Malherbe's Parakeet
Cyanoramphus malherbi

Malherbe's Parakeet

Description

19 to 22 cm. length and a weight between 40 and 52 grams for males and between 30 and 41 grams for females.

The Malherbe's Parakeet (Cyanoramphus malherbi) they are small bright green parakeets, equipped with a long tail and with a bluish green colour wash in belly and chest.

The wings they have the primary coverts and the edges to the primary external of azure-blue. The crown is lemon-yellow colour and the front band, it reaches the eyes, is orange, as well as two patches on each side of the rump.

The bill is bluish grey, with the tip of black. The eyes are red and the legs are brown.

The colors tend to have a brighter tone in the males.

The youth they are more opaque, especially the patch of front band and the crown, which may be absent. The tail It is short for several weeks after feather. The bill is a pale pink color that darkens gradually when the young bird matures. They have darker the eyes, a reddish brown tone.

Habitat:

The Malherbe's Parakeet tends to be quiet and difficult to observe. A short and strong chatter or a soft contact call quieter can denote his presence, but the location of the bird can be extremely difficult. The Malherbe's Parakeet often confused with the Yellow-fronted Parakeet.

Even though have been recorded in subalpine bushes and thickets of Matagouri open zones (Discaria toumatou), the Malherbe's Parakeet they are predominantly in the forest.

They usually feed in the canopy, but also under frequent places with low vegetation and soil.

Reproduction:

The Malherbe's Parakeet can reproduce in every month, with a main breeding season between December and April; incubation peak is in January.

Clutch size media is of approximately 7 eggs, but register a wide range (range of 1 to 10). Egg-laying is asynchronous in the range between eggs of 2 days. The incubation lasts from 21 to 26 days, and the period of breeding ranges between 35 and 45 days.

The females They seem to choose the nesting sites, as well as carrying out all the preparation, incubation and breeding, the male provides most of the food during incubation.

It is suspected that the female only feeds the chicks during the first 10-14 days, just as they do other species Cyanoramphus. Once past this period, both sexes take care, equally, feeding the pigeons.

There may be second clutches If there is enough food available, for example, during the sowing of beech, or if the first attempt failed. The female may lay a second clutch when first chicks have, approximately, 2 weeks of age. This leaves the male as a single for the chicks and the female incubandora.
Second clutches are not uncommon; When is food plentiful, some couples can reproduce 3 or 4 times on.

The nests are accessed normally through holes in knots of branches and the main trunk of a tree.

They use all species of you have to build the nest, predominantly the Red beech (69% nests monitored in the continent, n = 138) and dead trees (20%).
Nests may have more than one meter of depth. Records placed nests in heights that range between 2,5 and 26 m.

Food:

The Malherbe's Parakeet consume seeds, flowers, buds and small invertebrates (mealybugs and caterpillars). In a year of abundance of fruits, the seeds become the dominant element of their diet, and they seem to be the main food for young people.

Invertebrates seem to play an important role in the diet of this species of parakeet which for the Yellow-fronted Parakeet.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident) 360 km2

To the Malherbe's Parakeet les is in areas where the South beeches (Nothofagaceae), in forest valleys in the South Island, the valleys Hawdon and Poulter in the Arthur's Pass National Park and the South Branch of the Hurunui Valley in Lake Sumner Forest Park. Are unevenly distributed within these valleys; absent in many parts, but in some other places can be quite common.

They have been transferred to four islands: Maud and Blumine in Marlborough Sounds, Chalky Island in Fiordland, and Largest Island / Tuhua on Bay of Plenty.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Critically Endangered

• Population trend: Decreasing

This species is the smallest of the class Cyanoramphus along with the Yellow-fronted Parakeet.
The Malherbe's Parakeet It is the kind of rare parrots of New Zealand. The population was wiped out by rats and stoats introduced by men.

Also the changes in habitat due to the ungulates and opossums they have affected the species.

Some diseases have been discovered in two of the areas in which live.

It is in progress conservation actions such as the predator control in the three valleys of the continent and the protection of the trees hosting the nests.

The captive breeding programs they have helped to release the birds in 4 Islands cleared of predators. This work is still in progress.
On the Mainland, all populations are monitored closely by the Department of conservation.

The total population It was estimated in 290/690 individuals at the beginning of 2013.
The continent has between 130 and 270 specimens and Islands surrounding between 160 and 420.

Perico Maori Montano in captivity:

Usually they are not in captivity.

Un pequeño programa de cría en cautividad fue establecido en 2003.

Alternative names:

Malherbe’s Parakeet, Alpine Parakeet, Malherbe’s Parrot, Orange-fronted Parakeet (English).
Perruche de Malherbe, Kakariki de Malherbe (French).
Malherbesittich (German).
Kakariki-fronte-laranja (Portuguese).
Perico Maorí Montañés, Perico Maorí Montano (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Cyanoramphus
Scientific name: Cyanoramphus malherbi
Citation: Souancé, 1857
Protonimo: Malherbe's Parakeet

Malherbe's Parakeet pictures:


Malherbe's Parakeet (Cyanoramphus malherbi)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Malherbe's Parakeet photos:

(1) – This is one of several birds being bred in captivity at Isaac Peacock Springs wildlife refuge.
Christchurch, New Zealand By Jon Sullivan from Christchurch, New Zealand [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Orange-fronted parakeet. Adult male in captivity. Isaacs Wildlife Trust, Christchurch. Image © John Kearvell by John Kearvell – nzbirdsonline
(3) – Orange-fronted parakeet. Captive adult female. Isaacs Wildlife Trust, February 2012. Image © Sabine Bernert by Sabine Bernert www.sabinebernert.fr – nzbirdsonline
(4) – Orange-fronted parakeet. Juvenile feeding. Nelson, January 1983. Image © Department of Conservation (image ref: 10028825) by Dave Crouchley, Department of Conservation Courtesy of Department of Conservation – nzbirdsonline
(5) – Orange-fronted parakeet. Adult male (left) and female in captivity. Isaacs Wildlife Trust, Christchurch. Image © John Kearvell by John Kearvell – nzbirdsonline

Yellow-fronted Parakeet
Cyanoramphus auriceps

Yellow-fronted Parakeet

Description

23 cm.. length and an approximate weight of 95 g..

Yellow-fronted Parakeet

In the distance, the Yellow-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps) appears as a fully green Parrot, light and bright above that below.

It has a yellow spot in the forecrown, above a red stripe that goes from the bill both eyes. It can be confused with the Red-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) who lives in the same circles.

