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Poison dart frog
- Dendrobatidae

All climbing frogs are subject to species protection legislation and require confirmation of origin.
Poison dart frog
Oophaga pumilio (formerly known as Dendrobates pumilio), a poison dart frog, from Costa Rica, Central America – No machine-readable author provided. Pstevendactylus~commonswiki assumed (based on copyright claims)., Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Content

The “tree climbing frog” or Poison dart frog (Dendrobatidae) lives mainly in the rainforests of South and Central America. Due to its colorful, their diurnal lifestyle and their interesting reproductive strategy -the parents take care of their offspring-, many species are very popular and are regularly bred in local forms of various colors.

Some popular species are, for example, the Dyeing poison dart frog (Dendrobates tinctorius), the Green and black poison dart frog (Dendrobates auratus), the Yellow-banded poison dart frog (Dendrobates leucomelas), as well as the Anthony's poison arrow frog (Epipedobates anthonyi), the terrible Golden poison frog (Phyllobates terribilis) and Strawberry poison-dart frog (Oophaga pumilio).

Many other species of different genera can be found as offspring in trade.

Sex differences

It is not easy to distinguish the sexes from the Poison dart frog. Females tend to be larger, stronger build and with sticky discs on fingers smaller than males. Males who are ready to mate make a trill.

Behavior

The Poison dart frog can raise itself, as a couple or in a group. The association of several species is usually not problematic in sufficiently large terrariums. Males occupy small territories.

Terrarium

Dendrobates azureus
Dendrobates azureus at Bristol Zoo, England – Arpingstone, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

A terrarium for climbing frogs must have some special features: The Calls “terrariums for the species Dendrobatidae” have fine mesh ventilation surfaces (Drosophila hermetic), as well as a gasket between the sliding panes to prevent very small food animals from escaping, like fruit flies, isopods and springtails. The sloping front windows and generously dimensioned ventilation zones prevent the windows from fogging up in high humidity and, together with a drain integrated in the lower glass, help to avoid dangerous flooding.

The terrarium must measure at least 60 x 40 x 50 cm. (length x widht x hight) for a group of maximum 6 animals of the smallest species (until 4 body length cm), for the largest species at least 80 x 40 x 60 cm. (length x widht x hight) for a maximum of 6 specimens.

Fluorescent tubes with a daily light duration of 10 to 12 hours are suitable for lighting. A UV component can have a positive effect on animal welfare. Because the areas of origin are very different, it is important to create the right temperature conditions for each species; for example, highland species do not tolerate higher temperatures. The optimum for the mentioned species is a soil temperature between 24 and 26 °C, with local heating up to 28 °C. At night, the temperature should be reduced to about 23 °C. At night, the temperature should drop to about 23 °C. For the basic temperature, weak heating mats can be used, installed outside the terrarium. They can be used to heat the floor (at most one third of the soil surface!) or the walls. With the help of a thermocontroller, the heating mat can be specifically controlled to prevent overheating.

The humidity should be at least 80 % and sometimes it can reach almost 100 %. This can be achieved by frequently spraying the terrarium with warm water or using a sprinkler system.. Waterfalls or artificial streams, whose moving water provides high humidity, are also suitable. Precise thermometers and hygrometers are needed to measure temperature and humidity.

For the Poison dart frog, 2, preferably 3 sides of the terrarium should be covered with cork, coconut fiber boards or similar. climbing facilities, like the roots, the lianas, the branches, etc., have proven useful. Curved cork bark or halved coconut shells are popular hiding places.

A shallow bowl of water (or a watercourse) also part of the basic equipment. The soil in the terrarium is suitable as a substrate, coco substrate or moss, which should always be kept slightly moist. A drainage layer of expanded clay at the bottom prevents waterlogging. The natural plantation with ferns, perched plants (for example, bromeliads), as well as climbing and creeping plants (for example, hiedra or ficus climbers) creates additional climbing and retreat possibilities and ensures high and uniform humidity.

Nutrition

The Poison dart frog feeds on the smallest insects (live), to which sufficient quantities must be given each day. In addition to small insects or micro-hunters, fruit flies are especially suitable (Drosophila), bean beetles, springtails, etc. Regular administration of a mineral preparation ensures healthy bone growth.

Care

Food scraps and droppings should be removed daily. The water bowls should also be cleaned daily and filled with fresh water.

Animal health must be monitored daily. The most common health problems in tree frogs are softening of the bones, emaciation, balance disorders and skin disorders. The Poison dart frog is especially sensitive to stressors. In case of anomalies, an amphibian vet should be consulted.

Acclimatization and handling

Amphibians are animals of pure observation and should NOT be petted. In the first days in his new home, animals need adequate rest to get used to their new environment. If required, animals must not be caught by hand, but with the help of plastic boxes or similar.

