Black-fronted Parakeet †
Cyanoramphus zealandicus

Black-fronted Parakeet

Description:

Black-fronted Parakeet

Of 25 cm.. length

The Black-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus zealandicus) They appeared to be very similar to other species Cyanoramphus; They were olive green; the forecrown It was black; the lores (the regions between the eyes and the peak on the sides of the head of a bird) and stretches along the eyes They were red; the lower part of the back It was red; the uppertail-coverts red. the outerweb of the flight feather They were blue violet. The eye rings They were light blue. Adults probably had irises orange, while young birds had eyes dark or brown.

The legs They were brown and gray bill It was pale bluish gray with a blackish tip.

Habitat:

According to Des Murs (1845, 1849), Lt. M. J. Marolles shot three birds Tahiti in 1844, in Port Phaeton, in the isthmus Taravao. The bird was rare at that time, and only he was in the isthmus and the mountains Tahiti you. Marolles saw only four or five individuals in total, and the locals told that parrots lived in large trees in inaccessible cliffs and deep valleys. It is not known nothing about it.

Reproduction:

No data

Food:

No data

Distribution:

The Black-fronted Parakeet they were from Tahiti, on French Polynesia. Three known specimens collected (two of which are now in Liverpool and one in Tring) collected on the trip Cook in 1773, a fourth collected by Amadis in 1842, now in Perpignan and a fifth collected by the Marolles in 1844, now in Paris (Voisin et al. 1995).

It not registered any specimen from 1844.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Extinct.

• Population trend: Extinct.

• Population size : No individual is not.

Justification of the red list category

The frentinegro Perico were known Tahiti, (French Polynesia), but it has not been seen since 1844 and it is now regarded as a kindextinct. Possible causes include deforestation, the hunting and predation introduced species.

Hume y Walters suggest that as the Tahitians lingo green and red parrot feathers brought from Tonga, it is possible that excessive hunting in the past has been, at least in part, responsible for the disappearance of Black-fronted Parakeet.

Alternative names:

Black fronted Parakeet, Black-fronted Parakeet, Black-Fronted Parrot, Tahiti Parakeet (English).
Kakariki de Tahiti, Perruche de Tahiti (French).
Schwarzstirnsittich, Tahiti-Laufsittich (German).
Periquito-do-tahiti (Portuguese).
Perico de Frente Negra, Perico frentinegro (Spanish).

John Latham
John Latham

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Cyanoramphus
Scientific name: Cyanoramphus zealandicus
Citation: (Latham, 1790)
Protonimo: Psittacus zealandicus

Images:

We cannot display this gallery

Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Iconographie ornithologique by Marc Athanase Parfait Œillet des Murs (1804-1878) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Watercolour painting by George Forster annotated ‘Psittacus pacificus’. Made during Captain James Cook’s second voyage to explore the southern continent (1772-75). George Forster [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Ouvea Parakeet
Eunymphicus uvaeensis

Ouvea Parakeet

Description:

Of 32cm.. length and 117 g. of weight.

The Ouvea Parakeet (Eunymphicus uvaeensis) is similar to the Horned Parakeet (Eunymphicus cornutus) but with the face and nape green, no yellow, and crest upturned six pens greenish black: the Red of the crown It is limited to the center forecrown.

The Ouvea Parakeet generally bright mid-green. Head green, lighter on ear-coverts with some light shaft-streaks; centre of forecrown red with six wispy blackish-green uperwing feathers forming a small crest; rear-crown darker green; ears and cheeks dark green lower.

The upperparts light green, paler on rump. Wing coverts green; outerweb of primaries greenish-blue with innerwebs black. Underwing-coverts green. Underparts light yellowish-green. Uppertail green with a slight blue suffusion distally and blue edges to lateral feathers; undertail gray.

Bill blue-gray at base, blackish toward tip; irises orange; legs grey.

Both sexes similar.

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Eunymphicus [cornutus or uvaeensis] (sensu lato) by some authors

  • Sound Uvea Parakeet.

Note:

some species, as in the case of Ouvea Parakeet, They are subject to extreme stress due to traps or harassment. The open availability of high-quality recordings of these species may further worsen problems. For this reason, transmission and download of these recordings is off. Recorders are free to share in xeno-edge, but they will have to approve access to these recordings.

We do not take this action lightly, and we wish it were not necessary, but we are convinced that the negative impacts of offering easy access to these recordings outweigh the benefits. To access these recordings, You can contact directly with the recorder.

Habitat:

It is restricted to areas of old growth forest with holes for nesting, but higher numbers are given about papaya plantation areas.

The Ouvea Parakeet They are active in early morning and late afternoon, and generally they rest on the trees during the hot day.

Reproduction:

An average of 2.9 Eggs are laid in one or two broods per year, of which 1.7 chicks hatch, but only 0.75 chicks survive to 30 days (Robinet et al. 1995, Robinet et al. 1996, Robinet and Salas 1999).

