The extinct Macquarie Parakeet(Cyanoramphus erythrotis) was a medium-sized green parrot. The head was bright green with pileum and a line in the eyes crimson red. The upperparts They were bright yellow-green to dark green with a scarlet stain on either side of the rump (usually they are hidden by the wings when resting), and a greenish-blue leading edge to the wings. The eyes They were yellow or red, and the bill It was black with a base Pearly. Ambos sexos parecían similares, but the female It was smaller (Forshaw & Cooper 1981; Higgins 1999; Oliver 1955)
The Macquarie Parakeet inhabited coastal grasslands tussock in the subantarctic Isla Macquarie (Forshaw & Cooper 1981; Taylor 1979).
It is known nesting in grasslands without trees.
Food “Macquarie Parakeet”:
Little is known about the diet of the Macquarie Parakeet, but it is said that feed on crustaceans and other small invertebrates (Oliver 1955; Taylor 1979).
It was Earth (Forshaw & Cooper 1981) and it is said to have been foraged on the seashore, taking invertebrates fused cell algae on the beach (Oliver 1955; Taylor 1979).
Distribution “Macquarie Parakeet”:
The Macquarie Parakeet It was an endemic parrot Isla Macquarie, one sub-Antarctic island in the Antartic Oceanque es políticamente parte deTasmaniaAustralia. The island and this species were discovered in 1810, época en la que este perico era todavía muy común. El último avistamiento del Perico de laIsla Macquarie was in 1891.
Conservation Cyanoramphus erythrotis:
• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: EXTINTO.
Although hard Macquarie Parakeet They were adjusted well to inhospitable terrestrial environment Macquarie Island, They did not survive the predatory introduced species.
The extinction of the Macquarie Parakeet It was caused by the introduction of exotic predators, like cats, rabbits, mice and rats boat. He was also prey to rascón weka or the rascón of Lord Howe(Gallirallus australis). This robust flightless bird from New Zealand It was introduced on the island in the mid-nineteenth century as food for sealers, los mismos cazadores mataron a un gran número de Perico de Macquarie (Macquarie Island) to feed. Unfortunately, the wekas They have caused considerable damage to endangered species, as they feed on small birds, Native insects and lizards.
El último avistamiento de pericos vivos se produjo en1891
Threat Reduction and Recovery
Translocation program may be suitable for the reintroduction of Norfolk Island Parakeet(Cyanoramphus cookii) on Isla Macquarie. Although programs have been tested for translocation failed Norfolk Island Parakeet(Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hermes et al. 1986), Similar programs have been successful for this parakeet in New Zealand. These programs have been successful with only 15 birds, Bottlenecks causing genetic programs with less than 150 birds. El bajo éxito de las crías en el programa deNew Zealand It may be the result of inbreeding depression or poor design of nests (Oritz-Cathedral & Brunton 2008).
The programs of eradication They are underway in Isla Macquarie. The cats were eradicated in 2002, the Keep(Gallirallus australis) in 1988 and is ongoing eradication program rats, rabbits and mice (Mouse muscle)(it. PWS 2009).
– Macquarie Island Parakeet, Macquarie Parakeet (English).
– Perruche de Macquarie (French).
– Macquarie-Laufsittich, Macquarie-Ziegensittich (German).
– Periquito de Macquarie (Portuguese).
– Perico de Macquarie (español).
• Avibase • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr • Department of the Environment (2018). Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae erythrotis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat
The Reischek's Parakeet(Cyanoramphus hochstetteri). Named after the Austrian ornithologist and taxidermist “Andreas Reischek“, el primer científico que visitó lasIslas Antípodas. He was a passenger of Stella and reached the Islas Antípodas in February 1888.
It is one of two species of parakeets Cyanoramphus who live in remote Islas Antípodas. It is a medium-sized green parrot, brightly colored, the outer flight feathers are light blue with a crown red, which closely it resembles other parakeets “red crown” (for example, Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae). But appearances are deceptive. Estudios genéticos revelan que el color de la corona puede no ser un buen indicador de la taxonomía del perico, and the tiny Malherbe's parakeet(Cyanoramphus malherbi) It may be the closest relative of Reischek's Parakeet. Es común en todas lasIslas Antípodas, particularmente en áreas más abiertas y en las franjas costeras cercanas a las colonias de pingüinos.
The Reischek's Parakeet They are more abundant than Antipodes parakeet(Cyanoramphus unicolor)en la mayoría de los hábitats. Significant differences were observed in diet between the two species of parakeets. are also evident strong seasonal and annual differences in diet related food availability. The Reischek's Parakeet They are strong fliers and have been observed flying between islands within the grupo de las Antípodas.