Reproduction

Dendrobates amazonicus
Ranitomeya amazonica, syn. Dendrobates amazonicus by V2, first published on his homepage youngester.com, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The smallest species spawn mainly on the leaves of plants and trees.. The largest species (Dendrobates tinctorius and Dendrobates auratus) they also spawn in caves. Depending on the species, a spawn comprises between two and 35 eggs. Spawning is preceded by a courtship ritual that can last for hours. The female approaches the male and caresses his back with her front legs. Both then look for a suitable place to spawn. Spawning takes place, for example, on bromeliad leaves above the leaf axils or in the leaf axil itself. The insemination of the eggs by the male occurs externally immediately after their release. The clutches are usually guarded by the male. Some species regularly water their clutches by emptying the contents of their bladder over the eggs..

The poison frogs they are daytime, as their bright colors offer them protection during the day. So that your tadpoles are not at the mercy of predators in rivers and ponds, the tadpoles that hatch after 10 to 16 days of embryonic development are transferred on the back of the male to the smallest accumulations of water in the plants (phytotelmata), like the armpits of leaves filled with water. In some species (for example, the Ranitomeya imitator) this transfer is done individually, in others, eg Epipedobates tricolor, can involve the entire laying at the same time. They later carry their young to the ground in the same way.

Females of some species feed unfertilized proximity eggs to tadpoles until metamorphosis, in others the larvae feed on algae or insects that fall in the axils of the leaves. The development from tadpole to juvenile frog lasts between six and 14 weeks.

Special features

All climbing frogs are subject to species protection legislation and require confirmation of origin. The holder must also comply with the registration obligation (exception: Dendrobates auratus and Dendrobates azureus).

The climbing frogs are highly susceptible to deadly infection by the dangerous chytrid fungus. Before handling the terrarium, all objects must be disinfected and thin rubber gloves must be worn. Newly acquired animals must be kept in strict quarantine for several months.

Although the name of poison frogs is inaccurate, since only a few species can be dangerous to humans, all tree climbing frogs have skin secretions that can cause irritation when they come in contact with human skin. This is another reason why it is advisable to capture the animals only with the help of a small container..

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Oriental fire-bellied toad
- Bombina orientalis

Bombina orientalis

Content

The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis), attractive colors, It is one of the most common amphibian species.. Its range covers large areas of East Asia, from korea, passing through northeast China, to eastern Siberia, where you prefer to live in microwaters (shallow) no major currents. The Oriental fire-bellied toad it's easy to breed, but still often offered as wild catch. Wherever possible, captive breeding should be used.

Due to the risk of confusion with the “Native fire bellied toad” and protected, the Oriental fire-bellied toad it is also subject to species protection legislation. Animals are not subject to registration; However, proof of origin is required.

Sex differences

Differentiation between the sexes is only possible in sexually mature animals. Males webbed feet reach to fingertips; in females, usually stronger, they are less developed. Males ready to mate call insistently and develop clearly visible heat calluses on the front legs..

Behavior

The Oriental fire-bellied toad does not show pronounced social behavior. The animals are peaceful with each other and can be kept individually, in pairs or groups. The Oriental fire-bellied toad does not have pronounced activity hours, so it can also be observed well during the day.

Terrarium

Oriental fire-bellied toad
“Oriental fire-bellied toad” – Exposition “Reptiles of the world” at Palexpo, in Geneva, in October 2014 – Vassil, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons

As the Oriental fire-bellied toad leads a lifestyle closely linked to water, it is suitable for keeping in a terrarium with a large water basin, in an aquarium or even an aquarium with a terrestrial part. The tank should not be less than 60 x 40 x 50 cm. (length x widht x hight) for a maximum of 4 adult animals. Approximately half of the surface should be designed as land part.

The aquarium must be completely covered, since animals are good climbers. Fluorescent tubes with a daily lighting time of 10 to 12 hours are suitable for lighting. The land part must be provided with sufficient withdrawal possibilities, for example, roots and cave-like hiding places (for example, coconut shells). An absorbent substrate is recommended (for example, coconut substrate, terrarium or moss soil) as a substrate for the terrarium, which should always be kept slightly moist (but not wet). Natural planting provides more hiding places and increases humidity. Aquatic and floating plants support toads in the aquatic part; there must be an easy way out of the water (for example, by flat stones or roots). Sand or rounded aquarium gravel are suitable as a substrate. Stones or roots that protrude slightly from the water are easily accepted.

The air and water temperature should be 23 to 25 °C during the day and drop to about 20 °C at night. The water temperature can be regulated by an aquarium heater or an external thermal filter. The heating rod must be installed so that it cannot burn the frogs. The humidity must not drop below the 60 % and must rise above the 80 % At night. Precise thermometers and hygrometers are needed to measure temperature and humidity. Other water values: pH 6,0 – 8,0, total hardness up to 30 °dGH.

The Oriental fire-bellied toad should not be kept with fish or crustaceans (for example, River Crabs), that could harm amphibians.