Food:

It feeds in the forests and crops of cultivated land adjacent. The Ouvea Parakeet It depends mainly on mature native forests with pines kauri Agathis australis.

Fruits of Ficus spp., there Canaria, scrub and passion fruit. Also forage for seeds. The cultivated papaya (Carica papaya) It is a favorite.

Distribution and status:

Population expansion (breeding / resident): 640 km2

Los Pericos Uvea are confined to 110 km2 in Ouvea island, Loyalty Islands. Introduced unsuccessfully in the nearby Lifou.

The species is found in isolated patches of forest now restricted to the coast, mainly in the district St Joseph between Cape Rossel and Cape Steep. Alone 15-25 km2 of suitable habitat was considered that remained on the island 1993, with about 70-90 birds present, although a more thorough study has suggested a total population of 617 individuals. More recent studies is estimated at 1.780 mature individuals in total (Theuerkauf s suffering. 2016)
In the past, the reduction of individuals to extensive conversion of forests for agriculture due, hunting and trade. The delicate political situation in Uvea, while Kanak Liberation Front struggle for independence France, It has hampered the work of conservation of the species.

It is relying on a captive breeding program based on Forest Park, about Noumea, in New Caledonia. Transfers from island to island also be considered feasible.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Growing.

• Population size : 600-1800 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

This species is classified as Vulnerable because it is in one very small island and can be threatened by invasive species, in particular the Black rat, which could lead to the species category Critically Endangered or Extinct in no time.

Justification of the population

The population is estimated at 1.780 mature individuals in total (Theuerkauf s suffering. 2016), round here 1.800 mature individuals.

Justification trend

Barré et al (2010) reported that the population has increased in a 29% (of 10 birds / km2 34 birds / km2) between 1993 and 2009, which equates to an increase in population 34% in three generations.

Conservation Actions Underway

1 – Appendix I and II of CITES.

2 – The Association for the Protection of Perico Ouvea (ASPO) It was created in 1993 with members mostly local.

3 – ASPO started a long-term study of biology and ecology of the species as a basis for two recovery plans (1997-2002 and 2003-2008).

4 – Forest loss is being addressed through awareness programs and community trials to mitigate habitat degradation and improve the quality of forests, particularly in regard to nesting sites.

5 – ten guidelines are used, whom, among other tasks, nests located.

6 – Illegal trade is being addressed successfully through increased awareness and enforcement.

7 – It discussed a program of captive breeding, but still not started, and the species is found only in small quantities in captivity for a very limited reproductive success (Tap 1996).

8 – In 1998 translocation program began to repopulate southern Ouvea, and the number of birds in the south was 395 individuals in 2011 (Theuerkauf s suffering. 2016).

9 – Black rats were trapped on the island (Theuerkauf s suffering. 2016) and predator control is important.

10 – In 2003 a recovery plan was drawn updated, in which it recommended, among other things, the translocation program was canceled, since the population is considered viable and grow naturally; This recovery plan has been accepted by local indigenous authorities (N. Barré a slightly. 2003, Anon 2004).

11 – Ouvea has been classified as IBA, but still it has not established a management plan and protection program involving communities (Spaggiari et al. 2007).

12 – SCO obtained funding from the British Bird Watching Fair to build and test artificial nests PCV after the failure of trails wooden nest.

13 – ASPO personnel destroyed or removed 187 bee colonies between 2002 and 2008 (L. Verfaille a slightly. 2007, Barré et al. 2010).

14 – It is believed that the continued presence of local guides effectively prevents poaching of nests (Barré et al. 2010).

Conservation Actions Proposed

1 – Continue population monitoring (Primotel 2000).

2 – Research interactions with Trichoglossus haematodus.

3 – Investigate the non-use of artificial nests.

4 – Review and strengthen measures to control predators.

5 – Assess progress and update plans for translocations.

6 – Review and update all aspects of the Action Plan.

7 – Maintaining the momentum of awareness and participation of the community and the island (Robinet and Salas 1997).

8 – Establish a project IBAs in Ouvea and fund a protection program (N. Barré a slightly. 2003).

9 – Start a captive breeding program to support future reintroductions.

10 – Carry out surveillance screening BFDV to guide future efforts biosecurity and conservation, and better understand the risk posed by BFDV (Jackson et al. 2014).

Uvea parakeet in captivity:

The Ouvea Parakeet they are still captured using a rope inside a fruit Upload papaya, and because the island is a plain, exports through an easily accessible atoll are difficult to control. Birds bought from trappers by 50 dollars can be sold by traders up 1.000 Australian dollars.

There is a captive breeding program, but still not started, and the species is found only in small quantities in captivity for a very limited reproductive success (Tap 1996).

Alternative names:

Horned Parakeet (Ouvea), Ouvea Parakeet, Short-horned Parrot, Uvea Parakeet (English).
Nymphique d’Ouvéa, Perruche cornue (Ouvéa), Perruche d’Ouvéa, Perruche d’Ouvéa (French).
Ouvéahornsittich, Uveasittich (German).
Periquito-de-uvea (Portuguese).
Perico de Uvea (Spanish).