Social behavior is similar to other species of parakeets Cyanoramphus, pero se ha observado que pasan períodos considerables tomando el sol y acicalándose en áreas protegidas. Like other species Cyanoramphus, are strongly territorial around nests, and they call loudly and chase intruders from nearby.
They are usually found in pairs or, more commonly, in small groups that feed on or near the ground. You can often see them in meetings springs and wells isolated. Occasionally they flock fly to neighboring islands in search of food.
We know relatively little about the breeding of the Reischek's Parakeet. Apparently nest de octubre a marzo dentro de túneles modificados o construidos dentro de las bases de grupos detussocks or ferns. The nest is lined with small pieces of wood, feathers, moss, herbs and other dry materials. They can reuse nests each year.
clutch size is unknown in nature. Es probable que su ecología y comportamiento reproductivo sean similares a los de otros pericos deCyanoramphus.
It has been recorded feeding on leaves, flowers, berries and seeds 14 plant species. Invertebrates are a minor component of the diet. The Reischek's Parakeet occasionally feed carcasses petreles and albatrosses, but not as often as Antipodes parakeet(Cyanoramphus unicolor). They feed on the floor often, including mud and feces accumulated within colonies pingüino de las Antípodas (Eudyptes sclateri) unoccupied, cuando los pingüinos están lejos en su migración invernal.
The Reischek's Parakeet is endemic of the Islas Antípodas. Es común en todas las Islas Antípodas, particularmente en áreas más abiertas y en las franjas costeras cercanas a las colonias de pingüinos.
• Según Sistema de Clasificación de Amenazas de Nueva Zelanda de 2008: Vulnerable.
• Population trend: Stable.
• Population size : 4000-6000 individuals.
The Reischek's Parakeet apparently they have a stable population, and are common within their distribution area of 2,000 has. They are protected by the isolated situation of the islands and their status Natural reserve strict. The greatest threat to long-term survival Reischek's Parakeetes la llegada de depredadores mamíferos. In the winter of 2016 we attempted to eradicate the mice Islas Antípodas.
The species is also affected negatively by forestry operations: logging and burning have drastically reduced the available habitat, y la tala selectiva puede reducir el número de árboles con agujeros de anidación adecuados y oportunidades de búsqueda de alimento.
It was hunted por los maoríes para alimentarse, and previously it was persecuted because birds were damaging crops and orchards.
"Reischek's Parakeet" in captivity:
Son confident desde el principio y en absoluto tímidos. Usually they are ready to breed in captivity. Although they are ripe (about five months), It is best not to allow them to play in the first year.
– Antipodes Island Parakeet, Antipodes Red-crowned (English).
– Perruche de Reischek, Perruche des Antipodes (French).
– Antipoden-Ziegensittich (German).
– Periquito de Reischek (Portuguese).
– Perico de Reischek, Perico Frentirrojo de las Antípodas (español).
• Avibase • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr • Greene, T.C. 2013 [updated 2017]. Reischek’s parakeet. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz
The Chatham Parakeet(Cyanoramphus forbesi) They are one of the two medium bright green parrots of Islas Chatham. Although they look very similar to those Yellow-crowned parakeet(Cyanoramphus auriceps) of New Zealand continental, the color of the crown is not a reliable indicator of taxonomic relationships.
The Chatham Parakeet They are medium-sized parrots, of tail long, with wings wide and rounded and plumage predominantly emerald. have a crown delantera de color amarillo brillante y una banda frontal de color carmesí que no llega hasta loseyes, unlike in the Red-crowned parakeet. Males are larger than the females.
Since 1930 se trata comúnmente como una subespecie delYellow-crowned parakeet(Cyanoramphus auriceps), and clearly the two are closely related; the species differ, However, in size considerably, It is larger species Cyanoramphus forbesi. Currently considered Monotípica.
The Chatham Parakeet They are at higher densities in forests and dense vegetation regenerating areas than in open grassland. Despite its rather erratic flight, They fly hard and move easily between islas Mangere and little Mangere. Occasionally they have been observed Chatham Parakeet individual in the forests of southern Chatham Island (> 20 km from the Mangere Island) and nearby islands Pitt and owner. Their social behavior is similar to other species of parakeets Cyanoramphus. They are strongly territorial around nests, llamando en voz alta y persiguiendo a los intrusos desde las cercanías.
The Chatham Parakeettienen una temporada de cría prolongada, with eggs laid between October and March. Son nesters cavity, preferring tree holes but also using rock crevices and under dense vegetation. The size medium of laying is of 5 eggs. Like all the other parakeets Cyanoramphus, females are responsible for preparing the nest, incubation, cría y alimentación de los polluelos hasta los 10-14 días de edad. Durante este período toda su comida es proporcionada por su pareja. From then on, male and female parrots feed the chicks in the nest until they leave the nest.
