Origin: South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi
Longevity: 32 years
Height: 22 cm..
Of 22 cm.. length and a weight between 120 and 156 g..
The Brown-headed Parrot(Poicephalus cryptoxanthus) has the head, including the nape, the chin and throat brown; ear-coverts paler. Mantle brown, but more to the tail; scapulars dark green-edged Brown; rump and uppertail-coverts bright green. Upper, the wing-coverts green, sometimes with a small yellow spot on the curve of the wing
folded; wing feathers yellow. Primaries Brown with vane Blue-Green external; the secondaries brown.
The feathers in the upper area of the chest Brown with a narrow edge of green at the bottom; the rest of the underparts green, but darker bases of the feathers, giving a mottled look.
Tail dark brown with green washing and dark green tip.
The upper mandible and cere grey-black (darker towards tip), lower pale, almost white; irises yellow-green light; periophthalmic ring and legs dark grey to black.
Both sexes similar.
Immature generally more muted than adults and with the irises brown.
Poicephalus cryptoxanthus cryptoxanthus (Peters,W, 1854) – Nominal species
Poicephalus cryptoxanthus tanganyikae (Bowen, 1930) – As the nominal but more pale species; more green and less Brown. Green mantle and underparts brighter. Bib of brown feathers on the throat and upper of the much smaller chest than in the nominal species; the head more color olive brown.
Is located in almost all the forests: riparian forests, inside Savannah forests and dry forests in southeastern Africa, but it seems to avoid the miombo woodland and prefers areas with baobabs.
Registered in coconut plantations, riparian forest, the edges of small farms and mangroves.
Confined in lowlands (below the 1.200 metres above sea level in Tanzania and 1.000 metres in Malawi).
Gregarious; usually seen them is in small flocks of about 12 birds, but can meet up to 50 in places of power. Sometimes it is associated with the Cape Parrot and also observed feeding in company of the Madagascar Green-Pigeon.
Normally nest in hollows of old trees of woodpeckers, between 4 and 10 meters above the ground. Often has to compete with the Cape Parrot, Meyer's Parrot, squirrels and Crowned Hornbill the nesting sites.
Season of laying egg is April-May in the South of its range.
The laying is of 2 to 4 eggs, which are incubated solely by the female during 26-30 days, While the male feeds her on the nest.
The chicks they remain in the nest during 50-54 days before leaving to the “breeding ground”, It is generally an area with dense trees broadband supply of water in the vicinity. During this time the chicks are silent and largely immobile, becoming fully independent a few 28 days later.
They forage, with slow and deliberate movements, climbing and often holding the food between the claws. They drink daily, around noon.
The Brown-headed Parrot are distributed by the southeast of Africa. From the North-East of South Africa (Swaziland, Zululand and Transvaal) through the southeast of Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South of Malawi to the East of Tanzania (including the island of Pemba and southern end of Zanzibar) and southeastern edge of Kenya.
Apparently sedentary. In some places, the Brown-headed Parrot, are a species common, especially close to the coast and in the South of its range, but in some other areas are scarce or rather local; in Zanzibar possibly extinct.
Distribution of subspecies:
Poicephalus cryptoxanthus cryptoxanthus (Peters,W, 1854) – Nominal species
Poicephalus cryptoxanthus tanganyikae (Bowen, 1930) – Mozambique, to the North of the Save river across the South of Malawi and this from Tanzania to the coastal part of Kenya.
28 cm.. length and a weight between 140 and 205 g..
The Yellow-fronted Parrot(Poicephalus flavifrons) has the forecrown, crown, lores, the cheeks and ear-coverts bright yellow, often with an orange colour wash; small area with yellow feathers around the cheek, often with a tinge of Brown-grey color.
The feathers of the nape, the mantle and scapulars dark green with paler areas and most brilliant green margins; rump and uppertail-coverts clearer and more brilliant green as the rest of upper parts.
Upper, the coverts Green dark green with light green margins, sometimes with yellow at the edge of the wing
and at the base of the primary coverts most important.
The primaries and secondaries Brown with extrechos more clear margins in the vane outer. Chin and the thighs sometimes sprinkled with yellow; lower parts of bright green uniform.
The Yellow-fronted Parrot, generally, they live in the forests of Juniperus and Podocarpus, at altitudes between 1,800 and 2,900 m, mainly in trees of the genus Hagenia, that are above the 2.900 m. Also found in forest clearings, with Ficus trees intermingled areas of cultivated plateau and in Gallery forests of Acacia savanna. Also in riparian forests of Acacias and Ficus, a partir de los 800 m.
Occasionally visit urban areas, for example, gardens and parks in Addis Ababa.
Usually seen in pairs, small groups of relatives or in flocks of up to 20 birds; often in mixed flocks with the Black-winged Lovebird (Agapornis taranta).
The Yellow-fronted Parrot, probably, they use the same products trees every night.
Largely unknown breeding habits, but it is suspected that nest usually in tree cavities.
The time of incubation is of 28 days. Birds fly from the nest after a few 80 days after the hatching. Even then, by generating it,l feed on the parents until its full independence.
Your diet, is created that it consists of grains, seeds and fruits. Also have seen them was eating mature fruits of Dovyalis abyssinica.
Considered a pest of crops in some areas, Although of little importance.