The Oriental fire-bellied toad hibernates in the wild, during which animals withdraw and do not usually eat. For a directed hibernation, lighting temperature and duration can be gradually reduced in autumn. Next, animals hibernate at temperatures of about 10 ° C during 1 or 2 months, after which normal housing conditions are gradually restored. Before starting hibernation, the health of the animals should be checked by a veterinary fecal examination.

Diet

The Oriental fire-bellied toad prefers to feed on live insects (crickets, crickets, flies) and worms (small earthworms), offered in the terrestrial part of the terrarium. Regular administration of a mineral preparation ensures healthy bones.

Caution: As the Oriental fire-bellied toad not usually very active, tends to gain weight. In the case of adult animals, it is enough to feed them every two or three days.

Care

Oriental fire-bellied toad
“Oriental fire-bellied toad” in Smithsonian National Zoo – Photo by David J. pole, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Food scraps and droppings should be removed daily. You also have to check the status of the water section daily and renew it completely if it is dirty., as well as performing a partial water change at regular intervals. The use of water treatment products for amphibians should be avoided. Using an aquarium filter can improve water quality and extend the water change interval.

Animal health must be monitored daily. The most frequent health problems in the Oriental fire-bellied toad are the changes in the skin, softening of bones and emaciation or fatty degeneration. If there is any abnormality, consult a veterinarian who is familiar with amphibians.

Reproduction

Mating occurs in spring, when the weather warms up and the rains increase. Males call out to females with a soft coo. They jump on the back of any other fire-bellied toad that passes, which sometimes causes confusion between males, but it rarely leads to fights. The females put between 40 and 100 eggs in a large group, usually around submerged plants near the water's edge. The tadpoles hatch from the eggs in 3-10 days, depending on the water temperature. The larvae begin to develop at 6-8 weeks, and are completely metamorphosed and begin to venture ashore after 12-14 weeks.

Acclimatization and handling

Amphibians are animals of pure observation and should NOT be petted. In the first days in his new home, animals need adequate rest to get used to their new environment. If required, animals must not be caught by hand, but with the help of plastic boxes or similar.

Special features

The Oriental fire-bellied toad NOT suitable for keeping in garden ponds, since either it does not survive the winter or there is a risk of distortion of the fauna due to migratory animals. Occasionally, deviated color shapes offered (for example, albino animals, blue, yellow or pink), whose conservation does not differ from that of animals of normal color

What is the price of a Oriental fire-bellied toad?

The price of Oriental fire-bellied toad ranges between 25 and 30 EUR.

Alternative names:

1. Bombina orientalis (English).
2. Crapaud sonneur oriental (French).
3. Orientalische Rotbauchunke (German).
4. Sapo tuti (Portuguese).
5. Sapillo de vientre de fuego oriental, (español).

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African clawed frog and Common Surinam toad
- Xenopus laevis and Pipa pipa

The African clawed frog was bred for decades to perform pregnancy tests and thus spread throughout the world.
Xenopus laevis
common clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) from Africa – Ben Rschr, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Content

The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and the Common Surinam toad (Pipa pipa) belong to the family of tongueless frogs (Pipidae) and they do not come out of the water even as adults.

The African clawed frog reaches about 13 cm and is often used in research, as well as the popular African dwarf frog of the gender Hymenochirus.

The South American counterpart is the Common Surinam toad (Pipa pipa) that gets to measure 17 cm., and the Sabana Surinam toad (Pipa parva), which is still small. In addition to many babies, there are also specimens captured in the wild (especially Hymenochirus and Pipa pipa). Wherever possible, specimens bred in captivity should be used. The African clawed frog and Common Surinam toad are not subject to species protection legislation.

Sex differences

Distinguishing between the sexes is difficult and, if anything, only possible in sexually mature animals. The males of the Sabana Surinam toad have enlarged glands under the armpits during mating season; the males of the African clawed frog develop heat calluses on the inside of the arms. In the Common Surinam toad, females can be safely identified by carrying the eggs on their back, which is swollen like a backpack.

Behavior

The African clawed frog and Common Surinam toad do not show a defined territorial behavior. Animals are peaceful with each other and can keep to themselves, in pairs or groups, although you have to be careful that its size is uniform, since much smaller animals could be considered as food.

The African clawed frog and Common Surinam toad are mainly twilight or nocturnal.

Aquarium

Common Surinam toad
“Common Surinam toad” at the Steinhart Aquarium in San Francisco – Stan Shebs, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

As the mentioned species live almost exclusively in water, an aquarium is suitable to keep them. For the African dwarf frog and the Sabana Surinam toad should measure at least 60 x 40 x 30 cm and for larger species 100 x 50 x 50 cm. (length x widht x hight) for up to 4 adult animals.

Water values ​​for African clawed frog: temperature 18 – 28 °C, pH 6,0 – 8,0, total hardness up to 30 °dGH. For the Common Surinam toad, the temperature must be at least 24 °C, pH value less than 7,0 and hardness less than 15 °dGH. Water temperature can be controlled by aquarium heating rod or external thermal filter. The heating rod must be installed so that it cannot burn the frogs. An accurate thermometer is needed to measure temperature.