The incubation usually begins after the start of the second egg, lo que resulta en pollitos dentro de una nidada que varían enormemente en edad y tamaño. Los últimos pollos en eclosionar suelen nacer a una edad más temprana y están menos desarrollados que sus hermanos mayores. Se puede intentar más de una cría si el nido inicial falla o si el suministro de alimento lo permite.
The foods consumed by Chatham Parakeet They are affected by seasonal availability, and include seeds, flowers and leaves of various plants, It is the most important invertebrates in spring. They feed extensively in soil in open areas.
Distribution and status:
Sw extension of its distribution area (reproduction / resident): 3 km2
The Chatham Parakeet It is restricted to of Tapuaenuku ISLA ISLA Pequeña Mangere and Mangere in the Group of islas Chatham, New Zealand. In 1930 He quenched in Mangere Island, but in 1973 había recolonizado y numerado 40 aves y un pequeño número de híbridos con la subespecieCyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis (de los cuales había 12 on the island) (Higgins 1999).
In 1996, two estimates indicated that the population of the Mangere Island It was from 50 a 120 Purebred birds. The population on the small island of little Mangere It is little known because the few visits made (H. Aikman a slightly. 1999). In 1999, it was estimated that the total population was about 120 birds(Aikman et al. 2001), but studies 2003 estimated 900 individuals on Isla Mangere(Aikman y Miskelly 2004, D. Houston y C. Miskelly a slightly. 2008).
A recent study estimated that more than 50% of the population of parakeets in Isla Mangereconsistía de individuoshíbridos(Chan et al. 2006), but this is expected to decrease due to mating positive range (T. Greene a slightly. 2012); el número de fenotipos noforbesi It is approaching the threshold management 10% (D. Houston a slightly. 2012) (that is to say, el número por encima del cual el sacrificio puede ser reasumido como una herramienta de manejo). There have been birds visiting South isla Chatham, the Pitt island and ISLA ISLA Chief of Sudeste(Taylor 1998, D. Houston y C. Miskelly a slightly. 2008, T. Greene a slightly. 2012).
• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.
• Population trend: Stable.
• Population size : 250-999 individuals. Rationale for the Red List category
Esta especie puede tener todavía una pequeña población adulta de pura raza. Possible removal by hybridization has been avoided thanks to three decades of conservation efforts, which they have seen increasing population size. It is restricted to one place (given the proximity of the small islands that lives and mobility), y su pequeño tamaño de población significa que todavía merece ser incluido en una categoría amenazada, but it is likely that their population size has been more than 250 mature for more than 5 years, por lo que ha sido transferido a la categoría deVulnerable.
Justification of the population
The population of phenotypes similar to those of Forbesi It has increased dramatically in the Mangere Island, con las mejores estimaciones que sitúan a la población entre800 and 1.000 individuals. A survey in 2011 It assessed that the phenotypes of interest are in the 10%, the trigger level for management action (D. Houston a slightly. 2012). It is likely that populations have exceeded 250 mature for more than 5 years, so now it is in the range of 250-999 mature individuals.
La población ha mostrado fluctuaciones menores en los últimos años, since the species recolonized the Mangere Island over the years 70 and it has benefited from habitat restoration, while hybridization has also suffered. In general, It is estimated that the population has remained stabledurante los últimos diez años, and It is probably increasing(T. Greene a slightly. 2012).
• Desapareció de laMangere Island due to a combination of deforestation for grazing, decades of burning, los efectos de los mamíferos de pastoreo introducidos y la depredación por gatos callejeros(Higgins 1999).
• La mayor amenaza actual es lahybridization with the Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis, subspecies Red-crowned parakeet(Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) What, despite the sacrifice, still it is settling in Mangere Island(J. Kearvell a slightly. 1999).
• Se cree que la tasa dehybridization High above is the result of the then low population sizes of the two species (D. Houston y C. Miskelly a slightly. 2008).
• Los niveles dehybridization They have remained below 10% of the total population of parakeets Mangere Islanddurante la última década, so no management intervention was not necessary.
Conservation Actions Underway
• Appendix I and II of CITES. The Mangere Island It has been substantially replanted (Aikman et al. 2001, D. Houston y C. Miskelly a slightly. 2008).
• Un programa de investigación ecológica y genética ha investigado la dinámica de las poblaciones, the hybridization and selection of partners (H. Aikman a slightly. 1999, Chan et al. 2006).