The upperparts they are green with a red patch on each side of the rump. Alula, primary covertss and vane outside of the primaries are blue-violet color.

Feathers of the wings Green with blue at the edges of the previous; a wing bar at present times.

The underparts more yellowish green, sometimes with yellow marks.

Tail of color green for over, dark grey below.

The bill blue grey at the base, Blackish at tip; irises orange-red; legs Brown grey.

The females they are slightly smaller than males.

The young birdss have the peaks paler, queues shorter and the irises Brown clear.

Both the females as the juveniles They show a drawing in the form of bar under the wings.

Habitat:

On the Mainland, the Yellow-fronted Parakeet, they are mainly distributed among the lush native forests, mainly in the provided ecosystems of Nothofagus and Podocarpus, at an altitude of about 600 m. Although these birds are at much lower altitudes, the species tends to move at altitudes which are the Red-fronted Parakeet, especially when their habitats overlap.

The Yellow-fronted Parakeet they are more common in closed areas of scrub, less common in open spaces by which moves the Red-fronted Parakeet.

It is more common in the islands of the coast, where is reduced predation by introduced mammals.

Birds are found more often in pairs or small groups, feeding in the middle or upper floor of forest or large shrubs. Although it is, generally, more tree that the Red-fronted Parakeet, they tend to feed on land in the islands of the coast.

Reproduction:

The breeding habits they are similar to the of the Red-fronted Parakeet, but these birds seem to be more territorial around the nest.

The Yellow-fronted Parakeet They nest in tree holes.

The implementation is performed between the months of October to December but have been observed nesting in almost every month, presumably in response to food availability. Of five to nine eggs whites make up the implementation, with one incubation between 18 and 20 days. Breeding is fed by the female who, in turn, receives food from the male, the young remain in the nest from five to six weeks.

Food:

The diet consists of plant material including outbreaks, berries, flowers and seeds, as well as invertebrates such as larvae, for example, Heliostibes vibratrix and mealybugs Ultracoelostoma assmile. The insects They seem to be more important in the diet of the Yellow-fronted Parakeet that in the of the Red-fronted Parakeet.

Distribution:

The Yellow-fronted Parakeet they can be found in New Zealand and in some islands of the coast.
They are absent, to a large extent, in the North of Auckland, but they are moderately common in some of the largest forested areas, including Urewera, Montes Raukumara, the area of the River Motu, Pirongia, Pureora, Ruahine mountains, Tararua mountains, and in the South Island in the National Park Abel Tasman, the Nelson district, the Paparoa mountain range, Arthur's pass, Districts River Hope and Canterbury, and in Fiordland about Te Anau and Cascade Creek.

Yes the aclaramineto of their continuous habitat, It might be a threat to the species.

The Yellow-fronted Parakeet also you can find in the following islands of the coast: Three Kings, Polla, Big Chicken, Little Barrier, Great Barrier (rare), Kapiti (rare), the Chetwode Islands (absent the Red-fronted Parakeet), Stewart Island e satellite islets, Codfish, Solander, Ruapuke and Auckland Islands, including the Adams island.

The species is also found in the Chatham Islands, where the Chatham Parakeet It has suffered from habitat loss, as well as competition and hybridization with the Red-fronted Parakeet: both hybrids along with the Red-fronted Parakeet, they survive better in open areas, helped by the improvement of the habitat and hybridisation control, so getting a slow recovery.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

In the past the population of the Yellow-fronted Parakeet It has decreased in number, and the species is now rare throughout its range. As a result, is suspected to have one moderately low population. The world's population believed that it is inferior to the 5.000 specimens.

It is believed that this species has been adversely affected by the logging of forests, introduced predators, (cats, stoats and rats) and hybridization. As a result, that you have been moderate declines in population until today.

In the islands of the coast, the Red-fronted Parakeet tends to be much more common (Heather and Robertson 1997) and can be replaced by full to the Yellow-fronted Parakeet in Solander Island. In Auckland Islands, There is an abnormally high rate of hybridization between the two species.

Perico Maorí Cabecigualdo en cautividad:

Not as common as the Red-fronted Parakeet.

Your parenting is enough to have previous experience in the breeding of any of the smaller Australian parakeets.

Reasonably cold-resistant, It has a thick plumage on their underparts which gives them a good insulation against the harsh winters; they support a cooler climate than most of the Australian species.

The sound of their voices is not strong or offensive and consists of pleasant chattering.

In terms of their longevity, According to sources, a specimen was still alive after 9.3 years in captivity

Alternative names:

Yellow-fronted Parakeet, Kakariki, Yellow-crowned Parakeet (English).
Perruche à tête d’or (French).
Springsittich (German).
Kakariki-fronte-amarela (Portuguese).
Perico Maorí Amarillo, Perico Maorí Cabecigualdo (Spanish).

Kuhl, Heinrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Cyanoramphus
Scientific name: Cyanoramphus auriceps
Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
Protonimo: Psittacus auriceps

Yellow-fronted Parakeet Images :


Yellow-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Photos:

(1) – Yellow-crowned parakeet (Cyanomorphus auriceps) on Ulva Island By Mjobling (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Yellow-crowned Parakeet, (Cyanoramphus auriceps) Nga Manu, Nr. Wellington, New Zealand. By Phillip Capper [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Yellow-crowned Parakeet in Otorohanga Kiwi House, New Zealand By Takver from Australia [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A captive Yellow-crowned Parakeet By Nrg800 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Photo of Kakariki (Cyanoramphus auriceps) taken during Routeburn Classic 2012 By Grapeman4 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Yellow headed parakeet Cyanoramphus auriceps (1884) By William Thomas Greene (Birds in captivity) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Red-fronted Parakeet
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae


Maori red parakeet

Description

27 cm.. length and a weight between 50 and 113 g..

Red-fronted Parakeet

The Red-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) are, generally, a brilliant green hue (sometimes with some variable yellow marks), with one frontal band Crimson, Lords and a line through the eye that extends to the ear-coverts; centre of crown Crimson, extending back to the top of the eyes, with an area supercilii green.

Upperparts bright green uniform, with a red patch on each side of the rump. Alula, primary coverts and vane outside of the primaries are blue-violet color. Primary emarginadas with thin yellow outer margins: vane outside of the secondaries greener.

Wing feathers green: stain pale in each internal network of secondaries they form a wing bar in some males.

The underparts usually more yellowish, Green clear. Upper, the tail green; undertail, dark grey.

The bill light bluish gray, black-tipped; irises red; legs Marron-grisaceo.

Female slightly smaller.

The young birds have queues shorter, a irises reddish brown clear and less distinctive markings on the head. The younger with a pink base in the bill.

Description 3 subspecies

  • Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis

    (Oliver 1930) – Of 28 cm approximately. It is something more than the nominal, the green of the face is Emerald, the chest is somewhat more yellowish and the legs are dark gray.

  • Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cyanurus

    (Salvadori 1891) – Of 29 cm approximately. More than the nominal, the plumage is more yellowish and the flight feather more intense blue.

  • Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae novaezelandiae

    (Sparrman 1787) – The nominal

Habitat:

The Habitat of the Red-fronted Parakeet includes native forest in the continental part of New Zealand, scrublands in some outlying islands and land with abundant grass in the Antipodes Islands.

The species, generally, most opted for the edges of forests and open areas to the Yellow-fronted Parakeet, and the regions where the two species coexist, is, generally, at lower altitudes.

The birds tend to locate their calls when they fly over or through the forest canopy. They are most often in pairs; couples tend to remain together throughout the year. However, numerous groups gather abundant sources of food at any time of the year. Where is fresh water scarce, groups of birds also tend to congregate to drink in springs or leaks.

In the Kermadec Islands, flocks are formed for bathing in tidal pools and rest on a branch (probably in other places also).

The Red-fronted Parakeet they feed actively on in the early hours of the morning, rest and groom for much of the day, and is power again during the afternoon.

Reproduction:

The nesting takes place between October and March, with the majority of the sunsets between the months of October and December. Between two and ten (usually between five and nine) white eggs form the implementation. The eggs are deposited in a hollow of tree clad wood shavings, Although you can also have other places of sunset, including cracks in the rocks, Burrows in Earth, etc, as well as a variety of coatings for the nest including feathers, MOSS and grass.

The birds are territorial in the vicinity of the nest and can use the same site repeatedly. The incubation is carried out by the female and hard of 18 to 20 days. The pups remain in the nest during 5 to 6 weeks and the male will help with food, either through female or directly, one week after the emplumamiento.

Some less developed calves can be seen in large litters. Adults suffer a silent post-cria.

Food:

They feed on, both the canopy and soil, a wide range of vegetables, fruit, seeds, leaves, outbreaks, berries, flowers and nectar; they have priority for the fallen seed during autumn and winter. The species also feeds on invertebrates, honeydew and, in the Kermadec, even, algae and small macaws (Scutellastra kermadecensis).

Distribution:

The Red-fronted Parakeet are in New Zealand and in a series of adjacent and outlying island groups.

Before European colonization, the species was extended by continent, but in the Decade of 1890 the population began to decline as a result of the destruction of their habitat and predation by introduced cats and mustelids.

Today the species is scarce on the continent, and they found only in larger blocks of forest, from Northland to the Coromandel peninsula. From Pirongia, Pureora and Hauhungaroa in the Centre of the North of the island, to Urewera, Montes Raukumara and Huiarau in the East and South of the mountains Ruahine and Tararua.

In the South of the island, the species is found around Nelson, in the Arthur's pass National Park, in the District of Dunedin and in the Fiordland National Park. Also found in a number of islands off the coast of New Zealand, where are usually more numerous than in the continent, including: Three Kings, Poor Knights (not Yellow-fronted Parakeet here). Polla and Chickens, Tiritiri Matangi (introduced). Little Barrier (common), Great barrier island (scarce). Mercury, Charter, Kapiti, Stewart (and surrounding islets) and Auckland Islands (Enderby, Rose, Ewing and Adams).

The Red-fronted Parakeet also found in the Group of Kermadec (Macauley, Meyer, Napier, Dayrell and Chanters, with the lagging Curtis and Raoul), Chatham Islands (rare) in Chatham and Pitt, abundant in the island's Southeast, and controlled in Mangere and Little Mangere in order to avoid crossing with the Chatham Parakeet – Cyanoramphus forbesi), and in the Antipodes Islands (Antipodes, Bollans, Leeward, Archway and Windward Islands).

Distribution 3 subspecies

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The population is, undoubtedly superior to the 15.000 specimens, Although decreasing due to habitat loss and predation.

The hybridization with the Yellow-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps) It is also a problem in some populations.

The subspecies chathamensis is threatened, with a population of less than 1.000 specimens.

The subspecies cyanurus is still relatively common with around 10.000 individuals in Macauley. There are at least 4.000-5.000 birds in the Group of the Antipodes Islands.

Captive birds they have been released in areas of Wairarapa and Waitakere. CITES Appendix I.

Perico Red Maori captive:

The Red-fronted Parakeet are common in aviculture and is relatively easy to raise.

They can live in the community with similar species. It is usually Extrovert, Active and depending on your way of breeding and experiences previously, You can be a confident Parrot, even being raised by their parents tends to be entrusted.

As pet It might be good companion for his way of being Alegre and curious.

With regard to its longevity and according to sources, a specimen was still alive after 12,4 years in captivity. It has been reported that these animals can live up to 36,5 years in captivity, but this has not been verified; the same study reported that these animals they can be played back to year of age in captivity.

Several color mutations they are available, including, yellow, the cinnamon and the overo.

Alternative names:

Red-fronted Parakeet, Red-crowned Parakeet (English).
Perruche de Sparrman (French).
Ziegensittich (German).
Periquito Fronteou-Vermelho (Portuguese).
Perico Maorí Rojo (Spanish).

Anders Sparrman
Anders Sparrman

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Cyanoramphus
Scientific name: Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae
Citation: (Sparrman, 1787)
Protonimo: New Zealand parrot

Red-fronted Parakeet pictures:


Red-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife
  • Loromania

  • Photos:

(1) – A Red-crowned Parakeet at Nga Manu Nature Reserve, Waikanae, New Zealand By Sid Mosdell from New Zealand (KākārikiUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Red-crowned Parakeet on Kapiti Island, New Zealand By Craig Nash from Northern Ireland [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Red-crowned Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) at Queens Park Aviary By tewahipounamu [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Red-crowned Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) in captivity at Auckland, New Zealand. Photographed on 11 November 2002 By Arthur Chapman [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae (Red-crowned Parakeet, Kākāriki) on Tiritiri Matangi Island, New Zealand. These parakeets are often seen foraging on the cabbage trees (Cordyline australis) on the island By Adammarklenny (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A painting of a Red-crowned Parakeet (originally captioned “Platycercus pacificus. Pacific Parrakeet.”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888 Edward Lear [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Horned Parakeet
Eunymphicus cornutus


Horned parakeet

Description

32 cm.. length and an approximate weight of 140 g..

The Horned Parakeet (Eunymphicus cornutus) has a considerable size. It is an incredibly colorful and distinctive bird. The forecrown is bright red. The front of the crown It has a set of Red curly feathers with black bases. Two long black feathers with Scarlet trim emerge from the center of the crown. The area of the mumps is orange-yellow, that contrasts sharply with the lores and the sides of the cheeks that are black.

Horned parakeet, Nymphicus cornutus (above) and Ouvea parakeet, Nymphicus uvaensis (then)
Horned parakeet, Nymphicus cornutus (above) and Ouvea parakeet, Nymphicus uvaensis (then)

The bottom of the cheeks has a greenish black color. Neck and back of the crown bright orange yellow, Turning is gradually to colour green yellow or green bright in the part superior of the the mantle.

The upperparts are green, with the exception of the rump that is greenish-Orange.

The wings covers are green. The primary are of color blue-purple in them vane outer, Blackish in the vane inner. The secondaries they are darker on the outer rim.

The underparts is greenish. The lower parts are yellowish green clear. The undertail- coverts they have a slightly bluish in tips. The upper part of the tail is green with strong blue pink, the bottom is dark gray.

The bill It is blue-grey with black tip, irises orange. The legs are black.

Male and female are similar.

The youth they have more gray and less developed facial ornaments. The ear-coverts are pale green, the back of the neck olive green. The bill is color Horn and the irises Brown.

Taxonomic status:

Until very recently, It was generally considered conspecific with the species Eunymphicus uvaeensis. Monotypic.

Subspecies description:

  • Eunymphicus cornutus (Gmelin) 1788 – Nominal
  • Eunymphicus uvaeensis (Layard,THE & Layard,ELC) 1882 – Of, approximately, 32 26cm in length. Green, with the face and dark green head, front with a small red bow and a thin and small dark green Crest. The nape and neck of greenish-yellow, chest and abdomen yellowish green.

    Long tail. Black Peak.

    It has no sexual dimorphism.

    Today it is considered a kind monotypic. See

Habitat:

The Horned Parakeet frequent, as a priority, the moist forests. They are also areas that are regenerated and scrublands.

The preferred habitat of these birds are the kauris forests (Agathis australis), which are evergreens that are found mainly in the North of New Caledonia. However, They also appreciate the mixed forests with trees of the family Araucaria angustifolia. This species It can live up to the 1200 m. Avoid coconut plantations and areas close to the coast.

Endemic of New Caledonia. Its distribution is highly fragmented. These birds are present in the 57% the mountains in the North of the island and in the 42% the mountains of the South. Probably they are very common in the central channel.

The Horned Parakeet they tend to be very prudent, remaining in silence most of the time, and making it difficult to, Therefore, its location.

These parrots they live in pairs or in small flocks of up to ten individuals. When resent, They fly a distance of 100 meters or more before landing at the top of a tree. They rest in the canopy or in the cavity of a tree an hour before dawn, just before starting its activity.

During courtship, the Horned Parakeet, he tries to seduce the female with repeated head inclinations, erect their feathers, shaking his crest and emitting cries intermittently.

Reproduction:

The time of reproduction extends from October to December. The nest is often found in a cavity or on a tree branch healthy, of all of the species of Metrosideros myrtacee. You can also build the nest in the soil, under a rock or under a fallen tree.

The female lays of 3 to 4 eggs, but, generally, only two chicks manage to develop.

In captivity, the incubation lasts a few 21 or 22 days. The young leaves the nest after 5 to 6 weeks.

Food:

The Horned Parakeet they are almost exclusively vegetarian. They feed on flowers, dried fruits, fruit, berries and seeds that are found in shrubs and trees. Also like ripe papaya.

Distribution:

The Horned Parakeet It is endemic to the main island of New Caledonia in the Pacific Southwest, where due to the poor coverage of observers, the status of the species may vary. It is probably stable, but it can be challenged in some degree due to the trade .

Recent records in Blue River Provincial Park (La Rivière Bleue) they indicate that it is relatively common in the Park. It is almost certain that it is more common in less accessible areas, over 470 m.

Distribution of subspecies:

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Increasing.

The Horned Parakeet It has a small population that probably has been declining for many years with unknown reasons.
Current populations are threatened by habitat degradation and, probably, by the introduction of other mammals, particularly rats. Fortunately, his capture and poaching do not constitute a significant threat for this species.

Considering their low numbers and the small size of its territory, It classified as vulnerable.

Some of the measures taken for their conservation is the start control against introduced predators. Increase the area of suitable habitat to protect its State and to establish breeding populations in captivity for future reintroductions.

Perico cuckold in captivity:

Very rare poultry.

According to sources, a sample lived during 19,7 years in captivity

Alternative names:

Horned Parakeet, Crested Parakeet, Horned Parakeet (Horned), Long-horned Parakeet (English).
Perruche cornue (French).
Hornsittich (German).
Periquito-de-chifres (Portuguese).
Perico Cornudo, Perico Maorí Cornudo (Spanish).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Eunymphicus
Scientific name: Eunymphicus cornutus
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus cornutus

Horned Parakeet pictures:


Horned Parakeet (Eunymphicus cornutus)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Photos:

(1) – Horned Parakeet By Tunpin.ong (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Horned Parakeet, Nymphicus cornutus (above) and Uvea Parakeet, Nymphicus uvaensis (below Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1882 By Joseph Smit (1836-1929) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Horned parakeet by AlexKant – zoochat
(4) – A adult bird perched on a branch by Tomasz Doroń – Lynx
(5) – A bird perched in a tree by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx
(6) – Feeding on papaya in a garden by Julien Baudat-Franceschi – Lynx

Red Shining-Parrot
Prosopeia tabuensis

Red Shining-Parrot

Description

45 cm. of length and weight approximate of 280 g..

Red Shining-Parrot

The Red Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis) It is the most distinctive of the colorful parrots of Fiji. It is a large parrot.

Their coloration are distinguished from the other two species. Its head, neck and underparts a brilliant scarlet hues with a blue collar extending behind the neck; the back and tail are a bright green. The flight feather and tail they are green, strongly impregnated with blue.

The bill and legs are black, and irises are orange.

The males and females they are similar, However, the bill the male is larger and the head It has a more square than the females form.

Description 3 subspecies:

  • Prosopeia tabuensis tabuensis

    (Gmelin) 1788 – The species nominal

  • Prosopeia tabuensis taviunensis

    (Layard,THE) 1876 – 40 cm.. length approximately; more small that it nominal species, without the band blue on the nape, the feathers of the abdomen with a tone more blue and with the face less blackish.

Habitat:

The Red Shining-Parrot are distributed in the mature forests and through a variety of associated habitats, including the of secondary growth, wooded ravines (nest), coconut plantations, Gardens of villages, agricultural fields, mangroves and scrub.

There has been starting from the 100 meters of altitude until the 1.750, but they are most common between the 400 and 1.000 m.

The Red Shining-Parrot they are suspicious, curious and You can see them individually, in pairs or in flocks of up to 40 individuals outside the breeding season. They are not shy, and loud groups tend to meet in their favotitos places to eat.

They tend to rest on the tops of the trees.

Reproduction:

The Red Shining-Parrot they pose set up and rotate the head rhythmically back and forth, probably showing a form of courtship.

The breeding is in the months from July to October, in trees dead or broken, the female hatchlings feed addresses.

Of 2-3 eggs that is hatch during 23-24 days.

The juveniles they can fly to the 8 weeks.

Food:

Feeding of the fruits and seeds a variety of trees, for example, Myristica hypargyraea, that is of particular importance in ' Eua. Also feed on of Mango Mangifera indica, papaya Carica papaya, guava Psidium guajava and bananas. Are agile climbers and move in search of food using their beaks to rely on small branches. Sujentan foods with their claws, since they bite with its powerful beak, and they chew the wood to remove insect larvae.

They feed mainly in the upper canopy, but sometimes also they attack the corn fields.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 6.200 km2

The Red Shining-Parrot they are distributed in a natural way in the islands of the Group Fiji including Vanua Levu, KIOA, Taveuni, Qamea, Laucala, Koro and Gau (probably introduced). In Tonga, the species was introduced in Tongatapu prior to contact with the European and where it has already extinct due to habitat loss, and in ' Eua where it is still quite common, especially in the forests of the East, North and South-West (with a population estimated between 700- 1.000 birds in 1988).

The species benefits, in part, Thanks to agriculture, but they depend largely on its nest in mature trees of the forest, trees that are being cleared in most of its extension. The species is also threatened by trade, and it is also hunted for its feathers and as food.

Many juveniles are caught to be raised locally as pets, Since they learn to talk easily.

Its population is believed that it may be above the 20.000 specimens, but of the subspecies prosopeia remaining, probably, less than 5.000 birds and its status is of concern.

There has been a sharp decline in the population of the Red Shining-Parrot in some areas due to habitat loss, Although the species is still locally common in most of its islands in lower elevations.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

  • Prosopeia tabuensis tabuensis

    (Gmelin) 1788 – The nominal species

  • Prosopeia tabuensis taviunensis

    (Layard,THE) 1876 – Taveuni, Ngamea (Qamea) and Laucala, in the North of Fiji.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

The size of the world population It has not been quantified, but the species is described as common and visible throughout its area of distribution (Watling 2001).

The population It is suspected that it may be in decline due to ongoing habitat destruction.

Papagayo Garnet Captive:

Very rare in captivity.

According to sources, a specimen was still alive after 6,8 years in captivity. Taking into account the longevity of the similar species, la longevidad máxima en estos animales podría ser subestimada. Es un hecho que estos animales pueden vivir hasta 23.7 years in captivity, aunque en esta especie no ha sido verificado.

Alternative names:

Red Shining-Parrot, Maroon Shining Parrot, Maroon Shining-parrot, Red Shining Parrot, Red-breasted Musk Parrot, Red-breasted Musk-Parrot, Red-breasted Shining-Parrot (English).
Perruche pompadour, Perruche masquée pompadour (French).
Pompadoursittich, Pompadour Sittich (German).
Prosopeia tabuensis (Portuguese).
Papagayo Carmín, Papagayo Granate (Spanish).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Prosopeia
Scientific name: Prosopeia tabuensis
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus tabuensis

Red Shining-Parrot images:


Red Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis)

    Sources:

    Avibase
    – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
    Birdlife

    Photos:

    (1) – Red Shining-parrot Prosopeia tabuensis in captivity, Fafa Island, Tonga By Duncan Wright (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (2) – A painting of a Maroon Shining Parrot by Edward Lear 1812-1888 Edward Lear [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
    (3) – Red Shining-parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis) De Voeux Peak, Taveuni, Fiji Islands By Aviceda (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (4) – Maroon Shining Parrot Prosopeia tabuensis Kula Eco Park – Viti Levu, Fiji © 2007 Sarah P. Otto – The Online Zoo
    (5) – A bird foraging on the ground by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx
    (6) – A bird perched in a tree by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx

    Sounds: Matthias Feuersenger (Xeno-canto)

Masked Shining-Parrot
Prosopeia personata

Masked Shining-Parrot

Description

47 cm of length and weight approximate of 322 g..

Masked Shining-Parrot

The colorful Masked Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia personata), has a plumage Green on most of his body, the front of the crown, lores, cheeks and chin, are black.

The upperparts are bright pale green (with a brighter sheen on the Crown and nape). Large external coverts, primary coverts and primaries are blue with vane inner Dark. Wing feathers green. Throat, top of the chest, flanks, and undertail- coverts green; Center of the chest and the belly bright yellow, a few feathers with the Green Tip, yellow shading in the Orange patch It is located in the lower part of the belly. Upper, the tail green; black for the part below.

The bill black; irises orange-red; legs Blackish grey.

The male has the head and the bill larger that the female. The young birds have, peaks paler, less black in the face and irises brown.

El Papagayo Enmascarado (Prosopeia personata) is a large parrot, long tail which is only on an island, in Fiji.

  • Sound of the Masked Shining-Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Papagayo Enmascarado.mp3]

Habitat:

They are distributed Since the sea level, until the 1.200 m altitude, in the forest reacor and secondary growth of the Windward areas and intermediate vegetation, You can also find them in orchards of villages, agricultural fields and mangroves; Often observed along the edges of the forest near farmland and trees that border the water courses of the forests.

The Masked Shining-Parrot they are usually sociable and finds them alone, in pairs, or out of season breeding in herds of up to 40 birds.

Birds are sometimes interviews flying rapidly through the forest or wandering above the canopy. Are noisy birds and they are often heard before to be seen; similar to the Red Shining-Parrot, they perform often calls at the first sign of any human intruder, and they are generally shy and difficult to move when they are perched on a branch.

Reproduction:

The breeding season occurs between July and September. The nest It is a hole or crack in a tree, or a cavity at the top of a stump. Two or more eggs White deposited inside a hollow form the implementation; the hole is expanded by making use of its powerful beak. Birds emit a strong odor.

Food:

The Masked Shining-Parrot they tend to rest the high parts of the trees, but descend to lower floors to feed on berries, and pick up the fruits of the soil; they can also attack fields.

The diet includes mainly fruit, for example, Mango (Mangifera indica), guava (Psidium guajava), Ficus figs and bananas, Although they can also be powered from flowers, insects, seeds and berries, as well as the cultivated grain.

When feed, They manipulate food with their legs using their beaks to catch small branches. They are powerful and it has been flying with a Mango between its claws.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 10,500 km2

The Masked Shining-Parrot they are endemic in Fiji, distributed only on the island of Viti Levu (Although the species also has been recorded in the nearby island of Ovalau in the past). In Viti Levu, It is not uncommon to see them on the inside of forests, including the surroundings of Nadarivatu and in the North of the Mount Tomanivi. In the center of Nadrau and to the East of the district Vunidawa.

The world population considered that it may be on the 5.000 specimens, but in decline due to habitat loss.

Required large trees for nesting are being felled., and tracts of mature forest are fragmented now in many areas.

The possible detrimental effect of interspecific competition from the introduced Crimson Shining-Parrot remains study.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The most serious threat affecting the Masked Shining-Parrot It is the decline of forests in which inhabits, with less than the 50 per cent of the forests of Viti Levu remaining. This deforestation has led to the fragmentation of remaining forest areas. The huge trees felled during the deforestation are required by the Masked Shining-Parrot nest.

Other potential threats to this species include potential competition with the introduced Crimson Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia splendens). The Masked Shining-Parrot It can also be trafficked for the pet trade, Although the related species, as the Crimson Shining-Parrot It is believed that they are most popular).

Conservation of the Papagayo Enmascarado.

The Masked Shining-Parrot is protected by the law of Fiji. However, the legislation in force for the capture of wild parrots is difficult to enforce. This Parrot also appears in the Appendix II of the Convention on international trade in endangered species (CITES), which means that international trade in the species must be carefully monitored.

The Masked Shining-Parrot It lives in several reserves and parks, where can you get some protection against deforestation. It has been proposed that community forest reserves must be encouraged in Viti Levu, to prevent further deforestation, and that the population figures of the Masked Shining-Parrot in these protected areas should be monitored. However, None of these measures has been put into action

Enmascarado in captivity Papagayo:

Rarely found in captivity.

According to sources, It is known that one as a specimen of this species lived 11,8 years in captivity.

Alternative names:

Masked Shining-Parrot, Masked Parrot, Masked Shining Parrot, Yellow-breasted Musk Parrot, Yellow-breasted Shining-Parrot (English).
Perruche masquée, Perruche masquée masquée (French).
Maskensittich, Masken-Sittich (German).
Prosopeia personata (Portuguese).
Papagayo Enmascarado (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Prosopeia
Scientific name: Prosopeia personata
Citation: (Gray, GR, 1848)
Protonimo: Coracopsis ? personata

Masked Shining-Parrot images:

————————————————————————————————

Masked Shining-Parrot (Prosopeia personata)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
ARKive.org

Photos:

(1) – Masked Shining Parrot , Birds Gallery, Natural History Museum, London By John Cummings (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – By Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Masked Shining Parrot Prosopeia personata Kula Eco Park – Viti Levu, Fiji © 2007 Sarah – The Online Zoo
(4) – Masked Shining Parrot Prosopeia personata Kula Eco Park – Viti Levu, Fiji © 2007 Sarah – The Online Zoo
(5) – A bird resting in a tree by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx
(6) – A close-up of the head of one bird by Josep del Hoyo – Lynx

Sounds: Matthias Feuersenger (Xeno-canto)

Night Parrot
Pezoporus occidentalis

Night Parrot

Description

22 to 25 cm.. length

The Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis) It is one of the most elusive and mysterious world of birds.

They have a bill plane, similar to the of the Kakapo (Strigops habroptila), without apparent upper jaw hook. They have feathers around the cere. The tail is short. The legs are relatively elongated, indicating its good predispositions to walk.

The male and female they are similar.

In adults, the upperparts they are generally yellowish-green with dark brown cryptic spots, black and yellow. The front of the neck is greenish yellow. The chest and flanks they have discreet black and yellow stripes. Belly and coats are bright yellow. The flight feather are pale yellow, forming a thin stripe on the lower part of the wing. The Central tail feathers are green with a strong yellowish brown shade. The bill is grey-brown, black eyes. Legs long claws dark grey.

In nature, the Night Parrot It can be confused with the kakapo Parrot, If not we are looking too details which differentiates them.

Habitat:

The Night Parrot It attends a wide variety of habitats in arid or semi-arid land. They are mainly in places where the herbs grow in clumps on rocky peaks, also in the steppes composed of thickets of quenopodios. Also feel a great attraction for the Rock Samphire (Crithmum maritimum), plants that are highly resistant to drought and salt.

They are known to flee to the interior areas of Muehlenbeckia, which have a dense foliage. The most recent reports do not come from the areas of Spinifex. It seems that new techniques of fire used to create firewall, They allow you to create favourable conditions for this parakeet.

The night Parrot almost never fly, except when looking for sources of water. To observe them, What has become extremely rare, We must look to the ground, in areas which consists almost exclusively of grasses of the genus Spinifex.

After dusk, They fly a short distance until they find a fresh water pond. Once he has satisfied his thirst, they return to the infeed zone.

There is no certainty about the movements of this parakeet. It can be nomadic, Perhaps sedentary. No doubt depend on the climate and territory who attends them. Formerly, When the number of the Night Parrot they were still substantial, stocks were fluctuating seasonally.

At the end of the 19th century, in Southern Australia, groups of fifteen individuals were local irruptions, a signal that were sensitive to the favorable climatic conditions or were found in the alternative storage sites whose resources were relatively abundant.

All these considerations must be taken with great moderation for the following reason: the well-established notion that birds move through the Plains Spinifex in the direction of places full of thickets of quenopodios According to the seasons and seed resources, not always been confirmed in recent reports.

Reproduction:

We know very little about the reproductive habits of this bird. The season of nesting is in July or August. The nest It is a kind of platform built with pieces of wood, on the ground or at low altitude. It is placed in a cavity which has been extended and wing which is accessed by a tunnel whose entrance is in a tussock of grass. Its diameter is of some 8 centimeters. According to the previous data, the spawning usually contains 4 or 5 eggs. The time of incubation It is unknown.