Edgar Leopold Layard
Edgar Leopold Layard

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Eunymphicus
Scientific name: Eunymphicus uvaeensis
Citation: (Layard, THE & Layard, ELC, 1882)
Protonimo: Nymphicus uvaeensis

Images:


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – This Uvea Parakeet was photographed feeding on a papaya at the edge of forest by Tunpin.ong [CC BY-SA 3.0], from Wikimedia Commons

Crimson Shining-Parrot
Prosopeia splendens

Crimson Shining-Parrot

Description:

42 cm. length and 280 g. of weight.

The Crimson Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia splendens) is very similar to the Red Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis). has the head and underparts red intense and bright, slightly darker in ears; broad collar rear violet-blue, which becomes turquoise toward the trailing edge. The rest of upperparts bright pale green with darker edges and fine bright in back and wings. Coverts medium green, greater coverts blue green; primary coverts and primaries deep blue-violet with black on innerwebs; secondaries blue to green in the innermost feathers. Underwing-coverts marked blue-green and red; axillary pale green. Uppertail green with blue tip, violet blue with side feathers innerwebs blackish; undertail black. Bill black; irises red-orange; legs black.

The male has the bill and head larger

taxonomy:

Consanguíneo generally considered the Prosopeia Tabuensis, but may be closer Prosopeia Personata. Monotypic.

  • Escarlata sound Papagayo.

Habitat:

It is found in forests, farmland and villages, both in the lowlands and hills.

Reproduction:

Food, habits and reproductive behavior presumably similar to those of the Red Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis) With which, until very recently, consanguíneo he considered.

Food:

Similar al al Red Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis).

Distribution:

Extension of the distribution (breeding / resident): 910 km2

It is endemic Fiji, where it is found naturally in islas de Kadavu (including around Vunisea) and Ono. It has also been introduced in Viti Levu and probably in the Group Yasawa and Ovalau in the past (There are no recent records).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable
• Population trend: decreasing.

The species may be declining in Viti Levu due to trade, although at present the possible negative effects of competition are not known with Masked Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia personata). It is estimated that the world population It is between 5.000 and 10.000 specimens. NEAR THREATENED.

Justification of the population

Although recent fieldwork on Kadavu it not specifically focused on this species, seems to occur in population densities similar to those of Masked Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia personata) (86 Crimson Shining-Parrot They were recorded in Kadavu 38 standardized observation times in the two studies BirdLife, similar to the average 1,9 of the Masked Shining-Parrot /time recorded in 18 sites across the Viti Levu). The Masked Shining-Parrot It was estimated at around 29 in native lowland forest birds / km2 (Jackson y Jit 2004). The area of ​​dense forest and medium density Kadavu it's around of 225 km2 (National Forest Inventory 1991-1993), so a reasonable estimate of the population Crimson Shining-Parrot would be 6.000 birds or 4.000 mature individuals.

Conservation Actions Underway

Appendix II of the CITES. It is protected by law in Fiji, which has recently been revised, the old Law Poultry and game has been partly overtaken by the Law on Protection of Endangered Species, which provides protection (SPREP 2000, D. Watling a slightly. 2007). Conservation projects have reduced the trade in this species (Jackson y Jit 2004). Four communities have declared a protected area covering community 1.535 hectares of forest and local volunteers monitor bird populations and evaluate habitat status on its own initiative (V. Masibalavu a slightly. 2007). Conservation actions aimed at fire prevention (including awareness following the amendment of the decree concerning arson) They have improved in recent years (V. Masibalavu in litt. 2012, M. Tabudravu in little. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Establish standards for maintenance of parrots in captivity to reduce demand (SPREP 2000). Monitor the numbers caught and transported to Suva. Determining population densities in various habitats. Investigate the needs and breeding success. Promote the creation of community forest reserves. Use as set species to promote ecotourism in Kadavu.

Scarlet macaw in captivity:

Captive numbers are unknown, and everything indicates that captive breeding has rarely been achieved. It is caught in small quantities, and islanders returning to the capital, Suva (Watling 2000), the birds are carried as a gift, and there is at least some illegal trade abroad (J. S. Kretzschmar a lie. 2000).

In the nineteenth century it was imported by zoos in London, Berlin and Hamburg. In the United States, He kept San Diego Zoo, which was partially successful with the offspring when a young man born in 1973,

As they are at serious risk of extinction, only the most experienced should try to keep them in their aviaries, and all bred in captivity should be better placed in breeding programs to establish a larger population and participate in the conservation of this species of bird.

Alternative names:

Crimson Shining Parrot, Crimson Shining-Parrot, Kadavu Shining Parrot, Kandavu Shining Parrot, Kandavu Shining-Parrot (inglés).
Perruche écarlate, Perruche masquée écarlate (francés).
Fidschi Sittich, Fidschisittich (alemán).
Papagayo Escarlata (portugués).
Papagayo Escarlata, Papgayo Escarlata (español).