Size of its range (breeding/resident): 395.000 km2
Endemic to the Highlands of the West of Ethiopia, Although its exact range is unclear.
Common in forested areas; more common in the upper parts, to the North of its distribution area.
Probably sedentary Although there have been some periodic movements in Addis Ababa.
Origin: Cameroon, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda
Character: Intelligent, quiet and affectionate.
Longevity: 21 years
Height: 28 cm..
28 cm. length and an average weight of 220 g..
The Red-fronted Parrot(Poicephalus gulielmi)has the forecrown and crown bright red; the lores and chin blackish; cheeks, back of the crown and nape dark green with scattered feathers showing blackish centers.
The mantle feathers and scapulars Black with large green edges that give scalloped appearance; rump and uppertail-coverts bright yellowish green .
Wing coverts Black with a dark green margin; leading edge of the wings from joints carpal to the base of the primaries bright red. The primaries and secondaries black. Below, the wing feathers dark green and black.
Underparts dark green with scattered feathers showing a black central band; the thighs bright red. The tail black.
Top of the mandible grey, Blackish towards the tip with pale base stains, lower jawBlackish r; Orange the irises; legs dark grey to black.
Both sexes similar.
The youth lack of red color in the forecrown, the edge of the wings and the thighs; Green in a little paler than the adults plumage. Young birds sometimes show red color in the feathers of the wings. The irises is dark brown.
Description 3 subspecies:
Poicephalus gulielmi fantiensis
(Neumann, 1908) – Smaller that the species nominal. Front, leading edge of the wings and the thighs Orange or orange-red (but not red) and more extensive, in some birds. Underparts Green paler with a smaller number of black marks.
(Fischer & Reichenow, 1884) – Restricted red in the forecrown. Paler than the species nominal, with few or no black marks on the underparts.
The Red-fronted Parrot They inhabit montane forests of Juniperus and Podocarpus in Kenya and Tanzania, between 1,800 and 3,250 meters above sea level, where may depend on the primary vegetation.
Confined in the lowlands the rest of the population rainforest (below 700 metres in West Africa), but are not limited to the primary formations, There are records of the Red-fronted Parrot perched on tall trees of shade coffee plantations in Angola and in secondary forests of Ghana.
Usually stays in the tree tops, While they feed or rest.
In general, seen in groups of up to 10 birds, forming large flocks where abundant food. Large congregations, sometimes, in places.
In Kenya, the Red-fronted Parrot they make long daytime journeys of foraging (60km) along Gallery forests, or crossing the savanna forest dominated by Acacia.
The Red-fronted Parrot reared in solitary.
During the mating, males are rhythmically balanced, without moving the wings, While they are behind the female.
The nest is located in a cavity between 3 and 12 meters above the ground.
The egg laying It has been recorded in November to January in Tanzania, September in Zaire and March, June and from September to November in Kenya. The implementation is of between 2 and 4 eggs bright white.
Its diet It is believed that it is composed of a variety of seeds, fruits, flowers and insects. Are part of your food the seeds of Spathodea, oil palm nuts (Elaeis guineensis), fruits of the Podocarpus flowers and seeds of Grevillea robusta. Probably some insects are also part of their diet.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 5.380.000 km2
Several apparently separated distributions.
In West Africa are distributed to the East of Liberia until Ivory Coast and South of Ghana.
In the Center-West of Africa, South of Cameroon to the Northwest of Angola. A seemingly separate population extends to the North of Zaire and South of the Central African Republic to the southwest of Uganda and Rwanda. Also found in the Highlands of Kenya and North of Tanzania.
Sedentary with local movements. Locally between common and abundant in many localities in part of its eastern range, apparently, the decrease in other areas is possibly due to deforestation.
Distribution 3 subspecies:
Poicephalus gulielmi fantiensis
(Neumann, 1908) – High Guinea, rainforests of West Africa, in Liberia, Ivory Coast and South of Ghana.
Keep a Red-fronted Parrot as pet has grown steadily in popularity in recent years, and as a result, the species has been the subject of intense trade on the market of wild birds. His capture may represent a significant threat to the species, in particular for the population around the Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, fact which could lead to local extinction of the species in this area.
The Red-fronted Parrot is also at risk from the deforestation in parts of its area of distribution. However, the species is still distributed in a wide area and is considered not currently threatened worldwide, While global trends of the population has not been quantified.
The species is included in the Appendix II the Convention on international trade in endangered species (CITES), that means that the international trade of the Red-fronted Parrot It must be carefully checked. However, a key problem in many areas is the lack of adequate legislation, and the lack of enforcement of legislation where there is.
The wild trade in this bird and the destruction of their forest habitat may have a better follow-up to ensure that populations of the Red-fronted Parrot not to suffer future decreases.
Lorito Frentirrojo in captivity:
Probably the first broods of Red-fronted Parrot born in in captivity were achieved in 1978, in Switzerland and England Although already in advance, in the middle of the 90, they had become exemplary zoos of London and Hamburg.
The Red-fronted Parrot is little known in Spain, but in other countries it is very common as a pet due to its size, its great intelligence, its capacity for imitation and its character quiet and loving, but at the same time playful and naughty.
It is soft and musical, and their cry is quite bearable. In general, is a bird bit noisy, which can be an asset to a future owner who lives in an apartment.
They are very destructive, or both must provide them with abundant branches and non-toxic toys for chopping and shredding.
