Black-lored Parrot
Tanygnathus gramineus

Black-lored Parrot

Description

40 a 42 cm. long.

The Black-lored Parrot (Tanygnathus gramineus) It has the head of green color with a black line that runs from the top of the peak to the eyes; steeped in turquoise blue Crown. The upper parts of green grass.

The medium-sized wing coverts, green; flight feather, green, a little darker, with blackish margins to the vane inner. Supracaudales coverts yellowish-green. The more underparts, more yellowish green, especially in the lower part of the cheeks and upper part of the chest. Upper, the Green tail with yellow tips; undertail, the Brown tail olive warm.

Billed red; iris yellow ; greyish legs.

Female with the grey brown peak, not red.

Immature undescribed.

  • Sound of the Black-lored Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Loro de Buru.mp3]

Habitat:

Information is received for the first time of the Black-lored Parrot Thanks to ornithologist side Hendrik Cornelis Sieber (1890-1949) in 1930.

Very little of this species is known. Is distributed in mountain forests above 600-700 meters and also, According to sources, in the lowlands, hills and coastal areas. It is partially nocturnal, Although sightings of birds sitting in the trees during the day, They show that, similar to the Blue-backed Parrot, they can also be active during the day.

Migration is relatively weak, and there are only a few reports of parrots flying to altitudes during the day and down at night, Judging from their voices.

Reproduction:

There is no data.

Food:

Possibly fruits, berries, seeds and nuts

Distribution:

Endemic of Buru, Indonesia.

Bird predominantly occupies the central part, High Island, where according to sources, There are settlements in Gunung Tagalago, WA Temun and Kunturun, at elevations of 700-1100 m, also in the lowlands of the South in Fäkal, EHU and Leksula. There was an observation of these parrots near the Kayeli Bay on the eastern shores of Buru. Most recent observations made outside North (Waflia) and (Wamlana) Northwest Coast.

The voice of the Black-lored Parrot is heard frequently in Kunturun, in its most 1-7 hours after the sunset, where the locals call the bird “Kakatua ol ’ biru“, which means Blue-headed Parrot. However, He was captured during the day with slings in fruit trees, suggesting that his activity is not purely night.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

The population is estimated at 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of the known records, descriptions of the abundance and range size. This estimate is equivalent to 3,500-15,000 specimens.

There are no data on trends for this species and has not been seen in the wild since 1995. Their habitat continues to decline slowly and were recorded in domestic trade in the year 2001. Therefore, the population of the species is suspected of have been declining.

Conservation Actions Proposed:

– Conduct surveys, mostly using their vocalizations at night, mainly in the mountain areas.
– Investigate their ecological requirements and movements in order to develop appropriate conservation strategy.
– Identify the most suitable area for the conservation of this and other endangered species in Buru, and promote its establishment as protected areas.

Buru parrot in captivity:

Unknown outside the island of Buru

Alternative names:

Black-lored Parrot, Black lored Parrot, Blacklored Parrot, Buru Parrot (English).
Perruche de Buru, Perruche à calotte bleue (French).
Burupapagei, Buru Papagei (German).
Tanygnathus gramineus (Portuguese).
Loro de Buru (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Tanygnathus
Scientific name: Tanygnathus gramineus
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus gramineus

————————————————————————————————

Black-lored Parrot (Tanygnathus gramineus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Wikipedia

Photos:

(1) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: Frank Lambert (Xeno-canto)

Blue-backed Parrot
Tanygnathus sumatranus


Blue-backed Parrot

Description

32 cm.. length between 173 and 334 g. of weight.

Blue-backed Parrot

The Blue-backed Parrot (Tanygnathus sumatranus) has the head and the the mantle a light yellowish green (slightly more yellowish mantle). The low back, buttocks and uppertail-coverts strongly impregnated with light blue.

Wings Green darker that the the mantle, with fine verde-amarillentos margins to coverts; primary coverts Blue sharp; bend of wing turquoise blue color marked; primaries Foreign and blackish green in vane inner.

Wing feathers greenish yellow; underside of flight feather, blackish. The underparts yellowish-green illuminated.