• Durante 1976-1999, las aves híbridas y los individuos de la subespecieCyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis They were sacrificed population (Nixon 1994).
• In 1998, 40 híbridosAnd six Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis were killed, leaving 10 copies between híbridosand Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis after the operation (H. Aikman a slightly. 1999).
• Las encuestas de la proporción relativa dehíbridosregarding type phenotypes ForbesThey are held every two years (D. Houston a slightly. 2012).
• The translocation a fenced area predator proof in Chatham Island It is planned for 2017 (D. Houston a slightly. 2012).
Conservation Actions Proposed
• Completar lainvestigation ecological, biological and genetic, including analysis and dissemination of results.
• Monitor trends in the extent and quality of forest habitats on the island of Mangere.
• Restore forest habitats Mangere Islandpara aumentar el número y reducir lahybridization.
• Trabajar para el establecimiento de una o más poblaciones en laChatham Island(H. Aikman a slightly. 1999).
"Chatham Parakeet" in captivity:
There are no data from Chatham Parakeet in captivity.
• Avibase • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Birdlife • Greene, T.C. 2013 [updated 2017]. Forbes’ parakeet. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz
The Lord Howe Island Parakeet(Cyanoramphus subflavescens) was a medium-sized green parrot with a head bright green, the crown de color rojo carmesí y una franja en loseyes; the eyes were red and bill grey. The upperparts They were bright green with a dark red spot on each side of the rump (usually they are hidden by the wings when resting) and a blue border in wings; the underparts were yellowish green.
Ambos sexos parecían similares, but the female It was smaller.
This taxon is considered a subspecies of Cyanoramphus [novaezelandiae or subflavescens] (sensu lato) by some authors.
The Lord Howe Island Parakeet It was occasionally observed in flocks. There is little information on their habitats, probablemente vivían en bosques habitados y áreas cultivadas de laLord Howe Island. No information on the use of different habitats for different activities.
Nothing is known of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality of this extinct species. However, se ha estimado que la vida útil delLord Howe Island Parakeetdebía ser similar a la delNorfolk Island Parakeet(Cyanoramphus cookii), About three years. the age of sexual maturity is also known populations of this species, although a juvenile female was seen mating with a male just a week after achieving independence, y se dice que las aves cautivas se reproducían cuando tenían menos de un año de edad.
Poco más se sabe de la cría delLord Howe Island Parakeet, probablemente se reproducían en respuesta a las condiciones climáticas y a la disponibilidad de alimento, nesting in tree holes or hollow pipes, in crevices between rocks or cliffs.
Meal Lord Howe Island Parakeetprobablemente consistía en material vegetal, as seeds, fruit, buds and leaves of native trees and shrubs. Otras poblaciones existentes comían principalmente semillas, fruits and berries, egg yolks, sprouts and flowers, as well as, occasionally, un pequeño número de invertebrados.
• El último registro que se tiene de esta especie data de 1869. EXTINTO.
The population declines were mainly due to habitat modification, hunting, poisoning, and the introduction of predators (especially cats and rats).
However, the main threat to the Lord Howe Island Parakeet was the hunting and its capture by settlers. Formerly he abounded in the Lord Howe Islandy se decía que era una plaga, ya que destruía los cultivos y los huertos de los habitantes de la isla.
There are only two copies of Lord Howe Island Parakeet. From the collection John Gould, taken by John MacGillivray in September of 1853 on tour HMS Herald, and are in the Museum of Natural History [Schodde, R.; & Mason, I.J. (1997). Birds (Columbidae to Coraciidae). In Houston, W.W.K. & Wells, A. (eds) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 37.2. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne. ISBN 0-643-06456-7 p.147.].
– Lord Howe Island Parakeet, Lord Howe Island red-crowned parakeet, Lord Howe Parakeet, Red-Fronted Parakeet (English).
– Perruche de Lord Howe (French).
– Lord Howe-Laufsittich (German).
– Periquito de Lord Howe (Portuguese).
– Perico de Lord Howe (español).
(1) – Cyanorhamphus subflavescens (Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Volume 20) by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain]
(2) – Hand coloured lithograph (circa 1928) showing (Cyanorhamphus subflavescens) Which is now a synonym of the Lord Howe Island Red-fronted Parakeet (Gray novaezelandiae subflavescens) From The Birds of Australia (1910-28) by Gregory Macalister Mathews (1876-1949) Artwork by Henrik Gronvold (1858–1940) a Danish bird illustrator. by Henrik Grönvold [Public domain]
The Norfolk Island Parakeet(Cyanoramphus cookii) has a plumage bright green with reddish front, one red band extending through each eye; and light blue region in the leading edge of each wing
. Upperwing-coverts green. Primary coverts and outerweb of primaries violet blue. Underwing-coverts yellow-green. red spot on each side of the rump. Above, the tail dark green with yellow edges, under dark gray. Eyes red.
