 cm. of length and weight approximate of 280 g..

The Red Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis) It is the most distinctive of the colorful parrots of Fiji. It is a large parrot.

Their coloration are distinguished from the other two species. Its head, neck and underparts a brilliant scarlet hues with a blue collar extending behind the neck; the back and tail are a bright green. The flight feather and tail they are green, strongly impregnated with blue.

The bill and legs are black, and irises are orange.

The males and females they are similar, However, the bill the male is larger and the head It has a more square than the females form.

Description 2 subspecies:

  • Prosopeia tabuensis tabuensis

    (Gmelin) 1788 – The species nominal


  • Prosopeia tabuensis taviunensis

    (Layard,THE) 1876 – 40 cm.. length approximately; more small that it nominal species, without the band blue on the nape, the feathers of the abdomen with a tone more blue and with the face less blackish.

Habitat:

Red Shining-Parrot

The Red Shining-Parrot are distributed in the mature forests and through a variety of associated habitats, including the of secondary growth, wooded ravines (nest), coconut plantations, Gardens of villages, agricultural fields, mangroves and scrub.

There has been starting from the 100 meters of altitude until the 1.750, but they are most common between the 400 and 1.000 m.

The Red Shining-Parrot they are suspicious, curious and You can see them individually, in pairs or in flocks of up to 40 individuals outside the breeding season. they are not shy, and loud groups tend to meet in their favotitos places to eat.

They tend to rest on the tops of the trees.

Reproduction:

The Red Shining-Parrot perch upright and turn head rhythmically back and forth, probably showing a form of courtship.

The breeding is in the months from July to October, in trees dead or broken, the female feeds the young.

Of 2-3 eggs that is hatch during 23-24 days.

The juveniles they can fly to the 8 weeks.

Food:

Feeding of the fruits and seeds a variety of trees, for example, Myristica hypargyraea, that is of particular importance in 'USA. They also feed on Mango Mangifera indica, papaya Carica papaya, guava Psidium guajava and bananas. Son agile climbers and move in search of food using their beaks to rely on small branches. Sujentan foods with their claws, since they bite with its powerful beak, and they chew the wood to remove insect larvae.

They feed mainly in the upper canopy, but sometimes also attack the cornfields.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 6.200 km2

The Red Shining-Parrot they are distributed in a natural way in the islands of the Group Fiji including Vanua Levu, KIOA, Taveuni, Qamea, Laucala, Koro and Gau (probably introduced). In Tonga, the species was introduced in Tongatapu prior to contact with the European and where it has already extinct due to habitat loss, and in 'USA where it is still quite common, especially in the forests of the East, North and South-West (with a population estimated between 700- 1.000 birds in 1988).

The species benefits, in part, Thanks to agriculture, but they depend largely on its nest in mature trees of the forest, trees that are being cleared in most of its extension. The species is also threatened by trade, and it is also hunted for its feathers and as food.

Many juveniles are caught to be raised locally as pets, Since they learn to talk easily.

Its population is believed that it may be above the 20.000 specimens, but of the subspecies prosopeia remaining, probably, less than 5.000 birds and its status is of concern.

There has been a sharp decline in the population of the Red Shining-Parrot in some areas due to habitat loss, although the species remains locally common at lower elevations on most of its islands.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

  • Prosopeia tabuensis tabuensis

    (Gmelin) 1788 – The nominal species


  • Prosopeia tabuensis taviunensis

    (Layard,THE) 1876 – Taveuni, Ngamea (Qamea) and Laucala, in the North of Fiji.

Conservation:


Status


• Current Red List of UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

The size of the world population It has not been quantified, but the species is described as common and visible throughout its area of distribution (Watling 2001).

The population It is suspected that it may be in decline due to ongoing habitat destruction.

"Red Shining-Parrot" in captivity:

Very rare in captivity.

According to sources, one specimen was still alive after 6,8 years in captivity. Taking into account the longevity of the similar species, the maximum longevity in these animals could be underestimated. Es un hecho que estos animales pueden vivir hasta 23.7 years in captivity, aunque en esta especie no ha sido verificado.

Alternative names:

Red Shining-Parrot, Maroon Shining Parrot, Maroon Shining-parrot, Red Shining Parrot, Red-breasted Musk Parrot, Red-breasted Musk-Parrot, Red-breasted Shining-Parrot (ingles).
Perruche pompadour, Perruche masquée pompadour (French).
Pompadoursittich, Pompadour Sittich (German).
Prosopeia tabuensis (Portuguese).
Papagayo Carmín, Papagayo Granate (español).

scientific classification:

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Prosopeia
Scientific name: Prosopeia tabuensis
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus tabuensis

Images “Red Shining-Parrot”:

Videos "Red Shining-Parrot"

“Red Shining-Parrot” (Prosopeia tabuensis)

    Sources:

    Avibase
    – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
    Birdlife

    Photos:

    (1) – Red Shining-parrot Prosopeia tabuensis in captivity, Fafa Island, Tonga By Duncan Wright (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (2) – A painting of a Maroon Shining Parrot by Edward Lear 1812-1888 Edward Lear [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
    (3) – Red Shining-parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis) De Voeux Peak, Taveuni, Fiji Islands By Aviceda (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (4) – Maroon Shining Parrot Prosopeia tabuensis Kula Eco Park – Viti Levu, Fiji © 2007 Sarah P. Otto – The Online Zoo
    (5) – A bird foraging on the ground by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx
    (6) – A bird perched in a tree by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx

    Sounds: Matthias Feuersenger (Xeno-canto)

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Masked Shining-Parrot
Prosopeia personata

Masked Shining-Parrot

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description

47 cm of length and weight approximate of 322 g..