Peale, Titian Ramsay

Clasificación científica:

Orden: Psittaciformes
Familia: Psittaculidae
Género: Prosopeia
Nombre científico: Prosopeia splendens
Citación: (Peale, 1848)
Protónimo: Platycercus splendens

Imágenes Papagayo Escarlata:


Fuentes:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Par
Birdlife

Fotos:

(1) – Auckland Museum [CC BY 4.0]

Paradise Parrot †
Psephotellus pulcherrimus

Paradise Parrot

Content

Description:

Paradise Parrot

The extinct Paradise Parrot (Psephotus pulcherrimus) was a small parrot (27-30 cm long) and rather distinctive, with scapulars red and long tail.

The male had forecrown of bright red and a crown black; eye rings yellowish; ear-coverts and throat emerald green. The nape black merged with the dark brown on the neck and then into paler, earthy brown the mantle and back. The scapulars were bright red; the rump was turquoise; and tail top green-bronze and blue, merging into bluish-black. The under body comprised an chest and upper abdomen emerald green, merging into turquoise on the sides of neck and in the part inferior of the abdomen; the belly, the vent and flanks were bright red; and the under tail was bluish white. The upperwing was earthy brown, concolorous with the mantle and back; and the underwing was deep blue.

The female was less colorful, differing from the male by forecrown and face yellowish; a crown duller blackish-brown; throat and chest with brownish-orange suffusion; belly pale blue and coverts the lower abdomen, vent and under tail red on the fringes of some feathers. In both sexes bill was grayish; the eyes brown; and legs and feet were grayish brown.

The juveniles resembled females.

taxonomy:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Psephotellus [pulcherrimus or dissimilis] (sensu lato) by some authors

Habitat:

The Paradise Parrot lived mainly in rolling river valleys were lightly wooded with eucalyptus forests, or open forests often dominated by ironbarks and bloodwoods, with an understory of annual and perennial native grasses; These areas often were dotted with termite mounds.

Reproduction:

the details of the distribution areas or territories unknown Paradise Parrot, although it is believed that adults have remained in the same places nesting for many years.

Little is known of sexual maturity or life expectancy of this species. The reproduction It was recorded between September and March. Sunsets are placed three to five white eggs, with a pink tinge, a camera nest at the end of a tunnel excavated in termite mounds.

Food:

There is little information on diet Paradise Parrot, however it was known that fed on seeds of native grasses.

Distribution:

The Paradise Parrot He was present in eastern Australia, only he reported with certainty from southeast Queensland. Is likely to records in upstate been wrong. It is also often said that the species had been found in New South Wales, but there has been no confirmed records (Olsen 2007). Era locally common although generally scarce in the nineteenth century (Forshaw and Cooper 1989), but then he declined rapidly and was thought to be extinct as a result of drought 1902 until it was rediscovered in 1918 (Chisholm 1922). The last observation was confirmed in 1928. Some credible reports continued in the years 30 and 40 (Olsen 2007), but although Kiernan (1993) He claims to have seen five birds 1990, the species is now considered extinct (Necklace et to the. 1994).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Extinct.

Its extinction It was probably marked by a reduction in food supply due to drought and overgrazing (Olsen 2007). Also contributed frequency altered fires and propagation tunas (Joseph 1988), the disease, the trampeo and harvest of eggs (Garnett 1992), the predation of nests by introduced and native species (Chisholm 1922) and removal of eucalyptus by ringbarking (Kiernan 1993). After a significant reduction in the size of the population of the species, It seems that endogamia inhibited fertility of birds (Gerrard 2008).

Alternative names:


Anthill Parrot, Beautiful Parakeet, Beautiful Parrot, Elegant Parrot, Grass Parrot, Ground Parrot, Ground Rosella, paradise parakeet, Paradise Parrot, Red-shouldered Parakeet, Red-shouldered Parrot, Red-winged Parrot, Scarlet-shouldered Parakeet, Scarlet-shouldered Parrot, Soldier Grass-Parrot, Soldier Parrot (English).
Perruche de paradis (French).
Paradiessittich (German).
Periquito-do-paraíso (Portuguese).
Perico del Paraíso (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Psephotellus
Scientific name: Psephotellus pulcherrimus
Citation: (Gould, 1845)
Protonimo: platycercus beautiful


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Preserved specimen by Naturalis [CC BY-SA 3.0]

(2) – Parrots in captivity /. London :George Bell and Sons in Biodiversity Heritage Library by Flickr

Naretha Bluebonnet
Northiella narethae


Description:

The Naretha Bluebonnet (Northiella narethae) It is smaller than Bluebonnet (Northiella haematogaster), about 28 cm. long.

The legs and feet are dark gray, and the irises is dark brown.