Food:

The Night Parrot mainly consumed seeds of Spinifex (Triodia). Recent and circumstantial reports, indicate also the absorption of deciduous plants family leaves Poaceae as Enneapogon purpurascens.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 26.300 km2

The Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis) are confined in the arid interior of Australia. Samples or reports come from all Australian States, especially in the Center and North of Western Australia (Mount Farmer, Nichol Spring, to the North of Glenayle, South of Kimberleys and to the West of the District Cue), Southern Australia (Lake Eyre, to the South of Oodnadatta, Gawler Ranges, the Eyre Peninsula and Coopers believesk), Northern Territory South-Central and North-Western (Mac Donnell Ranges, Tanami desert), and to the southwest of Queensland (Lake Muncoonie and the surrounding areas of Boulia).

There is a report of 1913 that places them around Murrayville and Cowangie, Victoria, and another around of Ross Springs between 1954 and 1959. There is also a register of 1.897 that placed them in District of Oxleand, New South Wales.

The species has never been common, but it was more frequently toward the end of the last century (for example, 16 sightings in the region of the Lake Eyre, Southern Australia, in the Decade of 1870). Due to marauding habits, many sightings remain unconfirmed, and this makes it difficult to assess their real condition. Even so, It seems certain that the population is declining. The cause of this is unknown, but it may be related to the introduction of predators such as cats, rats, dogs or foxes. Changes in fire regimes, as well as the introduction of camels, they have also influenced its decline.

Night Parrot
The Night Parrot seen only as museum specimens for 25 are not extinct. To cat-killed Night Parrot was recovered recently in western Queensland, Australia. (South Australian Museum)

There have been reports in every decade since its discovery, and of all the States in recent years, except Victoria (the last record was in 1950). The most notable recent sighting was of four birds in the eastern side of the Cooper River, to 8 km to the East of the Lake Perigundi, Northeast of Southern Australia, in June of 1979. The birds were arrebolados in tangled shrubs, Sclerolaena intricata and flew away before perederse in the dense forests of Muehlenbeckia florulenta. In 1990 a dead guy for a long time, It was the first specimen in a Museum from the Decade of 1880, was collected in the southwest of Queensland,to 36 km to the North of Boulia. A more recent record of these birds (between March of 1992 and June of 1993) He was picked up in the South of Cloncurry, about 150 km to the North of the area where the dead bird was found, which confirms the local persistence of this species.

The global population is unknown, but it can be very small and is likely to be declining. There are none in captivity.

The Night Parrot has been the subject of a legal protection in Australia since 1937.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Danger

• Population trend: Decreasing

After not to confirm any registration from 1990, Despite several exhaustive searches and advertising campaigns, This species was rediscovered in 2005 in the region of Pilbara in Western Australia, and a dead juvenile was found in the Diamantina National Park, Queensland in 2006.

It is likely that they have decreased as a result of a series of threats, and the remaining population can be very small and possibly subject to extreme fluctuations.

As a result of the records of 2005 and 2006, and because of the shortage of sightings, a Committee of experts concluded that the species was in danger of extinction.

The population of the Night Parrot is supposed to be very small, and is estimated at less of 50 mature individuals based on the scarcity of records. In 2010 a Committee of experts re-evaluó given records of Western Australia in 2005 and Queensland in 2006, and estimated that there could be of 50 to 250 birds in total (Garnett et to the. 2011). As a result, the number of mature individuals is placed on the band's 50-249, but it can become something bigger.

The population It is suspected that it may be in decline due to a combination of threats, including predation by invasive exotic predators.

If a population can be located, the following measures they could be made:

    • a program of research and monitoring
    • control of wild animals in and around the place where dwells the population of the Night Parrot
    • patch burning to limit the possibility, or to prevent the occurrence of fire in the place of the population until better understanding of the situation and the ecological needs of the population
    • minimize the inconvenience to the population site, which could include the filtering of information to the public, and the establishment of agreements with landowners and land managers.
    • to establish a breeding programme in captivity (Blyth 1996; Garnett and Crowley 2000).

Perico Nocturne in captivity:

There are no records of this bird in captivity.

Alternative names:

Night Parrot (English).
Perruche nocturne (French).
Höhlensittich (German).
Periquito-de-barriga-laranja (Portuguese).
Perico Nocturno (Spanish).

John Gould
John Gould

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Pezoporus
Scientific name: Pezoporus occidentalis
Citation: (Gould, 1861)
Protonimo: Geopsittacus occidentalis


Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Night parakeet photos:

(1) – 1971 painting of a night parrot by William Cooper – Enlace
(2) – The Night Parrot seen only as museum specimens for 25 are not extinct. To cat-killed Night Parrot was recovered recently in western Queensland, Australia. (South Australian Museum) – Top Birding Tours

Eastern Ground Parrot
Pezoporus wallicus


Eastern Ground Parrot

Description

30 cm. length and an approximate weight of 130 g..

Eastern Ground Parrot

The Eastern Ground Parrot (Pezoporus wallicus) has a medium-sized, It gives the impression of a slender silhouette, feeling is enhanced by the presence of a very long tail terminating beak. The identification is reinforced with rounded wings and for a few fine peaks and sharp.

The of adults they have a plumage greenish color with patterns of yellow and black as gallons or points that serve to camouflage itself.

A red band runs through all the forecrown. The face and upper part of the chest They show a pretty uniform green colour. The crown Green it is abundantly stained black.

The flanks and abdomen they have yellowish clear black bars. The tail opaque green color shows yellow slots on the outer edges.

Its bill is ochre tones, with the cere rose gray. They present a periocular ring pale grey, the irises eye whitish yellow. Their legs distant have long fingers and their claws they are not curved as in the rest of the parrots.

In the females, You can see a pale yellow stripe at the bottom of the wing .

The immature they have no red frontal band, the face and the chest they have black marks. Its tail is shorter and irises of her eyes are brown.

Subspecies description

  • Pezoporus wallicus wallicus (Kerr, 1792) – The nominal
  • Pezoporus wallicus leachi (Mathews, 1912) – They have black markings more prominent on the head and thicker, the neck and belly

Habitat:

The Eastern Ground Parrot usually live in lawns along the coast and in the neighbouring moors which rise to the 1.800 meters above sea level. The Moors dominated by shrubs suffered a fire in the last decade are generally considered as their optimal habitat. Also, moorland dominated by rushes and herbs that have suffered some fire between 15 and 18 years ago, they are considered as excellent performance for these parrots. In the interior of the Moors, These birds are concentrated in the driest areas from mid autumn to late spring.