Upper, the tail green, marked in yellow on the vane inmates of the lateral feathers; Under, the tail varies from the color yellow to the Brown dark.

Bill red; irises yellow; legs grey.

It presents sexual dimorphism. The female has the bill yellowish or whitish grey; less greenish-yellow in the the mantle and less blue in the under wing-coverts.

Male young acquires the bill Red after ten to twelve months.

  • Sound of the Blue-backed Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Loro of Muller.mp3]
List of subspecies Tanygnathus sumatranus
Subspecies
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus sumatranus (Raffles, 1822): The nominal.
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus sangirensis (AB Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1894): It has more blue on the edges of the wings and their coverts, head darker green and Rainbow.
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus burbidgii (Sharpe, 1879): Its green tones are darker and the neck is more clear, its iris is yellow.
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus everetti (Tweeddale, 1877): It has darker mantle and back, clearer head and obispillo. It presents something blue in mantle and his irises are red.
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus duponti (Parkes, 1971): Is dark green with yellow collar, its the bottom of the wing coverts are yellowish and its red iris.
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus freeri (McGregor, 1910): More uniform and less contrasting color, with more yellow in the nape of the neck and the Red IRIS.

Habitat:

It is distributed mainly in lowland and lower montane forests, next to forests, and from time to time in the plantations or rice fields until 800 m altitude (less common in coastal habitats).

The birds are usually found in pairs or in small groups and may be quite accessible. They can be harmful to the crops, especially maize crops, and they are often active at night.

Reproduction:

Little is known of the species reproductive cycle, but a condition of being reproductive female was observed in April and birds have been investigating possible nests in September. In Sulawesi during November were observed in several nests chicks.

Food:

The diet includes fruits, seeds, nuts and berries.

Distribution:

Müller Parrot is distributed by the Celebes island e close Islands, including Buton and Tobea in the South-East, groups Togian and Banggai East, and Talisei, BANGKA and Manadotua in the North, extending northward through the Sangir group, at least in Karakelong in the Talaud group.

In Philippines, the species going from the Sulu archipelago, in the South-West, including at least Bongao, Sanga Sanga, Sibutu, Tawitawi, Jolo, Loran and Basbas.

Also distributed in the main islands of Philippines Luzon, Samar, Leyte, Surigao del Sur, Black, and Mindanao, as well as the Polillo Islands, but it is very rare in the country.

Widespread and locally common elsewhere, While the capture and loss of habitat have caused declines in some areas. Apparently less common than the Blue-naped Parrot, which cohabit.

Distribution subspecies Tanygnathus sumatranus
Subspecies

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, It is estimated over the 50.000 specimens.

The species was reported that it may be common to very frequent (pit et to the. 1997).

The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

Müller parrot in captivity:

It adapts well to captivity, Although they are rare.

Alternative names:

Blue-backed Parrot, Azure-rumped Parrot, Blue backed Parrot, Mèller’s parrot, Mueller’s Parrot, Muller’s Parrot, Müller’s Parrot (English).
Perruche de Müller, Perroquet de Müller (French).
Everettpapagei, Everett Papagei, Everett-Papagei (German).
Tanygnathus sumatranus (Portuguese).
Loro de Müller (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Tanygnathus
Scientific name: Tanygnathus sumatranus
Citation: (Raffles, 1822)
Protonimo: Psittacus Sumatranus

Blue-backed Parrot images:

————————————————————————————————

Blue-backed Parrot (Tanygnathus sumatranus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Wikipedia

Photos:

(1) – “Tanygnathus sumatranus-adult male-8-1c” by Tanygnathus_sumatranus_-adult_male-8. jpg: Chrisderivative work: Snowmanradio (talk) – originally posted to Flickr at Parrot and uploaded to Commons as Tanygnathus_sumatranus_-adult_male-8. jpg. Licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(2) – “Tanygnathus sumatranus-captive-6a” by TJ Lin – originally posted to Flickr as muller’ s parrot. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(3) – Female Müller’ s Blue-backed Parrot (Tanygnathus sumatranus) By [email protected]Zoochat
(4) – Tanygnathus sumatranus sumatranus By © Angie Pattison – igoterra
(5) – Azure-backed – animalphotos
(6) – “Tanygnathuseverettikeulemans” by John Gerrard Keulemans – Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Volume 20. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

Sounds: David Farrow (Xeno-canto)

Blue-naped Parrot
Tanygnathus lucionensis


Blue-naped Parrot

Description

31 cm.. length between 148 and 231 g. of weight.

Blue-naped Parrot

The Blue-naped Parrot (Tanygnathus lucionensis) has the head bright green with a clear bright blue diffusion through the back of the crown and nape.

Upperparts yellowish-green with pale blue illuminated on the back low and the tail; upper tail coverts brighter yellowish green.

Scapulars blue, with green edges; shoulder Black with small coverts Black bordered of blue-green and orange Green; median black and pale blue, large edges of opaque orange brown; greater coverts Blue-Green lined with orange-yellow in the feathers interiors.

Secondary Green with yellow and narrow margins; primaries Greens with vane Blackish internal.

Wing feathers green, underside of primaries blackish.

Upper, the tail green, narrow edge and yellowish tip laterally; undertail, the tail yellowish brown opaque.

Bill red, paler at the tip and the lower mandible; irises yellow; legs grey.

Both sexes are equal.

Immature with less blue in the crown and more off the brands of the wings.

  • Sound of the Blue-naped Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Loro Nuquiazul.mp3]

Subspecies:

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis lucionensis

    : The nominal.

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis hybridus

    : It has the most extended head blue, with violet tone. Their wings are greener.

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis talautensis

    : No blue in the obispillo and their plumage is less yellowish.

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis [salvadorii u horrisonus]:

Habitat:

It is a bird of forests closed and open, including secondary growth, coconut plantations, patches of mangrove and banana to the 1.000 meters above sea level; and not so strongly linked to coastal habitats as the Great-billed Parrot. Is usually found in flocks of up to 12 individuals who sit in community and make regular flights at dawn and in the evening between the feeding and resting areas. Feeds on fruit trees.

Reproduction:

The breeding It has been observed in the months of April to June. Registered a nest the natural cavity or abandoned Woodpecker hole, often a clear. There is no data on the size of the laying.

Food:

Fruits and seeds of forest trees, Palm fruit, young coconuts, the banana and papaya.

Distribution:

The population of the Blue-naped Parrot distributes lengthwise of the Philippines and Talaud Islands, (Indonesia). Specific records found in the islands of Balut, Bantavan, Basilan, Biliran, Bohol, Bongao, Cagayan Islands, Calamian Islands, Caluya, Cebu, Cuimaras, Jolo, Leyte, Luzon, Maestre de Campo, Malanipa, Manuk Manka, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindanao, Mindoro, Black, Palawan, Surigao del Sur, Polillo Islands, Romblon, Samar, Sanga Sanga, Sarangani Islands, Samal, Sibay, Sibutu, Sibuyan, Siquijor, Tables, Tawitawi, Ticao, Tumindao and Green (Philippines); Karakelong and Salibabu (Talaud).

Apparently, small groups of birds in Mantanani Kiss (Northwest Sabah), and SI-Amil (until 100 birds present in 1962) and Maratua off the northeast coast of Borneo; The existence of a wild population was also reported around Kota Kinabalu, (Sabah).

Occasional leaks occur in other parts, including the Sangir Islands.

The species was described as common in Salibabu in the Group of Talaud in 1978 (more numerous there that the Blue-backed Parrot) and they are still regularly about there and in the nearby Karakelong During observations on 1995 (Many in a last record in 1997).

In other areas the species is rare. Recent records in Philippines they come mainly from Mindoro and Palawan, places that seem to be the bastion of the species.

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis lucionensis

    : The nominal.

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis hybridus

    : (Salomonsen, 1952) – Present in Polillo island, to the North of Philippines.

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis talautensis

    : (AB Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1895) – Talaud Islands (North Moluccas).