In terms of their longevity, According to sources, a specimen was still alive after 21 years in captivity.
– Red-fronted Parrot, Jardine’s Parrot, Red fronted Parrot, Red-crowned Parrot, Red-headed Parrot, William’s Fig Parrot (English).
– Perroquet à calotte rouge, Perroquet à front rouge, Perroquet de Jardine, Perroquet vert à calotte rouge (French).
– Kongopapagei, Kongo Papagei (German).
– Papagaio-de-jardine (Portuguese).
– Lorito de Jardine, Lorito Frentirrojo, Loro Jardinero (Spanish).
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(1) – A Red-fronted Parrot at Birds of Eden, South Africa By Dick Daniels (http://carolinabirds.org /) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Fotografía de una pareja de Poicephalus gulielmi By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Poicephalus_gulielmi_pareja_reproductora. JPG: Juan Caparrós (Poicephalus_gulielmi_pareja_reproductora. JPG) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – P. g. fantiensis at Birds of Eden, South Africa By Poicephalus_gulielmi_-Birds_of_Eden_-South_Africa-8a.jpg: Grahamderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A juvenile pet Red-fronted Parrot (also known as Jardine’s Parrot) By Bram Cymet (originally posted to Flickr as Amazon) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Fledgeling Lesser Jardines Parrot eating vegetables By Kofiwannacracker (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Origin: South and East of South Africa (To the South of Eastern Cape Province)
Character: Nice, Smart, affectionate
Longevity: 30 years.
Height: 32 cm..
32 cm. medium length and a weight between 300 and 400 g..
The Cape Parrot(Poicephalus robustus) has the head, neck and throat Brown olive-yellow olive color, with darker spots (almost black in some birds), especially in the crown; lores and cheeks blackish; pale red frontal band, is present, occasionally, in males (generally evident in females).
The mantle feathers and scapulars dark green opaque, bright green-edged; rump bright green.
Coverts on the leading edges of the wings, Since the carpal joints at the base of the primaries, bright orange red; upper wing coverts, dark green to black, with lighter green edges; below, the feathers of the wings Green and blackish. The primaries and secondaries black top, dark brown below. High area of the chest, stomach and vent, bright green; the thighs orange red glossy. Upper, the tail black; undertail, dark brown.
Some birds (around the 10%) have feathers yellow in the plumage spread.
Bill color horn; irises dark brown to reddish brown; legs bluish grey.
The females, generally (Although not always), they have well defined orange red frontal band.
The youth lack of color marks orange red envelope the wing-coverts and the thighs, but tend to show a bit of red in the forecrown.
In a study initiated in 1992, the taxonomic status of Lorito was revised Robusto (Poicephalus robustus) (Gmelin), and two species were proposed; Poicephalus robustus, restricted to montane forests of southern Africa, Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus, with wider distribution in wooded areas, and Poicephalus fuscicollis fuscicollis, similar to the Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus ostensibly, but with discontinuous, restricted to a narrow range of forests and West Africa.
Poicephalus robustus robustus (Gmelin, 1788) – The nominal species
Poicephalus robustus suahelicus (Reichenow, 1898) – Of larger size the species nominal, the male has the head and the neck a silvery gray and lacks the reddish frontal band. The female has orange colouring in the the thighs and in the shoulders and in the cere, while the male not. Blue tint in the rump.
Poicephalus robustus fuscicollis (Kuhl, 1820) – The smaller subspecies. With more blue tones, especially in rump and bottom of the back.
They live in a variety of forest types, including Red Mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) (for example, in Gambia), riparian forests (for example in Ghana, Zimbabwe), Savanna Woods (for example, Nigeria, Ivory Coast), in montane forests at altitudes of 3,750m (for example, East of Zaire), in lowland forests (for example, South Zaire).
Birds of the South Africa they have favoritism by the Acacia mearnsii and Podocarpus forests at altitudes between 1.000 and 1,700 m, separating attitudinally and ecologically in the subspecies suahelicus, It occurs in lowland forests.
Birds of the South Africa (also perhaps other species) they form communal roosts before spreading to power remote areas (until 90 km) in small flocks.
Sometimes seen separately but more usually found in groups of up to 20 birds (sometimes 50). It forms mixed flocks with peers.
The season of breeding varies with the town. In Gambia, According to reports, breeding takes place between the months of February and April, While in Zimbabwe It is estimated to be between the months of March to June, and between October and November. In South Africa, breeding occurs in June and from August to October.
The laying tends to be of 3 to 4 eggs.
During the courtship the male feeds the female making exaggerated turns his head and dropping their wings to form a kind of layer around the lower half of your body. The pair shows a strong union ties and they spend much time grooming each other.
In Zimbabwe, In addition to daily trips in search of food, seasonal movements are performed in search of Uapaca and fruits of Sysygium.
Has been feeding of millet in Zimbabwe and Malawi, of peanuts harvested in Gambia and, occasionally, visiting gardens of Apple trees, but numerous enough to be considered a plague serious nowhere.
Birds of the South Africa feed almost exclusively on fruit of the Podocarpus, long as they are available.
Use the peak to climb between the branches when they feed in the trees; They also feed on the ground. The Cape Parrot make daily trips to secret locations for drinking water.
Probably occupy three zones separated, in the West, South-Central and South of Africa.