Wetlands they are frequented by the Eastern Ground Parrot, from summer to early autumn, probably in relation to the abundance of seeds at this time of the year. They can also be seen in estuaries, in boggy soils that are full of rods, in the meadows and pastures.

In Tasmania, the Eastern Ground Parrot occupies a rather special habitat consisting of a mixture or a mosaic of Heath, Sedge and weed.

As its common name suggests, These birds are reluctant to take flight. On the rare occasions when they dare to fly, its zigzag in flight seems the of a Sandpiper guy (Actitis hypoleucos) or a Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) and develops within walking distance (a few 30 m). Once it lands, looking for thick cover and may be difficult to relocate.

Contrary to what many people believe, the Eastern Ground Parrot has great activity during the day, Although, often, they are difficult to detect, except when fleeing hastily, hearing the loud vibration of wings just before plunge among the foliage.

Are assets morning and afternoon average. At night, whatever the season, they establish the dormitories in the drylands.

These parrots are mostly sedentary and live in couples United in a territory which is around of 9 hectares, Although the area may occasionally change.

Between February and may, There is a great post-reproductive dispersion in which these birds move away some 120 kilometers from its nesting area.

Reproduction:

The Eastern Ground Parrot usually nest between jJuly and December. A litter was discovered in March. The nest is a fled surface excavated soil from 15 cm and 18 cm in width and between 2 cm and 5 depth cm; It is often full of stems or leaves. It is placed at the base of a mound or a Bush on the floor which can be accessed through a small tunnel.

The main plants that make up the nest, they are herbs of the genus (empodisma), plants of the genus (Xanthorrhoeoideae) and Banksia sheet wide.

Of 20 nests found, 18 located in arid wastelands and 2 only in areas of transition between wetlands and land dry. In all these places there has been a fire for at least four years. The density was low, from January to March a nest each 10 hectares.

The laying includes, usually, 3 or 4 eggs, but in Tasmania (subspecies leachi), were observed 6 eggs in some nests. The incubation lasts around 20 days. Young people are altricial. When leaving the nest, at an age between 20 and 28 days, lie hidden among shrubs, just before fly.

The failure rate breeding is big enough, going from the 22 until 31%.

Food:

The Eastern Ground Parrot feeds primarily on seeds of a wide variety of Sedge, herbs, herbaceous plants and shrubs. Occasionally they eat green shoots, leaves, outbreaks, flowers and small fruits.

In the Great Sandy National Park (Cooloola section), the Eastern Ground Parrot feeds primarily on seeds of Sprengelia sprengelioides (Epacridaceae), Schoenus paludosus (Cyperaceae) and Restio complanatus (Restionaceae).

In the Croajingalong National Park, the diet consists, mainly, seeds or fruits of the species Cyperaceae, particularly Schoenus brevifolius and Cassytha (Lauraceae), and also unidentified species of Ericaceae and Fabaceae.

The Eastern Ground Parrot, usually, feeds on Earth, but sometimes forages among the foliage of low shrubs, or on top of clumps of planting of reeds.

The seeds take them from the soil and plants. The parakeet will remain on the stem of a plant to flatten it and throw the seeds of heads down, or it will be the peak along the stem and base of the seeds, with the intention of evicting them and that fall to the ground.

The peak used to cut the seeds and their bases, as well as to manipulate food. Legs used only for flattened stems of plants.

In the Bundjalung National Park, the Eastern Ground Parrot It was observed feeding on flowers. Occasionally they feed in habitats that have been modified by man, for example, one in corn field.

They are diurnal, and they feed actively throughout the day.

Distribution:

The Eastern Ground Parrot are confined in Australia. The range has contracted in recent times and the species now only found in foci isolated coastal heathland and lands covered with reeds, It extends to the South, from the South of Queensland, where a population of 3.000 birds is dispersed through of the Fraser Island and close to the continent, including Cooloola National Park, Reserve Wide Bay Military, Fraser State forest and Great Sandy National Park.

It is common at local level to around of New South Wales, where are distributed in a number of coastal sites including Evans Head, the Broadwater National Park, Byron Bay, Morton National Park, around the Cape Howe, Barren Grounds and Nadgee nature reserve.

They come up to Victoria, in the Croajingolong National Park, and they are distributed, provided that the habitat is suitable, along the coast in a series of sites as the Wilson promontory National Park and the Discovery Bay coastal Park in the West.

In the subsequent breeding season, the dispersal of birds reaches areas of Gippsland and Ninety Mile Beach, Although they can also travel further including the interior Highlands.

The species has become extinct in Southern Australia and on the islands of the Bass Strait.

In Tasmania is quite common in the South-West, but small flocks in the central and South-East regions, they are probably now in decline.

Distribution of subspecies

  • Pezoporus wallicus wallicus (Kerr, 1792) – The nominal
  • Pezoporus wallicus leachi (Mathews, 1912) – Tasmania.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Decreasing

The Eastern Ground Parrot is not threatened globalmente.

Habitat loss mostly due to urban growth and the modernization of agriculture, accentuated by the use of improper burning of stubble and restoration techniques of plantations of pine trees along the coast, It can be that they are endangering the species. These signs of decline are seen mostly in the West and the South of Australia.

Although the population of Tasmania probably exceed of the 100.000 specimens, the population in the South-East of the continent It is much more low and does not exceed the 3.000 Member.

Perico Land in captivity:

Take it easy, shy, active when feeds, After the sunset, enjoy bath. It is customary to their caregiver, but rarely survive beyond a few weeks.

Not found in captivity outside Australia.

Alternative names:

Eastern Ground Parrot, Ground Parrot (Eastern) (English).
Perruche terrestre (French).
Erdsittich (German).
Arara-de-cabeça-azul (Portuguese).
Perico Terrestre, Perico Terrestre Oriental (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Pezoporus
Scientific name: Pezoporus wallicus
Citation: (Kerr, 1792)
Protonimo: Psittacus wallicus

Images Eastern Ground Parrot:


Eastern Ground Parrot (Pezoporus wallicus)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Photos:

(1) – To western ground parrot (Pezoporus wallicus flaviventris), one of eight in captivity. (WA Department of Environment) – australiangeographic
(2) – A Ground Parrot amongst vegetation By Jarrod Amoore [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Eastern Ground Parrot – Office of Environment and Heritage
(4) – flight views of bird flushed from heath by Mat Gilfedder – lynx
(5) – By Jennene Riggs – abc
(6) – By James Sowerby (1757 – 1822) (English) (Artist, Details of artist on Google Art Project) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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