The sexes are similar in appearance. The females They are distinguished by their smaller size, less red in the forecrown, stains on the front of the crown, and bill smaller and narrower. The pups hatched are coated with a thin gray background.
The youth They are similar in appearance to adults, but the red is less extensive (Forshaw 1981; Higgins 1999). Juveniles have a bill distinctive color meat during the first 4 a 6 weeks after the flight (Forshaw 1981).
This taxon is considered a subspecies of Cyanoramphus [novaezelandiae, erythrotis, subflavescens, hochstetteri, saisseti or cookii] (sensu lato) by some authors
Sound of the Norfolk Island Parakeet.
The Norfolk Island Parakeet It is found mainly in the rainforest remainder, although it can also be seen in other areas of the island (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; J. Hicks pers. comm. quoted in Hill 2002).
It is considered sedentary (Higgins 1999). The species moves from the National Park Norfolk Island to orchards and gardens when fruit available (Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999). La mayoría de los avistamientos delNorfolk Island Parakeet outside the National Park Norfolk Island They are recorded in December and January (Lane et al., 1998).
Foraging occurs in all strata of vegetation (Higgins 1999), including in the forest canopy, on the floor, in disturbed habitats and habitats modified depending on food availability (Forshaw & Cooper 1989; Higgins 1999). It has been observed to Perico Norfolk, including youth, feeding on the ground during winter, comiendo semillas caídas y frutos deAfrican olive, Pine Norfolk Island and red guava(Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins 1999; Lane et al., 1998; Ortiz-Catedral 2013).
The Norfolk Island Parakeet It gregarious, usually they are seen in pairs or in family groups (Higgins 1999) and flocks (C. Jones pers. comm. 2016). The species occurs as a single contiguous breeding population (Garnett et to the., 2011).
The Norfolk Island Parakeet usually nest less than two meters above the ground, usually in a recess or cavity in the branch, trunk or stump living or dead trees, especially in larger native trees. This includes Nestegis apetala (ironwood), Blood Wood (Corymbia spp. / Eucalyptus spp.), Cordyline spp. and Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine) (Garnett et to the., 2011; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; Lane et al., 1998). La especie ha sido observada ocasionalmente anidando en huecos en el suelo creados por raíces de pino podrido(C. Jones pers. comm. 2016).
Usually it perches in hidden areas with thick vegetation, including treeholes, epiphytes, tussocks, sedges and ferns. The species often perches on nesting sites (Higgins 1999). Inexperienced chicks often roost in exposed sites (Higgins 1999).
The reproduction It occurs throughout the year, peaking from December to March (Greenwood et al., 1989; Hicks & Preece 1991). The females. hatch eggs and are very reluctant to leave their nests during this time (P. Stevenson com. pers. quoted in Hill 2002). The incubation hard 21 days (Hicks & Preece 1991). When the chicks reach about two weeks old, the female can leave to start a new nest (Greenwood 1993). Los Perico de Norfolk pueden tener múltiples puestas y parir con éxito hasta cuatro veces al año, con machos y hembras compartiendo el cuidado de las crías (R. Ward com. pers. quoted in Hill 2002). They prefer to use a fresh nest site for each clutch (Hill 2002). The chicks leave the nest six to seven. weeks after hatching and depend on their parents to feed three to seven weeks (Davidson 1997; Forshaw 1981; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Hicks & Preece 1991). The clutch is large (1-8) (Hicks & Greenwood 1989). the age of first reproduction is unknown, but it may be soon after independence (Greene 1990).
The Norfolk Island Parakeet(Cyanoramphus cookii) is endemic of the Norfolk island. Antes del establecimiento europeo se extendía por toda la isla, but now it is mainly in the region Mt Pitt de Norfolk. (460 has) and in the Botanical Gardens Norfolk Island (5,5 has) (Director del Parques Nacionales 2010; Garnett et to the., 2011). The Norfolk Island Parakeet also they are seen in wooded areas outside the national park and botanical gardens, and they are observed throughout the island in small amounts (Director de Parques Nacionales 2010).
The breeding of Norfolk Island Parakeet It is largely confined to a suitable habitat within the range of Norfolk Island National Park (Hill 2002), although there are reports playback on adjacent private property to the National Park Norfolk Island (C. Rowston press. comm. cited in Garnett et al., 2011).