In West Africa, are from Gambia and South of Senegal to the East of Ghana and Togo.
In the Center-South of Africa, from the southwest of Congo, South and East of Zaire, Southwest of Uganda, Rwanda and from the center of Tanzania to the North of Namibia, North of Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Flocks of foraging roam unpredictably and can remain away from traditional sites for weeks. Sometimes they make seasonal movements in relation to the availability of food, for example, in the northern savannas of Ghana.
Local and most unusual in the range, Although more numerous and frequent in Ghana.
Distribution of subspecies:
Poicephalus robustus robustus (Gmelin, 1788) – The nominal species
Poicephalus robustus suahelicus (Reichenow, 1898) – Are distributed by the center of Angola; Southeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and South of Tanzania until Zimbabwe, North of Mozambique, and far northeast of South Africa; the three subspecies can mix in populations along the lower part of the Congo River.
Poicephalus robustus fuscicollis (Kuhl, 1820) – Are distributed from the South of the Senegal and Gambia to the North of Ghana
In 1988 included for the first time in the red list of threatened species by the IUCN as least concern species.
The size of its current population is estimated at less than 1.600 birds in their natural habitat.
Why not join this parrot species in critically endangered is due to the subspecies This include a broadcast area vastly greater to the of the nominal species, whereupon, This leads to a growth in the population of subspecies and the decrease of the nominal species. The subspecies occupy all the Central Africa and Western, while the Poicephalus robustus only lives in some provinces of South Africa as they are Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo.
Over time the Poicephalus robustus, they have drastically dropped its population due to the uncontrolled felling of the forests of Sandalwood to manufacture furniture. Reaching there only two per cent of the forest of Sandalwood.
In captive the Cape Parrot is found in small amounts in several countries of Europe and without many successful advances of breeding, so the first objective to preserve the nominal species is to control the logging of forests, Since the Cape Parrot they have to travel many miles to feed, as there is no food have to descend to feed from the crop fields where many die because they are hunted by the owners of the fields. Forests are also needed in the life of the Poicephalus robustus since they nest in cavities of the trees, they feed on.
The legal and illegal trade It is another point to be highlighted in the conservation of this species. From 1998 countries with more legal exports have been Tanzania, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire. What makes think that the nominal species It has been the least affected in the terms of trade while the subspecies they have been the most affected and the most marketed. This you can tell watching the broadcast area of the subspecies and the countries with more exports made.
The diseases they are also a major threat, above all in the nominal species. The disease of PBFD or beak and feather disease (Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease virus) is that more deaths has caused to the Poicephalus robustus.
Lorito Robusto in captivity:
It is very similar in nature to the Grey Parrot.
Its capacity of imitation is still not well known since, for years, It has been very difficult to achieve in poultry.
Not advisable to keep mixed aviaries. Are quiet Depending on your type of poultry rearing (natural or by hand) and previous experiences, they can be quite confident and curious, even without being hand reared do not usually take to commit themselves. As pets they are very Welcome to, Smart and affectionate, with a very good character.
The captive breeding of this species may be the last hope of saving her from the mass extinction. The number of specimens in captivity is low, But enough, If handled properly to strengthen the species.
In terms of their longevity, According to sources, a Cape Parrot lived 29,7 years in captivity. In captivity, These birds can be raised from the 5 years of age.
– Cape Parrot, Brown necked Parrot, Brown-necked Parrot, Cape or Brown-necked Parrot, Gray-headed Parrot, Grey-headed Parrot (English).
– Perroquet à cou brun, Perroquet du Cap, Perroquet du Cap ou P. à cou brun, Perroquet robuste (French).
– Graukopfpapage, Kap Papagei, Kappapagei (German).
– Papagaio-de-bico-grosso (Portuguese).
– Lorito Robusto, Loro de El Cabo (Spanish).
(Alexander, 1909) – Darker and slightly larger than the subspecies Psittacus timneh timneh, although its size is still below the Grey Parrot(Psittacus erithacus). The feathers of the tail are as red as those of Grey Parrot, but marked by a greater contrast with the almost black feathers body, giving a different impression this subspecies. The eyes are yellow, the bill It is black and legs are dark gray.
Although normally inhabit the dense forests, they are also usually seen at the edges of forests, clear, Gallery forest, mangroves, tree-lined sheets, cultivated areas, and even the gardens, Although it is not clear if it's self-sustaining populations.
You can do seasonal movements out of the drier areas of its distribution in the station area dry.
Sometimes travel long distances to feed. They nest in hollow trees high above the ground. Found in small flocks of a few dozen, usually no more. Flocks of birds can be noisy.
Little known difference with regard to the Grey Parrot.
The breeding season is usually November to April in the areas most West of Africa-Westernl, probably, especially during the season dry.
During the season of breeding they put in 2 to 4 eggs, every two or three days. These hatch in 28-30 days and the young are independent at 12 to 14 weeks.
In nature, the Timneh Parrot they eat seeds, nuts, fruits and vegetables. they climb trees, instead of flying, to collect food and keep it with one leg while eating. They enjoy eating the external Walnut meat of the Palm oil, and it has been observed eating snails.
In West Africa, his hobby is known for beads, attacking cornfields and coming to be regarded as pests in some places.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 541.000 km2
They are distributed in the West, in humid areas of the Upper Guinea and bordering savannas of West Africa from Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone and South of Mali to the East of Ivory Coast, at least a 70 kilometers to the East of the Bandama River.