The aquarium must be covered without gaps (otherwise the animals can get out, what his certain death means) and equipped with an aquarium filter. Especially for the smaller species, make sure the current is not too strong. The water level must be at least 25 cm..

In addition to breathing through the skin, animals occasionally rise to the surface of the water to breathe; therefore, care must be taken to ensure a sufficient distance between the water surface and the deck. Floating plants, pieces of cork or roots that reach above the waterline are important in providing animals with structures on the surface of the water. The facility must offer sufficient shelter possibilities; for this they are suitable, for example, the roots of wood, the cave-shaped hiding places, as well as dense vegetable masses. It is recommended to use fine sand as a substrate, as gravel can cause injury to sensitive mucous membranes. A floating green roof provides the necessary shade. The African clawed frog and Common Surinam toad they should not live with fish or crustaceans (for example, prawns, River Crabs), that could hurt amphibians.

Diet

The African clawed frog and Common Surinam toad they eat exclusively food of animal origin. Live food is preferred, for example, earthworms of various sizes or red gnat larvae. Frozen foods are also eaten with pleasure. The African clawed frog in growth they also eat fish. Pet stores also offer pellets specially adapted to the needs of the African clawed frog and Common Surinam toad, that are well accepted once you get used to them.

Caution: These species are not particularly active and often tend to become obese.. In the case of adult animals, it is enough to feed them every two or three days.

Care

For the operation of an aquarium, a filter of sufficient dimensions is always necessary. The filter should be checked regularly and cleaned if necessary. Animals sometimes react sensitively to increased germ contamination of the water. A regular and weekly partial water change of (at least) the 25 % removes pollutants and increases the welfare of frogs. Regular padding of the substrate also helps reduce water contamination. Warm and stagnant water should be used for water changes; However, water treatment agents should not be used for amphibians.

The most important water parameters for the well-being of frogs -such as temperature, the pH, ammonium / ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and carbonate and total hardness- should be checked regularly.

Animal health must be monitored daily. The most common health problems are skin changes and wasting or fat degeneration.. In case of anomalies, an amphibian vet should be consulted.

Acclimatization and handling

When i get home, the first thing to do is turn off the aquarium lighting. Next, The carry bag can be placed on the surface of the water during 10 – 15 minutes to adjust temperature. Next, open the bag and carefully add as much aquarium water as there is transport water in the bag. Next, animals can be introduced carefully. For a gentle acclimatization, the light should be turned off until the next morning.

Amphibians are animals of pure observation and should NOT be petted. In the first days in his new home, animals need adequate rest to get used to their new environment. Fine mesh and slightly deeper nets are suitable for capturing animals. Catching them by hand carries a high risk of injury to the animals.

Special features

The African clawed frog was bred for decades to perform pregnancy tests and thus spread throughout the world. All clawed frogs are considered carriers of the dangerous chytrid fungus, partly responsible for global amphibian mortality. So, the animals themselves, as well as the objects and water in your aquarium, should not come into contact with other amphibian populations.

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True toad and Narrow-mouthed frogs
- Bufonidae and Microhylidae

some species (for example, the Phrynomantis and more toads) can produce a poisonous skin discharge and should never be handled with bare hands.
common asian toad
common asian toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus)

Content

Several representatives of the Toads (Bufonidae) and narrow-mouthed frogs (Microhylidae) are regularly offered in pet stores. The toads Frequently encountered are the following the common asian toad (Duttaphrynus (Bufo) melanostictus) and the North American green toad (Anaxyrus (Bufo) debilis), as well as the false tomato frog (Dyscophus guineti), the Banded bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra) and banded rubber frog (Phrynomantis bifasciatus). Buying wild-caught specimens in favor of captive-bred should always be avoided.

Sex differences

Differentiation of the sexes is only possible in sexually mature animals. The males are usually smaller and in many species they develop calluses on the toes of the front legs.. Males ready to mate call, sometimes very strongly and persistently.

Behavior

The True toad and Narrow-mouthed frogs do not show pronounced social behavior. Most of them are peaceful with each other and can be kept individually, in pairs or groups. But, animals must not differ significantly in size.

The True toad and Narrow-mouthed frogs are mostly crepuscular or nocturnal.

Terrarium

false tomato frog
Rana tomate de Madagascar – TimVickers, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Most species like to burrow and need a substrate of corresponding height. One terrarium for a single specimen of the smallest species (for example, the green dwarf toad) should have a floor space of at least 30 x 40 cm., for various animals of 60 x 40 cm.. In the case of the larger species (as the common asian toad, very active), the terrarium should not measure less than 80 x 50 cm. (length x WIDTH) for a single animal or 100 x 50 cm for several specimens. For species that grow a lot (for example, the Cane toadRhinella marina), are needed terrariums much bigger. Height terrarium (at least 30 cm.) not especially important for animals that live on the ground.

