Western Ground Parrot
Pezoporus flaviventris

Western Ground Parrot


Description:

30 cms. length between 105-110 g. of weight.

The Western Ground Parrot (Pezoporus flaviventris) It has mottled green back, underparts green and yellow, forecrown red. Tail long, with green stripes, Yellow and black poorly defined.

taxonomy:

A research team, directed by Stephen Murphy, He studied the taxonomy (discipline in charge of classifying living things) of the Eastern Ground Parrot (Pezoporus wallicus), an endemic species (exclusive geographic region) of fragmented coasts of southwest and southeast Australia. The researchers studied DNA from museum specimens ago 160 years, and they concluded that the western population should be classified as a new species: Pezoporus flaviventris.

Habitat:

The Western Ground Parrot It is a bird that lives in soil and living in low heathland, dry or swampy near the coast. Usually they are seen in a habitat that has remained unburned for long periods of time. Mainly fly at dawn or dusk and feeds mainly on small seeds.

Reproduction:

It is one of the few parrots in the world that does not nest in a hole or cavity. Little else is known about the reproductive biology Western Ground Parrot

Food:

The Western Ground Parrot usually it feeds alone or with another parakeet. Seeds of various plants, especially of Sedge, for example, Mesomaelaena stygia ssp. stygia. Flower buds and flowers base, for example, the beaufortias, the dryandras and grevilleas, They are also important parts of the diet. It has been observed Western Ground Parrot semisuculentas feeding on leaves Daviesia pachyphylla. The diet is varied and uses the great diversity of habitat.

Distribution:

Historically, This species was found along the south west coast of Australia from Perth north to Geraldton and along the south coast east to Israelite Bay. However, It seems to have disappeared off the west coast of Western Australia in 1900.

Today you will know only two places in the southwest corner of Western Australia: Fitzgerald River National Park and Cape Arid National Park / Natural Reserve Nuytsland

Conservation:

• by the Australian government as a species it is classified danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 100-110 individuals.

During an investigation (1), the scientists found that the population of this new species had diminished rapidly in recent 20 years, They are leaving only around 110 birds surviving in the wild, most of them in an Australian national park, so it is considered one of the rarest species in the world, so that the entry introduced predators (cats) National Park, It could lead to the extinction of the species in a short time, so the need to implement is suggested Urgent conservation program for this new species described.

(1) – “Tip(‘9. S. A. Murphy, S. A., L. Joseph, A. H. Burbidge y J. Austin. “A Cryptic and Critically Endangered Species Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analyses: the Western Ground Parrot”. Conservation Genetics, 12, (2010): 595-600.’

Endangered Species Strategy

The Western Ground Parrot is one of the 20 birds that the Australian Government has given priority in the allocation of resources to support the recovery effort species. The Western Ground Parrot It has a base of strong and growing support in the local community. An association between South Coast NRM, Friends of the Western Ground Parrot, the Department of Parks and Wildlife and the Perth Zoo It is working to prevent extinction.

The success of the population captive breeding recently established security will be key to the species, and management of wild cats and fires Cape Arid National Park It will be essential for local recovery. With an estimated population of less than 150 individuals and a captive population of less than ten, we need to act.

The emergency actions include the protection of the wild population and creating a population secured in captivity. Opportunities to receive more support through National Planning Program, the local group management of natural resources and existing partnerships with Government of Western Australia and the Zoo of Perth They are likely to contribute to recovery.

The website Endangered Species Strategy It includes information on what is being done to support the recovery effort species. Understanding the habits of a partnership project of rare birds and reserved aims to benefit the species improve the behavior of captive birds, which may allow better management of wild populations.

Alternative names:


- Ground Parrot (Western), Western Ground Parrot (inglés).
- Kyloring (Aborigen).
- Perruche à ventre doré, Perruche à ventre dorée, Perruche terrestre (de l'Ouest), Perruche terrestre (flaviventris) (francés).
- Westlicher Erdsittich (alemán).
- Periquito Terrestre Occidental (portugués).
- Perico Terrestre Occidental (español).

Alfred John North
Alfred John North

Scientific classification:


- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Pezoporus
- Nombre científico: Pezoporus flaviventris
- Citación: North, 1911
- Protónimo: Pezoporus flaviventris

Western Ground Parrot images:

Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Magazine Science and Development
• Department of the Environment (2018). Pezoporus flaviventris in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat.

Photos:

(1) – Feeding Western Ground Parrot….. the only photo’s of this bird in the wild was taken in 2005 the day before my birthday, what a gift that was. This is from my field season the next year. No nest has been found since 1913. by Brent BarrettFlickr
(2) – Western Ground Parrot (Pezoporus flaviventris) by Brent Barrett from Dunedin, New Zealand [CC BY-SA 2.0 or CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Western Ground Parrot in Australia by Brent Barrett from Dunedin, New Zealand [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Stand and sing Western Ground Parrot (Pezoporus flaviventris) by Brent Barrett from Dunedin, New Zealand [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – This is officially one of the rarest images in exhistence Pezoporus wallicus flaviventris by Brent BarrettFlickr

Macquarie Parakeet †
Cyanoramphus erythrotis

Macquarie Parakeet - Cyanoramphus erythrotis


Description Perico Macquarie:

27 cm.. length

The extinct Macquarie Parakeet (Cyanoramphus erythrotis) was a medium-sized green parrot. The head was bright green with pileum and a line in the eyes crimson red. The upperparts They were bright yellow-green to dark green with a scarlet stain on either side of the rump (usually they are hidden by the wings when resting), and a greenish-blue leading edge to the wings. The eyes They were yellow or red, and the bill It was black with a base Pearly. Both sexes appeared similar, but the female It was smaller (Forshaw & Cooper 1981; Higgins 1999; Oliver 1955)

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Cyanoramphus [novaezelandiae, erythrotis, subflavescens] (sensu lato) by some authors

Perico habitat Macquarie:

The Macquarie Parakeet inhabited coastal grasslands tussock in the subantarctic Isla Macquarie (Forshaw & Cooper 1981; Taylor 1979).

