Origin / Distribution
The Indian python (Python molurus) stretches across the lower half of the Asian continent. The western limit of the species is believed to be the Indus Valley. It can extend to the north, in Quingchuan county of Sichuan province (China), and to the south, in Borneo.
The Indian python appears to be absent from the Malay Peninsula. It has not yet been determined whether the populations scattered across several of the smaller islands are native or feral populations. (escaped pets).
There are two recognized subspecies of Python molurus that are separated by their geographical distribution area and by certain physical characteristics:
Characteristics / Appearance
The Indian python splits into two recognized subspecies, that can be distinguished by their physical characteristics. The burmese pythons, P. molurus bivitatus, They can reach a length of about 7,6 m (25 feet), and can weigh up to 137 kg (300 pounds). The Indian python, P. molurus molurus, smaller, reaching a maximum of 6,4 m (21 feet) of length and a weight of 91 kg (200 pounds). The skins of both subspecies are marked with a mosaic-like rectangular pattern that runs the entire length of the animal.. P. molurus bivitatus has a darker color, with shades of brown and dark cream colored rectangles stretching out on a black background. This subspecies is also characterized by an arrow-shaped mark present on the top of the head., which starts the pattern. P. molurus molurus has similar markings with light brown and tan rectangles set against a typically cream background. P. molurus molurus he only has a partial arrow-shaped mark on the top of his head. Each scale of P. molurus molurus is one color.
The Indian python it is dimorphic, being the females of both subspecies longer and heavier than the males. Males have cloacal spurs., or vestigial limbs, larger than females. The cloacal spurs are two projections, one on each side of the anal opening, which are believed to be extensions of the hind limbs.
The Indian python found in a variety of habitats including tropical forests, river valleys, forests, scrub, grassy swamps and semi rocky foothills. They are usually found in habitats with areas that can provide sufficient cover. This species is never found very far from water sources and seems to prefer very humid terrain..
The Indian python is a solitary species. Mating is the only time these snakes are commonly found in pairs.. The Indian python usually moves only when food is scarce or when threatened. They can stalk their prey, first locating them by their scent or sensing the body heat of the prey with their thermal pits, and then following the trail. These snakes are mainly found on the ground, but sometimes they climb trees. The Indian python also often found in or near water. They are expert swimmers and can remain submerged without breathing for up to thirty minutes at a time.. During the colder months, starting in October and ending in February, the Indian python remains hidden and usually enters a brief period of hibernation until the temperature rises again.
the breeding of Indian python it is precocial when it is born. They become independent shortly after hatching.. They reach sexual maturity between 2 and 3 years of age, as long as they have the right body weight.
The Indian python reaches sexual maturity between 2-3 years of age, as long as you have the right body weight. At that time the courtship behavior can begin. During courtship, the male surrounds the female with his body and runs his tongue repeatedly over her head and body. Once they line their sewers, the male uses his vestigial legs to massage the female and stimulate her. Next, the female raises her tail for the male to insert a hemipenis (has two) in the female's cloaca. This process lasts between 5 and 30 minutes. About 3-4 months later, the female lays up 100 eggs, each weighing up to 207 g.. Right now, the female often coils around the eggs to prepare for the incubation period. Incubation lasts between 2 and 3 months.
during incubation, the female of Indian python uses muscle contractions “shaking chills” to raise your body temperature slightly above the temperature of the surrounding air. It is very rare for the mother to abandon the eggs during incubation.. Once the eggs hatch, pups quickly become independent.
The Indian python is carnivorous. Their diet consists mainly of live prey. Their staple foods are rodents and other mammals.. A small part of their diet consists of birds, amphibians and reptiles. when looking for food, the Indian python stalk its prey, ambush or carrion. These snakes have very poor eyesight. To make up for this, the species has a highly developed sense of smell, and heat pits within each scale along the upper lip, that feel the heat of the nearby prey. The Indian python kills its prey by biting and constricting it until it suffocates. Then they swallow the prey whole. To accomplish the feat of swallowing prey, it dislocates its jaw and stretches its highly elastic skin around the prey.. This allows these snakes to swallow food much larger than their own heads.. In cases of scavenging there is no constriction of the prey
Half life in captivity 15,8 years
Threats to the species
State of conservation ⓘ
Minor Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ
The Indian python (Python molurus) It is listed by the IUCN as low risk., near-threatened. Since the 14 in June of 1976, P. molurus is listed by the United States ESA as endangered throughout its range. The subspecies P. molurus molurus is listed as endangered in Appendix I of CITES. Other subspecies of P. molurus are included in Appendix II, Like all other species of Pythonidae.
There is a large number of exports for the pet trade. The skin of the Indian python is highly valued in the fashion industry due to its exotic appearance. In its native range it is also hunted as a food source.
The "Indian python" in captivity
The Indian python it is the dream snake for many terrarium keepers. His attractive appearance, its imposing size and its temperament, generally quiet, contribute significantly to this popularity.
This species is listed in Appendix A of the European Species Protection Ordinance and you can't have it without permission. Many countries have also created legal breeding requirements so that the Indian python, as potentially dangerous wild animals, is cared for properly and competently and do not pose a danger to the public.
The most important thing is that the host enclosure contains the snake safely. After all, post requirements are less important once the snake has disappeared into that hole in the wall behind the washing machine because you forgot to secure it properly.
The size of the terrarium should be large enough to allow the snake a reasonable amount of movement., but small enough to allow precise temperature and humidity control. The Indian python it is a terrestrial snake that spends most of its time on the ground, so the floor space of your enclosure will be more important to the animal than the height of the cage.
A brood of Indian python You will need the space equivalent of a reptile terrarium of 40 litres. Larger individuals will need more space, of course. an animal of 90 kg will need a floor space of at least 250 cm x 120 cm.. I recommend that the enclosure have a floor space equivalent to four to six times the area of the snake itself when in a flat coil. The cage should also have a door that allows easy access and can be closed safely.. A glass or plexiglass window is also important to be able to see. Some ventilation is desirable., although not as much as you might initially think. Heat and moisture are easily lost through the vents, especially those in the upper part of the enclosure. Small vents located on the sides of the cage will allow for proper air exchange.
Timber, plastic and glass are acceptable materials for terrarium construction. Enclosures constructed of ABS plastic can be used, that have a smooth, nonporous finish that allows for easy cleaning and sterilization. Snake habitat products can make this difficult, so sometimes simplicity is the best option. All corners and edges must be rounded, so there are no hard-to-clean areas. Terrariums are light, have large tempered glass viewing areas and, the best of all, someone has already done. Regular and spot cleaning with proper reptile cleaning supplies is required.
There are several decent substrates for snakes available. It is virtually impossible to provide a naturalistic vivarium for a large ball python., unless the strongest materials are used. Substrates are generally selected for utility rather than aesthetics. Newspaper is absorbent, fairly sterile and easy to get. Various woods are also acceptable, chips and crushed substrate products, although they tend to get dirty in humid environments.
Heating and lighting
The Indian python prefer temperatures of about 26 Celsius degrees. Slightly cooler temperatures are allowed at night. In fact, cooler night temperatures are essential for the breeding of the Indian python, in case you want to undertake this task.
Since the Indian python requires temperatures above what we consider comfortable in our homes, it is necessary to increase the temperature of the enclosure with a supplementary heat source. This heat can be provided in various ways. It is preferable to use a heating pad, like the Zilla heating pad, or heat tape under the enclosure. Heating pads or under-enclosure heaters are available at many pet stores that carry supplies for reptiles.. Provide safe and even heating for the smallest rooms. Thermal tape is also available and serves the same purpose, although it allows more flexibility to heat larger areas more economically. There are also various types of heat lamps for snakes., that are effective. There are many types of reptile heat lamps and accessories to choose from..
However, it is important to give the snake some option to determine its own temperature. In nature, the animal could thermoregulate by moving freely between warmer and cooler zones. These options are limited in captivity, but by proper heater placement, it is possible to give the snake some control over its own temperature. Must have a hot side and a cold side. The hot side is specific to each species. Maximum thermal gradient can be obtained by placing the heater at one end of the enclosure rather than in the center. The snake will get hotter closer to the heater and will get cooler as the distance from the heater increases. This will give the snake a greater range of options to regulate its own temperature..
It should be noted that the heater has two purposes. Provides a warm zone for the snake to increase its body temperature, but it also provides heat that increases the ambient temperature of the enclosure. Depending on the type, the size and construction of the terrarium, the heat loss from the cage and the temperature of the air outside the cage, the heater may need to be much hotter than the average temperature of the enclosure itself. This is cause for alarm for many newbies. It is perfectly acceptable to have a temperature of 38 degrees Celsius or more directly above (or below) from the heat source if this is necessary to maintain the desired room temperature. However, always make sure the snake can retreat to a cooler area when it sees fit.
The room temperature can be regulated in several ways. In the first and most primitive, temperature can be controlled by initially selecting a heater with a wattage that provides the acceptable amount of heat. If the environmental conditions outside the enclosure are constant and the power of the heater is the same, the temperature inside the cage should also be. It is difficult to select a heater with exactly the necessary heat output, and the constant conditions outside the terrarium are not always as constant as they could be. A rheostat or dimmer switch can adjust the heat output of a heater by adjusting the power input, the other problem can be overcome by using a controller with a feedback system.