The adult male has a two tonal facial pattern forecrown lighter green-blue, the ears and the area above the eye contrasting with the rest of the face which is a purplish-blue. The head, the neck forward and breast are marked with pale steaks and diffuse spots.. The back It is olive gray. The belly, the area of the vent and the thighs are uniform yellow, while red is limited to the area of ​​the undertail-coverts. The lesser wing coverts are blue and outer median wing coverts red, while the inner median and greater wing coverts, and inner secondary a yellow-olive colour. The central feathers of the tail are tinged with pale blue..

The female adult has a duller blue color in forecrown, and a reduced color on wings and tail, and with no tint of orange on the belly. It is smaller overall, at around 26 26cm in length.

The chicks they have a bill yellow and gain their adult plumage in the first post moves to bloom (three to four months old).

taxonomy:

the species Northiella narethae It was formerly classified as a subspecies (Northiella haematogaster narethæ) of the Northiella haematogaster. A molecular study published in 2015 by Gaynor Dolman and Leo Joseph He confirmed the genetic isolation Naretha Bluebonnet (Northiella narethae) and recommended that it was restored as a separate species.

Habitat:

Arid and semiarid scrub and farmland, thickets mulga, weeds and dry forests open.

Reproduction:

It is heavily influenced by rainfall and food availability, but usually peaks between August and January.

The usual site nesting It is a very small cavity tree, particularly attracted she-oaks providing appropriate holes for nesting, often near the ground, coated shavings and wood dust rotten. The skt incubates the eggs but is attended by the male also it contributes to raising pups.

Four to seven white eggs round (23mm x 19mm). Time of incubation: 22 days. Hatchlings usually leave the nest around 30 days.

Food:

Seeds of various grasses and herbaceous plants (autochthonous), also nectar, flowers and various fruits.

Distribution:

Reports indicate that Naretha Bluebonnet They have been common in the arid region Nullarbor, and they have become more rare in the twentieth century. It is believed that localized individuals range makes the species highly endemic in an area on the border between Western Australia and Southern Australia.

Conservation:

We know the conservation status of this species, although probably in risk status.

Perico Cariazul Naretha in captivity:

No data.

Alternative names:

Bluebonnet (Naretha), Little Bluebonnet, Naretha Bluebonnet (English).
Perruche à bonnet bleu (narethae), Perruche de Nareth, Perruche petite (French).
(German).
(Portuguese).
Perico Cariazul Naretha (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Northiella
Scientific name: Northiella narethae
Citation: (White, HL, 1921
Protonimo: Psephotus narethae


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Penochka Birds: Parrots (Psittacidae) – Source

Maroon-tailed Parakeet
Pyrrhura melanura


Maroon-tailed Parakeet

Description:

26-28 cm.. height.

Maroon-tailed Parakeet

The Maroon-tailed Parakeet (Pyrrhura melanura) is distinguishable mainly by the tail and wings blackish (visible in flight); has the lores, the forecrown, the crown and the rear area of the neck, brownish, with paler reddish brown tips on the crown, forming altogether a speckled pattern; cheeks, ear-coverts and area behind the eyes, green; Brown in the shadows at the back of the crown Green in the nape.

Upperparts Green with tinge of olive in some feathers. Primary coverts Red with yellow tips; Front edge of the wing , red; upperwing-coverts of color green with dye olive. Primaries Dark greenish blue with dark tips. Underwing-coverts green; underside of flight feather blackish. Throat and feathers of the upper part of the chest, Green or greyish green with pale margins, giving a scaly striking effect; pale edges that become less clear on the sides of the neck; the belly and undertail-coverts Green with dye olive dark. Upper, the tail dark brown with green outer feathers; undertail, the tail shiny black.

Bill pale grey; bare periophthalmic naked, whitish: irises dark brown; legs grey.

Both sexes similar. The immature has less red (greener) in the primary coverts.

  • Sound of the Maroon-tailed Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Pyrrhura melanura.mp3]
Subspecies description
  • Pyrrhura melanura berlepschi

    (Salvadori, 1891) – Similar to the Pyrrhura melanura souancei, but with even more ample and pale margins in the breast feathers (Some birds of Ecuador with almost entirely white breasts), less red on the front edge of the wing and more pronounced brown patch in the belly. Cheeks dyed with color olive, Red uniform at the edge of the Carpus; abdomen more uniform brown/red color.

  • Pyrrhura melanura chapmani

    (Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1940) – With suspiciously in the chest more width, No yellow in the wing ; yellowish in the area of the ear and the green of the tail darker.

  • Pyrrhura melanura melanura

    (Spix, 1824) – Nominal.

  • Pyrrhura melanura pacifica

    (Chapman, 1915) – More dark, No yellow in the wing , grey around the eye, tail more short and reddish.

  • Pyrrhura melanura souancei

    (Verreaux,J, 1858) – With the edge top of the wing Red and not yellow; Green in the base of the tail more extensive and chest with scaled a little more width.