Fluorescent tubes with a daily lighting time of 10 to 12 hours are suitable for lighting. The optimum is a slight temperature gradient in the terrarium of about 23 – 28 °C with a humidity of 70 % approximately. This can be achieved by spraying the terrarium daily.. At night, the temperature should drop a bit for many species (normally not below 20 °C) and, at the same time, humidity should rise to 90 – 95 %. For the basic temperature, weak heating mats can be used, installed outside the terrarium. They can be used to heat the floor (at most one third of the soil surface!) or the walls. With the help of a thermocontroller, the heating mat can be specifically controlled to prevent overheating. Precise thermometers and hygrometers are needed to measure temperature and humidity.

The height of the excavatable substrate (for example, a terrarium soil mix, bark mulch, moss) must allow animals to fully excavate. The substrate should be slightly damp after daily spraying and should never dry out completely.. We must also avoid waterlogging.

Additional withdrawals (for example, coconut shells), a shallow water basin and natural planting complete the assembly.

Diet

Animals prefer to feed on live insects (crickets, crickets, grasshopper, cockroaches, etc.), worms and slugs. Regular administration of a mineral supplement ensures healthy bone growth. Mealworms, zophobas and wax moths should be fed only rarely due to their high protein and fat content.

Caution: many True toad and Narrow-mouthed frogs tend to gain weight. In the case of adult animals, it is enough to feed them every two or three days.

Care

Food scraps and feces should be removed daily. Animals usually defecate in their own hiding place, so the substrate must be changed regularly. The water bowls should also be cleaned daily and filled with fresh water.

Animal health must be monitored daily. The most common health problems in frogs are softening of the bones, emaciation or fatty degeneration and, above all, changes in the skin (for example, red discoloration of the skin). If there is any abnormality, consult a veterinarian who is familiar with amphibians.

Acclimatization and handling

Amphibians are animals of pure observation and should NOT be petted. In the first days in his new home, animals need some rest to get used to their new environment.

Due to the sensitivity of your skin, amphibians should only be touched in exceptional cases. Only the largest animals can be caught directly by hand. The use of disposable gloves is recommended (moistened). The smallest animals, on the other hand, should always be captured with the help of plastic containers or similar.

Special features

some species (for example, the Phrynomantis and more toads) can produce a poisonous skin discharge and should never be handled with bare hands. Protective gloves should be used for the care and handling of animals..

Attention: all native amphibian species are protected species and should not be taken from the wild. At the 17th CITES Conference of the Parties, held in the fall of 2016, the false tomato frog (Dyscophus guineti) came under the protection of the species (Appendix II). This regulation will soon be transferred to European legislation (obligation to inform, proof of origin required).

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Tree frogs
- Hylidae

The tree frog has a slightly toxic skin discharge that can cause irritation when it comes in contact with human skin.
Tree frog
Tree frog – Kentlat, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Content

The tree frogs they are found worldwide in a wide variety of species and have characteristic sticky discs on their toes. These excellent climbers mainly inhabit trees and shrubs.

Among the most popular species are the American green tree frog (Hyla cinerea), the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor), the Australian green tree frog (Litoria caerulea), the mission golden-eyed tree frog (Trachycephalus resinifictrix), the northern orange-legged leaf frog (Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis) and red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas).

These species, as well as some others tree frogs, increasingly offered as captive breeds; However, wild-caught frogs are still common on the market. Wherever possible, you have to opt for species bred in captivity.

Images "Tree frogs"

Sex differences

The sexes can be distinguished in many species by the coloration of the throat, which is usually more striking (yellowish to black) in sexually mature males than in females (from white to gray). Females tend to grow slightly larger than males.. Males ready to mate call, sometimes very strongly and persistently.

Behavior

The tree frogs do not show social behavior and can stand alone, in pairs or groups in well structured terrariums. Do not socialize different species or animals with clear differences in size. Each animal must have enough places to sit, rest and hide. The tree frogs they are mainly twilight and night.

Terrarium

Red-eyed green frog
Red-eyed green frog (Agalychnis callidryas), photographed near Jaco Beach in Costa Rica – Careyjamesbalboa (Carey James Balboa), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

One terrarium for tree frogs must always be tall enough, for example, 60 x 40 x 60 cm. (length x widht x hight) for smaller species, as the American green tree frog (Hyla cinerea), and 100 x 40 x 80 cm. (length x widht x hight) for larger frogs like the Australian green tree frog (Litoria caerulea), each for a maximum of 4 animals. Caution: non-acclimatized animals tend to jump against the glass with great force and injure themselves, especially on the head and muzzle.