In 2013, One study estimated that its population on Norfolk Island It was only 46-92 individuals(Ortiz-Catedral 2013).
Garnett et to the (2011) They reviewed the state of conservation Norfolk Island Parakeet and they considered in Critical Hazard. The Comité Científico de Especies Amenazadas You are using the findings of Garnett et al. (2011) to consider whether the reassessment of the conservation status of each of the threatened birds listed in the Ley EPBC It is mandatory.
The main factors causing the species to be eligible for inclusion in the List of Endangered Species are are very restricted area of â€‹â€‹occupancy (< 10 km2).) and a population small (< 250 mature individuals) (Garnett et to the., 2011).
Extensive vegetation clearing for agriculture and logging of large trees destroyed nesting sites most suitable in Norfolk island(Hicks & Greenwood 1989).
A change in the structure of forests in the Norfolk island, as a result of the invasion of weeds, there may also be reduced available habitat area. (Garnett et to the., 2011).
Predation by black rats (Rattus rattus) ha resultado en la mayoría de las fallas en los nidos y un desequilibrio en la proporción de sexos en la poblacion delNorfolk Island Parakeet, as rats often surprise female incubating (Hicks & Preece 1991; Hill 2002).
The cats (Felis catus) They are also significant predators (Garnett et to the., 2011).
The illness psitacina circoviral It is present in the population and can cause mortality in individuals stressed (Hicks & Preece 1991).
Las colisiones de ventanas también causan un pequeño número de muertes anualmente(Hill 2002).
Acciones de conservación
Conservation and management priorities Invasive species
Continue implementing and maintaining or protecting trees tin nesting sites (predator-proof) inside of the National Park Norfolk Island, And Botanical gardens adjacent private lands where appropriate.
Continue removing or European starlings and nesting material for nest sites.
or continue destroying the hives of abejas melíferas europeas nesting sites if necessary.
o Perform intensive control weed in the National Park Norfolk Island, appropriate methods, focusing on improving habitat areas suitable playback.
Lost, disturbance and habitat modifications
o Perform habitat restoration within the National Park Norfolk Island by revegetation. appropriate areas with native plants, in conjunction with the weed control program. Breeding, reproduction and other measures ex situ
o Mantener los sitios de nidificación para apoyar a las parejas reproductoras añadiendo material de nidificación adecuado y reparando los nidos según sea necesario.
or establish a wild population Phillip Island by methods translocation, when you consider that the source population is large enough to support the reduction of individuals.
Participation of stakeholders
or engage with the local community to provide information on the species and the importance of conservation actions.
o Comprometerse con el público sobre los loros verdes de la Isla Norfolk a través de la conservación. and environmental interpretation center National Park Norfolk Island.
Priorities and follow-up survey
Keeping monitoring or rats and black cats within the National Park Norfolk Island to determine its relative density within the park and report management actions.
Monitor or nesting sites known to detect the presence of Crimson Rosella(Platycercus elegans), estorninos europeos y abejas melíferas europeas para determinar el impacto continuo de la competencia de estas especies y losNorfolk Island Parakeet and reporting on management actions.
o Conduct population studies to assess more accurately the size of the population, la reproducción y la cría de estas aves, success and demographic trends.
or to perform monitoring for the presence of disease psitacina circoviral in population Norfolk Island Parakeet.
o Monitor the progress of conservation actions, including the effectiveness of management actions and adapt them if necessary to contribute to the recovery of the species.
Priorities for research and information
o Investigate options to improve the current population.
or investigate conservation benefits to establish a wild population in Lord Howe Island.
or investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit methods for controlling predators and competitors introduced nest.
or investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit methods for weed control.
"Norfolk Island Parakeet" in captivity:
More than 600 pups of Norfolk Island Parakeet They were banded between 1985 and 2007, la mayoría de las cuales fueron criados en el programa de reproducción silvestre asistida del parque nacional.
– Cook’s Parakeet, Norfolk Island Green Parrot, Norfolk Island Parakeet, Norfolk Island Parrot, Norfolk Parakeet, Tasman Parakeet (English).
– Perruche australe, Perruche de Norfolk (French).
– Norfolkziegensittich, Ziegensittich (German).
– Periquito de Norfolk (Portuguese).
– Perico de Norfolk (español).