The wild population is distributed along with the species nominal in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
(Fraser, 1844) – Nominal. South of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, as well as the western part of Ivory Coast. There are also smaller groups Guinea Bissau and Mali. Populations Senegal They have disappeared fish trade.
Its population is estimated between 100,000 and 500,000 exemplary and decreasing.
The P. erithacus, before the division of the timneh, He was put in the Appendix II of CITES with all Psittaciformes in 1981 at the request of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Due to concerns about the effects of the large number of this species traded, It was the subject of a review of significant trade of the CITES, in which was listed as “possible concern” (Inskipp et to the. 1988).
The Animals Committee of the CITES he imposed a sanction of two years from January of 2007 on exports of timneh four countries of West Africa (Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea), and banned the import of wild birds into the EU in 2007 (Anon 2011).
In 2009 Guinea exported 720 timneh, Despite having a share of 0 (Anonymous 2011).
The controlled legal trade by CITES It may represent only a small proportion of the total numbers caught in the wild.
The species is found in a number of protected areas.
A PhD study assessed the distribution, abundance and the impacts of trade and habitat loss for the timneh started in 2011 (Anon 2011).
Conservation Actions Proposed:
• Make sure that the proposed trade restrictions are applied.
• Monitor the wild populations to determine trends in course.
Timneh parrot in captivity:
Poultry are known in a manner abbreviated as TAG (Timneh African grey).
The Parrot Timneh is equivalent in intelligence and ability of his Congo counterpart, the Grey Parrot, being, generally, less nervous and with a great ability to imitate sounds (they often learn to imitate human sounds before the Grey Parrot). They can have a wide vocabulary of hundreds of words.
Unlike the Parrot Yaco, their voices are not an exact replica of the voice of the person you are copying. The Timneh Parrot they have their own special little voice.
– Timneh Parrot, Gray Parrot (Timneh), Sierra Leone Gray Parrot, Sierra Leone Grey Parrot, Zambesi Green Pigeon (English).
– Perroquet timneh (French).
– Timnehgraupapagei (German).
– papagaio-timneh (Portuguese).
– Loro timneh, Loro Gris de Cola Vinagre (Spanish).
Origin: Ivory Coast to Kenya, Tanzania, Prince, Santo Tomé and Bioko
Character: Active, sensitive, Intelligent
Longevity: 50 years
Height: 33 cm..
Description Loro Yaco:
Of 33 cm.. length and an average weight of 475 g..
The Grey Parrot(Psittacus erithacus) is famous for its intelligence and ability to mimic sounds and human speech, so it is one of the most popular of all pets avian. It is one of the largest African parrots.
They have the feathers of the lores, the cheeks, the frenyou and the crown silver grey, more clear tips. The of the the mantle and lower area of the back darker, Grey Slate with clear margins, giving a scaly appearance; the lower area of the back and tail are silver grey. Upper wing coverts, secondaries and scapulars slaty-grey. Primaries grey dark (almost black), more clear below that top.
Wing feathers light grey, with the exception of the greater coverts that are of a dark grey tone.
Feathers of the chest Grey Slate with pale grey margins fused with silver feathers much clearer in the belly; flanks and the thighs clear silver grey color.
Tail and their coverts, bright Scarlet.
Older birds they can show scattered red feathers between the plumage gray, especially in the the thighs and the belly.
The bill black; irises yellow; naked facial area with some fine white hairs; legs dark grey.
Without sexual dimorphism in the plumage.
Immature they have the tail darker red towards the tip, Grey dye in undertail- coverts and the irises grey.
Psittacus erithacus princeps (Alexander, 1909) – Very similar to the nominal, except that they are a little smaller. Some bird breeders argue that the Princeps is a regional type of Psittacus erithacus erithacus, instead of separate subspecies.
The Grey Parrot They inhabit the tropical jungle primary and secondary, the forest edges and clearings, Gallery forest and mangroves; wooded Savannah, haunting, often, land cultivation and even gardens.
Partially confined in the lowlands, Although in the East of its range have been recorded at altitudes of 2.200 m.
They reach the highest densities in primary lowland forests, intermediate in the primary montane and lower density in plantation of coconut.
Gregarious, they form large communal roosts of up to 10.000 individuals, often at some distance from the feeding areas.
Favorite places of shelter are trees or Palm trees on the water, also islands in rivers.
Are dispersed into smaller groups (until 30) to feed.
The reproduction of the Grey Parrot takes place in loose colonies, in which each pair occupies its own tree. Individuals select their partners carefully and have a monogamous union of lifelong It begins at sexual maturity, between three and five years of age.
Few details are known about the courtship in nature, but have been observed and recorded flights of visualization around the nest cavities. The males feed their mates (power dating) and both sing soft monotonous notes. At this time the female goes to sleep to the nest cavity, While the male takes care of it.
In captivity, the Grey Parrot fed males to females after copulation events and both sexes participate in a mating dance in tipping its wings.
The nest they build it into the cavities of trees (for example, Terminalia, Ceiba or Distemonathus), between 10 and 30 meters above the ground.
Sometimes breeds in colonies of up to several hundred couples loose (in Prince for example), but in most places they nest in solitary.