Fluorescent tubes with a daily lighting time of 10 to 12 hours are suitable for lighting. The temperature can be regulated with the help of a suitable heating mat, which is fixed to the rear wall from the outside. For most species, a slight temperature gradient in the terrarium of about 22 to 28 °C (max. 24 °C for subtropical species) with a humidity of 60 to the 70 %. At night, the temperature should drop to about 20 °C; at the same time, humidity can rise up to 90 or the 95 % for tropical species. This can be achieved by spraying the terrarium with warm water or using a sprinkler system.. For the basic temperature, weak heating mats can be used, installed outside the terrarium. They can be used to heat the floor (at most one third of the soil surface!) or the walls. With the help of a thermocontroller, the heating mat can be specifically controlled to prevent overheating. Precise thermometers and hydrometers are needed to measure temperature and humidity.

For climbing animals, 2, preferably 3 sides of the terrarium should be covered with cork or similar. climbing facilities, like roots, lianas, remained, etc., have proven their effectiveness. Hollow bamboo sticks and cork tubes are popular hiding places. Depending on the species, a shallow water basin in which animals can also bathe or a larger basin of water (for example, for the Australian green tree frogLitoria caerulea) it is also part of the basic equipment. Terrarium soil or coconut substrate are suitable as a substrate. The substrate should always be kept slightly moist. Natural planting creates additional retreat possibilities and ensures uniform and increasing humidity.

Diet

The tree frogs they feed exclusively on small live animals. The insects (crickets, crickets, Little grasshoppers, etc.) make up the main part of your diet, but many species also like to eat worms or slugs. Regular administration of a mineral supplement ensures healthy bone growth. Mealworms, Zophobas or wax moths should only be fed rarely due to their high protein and fat content. For the adults of the larger species it is sufficient to feed each 2 or 3 days. The Australian green tree frogLitoria caerulea) you tend to become obese due to your lazy lifestyle

Care

Food scraps and droppings should be removed daily. The water bowls should also be cleaned daily and filled with fresh water.

Animal health must be monitored daily. The most frequent health problems in the tree frogs are the softening of the bones, emaciation and changes in skin and stools. If there is any abnormality, consult a veterinarian who is familiar with amphibians.

Acclimatization and handling

Amphibians are animals of pure observation and NOT must be caressed. In the first days in his new home, animals need adequate rest to get used to their new environment. Due to the sensitivity of your skin, it is recommended to capture the tree frogs only with the help of small containers.

Special features

The tree frog has a slightly toxic skin discharge that can cause irritation when it comes in contact with human skin (protective gloves!).

According to the area of ​​origin, controlled hibernation can have a vitality-boosting effect. American and Asian tree frog species from temperate climates should not be placed in the garden pond under any circumstances, since there is a danger that the fauna will be distorted.

Attention: all native amphibian species are protected species and should not be taken from the wild. But, most species of tree frogs Non-native species are not subject to the species protection law. But, the red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas), for example, is subject to registration and proof of origin is required.

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South American horned frogs
- Ceratophrys

The South American horned frogs They are originally from South America., but now they are bred in many color varieties.
Common foreshortening
Common foreshortening (Ceratophrys ornata) – Melanie Mae Bryan from Greensboro, NC, USA, CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Content

In addition to the horn-shaped projections on the eyes that give them their name, the South American horned frogs (genus Ceratophrys) have other characteristic features: A huge mouth and an almost circular body. The South American horned frogs They are originally from South America., but now they are bred in many color varieties. The most common species are the Surinam horned frog (Ceratophrys cornuta), the Cranwell's horned frog (Ceratophrys cranwelli) and the Common foreshortening (Ceratophrys ornata). Occasionally, other species are offered - some as wild-caught specimens- as well as frequently sterile crosses. If possible, use captive-bred species.

Images "South American horned frogs"

Sex differences

Differentiation of the sexes is difficult and is only possible in sexually mature animals.. Males develop heat calluses on the front legs, they usually have a darker throat region and call during the mating season.

Behavior

Like the South American horned frogs they occasionally eat their peers, it's better to keep them alone.

The South American horned frogs they are twilight and night.

Terrarium

The South American horned frogs they are hunters on the prowl, who like to dig and only actively seek food when hungry. One terrarium for an adult specimen it must measure at least 80 x 40 x 40 cm. (length x widht x hight).

Fluorescent tubes with a daily light duration of 10 to 12 hours are suitable for lighting. The optimum is a slight temperature gradient in the terrarium of between 24 and 30 ° C with a 80 % moisture, so that the horned frog you can choose your preferred place of residence. At night, the temperature should drop to about 23 °C y, at the same time, humidity should rise to 90 or the 95 %. The temperature can be regulated with the help of a heating mat installed outside the terrarium and that covers a maximum of one third of the floor surface. The heating mat should be controlled with the help of a thermocontroller to avoid overheating. Moisture can be achieved by spraying the terrarium With warm water. Precise thermometers and hygrometers are needed to measure temperature and humidity.