(1) – Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) by David Cook – Flickr
(2) – Norfolk Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii), 2011 Norfolk Island National Park by Duncan Watson [CC BY-SA 4.0], from Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Norfolk Parakeet (also called Tasman Parakeet, Norfolk Island Green Parrot or Norfolk Island Red-crowned Parakeet) in Palm Glen, Norfolk Island, Australia by Paul Gear [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A juvenile Norfolk Parakeet (also called Tasman Parakeet, Norfolk Island Green Parrot or Norfolk Island Red-crowned Parakeet) in Palm Glen, Norfolk Island, Australia. by Paul Gear [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) by David Cook – Flickr
The upperparts of the New Caledonian Parakeet(Cyanoramphus saisseti) they are mostly green, with some bluish green in the tail, violet-blue along the outerweb flight feathers, and red patches on each side of the rump. The underparts are yellowish green, yellower near throat, and gray below tail(Forshaw 1989, Juniper & Parr 1998, Doughty et al. 1999).
A red patch extends from the crown up to the forecrown, and it extends in a narrow band from the forecrown up to the ears(Juniper & Parr 1998).
The bill is leaden gray, with black tips, the irises is red-orange and legs are dark gray. (Layard & Layard 1882b, Juniper & Parr 1998).
The malestípicamente exceden a lasfemales in size, although its plumage is similar (Verreaux & walls 1860, Layard & Layard 1882b, Salvadori 1891, Forshaw 1989)
In the past it was considered to New Caledonian Parakeetconespecífico delRed-crowned parakeet(Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) of New Zealand, but genetic studies have shown that it is a separate species and occupying a basal position on gender Cyanoramphus, lo que indica que el género tendría su origen enNew Caledonia.
Sound of the New Caledonian Parakeet.
The New Caledonian Parakeet They were primarily fed at low altitudes canopy, and regularly they observed on the edge of the forest, on slopes or in the forest maquis (scrub).
Seem to have small populations and their distributions are expected to shrink as a result of climate change.
They are not particularly tímidos, aunque tienden a ser más bien tranquilos y difíciles de observar.
It has been reported that the nesting It occurs between November and January, and nidadas They consist of two to five eggs, that they are placed in holes in trees (Hannecart & Létocart 1980, Theuerkauf et al. 2009b).
Genetic evidence suggests that the species is polyandrous, and the presence of male food assistants suggests that probably involves mating system poliandria cooperative (Theuerkauf et al., 1999).
It is usually fed in average heights, low canopy, but it has also been observed that feeds on the floor.
Essentially it is granívoro. It feeds mainly on seeds and fruits, besides berries, nuts and other plant parts (outbreaks, flowers and leaves).
The New Caledonian Parakeet It is endemic to the main island of New Caledonia, although there are still uncertainties about the extent of its range and population size (Taylor 1985, Juniper & Parr 1998). The species was considered rare at the time of its introduction (Verreaux & walls 1860). However, in the decade of 1880, Flocks of birds were reported in the West, flying into the valleys Moindou from nearby mountain forests, where it is rumored to have slept in large quantities (Layard & Layard 1882b).
• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.
• Population trend: Decreasing.
• Population size : 2500-10,000 individuals.
The New Caledonian Parakeet They face a variety of threats, and their populations seem to be in decline. However, es difícil determinar la causa o el alcance de sus disminuciones debido a la escasez de datos ecológicos.
classified as Vulnerable because it has a single small population suspected to be declining due to predation by invasive species; su fortaleza se encuentra en una zona amenazada por la minería del níquel y puede sufrir una rápida disminución en un futuro próximo. El bosque húmedo de montaña no está amenazado, but it is possible that this species in need of other habitats, some of which, particularly semi-deciduous forests lowland, They have almost disappeared from the island. It is possible that introduced diseases (such as avian malaria) o los mamíferos (especially rats) It has been a cause of decline.
There is no evidence that nest poaching is widespread.
"New Caledonian Parakeet" in captivity:
– New Caledonian Parakeet, New Caledonian Parrot, New Caledonian Red-crowned Parakeet, Red-crowned Parakeet (inglés).
– Perruche à front rouge, Perruche calédonienne, Perruche de Nouvelle-Calédonie (francés).
– Cyanoramphus saisseti (alemán).
– Periquito-da-nova-caledônia (portugués).
– Perico de Nueva Caledonia (español).
• Avibase • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr • Birdlife
(1) – Cyanoramphus saisseti, Parc de la rivière bleue, New Caledonia by Mickaël T. [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Cyanoramphus saisseti Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1882 (Web) by Joseph Smit [Public domain]
The Raiatea Parakeet (Cyanoramphus ulietanus) had the head blackish brown, paler on neck, Rump and wings. The lower part of the back and tail coverts were brownish-red; and under wing-coverts and outerweb the flight feathers were gray-blue. Había un borde gris en las plumasprimaries and secondaries. The chest, the abdomen and the under tail were yellow olive. The feathers of the middle tail were olive brown. The outer feathers tail were gray.