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis [salvadorii u horrisonus]:

    (Ogilvie-Grant, 1896) – Philippines, (except North), but it can be rare or extinct on many islands. Also in some small islands off Northwest and northeast of Borneo (If Amil, Mantanani), where it was possibly introduced, especially in this last island.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The total population is provisionally estimated that it could be below the 10,000 specimens in 1993 (Lambert et to the. 1993).

The population is suspected may be declining due to the capture for the bird trade and the degradation of habitat expansion and forestry due to agricultural pressures.

Conservation Actions Proposed Palawan:

– Determine the impact of trade on the population of the species.
– Revise its estimate of the world population.
– Estimate the rates of decline based on the rates of deforestation within its range.
– Protect effectively important extensions of high forest with trees suitable to nest in key places throughout its distribution area, both in the areas of strict protection, as in areas of multiple use.

Nuquiazul parrot in captivity:

Fairly quiet.
Occasionally available.

Alternative names:

Blue-naped Parrot, Blue naped Parrot (English).
Perruche de Luçon, Perroquet à couronne (French).
Blaunackenpapagei, Blaunacken-Papagei (German).
Papagaio-de-nuca-azul (Portuguese).
Loro de Nuca Azul, Loro Nuquiazul (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Tanygnathus
Scientific name: Tanygnathus lucionensis
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Protonimo: Psittacus lucionensis

Blue-naped Parrot images:

————————————————————————————————

Blue-naped Parrot (Tanygnathus lucionensis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Wikipedia
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – By Quartl (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – By Joelle Rene Hughes (originally posted to Flickr as jr_parrot10) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – WILD BIRDS of the PHILIPPINES – Subic rainforest, Bataan, December 5, 2007 by Romy Ocon
(4) – By TJ Lin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – “Tanygnathus lucionensis qtl2” by QuartlOwn work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(6) – «Tanygnathus lucionensis – Barraband». Licensed public via domain Wikimedia Commons.

Sounds: Arend Wassink (Xeno-canto)

Great-billed Parrot
Tanygnathus megalorynchos


Great-billed Parrot

Description

33 a 43 cm.. length and an approximate weight of 260 g..

Great-billed Parrot

The Great-billed Parrot (Tanygnathus megalorynchos) It has a bright green head. Green mantle with narrow blue stripes to the feathers of the back; pale blue rump; coverts underwings light green.

Scapulars black bordered of blue-green; less black on the inner wing coverts, the blue-green external; medium black coverts, with yellow margins in both bands: large blue-green coverts with yellow margins.

Secondary green with thin yellow margins; primary heavily drenched blue in vane external with a gradient through the greenish or blackish blue in the vane inner. The wings and bright yellow axillary feathers; lower part of flight feathers black gray, the inner most dyed yellow.

The underparts, greenish yellow, greener-tinged in the belly, the coverts and thighs undertail. Upper, green tail with yellow tips; at the bottom I light brown with orange tips.

Billed red; iris yellow ; black legs.

Males and the females similar.

Young with beaming less variegated in wings.

  • Sound of the Great-billed Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Loro Picogordo.mp3]
List of subspecies Tanygnathus megalorynchos
Subspecies
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Affinis (Wallace, 1863) – The head with light bluish hue and chest and abdomen much more green, bend of the blue wing. More green in general.
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Djampeae (Hartert, 1924) – Chest and abdomen pale green, the secondary feathers of the coverts bluish green with bordered Straits.
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Floris (Hartert, 1924) – Chest and abdomen pale green, the lower part of the back blue is more dark.
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Hellmayri (Mayr, 1944) – It is more small, more green by the chest and abdomen while the head is yellowish-green. Practically has tones of blue and on the wings has little black color. In females it just black coloration in the wings.
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Subaffinis (PL Sclater, 1883) – Face with slight bluish hue, more green in general and below the back and rump area, light blue-green hue.
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Sumbensis (AB Meyer, 1882) – It is more large, with much more blue and blue more dark in the lower area of the back.
  • Tanygnathus Megalorync Viridipennis (Hartert, 1903) – The primary feathers of green wings, and in some cases also the secondary.