The breeding season varies with the town. In East Africa, breeding has been recorded in the months of January-February and June-July, both in dry periods.
Young chicks have been released for sale from March onwards in Ghana. Other records suggest as a rule from the breeder, the dry season.
The females lay from three to five eggs, that you are in charge of incubate while they are powered entirely by the male. The incubation lasts approximately thirty days and the young man emerges from the nest at twelve weeks of age.
Food Loro Yaco:
Their diet consists of a variety of seeds, nuts, fruits and berries.
The fruit of the Palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) is her favourite in some areas, coming to bear its fruit over long distances before being consumed.
In Bioko, they prefer the berries of Tragacantha tail (Fam. Malvaceae).
They can be a pest, to cause significant damage in some areas corn crops.
Loro distribution Yaco:
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 2.760.000 km2
The Grey Parrot are distributed between the West and centre of Africa, of Guinea-Bissau and this from Sierra Leone, across the South of Mali, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria, until Cameroon, extending to Bioko and Islands Santo Tomé and Principe in the Gulf of Guinea; from Gabon and the Congo through Zaire, Uganda and Western Kenya, the Southwest and East - Central of Zaire and Northwest of Tanzania.
Generally sedentary. Common where large tracts of forest persist and still abundant in some locations, especially in the tropical jungles of the Congo basin. However, due to the extensive loss of forests in some parts of the range (for example, of Nigeria to Sierra Leone) and the catch on a massive scale (the second best-selling parrot in the world in the Decade of 1980) There have been dramatic declines in some places (for example, in Liberia, Ghana, Kenya and around Kinshasa, Zaire, and other cities of the Congo basin).
Distribution of subspecies:
Psittacus erithacus erithacus (Linnaeus, 1758) – Species nominal
Psittacus erithacus princeps (Present on the islands of São Tomé (in this possibly introduced) and Principe)
The Grey Parrot They are protected by the convention CITES, consisting in annex II (species that may be threatened by a trade out of control).
If it is considered not threatened globally, the fact of being one of the species of the family Psittacidae (parrots and parakeets) most sold in the world makes its distribution is shrinking dramatically in certain places, being near its extinction in many of these areas according to the Organization The World Parrot Trust .
The following data are quite illustrative in this respect:
1. In the period 1982-1989 It was the second psittacida then suffered more trade of Agapornis fischeri, with averages of more of 47.000 specimens exported from Africa annually .
2. Export quotas under CITES Convention psittacine often do not meet scientific criteria for lack of detailed studies of population and annual renewal fees populations .
3. Too often these fees are widely sobrepadas by exporting countries. For example Cameroon exported 23.000 grays in 1996, When available a quota of! 12.000! . Although these facts to do that Cameroon could not legally exported in 1997, the current quota of 12.000 grays is exceeded with more of 15.000 all the years . Another example, is the Republic of the Congo, with an annual fee of 10.000 grays, that has also been sanctioned by the impossibility of exporting them in 2001 and 2002 by the large number of existing fraudulent export .
4. In the year 1999, the European Union imported (legally under the Convention CITES) from Africa 33.341 greys parrots, number only surpassed by parrots of the genus in this family Agapornis (71.588 of Agapornis roseicollis, 63.867 of Agapornis fischeri and 33.720 of Agapornis personatus). Spain It was the second destination of these parrots grays, After Holland, imported 6.216 specimens .
5. There are specific areas Africa It supported much of the pressure from hunters of parrots for their trade. One of them is the area of Lobeke, in the southeast of Cameroon, where they hunt every year more than 15.000 grays, most of them die by mishandling in the capture and transport .
The before mentioned illegal trade is no stranger to our country, where was recently dismantled an international network of illegal import of this species from the Republic of the Congo, I had brought to Spain at least 3.982 specimens from the year 1998 .
On the other hand, in some countries, these birds are raised industrially for sale. This favours on the one hand the fact that decreases the importation of birds hunted in the wild , and on the other hand it increases the number of birds on the market, and with it the chance of leaks or intentional releases, that they can get to colonize areas outside its area of distribution. An example of a Spanish company of these features, among the many that are, It has more than 300 breeding pairs, can be found in .
 NECKLACE, N.J.. 1997. Family Psittacidae (Parrots). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos (Ed: J. pit, A. Elliot, J. Sargatal). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. pp. 280-477.
 MAY, D.L. 2001. Grey Parrots of the Congo Basin Forest. PsittaScene 13-2(47): 8-10.
 AALANGDONG, O.I., AUGUSTINE, S. 1999. Langyintuo. Crop damage by wildlife in Northern Ghana. Abstracts of the 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress, Gödöllő, Hungary.
 The WPT 12. The World Parrot Trust. African Grey Parrot. www.worldparrottrust.org
 NGENYI, A. 2002. African Grey Parrot trade in Cameroon. PsittaScene 14-2(51): 2-3.
 El Periódico de Catalunya. Dismantled a network of trafficking in protected species in Barcelona. 11-11-2004.
 Report of Animal Aid. 2002. From Rainforest to Retail. Leading DIY chain and the horror of the wild bird trade.
 Psittacus Catalonia, SL. Information available in: www.psittacus.com
Yaco parrot in captivity:
The ancient Egyptians already kept these birds as pets. Later the Greeks and the Romans did the same.