Habitat:

The Maroon-tailed Parakeet It occupies the temperate tropical formations, including forests of várzea, forests of land low and pre-montanos rainforests and forests cloud, often in areas partially cleared and edges of secondary forests; 150 - 300m in Venezuela (nominal), to 3,200 m in the slopes Andean Eastern (souancei), 1.600-2.800m on the slope of the Andes Central (chapmani), at 1,700 m in Nariño (Pacifica), at 1500m (berlepschi). Usually in flocks of 6-12 individuals, staying in them cups of them trees to rest but moving is toward the branches more low for forage.

Reproduction:

Little information on the breeding, observed during the months of April-June, headers of the Rio Napo, Ecuador. Copulation observed in January (Colombia). Clutch four eggs in captivity.

Food:

Few details about the diet, with foods known, including fruits of Miconia tkeaezans (Top of the Magdalena valley). Fagara tachuelo and tree bark (Amazon).

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 1.510.000 km2

The distribution of the Maroon-tailed Parakeet is discontinuous. Northwest of South America in the Western Amazon basin, southern portion of the the Orinoco basin and slope of the Pacific of the Andes, in the southwest of Colombia and West Ecuador.

In Venezuela the species is found in the Centre of the South of Bolivar along the upper Western Amazon basin of Brazil between the rivers Black and Solimões. Are also distributed in the Andes Central of Colombia, at the top of the Magdalena valley, from the South of Tolima until Huila and separated to the East from the Andes (in lowlands and up to 500 m in foothills) Since the Macarena mountains, southward through eastern lowlands Ecuador and Northeast and East of Peru.

A separate population is distributed to the West of the Andes, in the Northwest of the South of Ecuador, to the North of The rivers, with a single log in Nariño, to the southwest of Colombia.

Mainly resident Although the apparent absence during some seasons in some parts of Colombia suggests regular movements.

Unevenly distributed, in some areas very common, being the Parrot more numerous in some parts of the range such as high Magdalena valley and perhaps parts of Esmeraldas in the Northwest of Ecuador.

Alleged decrease in some areas (for example, Ecuador's Pacific slope) due to loss of habitat. Little known in the East of Peru. Is not a locally popular cage bird if it has been traded internationally in significant numbers at the end of 1980 and fairly well known in captivity outside of its area of distribution.

Distribution of subspecies
  • Pyrrhura melanura berlepschi

    (Salvadori, 1891) – Valley of Huallaga, East of Peru and Southeast of Ecuador on Cutucú mountain range. A copy with characteristics of this species was observed in the header of the Magdalena valley suggesting their distribution in Colombia.

  • Pyrrhura melanura chapmani

    (Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1940) – Hillside East of the top of the Magdalena valley in the center of the Andes from the South of Tolima until Huila at altitudes of 1600-2, 800 m

  • Pyrrhura melanura melanura

    (Spix, 1824) – Nominal.

  • Pyrrhura melanura pacifica

    (Chapman, 1915) – Northwest of Ecuador and southwest of Colombia.

  • Pyrrhura melanura souancei

    (Verreaux,J, 1858) – East of Colombia since the Sierra de la Macarena Southwest, until Putumayo through the East of Ecuador, possibly up to the north end of Peru. Probably bordered on the eastern slopes of the Andes and for the most part replaced by the nominal species in lowlands.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the population

The population size world has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

This species is suspected that he has been able to lose 6,95 to 7,1% of a habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation in the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006, Bird et to the. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to the cazay and/or the capture, It is suspected that will decrease in <25% durante tres generaciones.

Parakeet Cola Negra in captivity:

Bird timid and quiet, get used to people over time. Colonies in large birdcages are possible.

Alternative names:

Maroon-tailed Parakeet, Magdalena Parakeet, Maroon tailed Parakeet, Maroon-tailed Conure, Black-tailed Conure (English).
Conure de Souancé, Perriche de Souancé, Perruche de Souancé (French).
Braunschwanzsittich, Braunschwanz-Sittich (German).
tiriba-fura-mata (Portuguese).
Cotorra Colinegra, Perico de Cola Negra, Periquito Colirrojo (Spanish).
Periquito Colirrojo (Colombia).
Periquito Colirrojo (Peru).
Perico Cola Negra (Venezuela).

Johann Baptist von Spix
Johann Baptist von Spix

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura melanura
Citation: (von Spix, 1824)
Protonimo: Aratinga melanurus

————————————————————————————————

Maroon-tailed Parakeet (Pyrrhura melanura)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – pyrrhura.cz.
(2) – Maroon-tailed parakeet pyrrhura berlepschi = berlepschi, Maroon-tailed Parakeet ssp. by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Pacific Parakeet
Psittacara strenuus


Periquito Pacífico

Description Periquito Pacific:

Of 33 cm.. length.

The Pacific Parakeet (Psittacara strenuus) has most of its plumage bright green. The underparts are yellowish. Some birds may have some feathers Orange at neck and throat in variable patterns. Blue tint on primary coverts and vane outer of the flight feather. Underwing-coverts off yellowish green. The lower feathers of the wings they are yellowish metal.