Reproduction:

It is known nesting in grasslands without trees.

Food Tito Macquarie:

Little is known about the diet of the Macquarie Parakeet, but it is said that feed on crustaceans and other small invertebrates (Oliver 1955; Taylor 1979).

It was Earth (Forshaw & Cooper 1981) and it is said to have been foraged on the seashore, taking invertebrates fused cell algae on the beach (Oliver 1955; Taylor 1979).

Distribution Tito Macquarie:

The Macquarie Parakeet It was an endemic parrot Isla Macquarie, one sub-Antarctic island in the Antartic Ocean It is politically part of Tasmania Australia. The island and this species were discovered in 1810, time when this was still very common parakeet. The last sighting of Perico Isla Macquarie was in 1891.

Conservation Macquarie Parakeet:

• Current red list category of the UICN: EXTINCT.

Although hard Macquarie Parakeet They were adjusted well to inhospitable terrestrial environment Macquarie Island, They did not survive the predatory introduced species.

The extinction of the Macquarie Parakeet It was caused by the introduction of exotic predators, like cats, rabbits, mice and rats boat. He was also prey to rascón weka or the rascón of Lord Howe (Gallirallus australis). This robust flightless bird from New Zealand It was introduced on the island in the mid-nineteenth century as food for sealers, the same hunters killed a large number of Perico Macquarie (Macquarie Island) to feed. Unfortunately, the wekas They have caused considerable damage to endangered species, as they feed on small birds, Native insects and lizards.

The last sighting of live parakeets occurred in 1891

Threat Reduction and Recovery

Translocation program may be suitable for the reintroduction of Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) on Isla Macquarie. Although programs have been tested for translocation failed Norfolk Island Parakeet (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hermes et al. 1986), Similar programs have been successful for this parakeet in New Zealand. These programs have been successful with only 15 birds, Bottlenecks causing genetic programs with less than 150 birds. The low success of the young in the program New Zealand It may be the result of inbreeding depression or poor design of nests (Oritz-Cathedral & Brunton 2008).

The programs of eradication They are underway in Isla Macquarie. The cats were eradicated in 2002, the Keep (Gallirallus australis) in 1988 and is ongoing eradication program rats, rabbits and mice (Mouse muscle) (it. PWS 2009).

Alternative names:


- Macquarie Island Parakeet, Macquarie Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche de Macquarie (francés).
- Macquarie-Laufsittich, Macquarie-Ziegensittich (alemán).
- Periquito de Macquarie (portugués).
- Perico de Macquarie (español).

Johann Georg Wagler
Johann Georg Wagler

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus erythrotis
- Citación: (Wagler, 1832)
- Protónimo: Psittacus erythrotis


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Department of the Environment (2018). Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae erythrotis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat

Reischek's Parakeet
Cyanoramphus hochstetteri

Reischek's Parakeet


Description:

28 cms. length and 140 g. of weight.

The Reischek's Parakeet (Cyanoramphus hochstetteri). Named after the Austrian ornithologist and taxidermist Andreas Reischek, the first scientist who visited the Antipodes Islands. He was a passenger of Stella and reached the Antipodes Islands in February 1888.

It is one of two species of parakeets Cyanoramphus who live in remote Antipodes Islands. It is a medium-sized green parrot, brightly colored, the outer flight feathers are light blue with a crown red, which closely it resembles other parakeets “red crown” (for example, Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae). But appearances are deceptive. Genetic studies revealed that the color of the crown can not be a good indicator of taxonomy parakeet, and the tiny Malherbe's Parakeet (Cyanoramphus malherbi) It may be the closest relative of Reischek's Parakeet. It is common in all Antipodes Islands, particularly in more open areas and nearby coastal areas to the penguin colonies.

Habitat:

The Reischek's Parakeet They are more abundant than Antipodes Parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) in most habitats. Significant differences were observed in diet between the two species of parakeets. are also evident strong seasonal and annual differences in diet related food availability. The Reischek's Parakeet They are strong fliers and have been observed flying between islands within the group Antipodean.

Social behavior is similar to other species of parakeets Cyanoramphus, but it has been observed that spend considerable periods sunbathing and primping in protected areas. Like other species Cyanoramphus, are strongly territorial around nests, and they call loudly and chase intruders from nearby.

They are usually found in pairs or, most commonly, in small groups that feed on or near the ground. You can often see them in meetings springs and wells isolated. Occasionally they flock fly to neighboring islands in search of food.