While the Grey Parrot they can be good pets, If you have children in your home, buying a Grey Parrot It would be a bad idea, by both the Parrot and the children that can be easily damaged with its claws and beak.
The Grey Parrot they can also be difficult to maintain for some people, This is probably due, Unlike other pets, because these are always active and they must be checked several times a day. These parrots can be unordered, for example, When they are eating the seeds or other foods it is likely that they end up throwing debris out of the cage and even against the walls.
More Intelligent any dog, calls attention to the 24 hours a day. His extreme intelligence and sensitivity takes you easily to the depression if it is unrequited.
It is a bird very long-lived, There are those who say that these animals can live 73 and up 93 years. More longevity record reliable, However, It is a specimen that was still alive after 49,7 years. In captivity, these animals they tend to breed to the 5 years of age.
Their cages they must also be cleaned daily, due to their feces, they are totally inconsistent and appear in their feeders, toys, or anywhere else in the cage. Because of this, you have to wash the cages thoroughly to remove any odor and bacteria.
To the Grey Parrot like biting everything, and when I say everything, I say this seriously. They mostly enjoy chew pieces of wood, probably because they do in nature, However, be aware that they will chew everything at your fingertips, clothing, curtains, the skin of our sofas, etc. If you have many objects in the House, make sure that they are safe when I leave their birds out of the cage.
Note: In the European Community and the United States this prohibited the marketing of these parrots if they have been captured in wild environments.
Alternative Names Parrot Iacchus:
– Grey or Timneh Parrot, African Gray Parrot, African Grey Parrot, Gray Parrot, Grey Parrot (English).
– Perroquet jaco ou P. de Timneh, Jacko, Perroquet gris, Perroquet gris du Gabon, Perroquet jaco (French).
– Graupapagei (German).
– papagaio-do-congo, Papagayo Cinzento, Jacco (Portuguese).
– Cotorra Africana, Loro Yaco, Loro Gris Africano, Loro Gris, Loro Gris de Cola Roja, Yaco (Spanish).
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Sociedad Española de Ornitología / BirdLife – SEO
(1) – Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) at a bird park in Singapore By Michael Gwyther-Jones (originally posted to Flickr as Singapore) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Do Congo Grey parrot. Photo taken na Illa de Arousa, Galiza By L.Miguel Sánchez Bugallo (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Lmbuga) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Pet parrot held on a hand. By Eli Duke [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Young African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) at Weltvogelpark Walsrode (Walsrode Bird Park, Germany) OLAF Oliviero Riemer [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Do Congo Grey parrot. Photo taken na Illa de Arousa, Galiza By L.Miguel Sánchez Bugallo (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Lmbuga) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A Congo African Grey Parrot eating a piece of apple. It is perching on an open cage door and there is another parrot in the cage in the background By Peter F. (originally posted to Flickr as thanksgiving) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A pet Congo African Grey Parrot on held back By Sonny SideUp (originally posted to Flickr as Bird Tossing) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – By Hans – pixabay
35 to 40 cm. length and a weight between 215 and 315 gr.
The plumage of the Black Parrot(Coracopsis nigra) It, usually, blackish brown (iridescent green Sheen during the breeding season) with inconspicuous grayish color marks in undertail- coverts and gray in vane external to the primary.
Bottom of flight feathers pale grey. Upper, the tail brown-black color; undertail, light grey: subterminal band Dark.
The bill color horn, more off-white to modify the moult; irises dark brown: periophthalmic ring grey-brown (does not reach the peak); legs dark brown.
Immature paler than adults with pale undertail- coverts and yellowish tint in the bill; Tips of the feathers of the tail pale grey.
Coracopsis nigra libs (Bangs, 1927) – Paler and with the underparts Browner that nominal species; back bluish grey tinted. No dark subterminal band on the tail.
Coracopsis nigra nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) – Nominal species
Coracopsis nigra sibilans (Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, 1885) – Smaller, about 30 cm., and paler than the nominal species. Chocolate color replaces the nominal blackish brown. No grey in the vane the primary external
The Black Parrot are resident with some movements of foraging day.
It is found in a wide variety of forests and savanna areas, including ecosystems modified by man, wooded land of cities and towns, as well as primary forests, from the level of the sea up to 2,050 m altitude.
You can see more on the dense forests, swamp forest (including mangroves) and scrublands, that the Vasa Parrot, in order to avoid large areas of forests.
Usually seen in small noisy groups, either flying or sitting on the tops of the trees; active on moonlit nights.
In Seychelles, However, the Black Parrot seldom form flocks and in general you seen alone or in pairs, except when the food, locally, they are abundant.
Is not known to form mixed flocks with the Vasa Parrot.
Nest in the hollow trunk of tree or in a branch, usually above the 15 m.
Breeding probably from November to February.
Clutch of 2 to 8 eggs.
The Black Parrot they feed on seed, berries, fruits and nuts; more fruit-eating bats that the Vasa Parrot.
It is possible to keep them in community with its kind, but outside the breeding period. At the beginning you can be shy. It is a Active Parrot and nervous, generally Extrovert Once accustomed to people and environment, tends to be entrusted, Although depends on also his way of breeding enough (natural or by hand) and earlier experiences.
As a pet can be a magnificent company, loving, playful and very smart.
With regard to its longevity, sources they indicate that a sample lived 34.1 years in captivity.
– Black Parrot, Lesser Vasa Parrot, Lesser Vasa-Parrot (English).