The height of the excavatable substrate (for example, a terrarium soil mix, coconut substrate, moss) must allow the frog to burrow completely and be of at least 10 cm for adult animals. The substrate should always be slightly moist (but not wet). This can be achieved by placing a drainage layer of expanded clay on the bottom.. Additional withdrawals (coconut shells, etc.), a shallow water basin and natural planting complete the assembly.

Diet

The South American horned frogs they are voracious eaters and prefer live insects (crickets, grasshopper, cockroaches, etc.), earthworms, slugs and small vertebrates. Regular administration of a mineral supplement ensures healthy bone growth. Mealworms, the zophobas, wax moths or mouse pups should be fed only rarely due to their high protein and fat content.

Caution: the South American horned frogs tend to become obese. In the case of adult animals, it is enough to feed them every two or three days.

Care

Food scraps and feces should be removed daily. Animals defecate in their self-dug hiding place; an occasional change of location should always be used to renew the substrate from the previous site. It also, all substrate must be replaced regularly. The water bowls should also be cleaned daily and filled with fresh water.

Animal health must be monitored daily. The most frequent health problems in the South American horned frogs are the softening of the bones, wasting or fatty degeneration. Skin changes are also more common, especially in the belly, often recognizable by a red coloration. So, the belly of the animals should be checked at least once a week. If there is any abnormality, consult a veterinarian who knows amphibians.

Acclimatization and handling

Amphibians are animals of pure observation and should NOT be petted. In the first days in his new home, animals need adequate rest to get used to their new environment. If required, animals must not be caught by hand, but with the help of a container. Only larger animals can be handled with care by hand (protection gloves). But, the South American horned frogs they tend to lash out at anything that moves and have teeth with which they can cause painful wounds. This is another reason why it is advisable to capture the animals with the help of a container..

Special features

Due to the rapid growth of young animals, a good supply of calcium and vitamins is very important.

The South American horned frogs are not subject to species protection legislation.

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Banded bullfrog
- Kaloula pulchra

This curious terrestrial frog comes from Southeast Asia, from wetlands, what we will take into account to install the terrarium.
Banded bullfrog
Banded bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra) – Rushen, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Content

The Banded bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra) it is known by many names. Estas frogs originally come from Southeast Asia. They are especially widespread in China, Hong Kong, India, Thailand and Indonesia. But, Isolated specimens of these narrow-mouthed frogs have also been sighted in Australia or New Zealand. In their natural habitats, the Kaloula pulchra is preferably found in forest soils, paddy fields or near settlements. Their diet consists mainly of ants.

Behavior

These frogs are peaceful animals. The ideal is to keep them in pairs or in a group with other members of the same species.
It has the particularity that when it is disturbed it swells like a balloon to incredible extremes..

Terrarium

Kaloula pulchra
Kaloula pulchra – Pierre Fidenci, CC BY-SA 2.5, via Wikimedia Commons

The Banded bullfrog can reach a maximum size of about 8 cm.. A recommended aquaterrarium for the maintenance and care of these exotic species. The “accommodation” must have at least 90 x 50 x 50 cm and have a part of land and another of water. At least 1/4 of the container must be made up of water.

For the land part, a soil substrate is recommended, sand, gravel or bark mulch. It is important that the substrate has a certain height. Its Banded bullfrog nocturnal will immediately dig into it. Other hiding places and shelters also contribute to the well-being of frogs.. Terrarium plants or roots are suitable for it. The plants also serve so that these climbing artists can climb.

To the Banded bullfrog likes an air temperature between 26 and 29 degrees Celsius. During the evening and night hours, the temperature can be lowered to 20 – 22 degrees Celsius. But, in the water section a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius. It is important that the water is always pure and without chlorine residues. Chlorine has a negative effect on the health of your exotics.

To the Banded bullfrog he likes humidity. The humidity should be between 70 and the 80 %. For this very reason, you, as a caregiver, you should spray the terrarium and the animals with water several times a day.

Frogs hibernate. So, during the winter months there should be less water in the aquaterrarium. The ambient temperature should also be lowered to 4 Celsius degrees.

Diet

The Banded bullfrog gratefully accept the food. Especially crickets, caterpillars or earthworms.

Mealworms can be their food once a week or so if one Banded bullfrog stays at home, but it shouldn't make up the majority of your diet, can be used as laxatives.

Breeding

The Banded bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra) has already been raised in the aquaterrarium. The laying of the female may contain up to 1.000 eggs. The young hatch after a day.

Buy one "Banded bullfrog"

The market price of a Banded bullfrog ranges between 20 and 30 EUR.

Alternative names:

1. Asian painted frog, Malaysian painted frog, Burmese painted frog, rice frog, bubble frog, chubby frog (English).
2. Chubby grenouille, crapaud buffle, Grenouille peinte d’Asie, discoglosse asiatique, crapaud à bouche étroite de Malaisie (French).
3. Reisfrosch, Blasenfrosch, Gemalter Ochsenfrosch, (German).
4. Sapo pintado da Ásia, sapo pintado da Malásia, Sapo pintado de birmanês, sapo de arroz, e sapo bolha (Portuguese).
5. Rana toro con bandas, Sapo Pintado de Ásia (español).