Reproduction:

We know relatively little about the breeding of the Reischek's Parakeet. Apparently nest October to March in modified or constructed within the base groups tunnels tussocks or ferns. The nest is lined with small pieces of wood, feathers, moss, herbs and other dry materials. They can reuse nests each year.

clutch size is unknown in nature. Is likely to ecology and reproductive behavior are similar to those of other parakeets Cyanoramphus.

Food:

It has been recorded feeding on leaves, flowers, berries and seeds 14 plant species. Invertebrates are a minor component of the diet. The Reischek's Parakeet occasionally feed carcasses petreles and albatrosses, but not as often as Antipodes Parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor). They feed on the floor often, including mud and feces accumulated within colonies Penguin Antipodean (Eudyptes sclateri) unoccupied, When Penguins are away at their winter migration.

Distribution:

The parakeet is endemic to the Reischek Antipodes Islands. It is common in all Antipodes Islands, particularly in more open areas and nearby coastal areas to the penguin colonies.

Conservation:

• Under Threat Classification System New Zealand 2008: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : 4000-6000 individuals.

The Reischek's Parakeet apparently they have a stable population, and are common within their distribution area of 2,000 has. They are protected by the isolated situation of the islands and their status Natural reserve strict. The greatest threat to long-term survival Reischek's Parakeet is the arrival of mammalian predators. In the winter of 2016 we attempted to eradicate the mice Antipodes Islands.

The species is also affected negatively by forestry operations: logging and burning have drastically reduced the available habitat, and selective logging can reduce the number of trees with holes suitable nesting and foraging opportunities.

It was hunted by Maori for food, and previously it was persecuted because birds were damaging crops and orchards.

In captivity:

Are confident from the beginning and not at all shy. Usually they are ready to breed in captivity. Although they are ripe (about five months), It is best not to allow them to play in the first year.

Alternative names:


- Antipodes Island Parakeet, Antipodes Red-crowned (inglés).
- Perruche de Reischek, Perruche des Antipodes (francés).
- Antipoden-Ziegensittich (alemán).
- Periquito de Reischek (portugués).
- Perico de Reischek, Perico Frentirrojo de las Antípodas (español).

Andreas Reischek
Andreas Reischek

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus hochstetteri
- Citación: (Reischek, 1889)
- Protónimo: Platycercus hochstetteri

Images:

New Zealand Birds Online – Photos


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Greene, T.C. 2013 [updated 2017]. Reischek’s parakeet. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz

Photos:

(1) – Cyanoramphus hochstetteri by Auckland Museum [CC BY 4.0]

Sounds: Captive birds calling, Mount Bruce National Wildlife Centre, April 1973, 1215, Les McPherson, McPherson Natural History Unit Sound Archive, www.archivebirdsnz.com

Chatham Parakeet
Cyanoramphus forbesi

Chatham Parakeet


Description:

23 cm. length and 95 g. of weight.

The Chatham Parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) They are one of the two medium bright green parrots of Chatham Islands. Although they look very similar to those Yellow-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps) of New Zealand continental, the color of the crown is not a reliable indicator of taxonomic relationships.

It believes that the Chatham Parakeet descended from an ancient lineage of parrots who reached the Chatham Islands before the division Yellow-fronted Parakeet and Red-fronted Parakeet happened in New Zealand continental, after which the Red-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) also they colonized Chatham Islands.

The Chatham Parakeet They are medium-sized parrots, of tail long, with wings wide and rounded and plumage predominantly emerald. have a crown front bright yellow and crimson frontal band that does not reach the eyes, unlike in the Red-fronted Parakeet. Males are larger than the females.

taxonomy:

From 1930 It is commonly treated as a subspecies of Yellow-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps), and clearly the two are closely related; the species differ, However, in size considerably, It is larger species Cyanoramphus forbesi. Currently considered Monotypic.

Habitat:

The Chatham Parakeet They are at higher densities in forests and dense vegetation regenerating areas than in open grassland. Despite its rather erratic flight, They fly hard and move easily between islas Mangere and little Mangere. Occasionally they have been observed Chatham Parakeet individual in the forests of southern Chatham Island (> 20 km from the Mangere Island) and nearby islands Pitt and owner. Their social behavior is similar to other species of parakeets Cyanoramphus. They are strongly territorial around nests, calling loudly and chasing intruders from nearby.

Reproduction:

The Chatham Parakeet They have a long breeding season, with eggs laid between October and March. Are nesters cavity, preferring tree holes but also using rock crevices and under dense vegetation. The size medium of laying is of 5 eggs. Like all the other parakeets Cyanoramphus, females are responsible for preparing the nest, incubation, breeding and feeding the chicks until 10-14 days old. During this period all their food is provided by your partner. From then on, male and female parrots feed the chicks in the nest until they leave the nest.

The incubation usually begins after the start of the second egg, It is resulting in chicks within a clutch that vary greatly in size and age. Unhatched chickens in the past are often born at a younger age and are less developed than their older siblings. You can try more than one breeding if the initial nest fails or if the food supply permits.

Food:

The foods consumed by Chatham Parakeet They are affected by seasonal availability, and include seeds, flowers and leaves of various plants, It is the most important invertebrates in spring. They feed extensively in soil in open areas.

Distribution and status:

Extensión de su área sw distribución (reproducción / residente): 3 km2

The Chatham Parakeet It is restricted to of Tapuaenuku ISLA ISLA Pequeña Mangere and Mangere in the Group of Chatham Islands, New Zealand. In 1930 He quenched in Mangere Island, but in 1973 He had re-colonized and numbered 40 birds and a small number of hybrids with the subspecies Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis (of whom had 12 on the island) (Higgins 1999).

In 1996, two estimates indicated that the population of the Mangere Island It was from 50 to 120 Purebred birds. The population on the small island of little Mangere It is little known because the few visits made (H. Aikman a slightly. 1999). In 1999, it was estimated that the total population was about 120 birds (Aikman et al. 2001), but studies 2003 estimated 900 individuals on Isla Mangere (Aikman y Miskelly 2004, D. Houston y C. Miskelly a slightly. 2008).

A recent study estimated that more than 50% of the population of parakeets in Isla Mangere It consisted of individuals hybrid (Chan et al. 2006), but this is expected to decrease due to mating positive range (T. Greene a slightly. 2012); the number of phenotypes Forbes It is approaching the threshold management 10% (D. Houston a slightly. 2012) (namely, the number above which the sacrifice can be resumed as a management tool). There have been birds visiting South isla Chatham, the Pitt island and ISLA ISLA Chief of Sudeste (Taylor 1998, D. Houston y C. Miskelly a slightly. 2008, T. Greene a slightly. 2012).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : 250-999 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

This species may still have a small Purebred adult population. Possible removal by hybridization has been avoided thanks to three decades of conservation efforts, which they have seen increasing population size. It is restricted to one place (given the proximity of the small islands that lives and mobility), and its small population size means it still deserves to be included in a threatened category, but it is likely that their population size has been more than 250 mature for more than 5 years, so it has been transferred to the category of Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The population of phenotypes similar to those of Forbes It has increased dramatically in the Mangere Island, with best estimates place the population between 800 and 1.000 individuals. A survey in 2011 It assessed that the phenotypes of interest are in the 10%, the trigger level for management action (D. Houston a slightly. 2012). It is likely that populations have exceeded 250 mature for more than 5 years, so now it is in the range of 250-999 mature individuals.

Justification trend

The population has shown minor fluctuations in recent years, since the species recolonized the Mangere Island over the years 70 and it has benefited from habitat restoration, while hybridization has also suffered. In general, It is estimated that the population has remained stable during the last ten years, and It is probably increasing (T. Greene a slightly. 2012).

Threats

• the Disappeared Mangere Island due to a combination of deforestation for grazing, decades of burning, the effects of introduced mammals grazing and predation by feral cats (Higgins 1999).

• The biggest threat is the hybridization with the Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis, subspecies Red-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) What, despite the sacrifice, still it is settling in Mangere Island (J. Kearvell a slightly. 1999).

• It is believed that the rate of hybridization High above is the result of the then low population sizes of the two species (D. Houston y C. Miskelly a slightly. 2008).

• levels hybridization They have remained below 10% of the total population of parakeets Mangere Island over the past decade, so no management intervention was not necessary.

Conservation Actions Underway

Appendix I and II of CITES. The Mangere Island It has been substantially replanted (Aikman et al. 2001, D. Houston y C. Miskelly a slightly. 2008).

• An environmental and genetic research has investigated the population dynamics, the hybridization and selection of partners (H. Aikman a slightly. 1999, Chan et al. 2006).

• During 1976-1999, hybrid birds and individuals of the subspecies Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis They were sacrificed population (Nixon 1994).

• In 1998, 40 hybrid And six Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis were killed, leaving 10 copies between hybrid and Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae chathamensis after the operation (H. Aikman a slightly. 1999).

• surveys the relative proportion of hybrid regarding type phenotypes Forbes They are held every two years (D. Houston a slightly. 2012).

• The translocation a fenced area predator proof in Chatham Island It is planned for 2017 (D. Houston a slightly. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Complete investigation ecological, biological and genetic, including analysis and dissemination of results.

Monitor trends in the extent and quality of forest habitats on the island of Mangere.

Restore forest habitats Mangere Island to increase the number and reduce hybridization.

• To work for the establishment of one or more populations in Chatham Island (H. Aikman a slightly. 1999).

In captivity:

There are no data from Chatham Parakeet in captivity.

In nature, its lonjevidad is probably similar to that of Yellow-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps): 10 years.

Alternative names:


- Chatham Island Yellow-crowned Parakeet, Chatham Islands Parakeet, Chatham Parakeet, Forbes's Parakeet (inglés).
- Kakariki de Forbes, Kakariki des îles Chatham, Perruche des Chatham, Perruche des îles Chatham (francés).
- Chathamsittich (alemán).
- Periquito-de-peito-amarelo-da-Ilha-chatham (portugués).
- Perico de las Chatham (español).

Lionel Walter Rothschild
Lionel Walter Rothschild

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus forbesi
- Citación: Rothschild, 1893
- Protónimo: Cyanorhamphus [sic] forbesi

Images of the Chatham Parakeet:

Perico-de-las-Chatham


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
• Greene, T.C. 2013 [updated 2017]. Forbes’ parakeet. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz

Photos:

(1) – Chatham Islands Parakeet on Mangere Island by Markanderson72 [CC BY-SA 4.0], from Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Andrew Sutherland, IBC1065693. Photo of Chatham Parakeet Cyanoramphus forbesi at Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Accessible at hbw.com/ibc/1065693.

Lord Howe Island Parakeet †
Cyanoramphus subflavescens

Lord Howe Island Parakeet


Description:

21-27 cm.. of length and a weight of 80 g..

Lord Howe Island Parakeet

The Lord Howe Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus subflavescens) was a medium-sized green parrot with a head bright green, the crown crimson red and a strip on the eyes; the eyes were red and bill grey. The upperparts They were bright green with a dark red spot on each side of the rump (usually they are hidden by the wings when resting) and a blue border in wings; the underparts were yellowish green.

Both sexes appeared similar, but the female It was smaller.

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Cyanoramphus [novaezelandiae or subflavescens] (sensu lato) by some authors.

In 2012, World Bird List of IOC recognized him as a species [IOC world birdnames Archived 2012-08-06 at the Wayback Machine.].

Habitat:

The Lord Howe Island Parakeet It was occasionally observed in flocks. There is little information on their habitats, probably they lived in forests inhabited and cultivated areas Lord Howe Island. No information on the use of different habitats for different activities.

Reproduction:

Nothing is known of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality of this extinct species. However, It has been estimated that the life of Lord Howe Island Parakeet It should be similar to that of Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii), About three years. the age of sexual maturity is also known populations of this species, although a juvenile female was seen mating with a male just a week after achieving independence, and it is said that the captive birds are reproduced when they were under one year old.

Little else is known about breeding Lord Howe Island Parakeet, probably they reproduced in response to climatic conditions and food availability, nesting in tree holes or hollow pipes, in crevices between rocks or cliffs.

Food:

Meal Lord Howe Island Parakeet probably it consisted of plant material, as seeds, fruit, buds and leaves of native trees and shrubs. Other existing populations mainly ate seeds, fruits and berries, egg yolks, sprouts and flowers, as well as, occasionally, a small number of invertebrates.

Distribution:

Endemic of the isla Lord Howe in the Sea of ​​Tasmania, part of New South Wales, Australia.

Conservation:

• The last record we have of this species dating 1869. EXTINCT.

The population declines were mainly due to habitat modification, hunting, poisoning, and the introduction of predators (especially cats and rats).
However, the main threat to the Lord Howe Island Parakeet was the hunting and its capture by settlers. Formerly he abounded in the Lord Howe Island and it was said to be a plague, and it is destroying crops and orchards of the inhabitants of the island.

There are only two copies of Lord Howe Island Parakeet. From the collection John Gould, taken by John MacGillivray in September of 1853 on tour HMS Herald, and are in the Museum of Natural History [Schodde, R.; & Mason, I.J. (1997). Birds (Columbidae to Coraciidae). In Houston, W.W.K. & Wells, A. (eds) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 37.2. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne. ISBN 0-643-06456-7 p.147.].

Alternative names:


- Lord Howe Island Parakeet, Lord Howe Island red-crowned parakeet, Lord Howe Parakeet, Red-Fronted Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche de Lord Howe (francés).
- Lord Howe-Laufsittich (alemán).
- Periquito de Lord Howe (portugués).
- Perico de Lord Howe (español).

Salvadori-Thomas
Salvadori Tommaso

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus subflavescens
- Citación: Salvadori, 1891
- Protónimo: Cyanorhamphus subflavescens


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Red-crowned Parakeet (Lord Howe Is. subsp.) – profile | NSW Environment & Heritage

Photos:

(1) – Cyanorhamphus subflavescens (Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Volume 20) by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain] (2) – Hand coloured lithograph (circa 1928) showing (Cyanorhamphus subflavescens) Which is now a synonym of the Lord Howe Island Red-fronted Parakeet (Gray novaezelandiae subflavescens) From The Birds of Australia (1910-28) by Gregory Macalister Mathews (1876-1949) Artwork by Henrik Gronvold (1858–1940) a Danish bird illustrator. by Henrik Grönvold [Public domain]

Norfolk Island Parakeet
Cyanoramphus cookii

Norfolk Island Parakeet


Description:

30 cm.. length and 100 g. of weight.

The Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) has a plumage bright green with reddish front, one red band extending through each eye; and light blue region in the leading edge of each wing . Upperwing-coverts green. Primary coverts and outerweb of primaries violet blue. Underwing-coverts yellow-green. red spot on each side of the rump. Above, the tail dark green with yellow edges, under dark gray. Eyes red.

The sexes are similar in appearance. The females They are distinguished by their smaller size, less red in the forecrown, stains on the front of the crown, and bill smaller and narrower. The young hatched are coated with a thin gray background.

The youth They are similar in appearance to adults, but the red is less extensive (Forshaw 1981; Higgins 1999). Juveniles have a bill distinctive color meat during the first 4 to 6 weeks after the flight (Forshaw 1981).

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Cyanoramphus [novaezelandiae, erythrotis, subflavescens, hochstetteri, saisseti or cookii] (sensu lato) by some authors

  • Sound of the Norfolk Island Parakeet.

Habitat:

The Norfolk Island Parakeet It is found mainly in the rainforest remainder, although it can also be seen in other areas of the island (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; J. Hicks pers. comm. quoted in Hill 2002).

It is considered sedentary (Higgins 1999). The species moves from the National Park Norfolk Island to orchards and gardens when fruit available (Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999). Most sightings Norfolk Island Parakeet outside the National Park Norfolk Island They are recorded in December and January (Lane et al., 1998).

Foraging occurs in all strata of vegetation (Higgins 1999), including in the forest canopy, on the floor, in disturbed habitats and habitats modified depending on food availability (Forshaw & Cooper 1989; Higgins 1999). It has been observed to Perico Norfolk, including youth, feeding on the ground during winter, eating fallen seeds and fruits African olive, Pine Norfolk Island and red guava (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins 1999; Lane et al., 1998; Ortiz-Catedral 2013).

The Norfolk Island Parakeet It gregarious, usually they are seen in pairs or in family groups (Higgins 1999) and flocks (C. Jones pers. comm. 2016). The species occurs as a single contiguous breeding population (Garnett et to the., 2011).

Reproduction:

The Norfolk Island Parakeet usually nest less than two meters above the ground, usually in a recess or cavity in the branch, trunk or stump living or dead trees, especially in larger native trees. This includes Nestegis apetala (ironwood), Blood Wood (Corymbia spp. / Eucalyptus spp.), Cordyline spp. and Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine) (Garnett et to the., 2011; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; Lane et al., 1998). The species has occasionally been observed nesting in holes in the ground created by roots rotted pine (C. Jones pers. comm. 2016).
Usually it perches in hidden areas with thick vegetation, including treeholes, epiphytes, tussocks, sedges and ferns. The species often perches on nesting sites (Higgins 1999). Inexperienced chicks often roost in exposed sites (Higgins 1999).

The reproduction It occurs throughout the year, peaking from December to March (Greenwood et al., 1989; Hicks & Preece 1991). The females. hatch eggs and are very reluctant to leave their nests during this time (P. Stevenson com. pers. quoted in Hill 2002). The incubation hard 21 days (Hicks & Preece 1991). When the chicks reach about two weeks old, the female can leave to start a new nest (Greenwood 1993). Los Pericos Norfolk can have multiple set and successfully give birth to four times a year, with males and females sharing parental care (R. Ward com. pers. quoted in Hill 2002). They prefer to use a fresh nest site for each clutch (Hill 2002). The chicks leave the nest six to seven. weeks after hatching and depend on their parents to feed three to seven weeks (Davidson 1997; Forshaw 1981; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Hicks & Preece 1991). The clutch is large (1-8) (Hicks & Greenwood 1989). the age of first reproduction is unknown, but it may be soon after independence (Greene 1990).

Food:

Adults eat mainly seeds, fruit, flowers, bark and leaves of native and introduced trees, and shrubs, including Pine Norfolk Island, ironwood, Rhopalostylis Bauer (Palm Norfolk Island), Blood Wood, Cordyline, Lagunaria (White Oak), Elaeodendron curtipendulum (silvestre) arce), wild snuff (Solanum mauritianum), red guava (Psidium spp.), African olive (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidate), peach (Prunus persica) and lantana (Lantana camara) (Forshaw & Cooper 1978; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins 1999; Lane et al., 1998).

Distribution:

The Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) is endemic of the Norfolk island. Before European settlement stretched across the island, but now it is mainly in the region Mt Pitt de Norfolk. (460 has) and in the Botanical Gardens Norfolk Island (5,5 has) (Director of National Parks 2010; Garnett et to the., 2011). The Norfolk Island Parakeet also they are seen in wooded areas outside the national park and botanical gardens, and they are observed throughout the island in small amounts (Director of National Parks 2010).

The breeding of Norfolk Island Parakeet It is largely confined to a suitable habitat within the range of Norfolk Island National Park (Hill 2002), although there are reports playback on adjacent private property to the National Park Norfolk Island (C. Rowston press. comm. cited in Garnett et al., 2011).

In 2013, One study estimated that its population on Norfolk Island It was only 46-92 individuals (Ortiz-Catedral 2013).

Conservation:

Law on Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation 1999 (Cwlth) (EPBC Act): Critically endangered.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 50-100 mature individuals.

The Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) It is classified as In danger under the Law on Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation 1999 (Cwlth) (EPBC Act). The species is eligible for inclusion on the list since before the start of the EPBC Act, It was included as endangered under Annexed 1 of the Law on Protection of Endangered Species 1992.

Garnett et to the (2011) They reviewed the state of conservation Norfolk Island Parakeet and they considered in Danger critic. The Threatened species Scientific Committee You are using the findings of Garnett et al. (2011) to consider whether the reassessment of the conservation status of each of the threatened birds listed in the EPBC Act It is mandatory.

The main factors causing the species to be eligible for inclusion in the List of Endangered Species are are very restricted area of ​​occupancy (< 10 km2).) and a population small (< 250 mature individuals) (Garnett et to the., 2011).

Threats

Extensive vegetation clearing for agriculture and logging of large trees destroyed nesting sites most suitable in Norfolk island (Hicks & Greenwood 1989).

A change in the structure of forests in the Norfolk island, as a result of the invasion of weeds, there may also be reduced available habitat area. (Garnett et to the., 2011).

Introduced the Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans), European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and occasionally European honey bees (Apis mellifera) competing for residues treeholes (Hicks & Preece 1991; Hill 2002).

Predation by black rats (Rattus rattus) It has resulted in most nest failures and an imbalance in the sex ratio in the population of Norfolk Island Parakeet, as rats often surprise female incubating (Hicks & Preece 1991; Hill 2002).

Cats (Felis catus) They are also significant predators (Garnett et to the., 2011).

The illness psitacina circoviral It is present in the population and can cause mortality in individuals stressed (Hicks & Preece 1991).

Window collisions also cause a small number of deaths annually (Hill 2002).

Conservation actions

Conservation and management priorities Invasive species

or Maintaining a control program black rat in the National Park Norfolk Island using baits to reduce the number of black rats.

or Maintaining a control program cats in the National Park Norfolk Island using capture methods to reduce the number of cats.

or Maintaining a control program Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans) in the National Park Norfolk Island using methods shooting to reduce their number.

Continue implementing and maintaining or protecting trees tin nesting sites (predator-proof) inside of the National Park Norfolk Island, And Botanical gardens adjacent private lands where appropriate.

Continue removing or European starlings and nesting material for nest sites.

or continue destroying the hives of European honeybees nesting sites if necessary.

o Perform intensive control weed in the National Park Norfolk Island, appropriate methods, focusing on improving habitat areas suitable playback.

Lost, disturbance and habitat modifications

o Perform habitat restoration within the National Park Norfolk Island by revegetation. appropriate areas with native plants, in conjunction with the weed control program. Breeding, reproduction and other measures ex situ

Maintaining or nesting sites to support breeding pairs adding material suitable nesting and fixing nests as needed.

or establish a wild population Phillip Island by methods translocation, when you consider that the source population is large enough to support the reduction of individuals.

Participation of stakeholders

or engage with the local community to provide information on the species and the importance of conservation actions.

or engage with the public on the green parrots of Norfolk Island through conservation. and environmental interpretation center National Park Norfolk Island.

Priorities and follow-up survey

Keeping monitoring or rats and black cats within the National Park Norfolk Island to determine its relative density within the park and report management actions.

Monitor or nesting sites known to detect the presence of Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans), European starlings and European honeybees to determine the continuing impact of competition of these species and Norfolk Island Parakeet and reporting on management actions.

o Conduct population studies to assess more accurately the size of the population, reproduction and breeding of these birds, success and demographic trends.

or to perform monitoring for the presence of disease psitacina circoviral in population Norfolk Island Parakeet.

o Monitor the progress of conservation actions, including the effectiveness of management actions and adapt them if necessary to contribute to the recovery of the species.

Priorities for research and information

o Investigate options to improve the current population.

or investigate conservation benefits to establish a wild population in Lord Howe Island.

or investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit methods for controlling predators and competitors introduced nest.

or investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit methods for weed control.

In captivity:

More than 600 baby Norfolk Island Parakeet They were banded between 1985 and 2007, most of which were bred in the wild assisted reproduction program National Park.

Alternative names:


- Cook's Parakeet, Norfolk Island Green Parrot, Norfolk Island Parakeet, Norfolk Island Parrot, Norfolk Parakeet, Tasman Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche australe, Perruche de Norfolk (francés).
- Norfolkziegensittich, Ziegensittich (alemán).
- Periquito de Norfolk (portugués).
- Perico de Norfolk (español).

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus cookii
- Citación: (Gray, GR, 1859)
- Protónimo: Platycercus Cookii

Norfolk Island Parakeet pictures:

Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
THREATENED SPECIES SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE © Commonwealth of Australia
• Perico de Norfolk cheating extinction with a little help from their human friends – abc.net.au

Photos:

(1) – Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) by David CookFlickr
(2) – Norfolk Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii), 2011 Norfolk Island National Park by Duncan Watson [CC BY-SA 4.0], from Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Norfolk Parakeet (also called Tasman Parakeet, Norfolk Island Green Parrot or Norfolk Island Red-crowned Parakeet) in Palm Glen, Norfolk Island, Australia by Paul Gear [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A juvenile Norfolk Parakeet (also called Tasman Parakeet, Norfolk Island Green Parrot or Norfolk Island Red-crowned Parakeet) in Palm Glen, Norfolk Island, Australia. by Paul Gear [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) by David CookFlickr

New Caledonian Parakeet
Cyanoramphus saisseti

New Caledonian Parakeet

Description:

26 cm.. length and 100 g. of weight.

New Caledonian Parakeet

The upperparts of the New Caledonian Parakeet (Cyanoramphus saisseti) They are mostly green, with some bluish green in the tail, violet-blue along the outerweb flight feathers, and red patches on each side of the rump. The underparts are yellowish green, yellower near throat, and gray below tail (Forshaw 1989, Juniper & Parr 1998, Doughty et al. 1999).

A red patch extends from the crown up to the forecrown, and it extends in a narrow band from the forecrown up to the lores (Juniper & Parr 1998).
The bill is leaden gray, with black tips, the irises is red-orange and legs are dark gray. (Layard & Layard 1882b, Juniper & Parr 1998).

The males typically exceed the females in size, although its plumage is similar (Verreaux & walls 1860, Layard & Layard 1882b, Salvadori 1891, Forshaw 1989)

taxonomy:

In the past it was considered to New Caledonian Parakeet conspecific of Red-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) of New Zealand, but genetic studies have shown that it is a separate species and occupying a basal position on gender Cyanoramphus, It is indicating that the genre would have originated New Caledonia.

  • Sound of the New Caledonian Parakeet.

Habitat:

The New Caledonian Parakeet They were primarily fed at low altitudes canopy, and regularly they observed on the edge of the forest, on slopes or in the forest maquis (scrub).

Seem to have small populations and their distributions are expected to shrink as a result of climate change.
They are not particularly shy, although they tend to be rather quiet and difficult to observe.

Reproduction:

It has been reported that the nesting It occurs between November and January, and nidadas They consist of two to five eggs, that they are placed in holes in trees (Hannecart & Létocart 1980, Theuerkauf et al. 2009b).
Genetic evidence suggests that the species is polyandrous, and the presence of male food assistants suggests that probably involves mating system poliandria cooperative (Theuerkauf et al., 1999).

Food:

It is usually fed in average heights, low canopy, but it has also been observed that feeds on the floor.
Essentially it is granívoro. It feeds mainly on seeds and fruits, besides berries, nuts and other plant parts (outbreaks, flowers and leaves).

Distribution:

The New Caledonian Parakeet It is endemic to the main island of New Caledonia, although there are still uncertainties about the extent of its range and population size (Taylor 1985, Juniper & Parr 1998). The species was considered rare at the time of its introduction (Verreaux & walls 1860). However, in the Decade of 1880, Flocks of birds were reported in the West, flying into the valleys Moindou from nearby mountain forests, where it is rumored to have slept in large quantities (Layard & Layard 1882b).

It has the lowest population density of parrots New Caledonia.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 2500-10,000 individuals.

The New Caledonian Parakeet They face a variety of threats, and their populations seem to be in decline. However, it is difficult to determine the cause or the extent of their declines due to the lack of ecological data.

classified as Vulnerable because it has a single small population suspected to be declining due to predation by invasive species; His strength is threatened by a nickel mining area and can suffer a rapid decline in the near future.
The mountain rainforest is not threatened, but it is possible that this species in need of other habitats, some of which, particularly semi-deciduous forests lowland, They have almost disappeared from the island. It is possible that introduced diseases (such as avian malaria) or mammals (especially rats) It has been a cause of decline.

There is no evidence that nest poaching is widespread.

In captivity:

unregistered.

Alternative names:


- New Caledonian Parakeet, New Caledonian Parrot, New Caledonian Red-crowned Parakeet, Red-crowned Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche à front rouge, Perruche calédonienne, Perruche de Nouvelle-Calédonie (francés).
- Cyanoramphus saisseti (alemán).
- Periquito-da-nova-caledônia (portugués).
- Perico de Nueva Caledonia (español).

Jules Verreaux

Scientific classification:


- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus saisseti
- Citación: Verreaux & Des Murs, 1860
- Protónimo: Cyanoramphus Saisseti


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Cyanoramphus saisseti, Park the blue river, New Caledonia by Mickaël T. [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Cyanoramphus saisseti Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1882 (Web) by Joseph Smit [Public domain]

Raiatea Parakeet †
Cyanoramphus ulietanus

Raiatea Parakeet

Description:

25 cm.. length.

The Raiatea Parakeet (Cyanoramphus ulietanus) had the head blackish brown, paler on neck, Rump and wings. The lower part of the back and tail coverts were brownish-red; and under wing-coverts and outerweb the flight feathers were gray-blue. There was a gray border on feathers primaries and secondaries. The chest, the abdomen and the under tail were yellow olive. The feathers of the middle tail were olive brown. The outer feathers tail were gray.

The irises were probably orange-red in the adult and juvenile brown. The legs were grayish brown. The bill was pale blue-gray or gray-brown to black tip. The males and females look alike.

Habitat:

It is believed that it was a kind forest, when the Society Islands They were all wooded.

Reproduction:

It knows nothing about the reproductive habits of this parrot or why died.

Food:

Nothing is known about the eating habits of this parrot.

Distribution:

Of the Raiatea Parakeet only it is known from two specimens in Raiatea, in the Society Islands of the French Polynesia (Forshaw and Cooper 1989), collected on the trip Cook in 1773, and now Vienna and Tring (Knox y Walters 1994).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: EXTINCT.

Justification of the red list category

This species was known in the Isla de Raiatea, French Polynesia, but now it is extinct, probably as a result of habitat or cleaning action of invasive species.

Justification of the population

There remains no existing population.

It is believed that the two bodies of this parrot that remain dissected in two museums, the Natural History Museum London and the Naturhistorisches Museum, They were collected by Georg Forster in 1773 or 1774 during the second voyage of Capitán Cook (Stresemann 1950). However, Medway (2009), based on the travel journal Joseph Banks, He thought they were collected in November 1777 during the third trip Cook. It seems likely that no collection will be made on Raiatea in 1768 during the first trip Cook, since the natives were hostile, which is why Forster probably both specimens obtained in the second. However, There is some confusion as to the locality, but Forster (1844) It refers to a “Psittacus pacificus” seen in Otaheite (Tahiti) and Oriadea (Raiatea), from where Greenway (1967) presumed that found and collected Cyanoramphus zealandicus in Tahiti and C. ulietanus in Raiatea. unusually, Forster He did not consider the two species as different.

Alternative names:


- Raiatea Parakeet, Society Parakeet, Society Parrot (inglés).
- Kakariki de Raiatea, Perruche de Raiatea (francés).
- Braunkopf-Laufsittich, Raiateasittich (alemán).
- Periquito-de-raiatea (portugués).
- Perico de Raiatea (español).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus ulietanus
- Citación: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
- Protónimo: Psittacus ulietanus


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Illustration of the society parakeet (Cyanoramphus ulietanus) by Mr thrice [CC BY-SA 4.0], from Wikimedia Commons

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