The bill color horn. Eye ring bare greyish Brown. Iris orange. The legs greyish pale.

The immature they are similar to the adults but with the irises brown.

Note:

The Pacific Parakeet (Psittacara strenuus) for a long time it was considered a subspecies of Psittacara holochlorus

Pacific Parakeet Habitat:

The Pacific Parakeet It is in a wide variety of forest types, including wetlands, semi-Bosque, open scrub forests, plantations and farmland with scattered groves.

In Mexico, they live in semi-deciduous forests, riparian vegetation and in the form of patches of semi-deciduous medium and perennial trees of Manilkara zapota, Ceiba petandra, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobyum ciclocarpum, Cordia allidora, Bursera simaruba, Brosimum alicastrum.

Sedentary, but it probably makes local movements in response to food availability.

Outside the breeding season can be seen in large flocks noisy, often in groups of up to 200 birds or more, especially where is food abundant.

In El Salvador, occupy the suburbs of La Sultana, Antiguo Cuscatlán, which it provided an opportunity to estimate the population in the roost, to assess seasonal variations and changes over one year (October 2003 – September 2004). the resting places were also observed in this area and found that these places are used by other parrots as Brotogeris jugularis, Psittacara rubritorquis and other species that probably escaped from captivity.

Reproduction:

Nest in tree cavities, on the walls of rocky cliffs or in termite colonies. Other details about their reproductive behavior remain unknown. The size of the implementation tends to be of 4 eggs.

A colony of the Pacific Parakeet (Psittacara strenuus) was studied in the Masaya Volcano National Park in Nicaragua from 1993 until 1994.

The parakeets nested in two craters of the Nindiri volcano. They dug their nests in the soft Earth of the wall of the volcano and began to settle on the volcano at the end of the dry season. They nested Once a year, in the rainy season, and they gradually abandoned the volcano toward the end of that season, when their offspring could be worth if same. All parakeets left the volcano during the morning and it was a count in the course of the afternoon, When they return from their feeding grounds.

Food:

Little is known about of its diet. They feed on fruits and seeds, they sometimes attack cereal crops.

Distribution of the Pacific Parakeet:

Endemic to the Pacific side of Isthmus of Central America, of Oaxaca up to the middle of Nicaragua, mountainous areas of Guatemala to 2.100 meters and El Salvador, where there is a common permanent resident that inhabits wooded or semi-boscosas regions at altitudes of 1.350 m.

Distribution in Mexico: The Pacific from the East slope of Oaxaca until Chiapas. In areas in Chiapas and Oaxaca they have disappeared from tropical forests

Conservation:

The Pacific Parakeet is not threatened globally. It is considered one threatened species in Mexican legislation. Threatened on NAME-059-ECOL-2001. CITES Appendix II. This species should be classified as in Danger of extinction by their reduced distribution, deforestation of its Habitat and illegal trafficking.

However,They show a high adaptability to changes in natural ecosystems caused by the human.

There are no programs for the conservation of the species.

Pacific Parakeet in captivity:

Rare in captivity.

Its marketing is prohibited in Mexico.

The illegal trade in parrots and macaws is held thanks to demand from consumers. If the demand for these wild species is reduced, then the offer would be reduced and thus the illegal catch.

If you create an international demand of these captive-bred parrots, There will be traders without scruples who will try to meet the demand with individuals caught illegally, which will only serve to undermine more wild populations.

Alternative names:

Pacific Parakeet, Pacific Conure (English).
Conure de Ridgway, Perruche du Pacifique (French).
Mexikosittich, Mexicosittich (German).
Periquito-do-pacífico (Portuguese).
Aratinga del Pacífico, Perico Centroamericano, Perico Gorgirrojo, Perico Verde Centroamericano, Periquito del Pacífico, Periquito Pacífico, Perico Chocoyo, Barranqueño (Spanish).
Periquito del Pacífico (Honduras).
perico centroamericano, Perico Verde Centroamericano, Periquito pacífico (Mexico).
Perico Gorgirrojo (Nicaragua).

Robert Ridgway
Robert Ridgway

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Psittacara
Scientific name: Psittacara strenuus
Citation: (Ridgway, 1915)
Protonimo: Conurus vigorous holochlorus

————————————————————————————————

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Colony breeding of the Pacific Parakeet Aratinga strenua Ridgway 1915 in the Masaya Volcano National Park, Nicaragua – researchgate
pericosmexico
academia.edu

Photos:

(1) – Psittacara strenuus (Chocoyo) on the cruise, Nicaragua By SergioTorresC (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Frank Lambert (Xeno-canto)

Antipodes Parakeet
Cyanoramphus unicolor

Antipodes Parakeet

Description

32 cm.. of length and a weight of 130 g..

Antipodes Parakeet

The Antipodes Parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) has a plumage brighter yellowish green, more yellowish on the hand down and sometimes with irregular yellow markings at the top. It is the only species that has no color marks in head and tail. It is the largest of its kind.