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Colorado River toad
- Incilius alvarius

The Colorado River toad reaches dimensions to take into account when housing in the terrarium. Very rare and hard to find animal.
Colorado River toad
Colorado River toad – I, Wildfire, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Content

Habitat and way of life

Grasslands, semi-deserts and deserts from sea level to more than 1.600 m are the habitat of Colorado River toad, where they look for places with some humidity, like the cattle troughs. These toads they are mainly nocturnal.

Male calling behavior is stunted. The secretion of Sonoran Desert toad it is poisonous and has a hallucinogenic effect. The raccoons Capture animals safely by turning them on their backs, opening their bellies with their claws and eating only the entrails. In the dry season, toads burrow into the ground and protect themselves with a covering of skin mucus.

Mating takes place after the rains. The large females then lay up 8.000 eggs of 1,6 mm diameter in permanent or temporary ponds. Tadpoles feed on algae.

Physical characteristics

The Sonoran Desert toad has relatively soft and leathery skin. His pupils are transversely oval, the golden iris, large, kidney-shaped parotoid glands. Whitish warts at the corner of the mouth are characteristic of the species. Adult females reach 9-18 cm., sometimes almost 20 cm., and weigh 900 g. Males are considerably smaller, with 8-16 cm..

The toads of this species have been frequently imported in recent years to serve as drug substitutes for narcotic addicts.

The "Colorado River toad" in captivity

Colorado River toad
Colorado River toad – ALAN SCHMIERER, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons

Behavior

During the day, the Colorado River Toad will use an abandoned rodent burrow, hide under or within rock crevices or dig into the substrate. Daytime temperatures should range between 24-26 degrees centigrade and let them drop to 13-18 degrees at night. It is in these cooler night temperatures that they emerge to feed.. Some people say UVB lighting is not essential, but the ideal is to provide it because we believe that they benefit from natural light.

Terrarium

The Colorado River toad it is a hardy species that can be maintained with a few simple steps. These toads they grow a lot, therefore adequate space must be provided, especially if several are kept together. We recommend a glass tank of at least 1,2 m, and make sure you have a secure lid, as they are strong and can easily slip away. If you use a glass terrarium, front-opening doors allow access for power and maintenance; the top has a mesh cap that allows lighting and heating to be placed on top.

The substrate must have a depth of 8 – 10 cm.. to allow natural excavation during daytime heat. A variety of substrate can be used, from coco, cypress mulch (zoo forest floor) and sands.

Diet

Although the Colorado River Toad it is known as a desert species, water is very important and must always be provided, as they naturally live near water and should never be allowed to become dehydrated. Fogging at night will encourage them to come out of their burrows to feed. They eat practically anything given to them, from live insects to thawed rodents. You must be careful, since they can get too fat. As in the case of all exotic pets, the food should be sprinkled with a vitamin and mineral powder twice a week and the rest of the foods with calcium.

For sale "Colorado River toad"

The price of a "Colorado River toad" varies between the 180 – 220 euros in stores specialized in the sale of reptiles and amphibians in Europe. In the United States they can be found by 30 – 60 Dollars. Their sale will be subject to the animal welfare ordinance of each country..

Important information

The parotoid glands are large and, along with the glands present on the hind legs, they secrete a very toxic liquid. This contains 5-MeO-DMT (5-metoxi-dimethyltriptine mine) which is a potent psychedelic tryptamine. These skin secretions also contain Bufotenin, a tryptamine that is related to the neurotransmitter serotonin and is similar in chemical structure to the hallucinogenic psilocin, an alkaloid of psychedelic mushrooms. These toxins are used as self-defense against predators. So, always be careful and wash your hands when handling toads or objects in the enclosure.

Taxonomy and nomenclature

The Colorado River toad It was described in 1859 as Bufo alvarius. It was later assigned to four different genders: Cranopsis, Ollotis Phrynoidis and finally Incilius. In the meantime, have returned to Bufo and they treat Incilius as a subgenre …

Alternative names:

1. Sonoran Desert toad (English).
2. Incilius alvarius, Crapaud du désert de Sonora (French).
3. Colorado-River-Kröte, Sonora-Wüstenkröte (German).
4. Sapo-de-Sonora, Sapo do Deserto de Sonora (Portuguese).
5. Sapo del desierto sonorense, Sapo de Colorado (español).

Sources:

  1. AMPHIBIAN SPECIES OF THE WORLD
  2. GRZIMEK, B. (ed. 1970)
  3. HAMMERSON, G. & SANTIS-BARRERA, G. (2004). Incilius alvarius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54567A11152901. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/54567/0. Downloaded on 05 December 2017.
  4. HERRMANN, H. J. (2005)