The colorful Masked Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia personata), has a plumage green over most of its body, the front of the crown, lores, cheeks and chin, are black.

The upperparts are bright pale green (with a brighter sheen on the Crown and nape). Large external coverts, primary coverts and primaries are blue with vane inner dark. Wing feathers green. Throat, top of the chest, flanks, and undertail- coverts green; center of chest and the belly bright yellow, a few feathers with the Green Tip, yellow shading in the Orange patch It is located in the lower part of the belly. Upper, the tail green; black for the part below.

The bill black; irises orange-red; legs blackish gray.

The male has the head and the bill larger that the female. The young birds have, peaks paler, less black in the face and irises brown.

El Papagayo Enmascarado (Prosopeia personata) is a large parrot, long tail which is only on an island, in Fiji.

Habitat:

Masked Shining-Parrot

They are distributed Since the sea level, until the 1.200 m altitude, in the forest reacor and secondary growth of the Windward areas and intermediate vegetation, You can also find them in orchards of villages, agricultural fields and mangroves; Often observed along forest edges near agricultural land and in trees bordering forest watercourses.

The Masked Shining-Parrot they are usually sociable and finds them alone, in pairs, or outside the breeding season in herds up to 40 birds.

Birds are sometimes interviews flying rapidly through the forest or wandering above the canopy. Son noisy birds and they are often heard before to be seen; similar to the Red Shining-Parrot, often make calls at the first sign of a human intruder, and they are generally shy and difficult to approach when they are perched on a branch.

Reproduction:

The breeding season occurs between July and September. The nest It is a hole or crack in a tree, or a cavity at the top of a stump. Two or more eggs White deposited inside a hollow form the implementation; the hole is expanded by making use of its powerful beak. Birds emit a strong odor.

Food:

The Masked Shining-Parrot they tend to rest the high parts of the trees, but descend to lower floors to feed on berries, and pick up the fruits of the soil; they can also attack fields.

The diet includes mainly fruit, for example, Mango (Mangifera indica), guava (Psidium guajava), Ficus figs and bananas, Although they can also be powered from flowers, insects, seeds and berries, as well as the cultivated grain.

When feed, They manipulate food with their legs using their beaks to catch small branches. They are powerful and it has been flying with a Mango between its claws.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 10,500 km2

The Masked Shining-Parrot they are endemic in Fiji, distributed only on the island of Viti Levu (Although the species also has been recorded in the nearby island of Ovalau in the past). In Viti Levu, It is not uncommon to see them on the inside of forests, including the surroundings of Nadarivatu and in the North of the Mount Tomanivi. In the center of Nadrau and to the East of the district Vunidawa.

The world population considered that it may be on the 5.000 specimens, but in decline due to habitat loss.

Required large trees for nesting are being felled., and tracts of mature forest are fragmented now in many areas.

The possible detrimental effect of inter-specific competition of the introduced Crimson Shining-Parrot remains study.

Conservation:


Status


• Current Red List of UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The most serious threat affecting the Masked Shining-Parrot It is the decline of forests in which inhabits, with less than the 50 per cent of the forests of Viti Levu remaining. This deforestation has led to the fragmentation of remaining forest areas. The huge trees felled during the deforestation are required by the Masked Shining-Parrot nest.

Other potential threats to this species include potential competition with the introduced Crimson Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia splendens). The Masked Shining-Parrot It can also be trafficked for the pet trade, Although the related species, as the Crimson Shining-Parrot It is believed that they are most popular).

Conservation of “Masked Shining-Parrot”.

The Masked Shining-Parrot is protected by the law of Fiji. However, current legislation for the capture of wild parrots is difficult to enforce. This Parrot also appears in the Appendix II of the Convention on international trade in endangered species (CITES), which means that international trade in the species must be carefully monitored.

The Masked Shining-Parrot It lives in several reserves and parks, where can you get some protection against deforestation. It has been proposed that community forest reserves must be encouraged in Viti Levu, to prevent further deforestation, and that the population figures of the Masked Shining-Parrot in these protected areas should be monitored. However, None of these measures has been put into action

"Masked Shining-Parrot" in captivity:

Rarely found in captivity.

According to sources, It is known that one as a specimen of this species lived 11,8 years in captivity.

Alternative names:

Masked Shining-Parrot, Masked Parrot, Masked Shining Parrot, Yellow-breasted Musk Parrot, Yellow-breasted Shining-Parrot (ingles).
Perruche masquée, Perruche masquée masquée (French).
Maskensittich, Masken-Sittich (German).
Prosopeia personata (Portuguese).
Papagayo Enmascarado (español).

scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Prosopeia
Scientific name: Prosopeia personata
Citation: (Gray, GR, 1848)
Protonimo: Coracopsis ? personata

Images “Masked Shining-Parrot”:

Videos "Masked Shining-Parrot"

————————————————————————————————

“Masked Shining-Parrot” (Prosopeia personata)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
ARKive.org

Photos:

(1) – Masked Shining Parrot , Birds Gallery, Natural History Museum, London By John Cummings (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – By Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Masked Shining Parrot Prosopeia personata Kula Eco Park – Viti Levu, Fiji © 2007 Sarah – The Online Zoo
(4) – Masked Shining Parrot Prosopeia personata Kula Eco Park – Viti Levu, Fiji © 2007 Sarah – The Online Zoo
(5) – A bird resting in a tree by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx
(6) – A close-up of the head of one bird by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx

Sounds: Matthias Feuersenger (Xeno-canto)