Habitat:

The Great-billed Parrot is distributed mainly primary lowland forests, as well as in secondary and coastal forests, mangroves, cultivated areas, gardens and plantations up to 1.000 meters above sea level. The birds regularly travel between the smaller islands and make daily flights between roosts and areas of foraging, calling the attention with its loud cries in flight as a time to settle to rest.

They normally gather in small groups of up to a dozen individuals in search of food, usually fruits and nuts, and commonly throw the remains of trees in which is feed from, since they discard unwanted elements.

Reproduction:

Nesting has been recorded between August and December, Noting a nest in the hollow of a mature tree in the forest at a height of some 30 m.

Food:

The fruit of the Sonneratia alba, also Canarium vulgare and casuarinas.

Distribution:

Widely but unevenly distributed across Nusa Tenggara, the Moluccas and Islands to the West of Papua. The range includes the following Islands: Sumba, Timor (West end) and adjacent Semau , Flowers, Madu, Kalaotowa, Kalao, Tanahjampea, the Group Tukangbesi to the southwest of Sulawesi, Damar, Babar, the Group Tanimbar, Seram, Haruku, Buru, OBI, Bacan, Kayoa, Halmahera, Makian, Moti, Ternate, Ternate, Morotai, Mayu, islets to the North of Sulawesi and the Group Togian to the East of Sulawesi, Sangir and groups Talaud, Widi, Muor, Gébé, Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Misool. The nominal race seems to have been introduced in Balut at the southern end of Mindanao, Philippines. Occasional records in Java and Bali they are probably leaks, but the birds on the Mainland of New Guinea they may be wandering genuine, probably from the small islands of the West Group of Papua. The species is fairly common, but you might be getting some local decreases as a result of trade and habitat loss. The world population is estimated at more of 100.000 birds.

Distribution of subspecies Tanygnathus megalorynchos
Subspecies
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Affinis (Wallace, 1863) – South of Moluccas
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Djampeae (Hartert, 1924) – Islands Tanahjampea and Kalao, South of Sulawesi
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Floris (Hartert, 1924) – Islands Flowers and Lesser Sunda.
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Hellmayri (Mayr, 1944) – Southwest of the Islands Timor, Semau and Roti.
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Subaffinis (PL Sclater, 1883) – Tanimbar Islands, and Babar Islands.
  • Tanygnathus Megalorynchos Sumbensis (AB Meyer, 1882) – Islands Sumba and Lesser Sunda.
  • Tanygnathus Megalorync Viridipennis (Hartert, 1903) – Islands Kalaotowa and Madu, South of Sulawesi.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Decreasing

The world population is estimated at more of 100.000 birds.

This species has a very large range, and therefore not approaching the thresholds for Vulnerable According to the criterion of size range.

The population is suspected to be declining due to the destruction of habitat in course and unsustainable levels of exploitation.

Hawfinch Parrot in captivity:

Quiet, little shrill, don't like to be touched.
Rare in captivity.

Alternative names:

Great-billed Parrot, Great billed Parrot, Island Parrot, Large-billed Parrot, Moluccan Parrot (English).
Perruche à bec de sang, Perruche à gros bec (French).
Schwarzschulterpapagei, Schwarzschulter-Papagei (German).
Tanygnathus megalorynchos (Portuguese).
Loro de Pico Grueso, Loro Picogordo, Loro Picogoro (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Tanygnathus
Scientific name: Tanygnathus megalorynchos
Citation: (Boddaert, 1783)
Protonimo: Psittacus megalorynchos

Great-billed Parrot images

————————————————————————————————

Great-billed Parrot (Tanygnathus megalorynchos)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Loromania
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as 照片 1445) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons from Wikimedia Commons – Wikimedia
(2) – By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as great-billed parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – “Tanygnathus megalorynchos-two in captivity-8a” by TJ Lin – originally posted to Flickr as 照片 1466. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(4) – «Tanygnathus megalorynchos-captivity-8a» poor TJ Lin – originally posted to Flickr as great-billed parrot. Disponible bajo la licencia CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(5) – A bird in flight by James Eaton – Lynx
(6) – “Tanygnathus megalorynchos – Barraband“. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

Sounds: Mike Catsis (Xeno-canto)

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