The face and top are bright emerald green, and the contrast with the neck and the chest is more off.

At the top of the wings, the outer bands of the flight feather are blue, While the long tail It is green with fine yellow piping.

The great bill is silver-grey with dark end. The eyes are orange-red. The legs and feet are greyish.

Both sexes are identical. The female is slightly smaller than the male.

The young birds they are of tail shorter. The young people have the bill Pink White and the eyes light brown.

Habitat:

The Antipodes Parakeet, usually, they prefer areas with tall grass (POA littorosa), areas of open scrub and sedges (Carex). Can also be seen in areas where thorny ferns grow (Polystichum vestitum) and the bushes (Coprosma antipode).

The birds are most common on steeper slopes and near water courses, alone or in small groups; They walk on the floor and climb among the branches as they seek food, normally during the morning and before nightfall.

These birds are very Meek and curious. When frightened, they disappear among the dense vegetation, keeping silent or giving a short alarm call. More than half of the day are dedicated to Sun bathing and preening in protected areas. They bathe in small ponds and rest in burrows.

Reproduction:

The season of reproduction takes place between October and March. The Antipodes Parakeet nest in soils with good drainage, a length of at least one meter. The nests is carved in fibrous peat, under the thick base of the tall grass vegetation. The nesting Chamber It is full of rootlets or fern scales.

The spawning occurs between November and January. The female lays 2-3 white eggs (5-6 in captivity). She carries out most of the duties of nesting, and incubates the eggs for a few 26 days. She cares for and feeds the chicks for nearly two weeks. The male contributes to raising, feeding the female during this period, as well as to the power of youth to their independence, at least two weeks after leaving the nest.

Food:

The diet main consists of leaves; an amount of crushed leaves, still attached to the plant, they are a distinctive sign of the power of the Antipodes Parakeet. Also consume seeds, berries, the remains of penguins and petrels dead. They often enter into colonies of the Western Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) and of the Erect-crested Penguin (Eudyptes sclateri) between the months of October and may, to feed on their eggs or dead offspring. Also eggs and sometimes feeds the newborn babies of the same species. (The sympatrico Red-fronted Parakeet competition prevents taking advantage of the niche that provide seeds, flowers, berries and small invertebrates.)

Distribution:

Endemic to the main island Antipodes, In addition to Bollons, Leeward, Inner Windward and Islands Archway.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Stable

The world's population of the Antipodes Parakeet It is estimated between 2.000 and 3,000 specimens. Although common and stable within its distribution area, the species is permanently at risk due to accidental introduction of predators, problem that could be solved in a short time.

Some birds are kept in captivity in New Zealand.

VULNERABLE.

Antipodes parakeet in captivity:

This plump parakeet can live in community with species with similar characteristics. It is usually Extrovert, Active Depending on your type of poultry rearing (natural or hand) and earlier experiences, It may be a trusted Parrot (hand raised or treated early), even being raised by their parents tends to be entrusted.

As pet could be of good pet by his way of being cheerful and curious.

It is a rather nice parrot as vocalizations. It is not just loud. He likes to climb, There is no great need to crack and loves to be on the floor. Enjoy the baths.

However, due to their vulnerability, is very rare poultry.

Alternative names:

Antipodes Parakeet, Antipodes Green Parakeet, Antipodes Green Parrot, Antipodes Island Parakeet, Antipodes Island Parrot (English).
Perruche des Antipodes, Kakariki des Antipodes, Perruche d’Antipodes (French).
Einfarbsittich (German).
Kakariki dos Antípodas (Portuguese).
Perico de Antípodas, Perico de las Antípodas (Spanish).

Edward Lear
Edward Lear

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Cyanoramphus
Scientific name: Cyanoramphus unicolor
Citation: (Lear, 1831)
Protonimo: Platycercus unicolor

Images of the Antipodes Parakeet:


Antipodes Parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife
  • Loromania

  • Photos of antipodes parakeet:

(1) – Cyanoramphus unicolor at Wellington Zoo, Wellington, New Zealand by Peter Halasz. (User:Pengo) – Wikimedia
(2) – Cyanoramphus unicolor at Wellington Zoo, Wellington, New Zealand by Peter Halasz. (User:Pengo) – Wikimedia
(3) – Antipodes Island Parakeet, Auckland Zoo by russellstreet – Flickr
(4) – Antipodes Island parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) by Chlidonias – zoochat
(5) – Antipodes Island parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) by Chlidonias – zoochat
(6) – A painting of Antipodes Parakeet, also known as Antipodes Island Parakeet, (originally captioned “Platycercus unicolor Uniform Parrakeet”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Use of cookies

This web site uses cookies so that you have the best user experience. If you continue browsing you are giving your consent for the acceptance of the aforementioned cookies and the acceptance of our cookies policy, Click the link for more information.plugin cookies

TO ACCEPT
Notice of cookies