– Vaza noir, Perroquet noir (French).
– Rabenpapagei (German).
– Papagaio preto (Portuguese).
– Loro Negro (Spanish).
Of 50 cm.. length and an average weight of 480 g..
The Vasa Parrot (Coracopsis vasa) It has a few shades between black and Brown, big enough, somber-looking, with the rounded tail and a powerful bill pinkish.
They can be difficult to locate when they combine their dark plumage with the shadows under the forest canopy.
To a large extent, sympatric with the very similar Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra), but the Vasa Parrot It is larger and somewhat paler, greyish Brown rather than dark brown
They can fly at high altitude when they travel to or from the sites of communal rest. It can be very Meek and accessible When feeds below the forest canopy.
In general, the plumage of the Vasa Parrot is brown-black color with a slight greyish tinge clear at the top, in special wings and top of the tail. Primaries with narrow gray margin in vane outer. Bottom of the flight feather pale grey. Subcaudales coverts Gray with variable black stripes on the shafts of feathers. Tail with faint dark subterminal band; undertail, the tail pale grey. Bill usually pink but grey color after molting; irises brown; naked periophthalmic patch (that extends to the peak) pale grey; legs greyish Brown clear
Without sexual dimorphism in plumage. Reproductive females can become bald on the head, around the eyes and throat , with the exposed skin of mustard yellow or orange.
Immature with plumage more greyish Brown lighter and paler skin around the eyes. Skin patch naked eye more smaller than in adults or absent.
(Peters,W, 1854) – Smaller, of 45 cm., and paler than the nominal species, Unlike the subspecies drouhardi by having underparts dyed color chocolate instead of gray, and undertail-coverts Brown instead of gray or whitish.
Coracopsis vasa drouhardi
(Lavauden, 1929) – It´s smaller, of 45 cm., and paler than the nominal species. The underparts they are more gray with undertail-coverts more whitish, upperparts They show a bluish grey tinge clear. Dark subterminal band on the tail.
The Vasa Parrot they are distributed among a wide variety of habitats, from the dense and wet forests, Brambles open forests, until Medemia Palms in the savannas.
It attends the habitats modified by human activity; sometimes visits farmland.
Move, mainly, by lowlands, from sea level to the 1.000 meters above sea level.
In Comoros, the Vasa Parrot, generally, they are associated with the humid forest, always green, above the 300 m, but visit more open fields to feed.
Within its forest habitat, they are usually seen in the treetops, Although they descend to the ground to feed.
Usually found in small noisy groups, Although congregate in flocks when they feed on larger or the roosts.
The Vasa Parrot They perch on the top of large trees with at least one individual awake to warn of the danger; It is said that they are most active in the full moon nights.
The breeding season, probably, of the months from October to December.
The nest It is built in a tree cavity or a trunk. In the western area of Madagascar, the baobabs trees (Adansonia) they are often used, sometimes with several nests in the same tree. These birds (especially the males) they can show cloacal protuberances While hard breeding.
Seeds, nuts, berries and fruits are part of their diet. Visit rice fields, Millet and maize, causing, sometimes, extensive damage to crops. Apparently less fruit-eating bats that the Black Parrot.
Size of its range (reproduction / resident): 928.000 km2
The species is partially common, in some places abundant, but its distribution in Madagascar possibly you have shrunk due to deforestation on a large scale in the center of the island.
Officially treated as harmful species, the Vasa Parrot they are persecuted because of predation on crops (especially rice) and captured for the trade in live birds at national and international level. They are also hunted as food.
It is distributed in several protected areas and although his pursuit and capture is intense in some areas, apparently, the species still It is not at risk.
As shown as crop pests, is legal to hunt at the Vasa Parrot in Madagascar, and high levels of hunting contributes to a rapid decline in its population.
Like many species of Madagascar, the loss of their forest habitat is also a threat.
The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but the species, According to sources, It quite common in many areas
Vasa parrot in captivity:
Very rare in captivity, difficult to find in aviaries perhaps for his initial lack of spectacular against the most striking of any other species of parrot colors.
Although the Vasa Parrot they are not very common as pets, comments from owners praise its virtues as a pet.
It is an extremely Intelligent and cunning.
Its beak is not strong enough to destroy the hard wood.
During the breeding season, they are very assets and quite noisy.
The female is the dominant, It is recommended as well that the Eclectus that for a result optimal playback two males are used with a number of male or a female in small aviaries more considerable than females at breeding colonies by.
At the moment they enter in zeal both the male and the female, drop you the feathers of the head practically bald and both players.
The skin of the female head becomes yellow and white male. They tend to put in 2 to 3 eggs that incubate for space of 17 days.
The young they are born completely devoid of markers, they have legs too long for parrots and another feature that makes them unique in that are on both sides of the peak in the corners, Some features similar to some exotic extrusions
Tienen facilidad para imitar la voz humana.
In terms of their longevity, According to sources, a specimen lived 53,9 years in captivity.
– Vasa Parrot, Greater Vasa Parrot, Greater Vasa-Parrot (English).
– Grand Vaza, Grand Perroquet vasa, Grand Vasa, Perroquet vaza (French).
– Vasapapagei, Großer Vasa, Vasa (German).
– Papagaio-vasa (Portuguese).
– Loro Vasa (Spanish).