Since a thermostat monitors the temperature of the enclosure and activates the heater to add heat when appropriate, is by far the best method for controlling cage temperature. There are two types of thermostats on the market for use in animal related applications. Conventional on/off type works like your home thermostat; senses when the temperature has dropped below a certain level and directs the heater to add heat until the set temperature is reached, such as the Zilla Terrarium Reptile Habitat and Heat Controller. A proportional thermostat is much like a rheostat with a feedback system.. Thermostat continuously monitors temperature and makes slight adjustments to heater electrical current. in this guy, the heat is always on, but only to the level necessary to maintain the set temperature. Proportional thermostats eliminate fluctuations caused by cycling on and off of conventional type thermostats and provide continuous heat from the heat source. The Indian python wild lives in areas of high humidity, and captive animals require the same. Adding heat to the enclosure can dry it out and measures must be taken to retain moisture.. A well built terrarium, with a container for water and a minimum of ventilation grilles, should keep the relative humidity above the 60 per cent, approximately. Wooden terrariums must be painted and sealed.
Mesh-top terrariums are difficult to regulate. Heat rises and escapes through the top, which requires additional heat to maintain the proper temperature, which dries out the enclosure even more. Terrariums should have lids that limit heat and moisture loss.
Feeding of the Indian python
feed the Indian python it's quite simple. I feed a proper size meal whenever the snake is hungry. The breeding of the Indian python can an adult mouse eat during its first feeding, which is surprising to many novice snake keepers. Several sensory systems are at work in a python when it feeds. First of all, the food should smell like something to eat. In second place, the food must move in the form of a potential meal. And third, the food must be warmer than its surroundings. The Indian python eats only warm-blooded prey and has sensory organs (pits) to detect the slight amount of heat generated by the body from a potential food. A combination of these factors appears to be important in eliciting a feeding response in the newborn Python.. Pink mice don't normally move in a way that would interest a baby python., and although I think they must smell like mice, do not generate and retain body heat very well.
Once a baby python has had its first meals, it may learn behaviors that allow it to recognize and eat pre-killed food items, or even chicken parts or processed snake food. It is sometimes recommended to feed snakes only dead food to avoid potential injuries that could be inflicted by the struggling prey item.. It's important to remember, However, that nearly every meal taken by a python in the history of the species has been live. Nature has prepared them well to deal with the possible problems associated with. However, frozen and pre-cut food makes things easier for us, and perhaps that should be the most important consideration.
As the snake grows, will need more food, of course. During the first meals, a mouse offered once or twice a week will suffice. However, soon the snake will need more than one mouse at each meal. When the snake regularly eats several mice per meal, try to offer him a little rat. When a Indian python measure some 1 Metro, should be able to take a medium rat; with 1,5 m, a large rat would be appropriate. There is a young rabbit that is equivalent in mass to a very large rat; substitute one of these as the snake grows, and increase the size of the rabbits as the snake increases in size. Chickens are also a good source of food; the Indian python newborn can eat a day old chick, and to the 3 meters can eat an adult chicken.
Water for the Indian python
The Indian python should always have access to fresh water. A heavy ceramic bowl, It works well. It is not necessary for the snakes to be able to submerge in the water dish.
Management and temperament Indian python
The Indian python, due to its docile nature and undemanding requirements, it is one of the most suitable snakes as a captive animal.
Snakes only have limited reasoning ability. Trust me, this statement is quite generous. Keepers can condition a snake to think (I am generous again) that every time the door of her cage is opened she will be fed. If the snake is infrequently handled and most of its interaction with its handler occurs during feeding time, This conditioning is reinforced. with the big snakes, especially, it is important that the snake learns to differentiate the time to eat from other times, and you from his dinner. The thought processes that have brought you to your current situation will matter little when the mouth of your snake clings to your forearm.. What this means is that it is a very good idea to be aware of your snake's location and orientation when feeding or when servicing its cage.. If a snake is hungry when I open the cage, I tap her on the nose with a rolled up newspaper. This is usually enough to let you know it's not time to eat.. It is also best not to house more than one snake per cage., and it is essential not to feed more than one snake in a cage at the same time.
Buy one "Indian python"
The Indian python is available in a variety of colors and patterns, with new traits and combinations of traits that are available more frequently. They are usually available from captive breeders or online reptile stores.. It is important to check local laws and regulations regarding the species.
The price of a baby of this species ranges from 100 and 200 EUR.
Videos "Indian python"
1. Indian python, Black-tailed python, Indian rock python, Asian rock python. (English).
2. Python indien (French).
3. Heller Tigerpython (German).
4. Píton-indiana (Portuguese).
5. "Pitón de la India" (español).