The irises were probably orange-red in the adult and juvenile brown. The legs were grayish brown. The bill was pale blue-gray or gray-brown to black tip. The males and females se parecían.
It is believed that it was a kind forest, when the Society Islands They were all wooded.
It knows nothing about the reproductive habits of this parrot or why died.
Nothing is known about the eating habits of this parrot.
Of the Raiatea Parakeetsólo se conoce de dos especímenes enRaiatea, in the Society Islands of the french polynesia(Forshaw and Cooper 1989), collected on the trip Cook in 1773, and now Vienna and Tring(Knox y Walters 1994).
• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: EXTINCT.
Rationale for the Red List category
This species was known in the Isla de Raiatea, french polynesia, but now it is extinct, probably as a result of habitat or cleaning action of invasive species.
Justification of the population
There remains no existing population.
It is believed that the two bodies of this parrot that remain dissected in two museums, the Natural History Museum London and the Naturhistorisches Museum, They were collected by Georg Forster in 1773 or 1774 during the second voyage of Capitán Cook(Stresemann 1950). However, Medway (2009), based on the travel journal Joseph Banks, He thought they were collected in November 1777 during the third trip Cook. It seems likely that no collection will be made on Raiatea in 1768 during the first trip Cook, since the natives were hostile, which is why Forsterprobablemente obtuvo ambos especímenes en el segundo. However, There is some confusion as to the locality, but Forster (1844) It refers to a “Psittacus pacificus” seen in Otaheite (Tahití) and Oriadea(Raiatea), from where Greenway (1967) presumed that found and collected Cyanoramphus zealandicusen Tahití yC. ulietanus in Raiatea. unusually, Forster He did not consider the two species as different.
– Raiatea Parakeet, Society Parakeet, Society Parrot (English).
– Kakariki de Raiatea, Perruche de Raiatea (French).
– Braunkopf-Laufsittich, Raiateasittich (German).
– Periquito-de-raiatea (Portuguese).
– Perico de Raiatea (español).
The Black-fronted Parakeet(Cyanoramphus zealandicus) They seemed to be very similar to the rest of the species of Cyanoramphus; They were olive green; the forecrown It was black; the lores (the regions between the eyes and the peak on the sides of the head of a bird) and stretches along the eyes They were red; the lower part of the back It was red; the uppertail-coverts red. the outerweb of the flight feather They were blue violet. The eye rings They were light blue. Los adultos probablemente teníanirises orange, mientras que las aves jóvenes teníaneyes dark or brown.
The legs They were brown and gray bill It was pale bluish gray with a blackish tip.
SegúnDes Murs (1845, 1849), Lt. M. J. Marolles shot three birds Tahití in 1844, in Port Phaeton, in the isthmus Taravao. The bird was rare at that time, and only he was in the isthmus and the mountains Tahití-iti. Marolles saw only four or five individuals in total, y los lugareños le dijeron que los loros vivían en grandes árboles en escarpas inaccesibles y valles profundos. It is not known nothing about it.
The Black-fronted Parakeet they were from Tahití, on french polynesia. Tres especímenes conocidos recogidos (two of which are now in Liverpool and one in Tring) collected on the trip Cook in 1773, a fourth collected by Amadis in 1842, now in Perpignan and a fifth collected by the Marolles in 1844, now in Paris(Voisin et al. 1995).
No se ha registrado ningún espécimen desde 1844.
• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Extinct.
• Population trend: Extinct.
• Population size : No queda ningún indivíduo.
Rationale for the Red List category
The frentinegro Perico were known Tahití, (french polynesia), but it has not been seen since 1844 and it is now regarded as a kindextinct. Possible causes include deforestation, the hunting and predation introduced species.
Hume y Walterssugieren que como los tahitianos apreciaban mucho las plumas verdes y rojas de loro traídas de Tonga, it is possible that excessive hunting in the past has been, at least in part, responsible for the disappearance of Black-fronted Parakeet.
– Black fronted Parakeet, Black-fronted Parakeet, Black-Fronted Parrot, Tahiti Parakeet (English).
– Kakariki de Tahiti, Perruche de Tahiti (French).
– Schwarzstirnsittich, Tahiti-Laufsittich (German).
– Periquito-do-tahiti (Portuguese).
– Perico de Frente Negra, Perico frentinegro (español).
• Avibase • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(1) – Iconographie ornithologiqueby Marc Athanase Parfait Œillet Des Murs (1804-1878) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Watercolour painting by George Forster annotated ‘Psittacus pacificus’. Made during Captain James Cook’s second voyage to explore the southern continent (1772-75). George Forster [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons