Kakapo
Strigops habroptila


Kakapo

Description

Males can reach up to 60 cm. and weigh between 3 and 4 kg.

The Kakapo (Strigops habroptila) It is a robust and stocky bird with wings short in relation to the rest of the body.

Illustration Kakapo

Adults, on upperpartsr, are MOSS Green, pulling a beige. All their upperparts they are spotted black and brownish gray, What gives them an excellent camouflage in its environment. The chest and flanks are yellowish green with streaks of yellow. The abdomen, under the tail, the neck and face are yellow, mostly with stripes of pale green and greyish brown spots visible.

Their feathers they are surprisingly soft, since they do not need the strength and the necessary stiffness for flying birds.

The Kakapo shows a composite facial disc of feathers fine, giving it the appearance of an OWL.

Its bill surrounded by fine whiskers that are very useful to probe the ground when moving in the undergrowth.

The mandible is mostly ivory, but with a bit of blue-gray in the upper mandible.

Their eyes are dark brown. Their long and scaly legs they have long claws which serve to climb.

The end of the feathers of the tail It tends to end up worn down by the continuous friction with the ground.

The females they are very different from your partner. Its head is narrow and has a crown less rounded. Their peaks they are narrow and elongated. Less muscular legs, a grayish pink. Its tail is more elongated. Though their plumage is hardly different from males, appears less mottled beige.

The nesting females are also distinguished by the cushion of bare skin that develops in the abdomen during the incubation period.

Habitat:

Before the humans arrived to New Zealand, the Kakapo they lived in a variety of habitats, pastures with clumps of grass, scrub and coastal regions.

They were also the primary forests, including those who were dominated by lush podocarp and false have the gender Nothofagus. In the region of Fiordland, to the southwest of South Island, the Kakapo they frequented areas of avalanches and landslides, small regenerated trees or vegetation with abundant fruit.

These regions contained among other plants, Japanese raspberry wine (Rubus phoenicolasius), Shrubby Veronica (genus Scrophulariaceae) and Coprosmas. It was known as “kakapo gardens

Given its inability to fly, the Kakapo It, mainly, a terrestrial bird. This is also a excellent climber able to reach the tops of the tallest trees. Leave the foliage practicing a decline “parachute”, spreading their wings in all their amplitude.

When the Kakapo is threatened, simply is still trying to pass unnoticed in the vegetation, with which is camouflaged. This was a great strategy to avoid his great enemy, the gigantic Haast's Eagle, but it does not protect you against the introduced mammals.

Are nocturnal birds. They sit during the day and run through its territory during night time. Having lost the ability to fly, the Kakapo they have developed remarkable skills for their long haul. His powerful legs allow them to make long distances at night to feed or during the time of nesting that it takes place from October to January.

During courtship, the males they abandon their traditional territories and walk many kilometers to reach the top of the hills or a crest to establish their mating area, competing in the place to try to conquer the location that appears most advantageous to them. Conflicts often lead to serious injury and are sometimes fatal for the belligerents.

To appeal to the females, the males they emit a kind of explosions that produce dilating a bag in the area of the chest. After a series of 20 explosions, is right and take a break. Then lower the head again to issue a new series of explosions. Inside its cavity, move to make sounds in all directions. On clear days, These explosions can be heard more than one kilometre away. The males get involved in this type of sample for nearly eight hours at night. Each male produces thousands of explosions during 3 or 4 months. During this period, males sometimes lost half of their body mass.

Reproduction:

During the time of reproduction, the Kakapo they use a system of “Lek“. The “Lek” It is the space dedicated to the parade in which males gather in groups in an attempt to attract and seduce the females. Females are very attentive spectator and choose your partner according to the quality of your display. Females are not persecuted openly by males.

It is not set any marital relationship. The “Lek” It is only a meeting place that serves only for mating. The space for processions They consist of one or more small depressions of 10 cm of depth and 50 cm in diameter dug into the soil. The holes are usually do about faces of rocks, banks, or tree trunks, to help the sound bounce. Each male holes are connected. The various depressions are interconnected by a network of small roads that cleaned thoroughly of all plant debris.

As soon as you hear the cry of the male, the female embarks on a long journey to reach the area Lek. As soon as it enters the lek mating area, the male begins its rituals. It sways from side to side emitting clicks with the peak. He gives back to his future partner, It spreads its wings and walk back towards her. Once mating has occurred, the female returns to its original area to lay their eggs and raise their young. The male stays in place of courtship for try to seduce a new female.

The Kakapo they usually put 3 eggs per season. The nest placed on the ground under vegetation cover or in a hollow of a tree. The female incubated during 30 days, but you must leave the nest at night to feed, leaving the door open to many predators. After the eggs have hatched, She It feeds the chicks for three months, These still remain in the company of his mother for a few more months. Since they have a life relatively long, the Kakapo have a fairly prolonged adolescence. Males do not begin courting until the age of 5 years and females do not respond to the calls of the males until they have reached the age of 9 or 11 years.

Food:

The peak of the Kakapo It is especially suitable for grinding food finely. For this reason, they have a gizzard less developed than the majority of the birds of their size.

The Kakapo they have a menu that is mainly herbivorous. They used native plants, seeds, fruit, pollen and even the SAP flowing from the trees.

In a study of 1984, 25 different types of plants have been identified as part of your diet. Is particularly fond of the fruit of the rimu tree, and they feed on it exclusively during seasons when it is abundant. The Kakapo He has a habit of distinctive grab a leaf or frond with a foot and stripping the nutritious parts of the plant with its beak, leaving a non-digestible fiber ball. These small groups of vegetable fibers are a distinctive sign of the presence of the bird.

Distribution:

In the past, the Kakapo they were in the Islands North Island and South Island of New Zealand.

The species has suffered a sharp decline since the European colonization, and now it is one of the rarest birds in the world.

map-kakapo

While it disappeared from most of its original range as a result of colonization human, the species remained abundant in Fiordland and some other places of great rainfall was scarce in the inhabited areas of South Island until the beginning of the 20th century. In 1976, However, the known population had been reduced to 18 birds, all males, all in Fiordland.

In 1977, found to be a rapid decline in the population of birds, about 150, on Stewart Island. Between 1980 and 1992, the 61 other birds of the Stewart Island they were transferred to the islands of the coast, and are currently in Codfish and Anchor island. The last accepted records were in North Island in 1927, three males reported in South Island, in Fiordland in 1987, and the last record in the Stewart Island of a female found and transferred to the Codfish Island in 1997.

In 2009, a male of the transferred four of Stewart Island to Codfish Island in 1987, It was rediscovered after having been missing for 21 years.

It is likely that it is extinct in its natural distribution area, but, from November of 2005, the birds are still present in four islands: Codfish Island, Chalky, Anchor and Maud island.

In 1999, 26 females and 36 males survived, which includes 50 individuals in reproductive age, six subadults and six juveniles.

The population was stabilized, and it has begun to slowly increase as a result of the application of intensive management. In the 2005, the population of the Kakapo stood in 86 specimens, of which 52 they were of reproductive age (21 females and 31 males) and 34 they were underage; a productive year of breeding in the 2009 He saw the increase of the population up to 124 specimens, and knew of the existence of 126 birds at the beginning of 2012, including 78 adult players.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Critically Endangered

• Population trend: Increasing

In the Stewart Island, more than the 50% monitored adults they died, each year, attacked by cats (CLOUT and Merton 1998).

An abnormal low fertility and low natural rates of reproduction and mating are the main concerns.

In 2004, three young people died of septicaemia caused by bacteria Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (Erysipelas), a disease that had not been previously reported in this species (P. Jansen in litt. 2004)

They are subject to a plan of support by the authorities of New Zealand. Their number is estimated currently at little more than one hundred of copies, increases slowly with the plan.

At the beginning of 2012 had 126 specimens, among them 78 adult players (RJ Moorhouse in litt. 2012).

Kakapo en cautividad:

Unique birds in captivity are those reared in the Recovery program of the Kakapo.

In terms of their longevity, debido a su largo ciclo de vida y la ausencia de depredadores naturales, es posible que el Kakapo viva más de 60 years.

Alternative names:

Kakapo, Owl Parrot (English).
Strigops kakapo, Kakapo, Perroquet hibou (French).
Kakapo, Eulenpapagei (German).
Kakapo (Portuguese).
Kakapo (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Strigopidae
Genus: Habroptilus
Scientific name: Strigops habroptila
Citation: Gray, GR, 1845
Protonimo: Strigops habroptilus

Images Kakapo:

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Kakapo (Strigops habroptila)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Wikipedia

Photos:

(1) – Pura, a 1-year-old Kakapo (Strigops habroptila) on Codfish Island By Mnolf [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Kakapo Pura on Codfish Island By Mnolf [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Kea, on the road to Milford Sound Uploaded by The Rambling Man – Wikipedia
(4) – Kakapo Sirocco amongst the renga renga lillies. Maud Island. Photo: Chris Birmingham, 2012 – Flickr
(5) – Kakapo by jidanchaomian – Flickr
(6) – Birds of New Zealand 1st edition, by Walter Lawry Buller, published in 1873 By John G. Keulemans. Minor edits have been made to the original by User:Msikma; I release these changes into the public domain as well. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

New Zealand Kaka
Nestor meridionalis

New Zealand Kaka

Description

45 cm.. length and an average weight of 550 g..

Illustration of a Kaka.

The New Zealand Kaka (Nestor meridionalis) they are some great parrots with a tail of medium length and a plumage predominantly Brown and Red.

The adult male has the crown whitish grey color and the neck with a greyish Brown appearance due to large brown feathers that surround you.

The under eye and the sides of the neck has a bluish grey clear. The lores are greyish Brown, that contrast with the ear-coverts strongly tinged with orange. The sides of the chin they have reddish-brown infiltrations.

The feathers of the upperparts are greenish Brown with darker stripes and stripes. Those in the back of the neck are crimson red with yellow and more Brown bases terminations.

The the mantle, sometimes, has some red spots. Rump and uppertail-coverts are red with dark brown trim. The lower area of the wings and axillary they are also red.

The feathers of the chest are olive brown in colour with reddish edges subterminales. Belly and undertail-coverts are red with dark edges.

The tail is brown with lighter tip.

The bill is brownish grey, more powerful that the of the Kea. The cere Brown it is decorated with a few whiskers. The irises is dark brown, legs dark gray.

The adult female presents a bill shorter and one mandible less curved top.

The youth they are similar to adults, but have a small yellow spot at the base of the lower mandible.

  • Sound of the New Zealand Kaka.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Kaka.mp3]

Subspecies description

  • Nestor meridionalis meridionalis (Gmelin, 1788) – Nominal species
  • Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis (Lorenz von Liburnau, L 1896) – It measures 42 cm approximately. Variation of the nominal (Nestor Meridionalis). More small, in general, and plumage more off. The red band of the neck is more small and dark. The back of the wings olive color is more dark.

Habitat:

The New Zealand Kaka (Nestor meridionalis) they frequent the compact forests of low to medium height, where there are mainly podocarp and beech trees of the genus Nothofagus. Occasionally they come into gardens and orchards, especially in winter.

These birds they tend to live at altitudes between 450 and 850 meters in the summer and from the sea level to the 550 meters in winter. However, from time to time, You can climb up to the 1.500 m.

The New Zealand Kaka they live in pairs or in small groups of up to ten birds.

These birds are not as well known as the Kea (Nestor notabilis), Although in some places come to feed in the hand of the tourists.

We can often see them at the top of trees or simply flying over the canopy.

The birds that are found in the air almost always heard before to be seen.

The New Zealand Kaka they are active during the morning and afternoon. At the hottest time of the day, around noon, They lie between the foliage of the trees.

Around the darkness, they perform a series of acrobatic flights, before returning to their roosts. Shouts and calls can be heard well into the night.

In some areas, the New Zealand Kaka they are sedentary. However, most of the times are erratic or short altitudinal migrations. These birds are able to fly long distances. They fly to vigorous banging of wings.

Reproduction:

The season of nesting is from September to March, but it is above all active between November and January.

The nest is located in a tree cavity between 3 and 9 meters above the ground. The couple sometimes extends with its beak entry hole.

The spawning contains 4 or 5 eggs white. These are deposited on a layer of sawdust covering the lower part of the cavity.

The incubation, that lasts a few 24 days, It is performed only by the female. She leaves the nest at dawn and dusk to be able to be powered by your partner. A wizard, sometimes, You can participate in the feeding of the female during the period in which incubates.

In the North, the pups have white down, While the of the South they have grey down at the bottom.

The juveniles they acquire their full plumage in ten weeks.

For the duration of the stay in the nest, they are fed by both parents.

The breeding success rate is relatively low and rare time lay more than one egg per year.

Food:

The New Zealand Kaka It has a long tongue terminated tip, What helps you to extract nectar from the flowers and to collect molasses.

In the Spring, in the South of the island, the New Zealand Kaka almost passes the 30% of their time in the trees (Beech) where feeding of honeydew produced by the local cochineal (Ultracoelostoma assimilates). In other stations, This food is a less important resource due to competition with the WaSP, which is also a great consumer.

The larvae of beetles of long antennae they are also a good source of nutrition.

Throughout the year the New Zealand Kaka, regularly, frequent trees, where it used its powerful curved beak to hunt insects hidden beneath the bark.

When populations of opossums are scattered, the New Zealand Kaka they spend nearly the 60% of their time feeding on flowers and berries. In addition, consume sprouts, seeds, nectar and SAP.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 71.100 km2

This species is endemic of New Zealand.

Distribution of subspecies

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Danger

• Population trend: Decreasing

This species has a very irregular distribution. In the majority of places, is rather sparse, but in other places, It is common at local level, especially in some coastal islands.

Its population It is estimated between 3750 and 15,000 specimens.

The main threat is the habitat degradation. It stays within primary forest fragments, showing its very low adaptation to artificial habitats.

The New Zealand Kaka not nest every year in a systematic way. When I was try to reproduce in captivity, the success rate was not very high (on average the 56% eggs not hatched ).

Clutches often suffer from the predation on the part of the weasels It was introduced on the island. For all these reasons that the species is classified as VULNERABLE.

Kaka en cautividad:

Very rare in captivity.

In terms of their longevity, According to sources, a specimen in captivity lived during 15 years.

Taking into account the longevity of the similar species, the maximum longevity of these birds might be underestimated. Other sources indicate that these birds can live up to the 35,5 years in captivity, something that is plausible, pero que no ha sido verificado; el mismo estudio informó que los New Zealand Kaka can reproduce a partir de los 7 years of age in captivity.

Alternative names:

New Zealand Kaka, Common Kaka, Kaka (English).
Nestor superbe (French).
Kaka (German).
Kākā (Portuguese).
Kaka (Spanish).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Strigopidae
Genus: Nestor
Scientific name: Nestor meridionalis
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus meridionalis

New Zealand Kaka images:

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New Zealand Kaka (Nestor meridionalis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Kākā (Nestor meridionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Kaka_(Nestor_meridionalis)-_Wellington_-NZ-8.jpg: PhillipC [CC BY 2.0 or CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – North Island Kākā, at Auckland Zoo, New Zealand By Small [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A New Zealand Kaka in Karori Wildlife Sanctuary, Wellington, North Island, New Zealand By Rosino (the colorful kākāUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Nestor meridionalis meridionalis, South Island Kākā, on Stewart Island, New Zealand By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Kaka-parrot_-Stewart-Island.jpg: giles.breton [CC BY 2.0 or CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Kaka in flight. Karori Wildlife Sanctuary, Wellington, New Zealand. I, Tony Wills [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Illustration of a Kaka By J. G. Keulemans, in W.L. Buller’s A History of the Birds of New Zealand. 2nd edition. Published 1888. (New Zealand Electronic Text Centre) [CC BY-SA 3.0 nz], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Fernand DEROUSSEN (Xeno-canto)

Kea
Nestor notabilis


Kea

Kea description

The Kea (Nestor notabilis) It is a bird of the family Strigopidae of 48 cm.. length and an average weight of 922 g..

Its head is olive brown color; narrow feathers of the crown with a few finely marbled black stripes; ear-coverts and lores more uniform dark brown; feathers of the neck slightly yellowish, with stripes and edges of brownish black color . Mantle and uppertail-coverts Green bronze with black stripes and Crescent-shaped rims; back and rump orange-red, with stripes and Tips blackish.

Flight feather, primaries and greater coverts, drenched strongly with blue turquoise in them vane outer (more green in high schools); vane internal primaries, excluding the color lemon yellow. Wing feathers and axillary reddish color; underparts of the flight feather brown, with yellow bars in the vane internal primaries, excluding the orange color in the vane the secondary internal internal.

Their underparts feathers Brown olive light, with a ridge of dark brown. Upper, the tail, bathed in a bluish green tone, with bars in the vane internal orange yellow color and a blackish subterminal band with Tips lighter; undertail, the tail, olive-yellow color, with a dark subterminal band; the tips of the stripes of the tail feathers extend slightly beyond the network.

The bill brown-black color; cere dark brown; irises dark brown; legs Blackish grey.

The males they are larger and have upper jaw longer than females (an average of 12 to 14% more).

The young birds they have the rump greener, yellow the Ceres, with rings perioftalmicos yellow, a pale base in the lower mandible, and legs pale yellow.

The nude parties yellow are lost after two years after three in the male and female.

  • Sound of the Kea.

Habitat Kea:

The Kea (Nestor notabilis) they live at an altitude between 600-2400 m.

They are commonly found near tourist attractions. However, its main habitat is in the tree line between 950 and 1.400 m.

They mark a certain preference for deep canyons whose walls are covered in forests of beeches (Nothofagus cliffortioides). At higher altitudes, that is it can be observed in subalpine Shrublands. The species It is considered as monotypic.

It is a bird family and curious. He likes to live close to the houses and feel the human presence. Their naughty behavior and his acute intelligence earned you the title of “clown of the mountains“.

It is a joy for tourists, that compensates for, in part, the wrong bad reputation that had in the past.

During the period of nesting, the pair is the basic social unit, but for the rest of the year, It is a species very gregarious they live in family groups, feeding in flocks of 30-40 birds, often in landfill sites.

The males are polygamous, each can have a harem of some 4 females. Dominant males are not necessarily those of older.

The establishment of a hierarchy is difficult. Adults often dominate the subadults but it can also happen to a young man exercising his dominion over an adult.

The Kea established territories that are resizable. These can be overlaid on the periphery, but the core or central part located, near the nest, It has an inviolable space that is defended with aggression.

During the nesting season, breeding birds are sedentary, and never will they move away to more than one kilometre from the nest. On the other hand, the non-breeding birds are very mobile, and some have been seen more of 60 km of where they were ringed.

Playing the Kea:

The strong conjugal bonds and fidelity to the nesting site are the two basic rules of the Kea, that is manifested by the fact that the nest often takes several years to be completed. However, unpaired males can visit the nests and try to mesh with females.

The breeding season extends July-January. The female lays 2 to 4 white eggs in a burrow or cavity covered with some sticks, leaves and MOSS. The site is often found at the base of a cornice, but they also use stone blocks placed above the Timberline.

The eggs they are deposited just days apart and only the female incubates for a period that varies between 21 and 28 days. In the meantime, the male stands guard nearby and is responsible for feeding his partner. Initially, bring enough food to supply also the breeding, but after a few weeks, the female leaves the nest, in order to help you in your task.

The chicks, covered with a white marker, they leave the nest after 13 to 14 weeks. They continue to be fed by parents during 1 month to 6 weeks. In January and February, immediately after the nesting season, the Kea they tend to congregate in large flocks which can contain 50 or more individuals.

Feed the Kea:

During the summer, the Kea they can be active even during the night. In winter they are reduced to more modest altitudes below the elevation of snow. Some groups choose to stay in the mountains near the ski resorts.

The Kea feed of carrion, in particular sheep. Contrary to its reputation, they never attack healthy sheep. have a diet mainly vegetarian and they fed both in trees and on the ground. Their menu includes leaves, outbreaks, roots, seeds, berries, flowers, nectar and insects. In summer they also eat beetles, worms, lobsters and land snails.

The dominant males they are known to find its food in campsites and parking areas.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 63.300 km2

Endemic of the South Island of New Zealand (Although vagrants have been recorded in the North Island, for example, in the Tararua mountains), finding, mainly, between 950 m and 1.400 m above sea level in forests and subalpine scrub.

Its distribution extends from the South West of Southland (for example Wilmot Pass), to the North by the Fiordland National Park (for example, about Te Anau, Homer Tunnel), Westland district and The Southern Alps (for example, Westland National Park, Fox and glaciers Franz Josef, Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park), Arthur's Pass National Park and Graigieburn Forest Park. Nelson Lakes National Park and Big Bush State Forest, the Seaward Kaikoura Range (for example, the Mount Manakau), the region of Marlborough, the Richmond range, finally reaching the Highlands around Mount Cobb, at its Northwest end.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

The populations of the Kea they appear as stable and they can range between 1000 and 5000 specimens.

The concentration of birds around the tourist places leaves a false impression, giving the impression of being a fairly common Parrot.

Due to the false reputation that had for attacking sheep, This bird was hunted by farmers and thousands of birds were exterminated between 1860 and 1970.

From 1988, the Kea is fully protected, What does not prevent, sometimes, their capture and sale as a pet.

The Kea parrot in captivity:

Very rare in captivity.

As indicated by sources, a captive male for Kea was still alive after 47 years in the Antwerp Zoo. It showed signs of old age. Other Kea in the Bristol Zoo, of at least, 43 years of age showed no signs of aging.

In captivity, These birds can be raised from the 4 years of age

Alternative names:

Kea (English).
Kéa, Nestor kéa (French).
Kea (German).
Papagaio-da-nova-zelândia (Portuguese).
Kea (Spanish).

Kuhl, Heinrich
John Gould

Scientific classification of the Kea:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Strigopidae
Genus: Nestor
Scientific name: Nestor notabilis
Citation: Gould, 1856
Protonimo: Nestor notabilis

Images Kea:

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Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – An adult Kea in Fiordland, New Zealand by Mark Whatmough – Wikipedia
(2) – Kea at Twycross Zoo, England. Close up of head and neck By Paul Reynolds from UK (IMG_7147_080227_40DUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Kea at Mount Aspiring National Park, New Zealand By Rosino (scary keaUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Male Kea (Nestor notabilis) on road to Milford Sound, New Zealand By User:Velela [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Nestor notabilis By Aidan Wojtas from Wellington, New Zealand (Running KeaUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: nick talbot (Xeno-canto)

Pesquet's Parrot
Psittrichas fulgidus

Pesquet's Parrot

Description

46 cm. length and a weight between 680 and 800 g..

The head of the Pesquet's Parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus) is black, front without feathers, It can be covered with small black feathers ruffled patch of rigid red feathers in the anterior zone of the ear-coverts. Nape, the mantle, back and tail blackish brown with fine pale edges.

Uppertail Red with black bases. Upper, black flight feathers, with large and medium-sized external coverts (except the innermost) and vane external Central flight feathers, red; Black primary coverts. Under, Black tail with red in the lower and medium coverts. More Brown on the top breast than in the rest, with a wavy effect to pale fringes to the feathers; belly, flanks and coverts red infracaudales. Upper, Black tail.

Black Peak; black skin of the face; dark brown irises; Blackish grey legs.

The female It lacks the red patch on the side of the head and is slightly smaller on average.

In birds immature the red marks are more off.

  • Sound of the Pesquet's Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Loro Aguileno.mp3]

Habitat:

The Pesquet's Parrot are found mainly in the primary and secondary montane rain forest at an altitude between 600 and 1.200 m. However there are to the 2.000 m, and are occasional at altitudes as low as 50 m.

The species is thought, generally, they have a low density of population, finding the highest concentrations in forest areas relatively calm, where the birds are free from persecution.

These large and showy parrots, commonly found in pairs or in groups of up to 20 individuals, perched, usually, at the top of the exposed trees, or loud flying through or above the canopy.

Jump nervously around the Bush with quick flapping, and they can stay in the tops of emergent trees during a rain. It has been flying to settle on a solitary tree in the midst of the darkness.

Reproduction:

Reproductive habits in nature are unknown, but in terms of breeding birds have been observed in the months of February to may. In captivity a pair was observed to courting; There was a two-egg-laying, which were incubated by the female during 31 days, and the only chick, yellowish white, was fed by both parents.

Food:

The Pesquet's Parrot mainly feed on the soft pulp of fruits such as Ficus figs, handles (Mangifera indica) and Freycinetia cumingiana.

During their feeding, the base of the beak can become covered with fruit pulp, and it is likely that extension of the exposed facial skin has evolved to avoid that feathers absorb from food scraps.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 278.000 km2

Confined in West Papua New, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. It goes from the Mountains Tamrau, Vogelkop, West Papua, to the East by the mountains of snow and Cordillera Central (including the upper part of the Fly River, Lake Kutubu and Karimui district), on Owen Stanley mountain range and Huon peninsula, in the East of Papua New Guinea.

The species is unevenly distributed in montane forests, and it is considered uncommon in most areas. World population is thought to be in decline, mainly due to hunting for food and feathers (they are more appreciated than the feathers of the bird of paradise Paradisaeidae).

The introduction of weapons has significantly increased the pressure of the species in more densely populated areas. Live bird trade and habitat loss, It is also thought that they represent potential threats. There is a small number in captivity.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

It is estimated that their population may be setting to the 42,000 birds.

This species is under severe pressure from the hunt for obtaining their colorful feathers, and to one degree lower for trade and meat. The hunt for the obtaining of feathers has increased with the growth of the population and the growing number of tourists. As a whole, These factors are suspected of being leading to a rapid and continuous reduction of the population of this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed:

– Conduct surveys to improve the accuracy of the estimate of the population.
– The research of the basic ecology of the species, especially any of their food.
– Investigate the trade in feathers.
– Monitor numbers in the sites studied, as the crater of the mountain and Kikori.
– Numbers of monitors marketed domestically and internationally.
– Transport Control of threatened species in domestic flights.
– Run an education program to discourage tourists from buying feathers and artifacts.
– Investigate adequacy of a program to replace artificial or dyed feathers (Mack and Wright 1998) .

Aguileño parrot in captivity:

Extremely rare.

Birds, even bred hand, they can be difficult and show aggressiveness with your caregiver; they can be a bit uncomfortable mainly due to their diet of fruit.

Alternative names:

Pesquet’s Parrot, Vulturine Parrot (English).
Psittrichas de Pesquet, Perroquet de Pesquet (French).
Borstenkopf (German).
Papagaio-de-pesquet (Portuguese).
Loro Aguileño (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Psittrichas
Scientific name: Psittrichas fulgidus
Citation: (Lesson, 1830)
Protonimo: Banksianus fulgidus

Pesquet's Parrot images:

————————————————————————————————

Pesquet's Parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – “Pesquetsparrot03” by Greg HumeOwn work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(2) – “Psittrichas fulgidus-Jurong Bird Park-8a” by Peter TanPesquet’ s ParrotUploaded by Snowmanradio. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(3) – “Psittrichas fulgidus-Miami Zoo, USA-8-toc” by Psittrichas_fulgidus_-Miami_Zoo,_Usa-8. jpg: bognietsderivative work: Snowmanradio (talk) – originally posted to Flickr as Pesquet’ s Parrot and uploaded to commons as Psittrichas_fulgidus_-Miami_Zoo,_Usa-8. jpg. Licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(4) – Greg HumeTo feltoltő sajat munkaja: „Pesquetsparrot03”. Engedely: CC BY-SA 3.0, Forrás: Wikimedia Commons
(5) – By Matthias Wicke – Flickr

Sounds: Phil Gregory (Xeno-canto)

Eclectus Parrot
Eclectus roratus


Eclectus Parrot

Description

35 to 42 cm.. length and a weight between 355 and 615 g..

The Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus) It has the head and upper parts of bright green. Green wing coverts; curve of the wing and the carpal edge blue; primary coverts dark blue. Feathers of flying with vane very dark blue external, vane internal black on the edge inside. Wing of bright red feathers; bottom of the black flight feathers. Green underparts with flanks and axillary Red. Upper, the Green tail with narrow pale yellow tips, drenched side of blue and yellow-tipped feathers (more external with more blue); undertail, tail black with yellow tips.

Yellow-tipped red Bill, Black lower jaw, iris orange, greyish Brown legs.

In all the Eclectus sexual differences machos-hembras are so large that at the beginning he qualified them as different species. The female of the Eclectus Parrot is bright red with a collar of purple across the upper part of the mantle, with bluish black in flight feathers, feathers from the wings of purple-blue, Purple diffusion on the chest, opaque purple-blue in the lower part of the chest and belly, coverts yellowish-tipped red infracaudales, and a tail of red with yellow tips (Feather darker bases). The beak is black and the iris is usually yellow (variable).

The young birds they move directly the adult plumage but they have brown peaks.

  • Sound of the Eclectus Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Loro Eclectico.mp3]
List of subspecies Eclectus roratus
Subspecies
  • Eclectus roratus vosmaeri (Rothschild, 1922) – Larger than the nominal. Male with bright green plumage, more red on the flanks, broader yellow tail ends. Female with the red light, broader yellow tail and yellow in the coverts infracaudales ends.
  • Eclectus roratus roratus (Statius Müller, 1776) –
  • Eclectus roratus cornelia (Bonaparte, 1850) – Larger than the nominal. Male with more blue in the queue, the upper parts of lighter green color. Female completely red except for the edges of the Carpus, wing feathers and flight feathers, that are blue. Narrow yellow tip to the tail.
  • Eclectus roratus westermani (Bonaparte, 1850) – (Known only from a few copies of populations in captivity; the origin is unknown). Smaller than the nominal. The male It has no visible red flanks when wings are closed and shows foreign banks of green to flight feathers. Female with the darker red color with broad yellow tip to tail. The possibility that the few copies are abnormal individuals of the subspecies E. r. Eclectus It has not ruled out.
  • Eclectus roratus riedeli (A.B. Meyer, 1882) – Smaller than the nominal. Male with wide yellow tips on the tail (25 mm). Female as E. r. Cornelia, but it shows bright yellow on the coverts infracaudales.
  • Eclectus roratus aruensis (G.R. Gray, 1858) – Males as the subspecies E. r. biaki, with a little more spacious yellow tips to the tail. Female Red clear, especially tail.
  • Eclectus roratus biaki (Hartert, 1932)- As the subspecies E. r. tortoiseshell but smaller. The female just like the female of the E. r. tortoiseshell but more bright red underparts and back of neck (dubiously distinct race).
  • Eclectus roratus tortoiseshell (Scopoli, 1786) – Larger than the nominal. Male, Yellow tail more yellowish-green tips. Female with red chest and less violet blue in the bottom region restricted to belly, Green on vane external primary. Narrow periophthalmic ring blue. Coverts red infracaudales.
  • Eclectus roratus solomonensis (Rothschild & Hartert, 1901) – Smaller that the E. Eclectus tortoiseshell and the male more yellowish green. Female Red clear. Size is reduced clinalmente from West to East
  • Eclectus roratus macgillivrayi (Mathews, 1913) – As the E. Eclectus tortoiseshell but larger.

Habitat:

The Eclectus Parrot It is distributed in a wide range of habitats, from second growth forests, Savannah, mangrove, coconut plantations and eucalyptus Woods, until 1.900 m.

The species is most common in the forests of lowlands, around growing areas and coastal habitats.

The birds are alone, in pairs or in small groups, often composed of only males (presumably during playback).
They sometimes soar above the forest and draw attention with their shrill calls while flying over the canopy, or they perch on an exposed branch.

They are cautious, groups of foraging usually remain in the treetops, Although birds feeding on low-altitude or even on the ground have also been observed.

The Eclectus Parrot they are most active at dawn and at dusk, When traveling to and from their roosts in noisy groups of up to 80 birds.

Have been recorded roosting in Sumba where the Eclectus Parrot they share space with the Sulphur-crested Cockatoo.

The species is considered a pest in some parts of New Guinea.

Reproduction:

Breeding apparently can occur at any time of the year in Papua New Guinea, While active nests observed in Australia It was between the months of February and July; There has been during the month November in Buru, During August in Seram, and between June and September in the Solomon Islands.

Up to eight birds have been registered by attending a nest. It is not clear whether breeding helpers, young people from a previous litter still attached to the family group, or additional hens females.

In courtship, birds become involved with mutual grooming and Wiggles head.

The nest is a hollow in a tall tree, until 30 metres in height, sometimes exposed; The cavity may have around 6 depth meters.

Putting two eggs are deposited on a bed of wood dust, hatching in about 26 days, and taking ahead 12 weeks for breeding.

The female takes care of the incubation, leaving the nest only twice a day to be fed by the male; Also is fed by the male when the first eggs hatch, but then begins to feed if same.

Food:

The diet includes fruits, seeds, flowers, outbreaks, fruits and nectar: they are especially fond of to the (Pandanus) banana, maize, figs and Papaya.

Distribution:

Sumba in the Small Oriental Sunda Islands, Indonesia and Moluccan Islands including Buru, Seram, Ambon, Haruku, Saparua, the Gorong Islands (apparently introduced), OBI, Damar, Bacan, Halmahera, Mare. Ternate and Morotai, in the West of the Islands of Papua,including Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Misool; from there through the lowlands of New Guinea, and Tanimbar Islands, Kai and Aru Islands, to the South of the Islands in the Cenderawasih Bay (Numfor, Biak, Yapen, My Num).

In the East, the Eclectus Parrot are distributed among archipelagos of D ’ Entrecasteaux and the Luisiadas, Papua New Guinea, including Goodenough and Normanby, and in the Trobriand Islands extending through the Bismarck Archipelago including Umboi, New Britain, the Witu Islands, Lolobau, Uatom, Duke of York, New Ireland, New Hanover, Tabar, Lihir, Thong and FeNi, reaching Manus and Rambutyo in the the Admiralty archipelago and Nissan in the South.

The species is also through of the Solomon Islands, including Buka and Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) to the East of San Cristóbal and its satellites.

There is an isolated population in the North of the Cape York Peninsula, Australia, that goes from the Iron range National Park and the Pascoe River, to the South of the McIlwraith range, regularly visiting smaller islands in the Torres Strait, in the continental part of New Guinea.

There is an introduced population of the Eclectus Parrot in Koror and some smaller islands in the archipelago of Palau in the Pacific, but likely to be occasional escapes from Hawaii, where apparently cannot have been established. This is one of the parrots most common and most familiar throughout much of their range.

The world's population is estimated over of 300.000 birds. Local entrapments in Ambon, Saparua and Haruku It has apparently made the species becoming extinct in these three islands. The distinctive population in Sumba is in danger.

Distribution subspecies Eclectus roratus
Subspecies

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Decreasing

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, It is estimated over the 300,000 specimens. The species is described as from common to rare. The population in Sumba It is estimated in 1.900 individuals, Although Sumba It represents a very small proportion of the global range of the species (pit et to the. 1997).

The population is suspected to be declining due to the destruction of habitat in course and unsustainable levels of exploitation.

Eclectic parrot in captivity:

3 the common subspecies in aviculture: Eclectus roratus Eclectus, Eclectus roratus vosmaeri and Eclectus roratus tortoiseshell; other rare breeds.

Es a curious and intelligent with an acceptable language ability, they learn without difficulty to say words and phrases.

It happens to be fairly quiet and able to live without too much attention. Males can be somewhat distant while in females it must be emphasized the theme that in the case that have nest can not out of it. On the topic food tends to be accepted that the eclectus have a greater need for vitamin A than other parrots.

When considering the purchase of a new Eclectus, It would be prudent to get a photo and request a consultation with an authority on Eclectus to verify that you are not buying a hybrid.

When to acquire housing for our Eclectus Parrot, one should consider your major and arrange them in a cage as large as possible; reasonable measures would be 4,4 m x 1,5 m x 2 m.

We should bear in mind that our parrots should spend at least one hour every day out of the cage during the game.

DIET:

The Eclectus diet consists mainly of vegetables, fruit, legumes and granulated meal. Given that our Eclectus Parrot do not eat many seeds in the nature, and since they are deficient in nutrients, We must consider that their intake should be the exception and not the rule in our House.

The Eclectus they require a diet high in vegetable protein and beta carotene. Your digestive system is longer than most other species, with a greater proventriculus and longer intestines, so fat intake should be limited to avoid fatty tumors. But this does not mean “fat-free”, especially for young people who are very active. It takes some fat to store fat-soluble vitamins A, E and D. In addition, with all species, If the cholesterol is too high, the excess is stored in the liver and, through the bloodstream, travels to the heart where it accumulates; a problem evidenced by fatigue, lack of breed, secondary nutrient deficiency problems (for example, Candida, hypocalcemia, hypoprotenia, etc.), fatty liver, plumage and discoloration-poor quality, bad state of health in general and the inability of the other nutrients to be used correctly.

Too much oil in the diet can cause black feathers on the male and female. They are easily distinguished from black liver disease or stress marks because the pattern is different. Some based on Pelleted diets are high in sugar and can cause kidney problems or hyperactivity. Some are also high in colorants and flavors and can cause toxicity problems. There are some diets which in the market that are organic; But the lack of condoms can cause growth of unwanted yeast and bacteria if left in the cage for more than one hour.

Reproduction Eclectus Parrot:

The reproduction of the Eclectus Parrot It is not difficult to always that we have a compatible couple, Since a female in heat can be aggressive with the male and pursue him while he nears the trough.

Nesting box can have very different ways. The measures are 30 x 30 x 80 cm and inlet of 10 cm.. Diameter. The Z-shaped nest is highly recommended for breeding of the Eclectus Parrot Since it allows the male to stay on the top platform in the event that the female is shown aggressive to protect the nest. Inside the box you can put some type of material, as pine bark.

The incubation period is of 28 to 30 days and can breed throughout the year. A sunset happens to another and is not interrupted even during the time of molt. However often the eggs are not fertile or parents do not feed the chicks. It is best to allow them only two released per year, so you will have to remove the nest either separate the male for a few days. The only drawback, If we choose to separate the male, It is called the female strident so your partner.

The implementation is usually two eggs, and occasionally three.

Alternative names:

Eclectus Parrot, Kalanga, King Parrot, Red-sided Eclectus Parrot, Red-sided Parrot (English).
Grand Éclectus, Éclectus, Grand Eclectus (French).
Edelpapagei, Salomonen Edelpapagei (German).
Papagaio-eclectus (Portuguese).
Loro Ecléctico, Loro Eclectus (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Eclectus
Scientific name: Eclectus roratus
Citation: (Statius Müller, 1776)
Protonimo: Psittacus roratus

Eclectus Parrot images:

————————————————————————————————

Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
mundoexotics
Birds N Ways

Photos:

(1) – “Eclectus roratus-20030511” by Doug Janson – Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(2) – “Eclectus roratus-Malagos Garden Resort, Davao City, Philippines-male-8a” by Raymund James BareFlickrUploaded by Snowmanradio. Licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(3) – “Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus) -6-4c” by derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Eclectus_parrot_(Eclectus_roratus)_-6. jpg: Bear golden retriever – originally posted to Flickr as Img_4575. JPG and uploaded to commons as Eclectus_parrot_(Eclectus_roratus)_-6. jpg. Licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(4) – “Eclectus roratus (male) -juvenile pet-ated” by Peter Békési from Budapest, Hungary – Img_0983Uploaded by snowmanradio. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(5) – By J E Three from houston, usa (parrots eating hairUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Niels Krabbe (Xeno-canto)

Black-lored Parrot
Tanygnathus gramineus

Black-lored Parrot

Description

40 to 42 cm. long.

The Black-lored Parrot (Tanygnathus gramineus) It has the head of green color with a black line that runs from the top of the peak to the eyes; steeped in turquoise blue Crown. The upper parts of green grass.

The medium-sized wing coverts, green; flight feather, green, a little darker, with blackish margins to the vane inner. Supracaudales coverts yellowish-green. The more underparts, more yellowish green, especially in the lower part of the cheeks and upper part of the chest. Upper, the Green tail with yellow tips; undertail, the Brown tail olive warm.

Billed red; iris yellow ; greyish legs.

Female with the grey brown peak, not red.

Immature undescribed.

  • Sound of the Black-lored Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Loro de Buru.mp3]

Habitat:

Information is received for the first time of the Black-lored Parrot Thanks to ornithologist side Hendrik Cornelis Sieber (1890-1949) in 1930.

Very little of this species is known. Is distributed in mountain forests above 600-700 meters and also, According to sources, in the lowlands, hills and coastal areas. It is partially nocturnal, Although sightings of birds sitting in the trees during the day, They show that, similar to the Blue-backed Parrot, they can also be active during the day.

Migration is relatively weak, and there are only a few reports of parrots flying to altitudes during the day and down at night, Judging from their voices.

Reproduction:

There is no data.

Food:

Possibly fruits, berries, seeds and nuts

Distribution:

Endemic of Buru, Indonesia.

Bird predominantly occupies the central part, High Island, where according to sources, There are settlements in Gunung Tagalago, WA Temun and Kunturun, at elevations of 700-1100 m, also in the lowlands of the South in Fäkal, EHU and Leksula. There was an observation of these parrots near the Kayeli Bay on the eastern shores of Buru. Most recent observations made outside North (Waflia) and (Wamlana) Northwest Coast.

The voice of the Black-lored Parrot is heard frequently in Kunturun, in its most 1-7 hours after the sunset, where the locals call the bird “Kakatua ol ’ biru“, which means Blue-headed Parrot. However, He was captured during the day with slings in fruit trees, suggesting that his activity is not purely night.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

The population is estimated at 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of the known records, descriptions of the abundance and range size. This estimate is equivalent to 3,500-15,000 specimens.

There are no data on trends for this species and has not been seen in the wild since 1995. Their habitat continues to decline slowly and were recorded in domestic trade in the year 2001. Therefore, the population of the species is suspected of have been declining.

Conservation Actions Proposed:

– Conduct surveys, mostly using their vocalizations at night, mainly in the mountain areas.
– Investigate their ecological requirements and movements in order to develop appropriate conservation strategy.
– Identify the most suitable area for the conservation of this and other endangered species in Buru, and promote its establishment as protected areas.

Loro de Buru en cautividad:

Unknown outside the island of Buru

Alternative names:

Black-lored Parrot, Black lored Parrot, Blacklored Parrot, Buru Parrot (English).
Perruche de Buru, Perruche à calotte bleue (French).
Burupapagei, Buru Papagei (German).
Tanygnathus gramineus (Portuguese).
Loro de Buru (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Tanygnathus
Scientific name: Tanygnathus gramineus
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus gramineus

————————————————————————————————

Black-lored Parrot (Tanygnathus gramineus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Wikipedia

Photos:

(1) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: Frank Lambert (Xeno-canto)

Blue-backed Parrot
Tanygnathus sumatranus


Blue-backed Parrot

Description

32 cm.. length between 173 and 334 g. of weight.

Blue-backed Parrot

The Blue-backed Parrot (Tanygnathus sumatranus) has the head and the the mantle a light yellowish green (slightly more yellowish mantle). The low back, buttocks and uppertail-coverts strongly impregnated with light blue.

Wings Green darker that the the mantle, with fine verde-amarillentos margins to coverts; primary coverts Blue sharp; bend of wing turquoise blue color marked; primaries Foreign and blackish green in vane inner.

Wing feathers greenish yellow; underside of flight feather, blackish. The underparts yellowish-green illuminated.

Upper, the tail green, marked in yellow on the vane inmates of the lateral feathers; Under, the tail varies from the color yellow to the Brown dark.

Bill red; irises yellow; legs grey.

It presents sexual dimorphism. The female has the bill yellowish or whitish grey; less greenish-yellow in the the mantle and less blue in the under wing-coverts.

Male young acquires the bill Red after ten to twelve months.

  • Sound of the Blue-backed Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Loro of Muller.mp3]
List of subspecies Tanygnathus sumatranus
Subspecies
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus sumatranus (Raffles, 1822): The nominal.
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus sangirensis (AB Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1894): It has more blue on the edges of the wings and their coverts, head darker green and Rainbow.
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus burbidgii (Sharpe, 1879): Its green tones are darker and the neck is more clear, its iris is yellow.
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus everetti (Tweeddale, 1877): It has darker mantle and back, clearer head and obispillo. It presents something blue in mantle and his irises are red.
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus duponti (Parkes, 1971): Is dark green with yellow collar, its the bottom of the wing coverts are yellowish and its red iris.
  • Tanygnathus sumatranus freeri (McGregor, 1910): More uniform and less contrasting color, with more yellow in the nape of the neck and the Red IRIS.

Habitat:

It is distributed mainly in lowland and lower montane forests, next to forests, and from time to time in the plantations or rice fields until 800 m altitude (less common in coastal habitats).

The birds are usually found in pairs or in small groups and may be quite accessible. They can be harmful to the crops, especially maize crops, and they are often active at night.

Reproduction:

Little is known of the species reproductive cycle, but a condition of being reproductive female was observed in April and birds have been investigating possible nests in September. In Sulawesi during November were observed in several nests chicks.

Food:

The diet includes fruits, seeds, nuts and berries.

Distribution:

Müller Parrot is distributed by the Celebes island e close Islands, including Buton and Tobea in the South-East, groups Togian and Banggai East, and Talisei, BANGKA and Manadotua in the North, extending northward through the Sangir group, at least in Karakelong in the Talaud group.

In Philippines, the species going from the Sulu archipelago, in the South-West, including at least Bongao, Sanga Sanga, Sibutu, Tawitawi, Jolo, Loran and Basbas.

Also distributed in the main islands of Philippines Luzon, Samar, Leyte, Surigao del Sur, Black, and Mindanao, as well as the Polillo Islands, but it is very rare in the country.

Widespread and locally common elsewhere, While the capture and loss of habitat have caused declines in some areas. Apparently less common than the Blue-naped Parrot, which cohabit.

Distribution subspecies Tanygnathus sumatranus
Subspecies

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, It is estimated over the 50.000 specimens.

The species was reported that it may be common to very frequent (pit et to the. 1997).

The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

Loro de Müller en cautividad:

It adapts well to captivity, Although they are rare.

Alternative names:

Blue-backed Parrot, Azure-rumped Parrot, Blue backed Parrot, Mèller’s parrot, Mueller’s Parrot, Muller’s Parrot, Müller’s Parrot (English).
Perruche de Müller, Perroquet de Müller (French).
Everettpapagei, Everett Papagei, Everett-Papagei (German).
Tanygnathus sumatranus (Portuguese).
Loro de Müller (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Tanygnathus
Scientific name: Tanygnathus sumatranus
Citation: (Raffles, 1822)
Protonimo: Psittacus Sumatranus

Blue-backed Parrot images:

————————————————————————————————

Blue-backed Parrot (Tanygnathus sumatranus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Wikipedia

Photos:

(1) – “Tanygnathus sumatranus-adult male-8-1c” by Tanygnathus_sumatranus_-adult_male-8. jpg: Chrisderivative work: Snowmanradio (talk) – originally posted to Flickr at Parrot and uploaded to Commons as Tanygnathus_sumatranus_-adult_male-8. jpg. Licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(2) – “Tanygnathus sumatranus-captive-6a” by TJ Lin – originally posted to Flickr as muller’ s parrot. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(3) – Female Müller’ s Blue-backed Parrot (Tanygnathus sumatranus) By [email protected]Zoochat
(4) – Tanygnathus sumatranus sumatranus By © Angie Pattison – igoterra
(5) – Azure-backed – animalphotos
(6) – “Tanygnathuseverettikeulemans” by John Gerrard Keulemans – Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Volume 20. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

Sounds: David Farrow (Xeno-canto)

Blue-naped Parrot
Tanygnathus lucionensis


Blue-naped Parrot

Description

31 cm.. length between 148 and 231 g. of weight.

Blue-naped Parrot

The Blue-naped Parrot (Tanygnathus lucionensis) has the head bright green with a clear bright blue diffusion through the back of the crown and nape.

Upperparts yellowish-green with pale blue illuminated on the back low and the tail; upper tail coverts brighter yellowish green.

Scapulars blue, with green edges; shoulder Black with small coverts Black bordered of blue-green and orange Green; median black and pale blue, large edges of opaque orange brown; greater coverts Blue-Green lined with orange-yellow in the feathers interiors.

Secondary Green with yellow and narrow margins; primaries Greens with vane Blackish internal.

Wing feathers green, underside of primaries blackish.

Upper, the tail green, narrow edge and yellowish tip laterally; undertail, the tail yellowish brown opaque.

Bill red, paler at the tip and the lower mandible; irises yellow; legs grey.

Both sexes are equal.

Immature with less blue in the crown and more off the brands of the wings.

  • Sound of the Blue-naped Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Loro Nuquiazul.mp3]

Subspecies:

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis lucionensis

    : The nominal.

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis hybridus

    : It has the most extended head blue, with violet tone. Their wings are greener.

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis talautensis

    : No blue in the obispillo and their plumage is less yellowish.

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis [salvadorii u horrisonus]:

Habitat:

It is a bird of forests closed and open, including secondary growth, coconut plantations, patches of mangrove and banana to the 1.000 meters above sea level; and not so strongly linked to coastal habitats as the Great-billed Parrot. Is usually found in flocks of up to 12 individuals who sit in community and make regular flights at dawn and in the evening between the feeding and resting areas. Feeds on fruit trees.

Reproduction:

The breeding It has been observed in the months of April to June. Registered a nest the natural cavity or abandoned Woodpecker hole, often a clear. There is no data on the size of the laying.

Food:

Fruits and seeds of forest trees, Palm fruit, young coconuts, the banana and papaya.

Distribution:

The population of the Blue-naped Parrot distributes lengthwise of the Philippines and Talaud Islands, (Indonesia). Specific records found in the islands of Balut, Bantavan, Basilan, Biliran, Bohol, Bongao, Cagayan Islands, Calamian Islands, Caluya, Cebu, Cuimaras, Jolo, Leyte, Luzon, Maestre de Campo, Malanipa, Manuk Manka, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindanao, Mindoro, Black, Palawan, Surigao del Sur, Polillo Islands, Romblon, Samar, Sanga Sanga, Sarangani Islands, Samal, Sibay, Sibutu, Sibuyan, Siquijor, Tables, Tawitawi, Ticao, Tumindao and Green (Philippines); Karakelong and Salibabu (Talaud).

Apparently, small groups of birds in Mantanani Kiss (Northwest Sabah), and SI-Amil (until 100 birds present in 1962) and Maratua off the northeast coast of Borneo; The existence of a wild population was also reported around Kota Kinabalu, (Sabah).

Occasional leaks occur in other parts, including the Sangir Islands.

The species was described as common in Salibabu in the Group of Talaud in 1978 (more numerous there that the Blue-backed Parrot) and they are still regularly about there and in the nearby Karakelong During observations on 1995 (Many in a last record in 1997).

In other areas the species is rare. Recent records in Philippines they come mainly from Mindoro and Palawan, places that seem to be the bastion of the species.

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis lucionensis

    : The nominal.

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis hybridus

    : (Salomonsen, 1952) – Present in Polillo island, to the North of Philippines.

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis talautensis

    : (AB Meyer & Wiglesworth, 1895) – Talaud Islands (North Moluccas).

  • Tanygnathus lucionensis [salvadorii u horrisonus]:

    (Ogilvie-Grant, 1896) – Philippines, (except North), but it can be rare or extinct on many islands. Also in some small islands off Northwest and northeast of Borneo (If Amil, Mantanani), where it was possibly introduced, especially in this last island.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The total population is provisionally estimated that it could be below the 10,000 specimens in 1993 (Lambert et to the. 1993).

The population is suspected may be declining due to the capture for the bird trade and the degradation of habitat expansion and forestry due to agricultural pressures.

Conservation Actions Proposed Palawan:

– Determine the impact of trade on the population of the species.
– Revise its estimate of the world population.
– Estimate the rates of decline based on the rates of deforestation within its range.
– Protect effectively important extensions of high forest with trees suitable to nest in key places throughout its distribution area, both in the areas of strict protection, as in areas of multiple use.

Loro Nuquiazul en cautividad:

Fairly quiet.
Occasionally available.

Alternative names:

Blue-naped Parrot, Blue naped Parrot (English).
Perruche de Luçon, Perroquet à couronne (French).
Blaunackenpapagei, Blaunacken-Papagei (German).
Papagaio-de-nuca-azul (Portuguese).
Loro de Nuca Azul, Loro Nuquiazul (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Tanygnathus
Scientific name: Tanygnathus lucionensis
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Protonimo: Psittacus lucionensis

Blue-naped Parrot images:

————————————————————————————————

Blue-naped Parrot (Tanygnathus lucionensis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Wikipedia
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – By Quartl (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – By Joelle Rene Hughes (originally posted to Flickr as jr_parrot10) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – WILD BIRDS of the PHILIPPINES – Subic rainforest, Bataan, December 5, 2007 by Romy Ocon
(4) – By TJ Lin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – “Tanygnathus lucionensis qtl2” by QuartlOwn work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
(6) – «Tanygnathus lucionensis – Barraband». Licensed public via domain Wikimedia Commons.

Sounds: Arend Wassink (Xeno-canto)

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