Hispaniolan Parrot
Amazona ventralis

Hispaniolan Parrot

Content

Description:

28-31 cm.. length and 250 g. of weight.

The Hispaniolan Parrot (Amazona ventralis) has the forecrown Lords color and white (variable extension); the crown and upper cheeks with blue feathers and black colored ends; ear-coverts and lower cheeks, charcoal colored (variable measure); feathers nape and the sides of the neck, emerald green with visible black tips.
Hispaniolan Parrot
Mantle and back green grass with black tips, which become progressively less visible to the bottom; rump green, slightly yellowish; uppertail-coverts brighter yellowish green. greater coverts blue; remaining coberteras grass-green. Primaries and secondaries, blue, darker towards the tips, on the innerwebs. Under the wings, green; flight feather bluish green.

The underparts usually green, slightly yellowish, con la mayoría de las plumas mostrando márgenes negros bastante visibles (especially in the upper region) but sometimes with some red feathers chin; patch resizable brown in the center of belly; undertail-coverts pale yellow-green. Upper, the tail is green (perhaps a little darker than the rest of the upperparts) with visible yellowish tip and outerweb external feathers with blue margins; undertail, the tail It is yellowish with the bases of the outer feathers red. Bill Pink; cere brownish white; skin bare periophthalmic white; brown the irises; legs pale grey.


Anatomy-parrots-eng

There is no sexual dimorphism. Immature as an adult but less blue in the crown and the patch abdominal is paler brown.

NOTE

Some authors consider that the Hispaniolan Parrot It conespecífico (belonging to the same species) with the Cuban Parrot. Although closely related, It is believed to be quite different due to differences in hue pronounced plumage.

  • Sound of the Hispaniolan Parrot.

Habitat:

Video "Hispaniolan Parrot"

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Hispaniolan Parrot They are distributed in a variety of forested habitats, desde sabanas arenosas de palmeras en tierras bajas hasta bosques de pinos de montaña y bosques húmedos de montaña. En la actualidad observadas más comúnmente en bosques de montaña en la isla Hispaniola, due to continued deforestation, although birds also feed at lower altitudes. Observed above 1,500 m (Hispaniola).

Views en parejas durante la cría; fuera de la época de cría, observed in small flocks, usually up to a dozen birds; much larger meetings, until 500 reported in the nineteenth century birds. Couples and couples with young often identifiable in flocks.

Reproduction:

Nests generally constructed in tree cavities, but also in rock crevices, cactus voids and cavities in coconut. Territorial and very aggressive while playing. The breeding season It covers the months of February to May. Clutch 2-3 eggs.

Food:

They feed on, among others, of seeds or fruits of Caesalpinia, Psidium and Ficus, seeds of oranges wild Citrus, corn and bananas.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 99.000 km2

The Hispaniolan Parrot are distributed by the islands of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), Isla de la Gonâve (Haiti), Isla Saona (Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico and probably Snake (Puerto Rico) in the West Indies. Se encuentra en números moderados en partes de la Sierra de Bahoruco, Sierra Neiba and Cordillera Central in Dominican Republic. More restricted and less numerous in Haiti, con la población restante aparentemente en gran parte en el sur del país.

introduced in Puerto Rico, where the wild population derived from captive birds escaped and at least one consignment of illegally traded birds were released after discovering an attempt to import Puerto Rico. Also wild populations in Islas Vírgenes de los EEUU.

Antiguamente muy común en Hispaniola, although there have been during the twentieth century a strong decline in its population, mainly due to the habitat destruction (arising from agriculture and charcoal production). As well persecuted due to crop damage, hunted for food and trapped for sale as pets at local and international level.

In the Decade of 1930 It was limited to the interior mountain forests of the island of largely Hispaniola.

Aunque sigue siendo localmente común, it is enough rare and rare in the wild.

The population in Puerto Rico It is at least several hundred birds and apparently increasing.

Conservation:

State of conservation ⓘ


Status


Minor Concern ⓘ

(UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 6000-15000

Rationale for the Red List category

This species is considered Vulnerable because anecdotal evidence suggests there has been a rapid reduction of the population. The size of the population and the exact extent of the decline are unclear, clarification and may lead to the species be reclassified as near threatened.

Justification of the population

The population size It is preliminarily estimated to fall in the band between 10.000 and 19.999 individuals. This is equivalent to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Justification of trend

No new data on population trends, but it is suspected that the species is declining quickly, as a result of the hunting, the loss of habitat and capture.

Threats

The conversión agrícola and charcoal production have destroyed the most suitable habitat. It is also persecuted as a crop pest, hunted as food and trapped for Local trade and above for international trade cage birds. (Juniper and Parr 1998).

El atrapar a los adultos y robar crías de los nidos para abastecer al Local pet trade It is a particular concern because in some areas la mayoría de las familias poseen un loro, and they only live a few years before they have to be replaced (G. Woolmer in some. T. White one bit., 2012). What's more, activities theft nests often they cause destruction of the nest cavity or nest tree, agravando aún más la loss of nesting habitat other causes (T. White in a little .

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CITES Appendix II.

• Se ha iniciado una education strategy with community participation to protect species (Vasquez et to the., 1995).

• En 1997-1998, 49 birds bred in captivity were released and you radiographed in East National Park, Dominican Republic (Vilella et al., 1999).

• The Biological Reserve Loma Charco Azul, created in 2009, It has populations of the species. in addition, They have carried out recent activities educación pública y divulgación, including some actions of law enforcement, in several communities surrounding the Jaragua National Park, near the border with Haiti.

• En enero de 2012 there was also a Liberation of 10 parrots raised in captivity que habían sido confiscados como polluelos jóvenes de cazadores furtivos nidos. These chicks were raised and rehabilitated in National Zoological Park, and released successfully in the grounds of the zoo (T. White in a little ).

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[spoiler title=”Conservation Actions Proposed” open=”0″ style=”1″]

Assess current population size.

• Establecer un programa de comprehensive monitoring.

• Determine la extension remaining habitat.

• Determinar el impact of various threats.

Apply laws and regulations that protect this species and its habitat (Snyder et to the., 2000).

• Fomentar mejores prácticas de mantenimiento de aves para reducing demand for wild birds and develop a programa de cría en cautividad.

• Educar al público sobre el negative impact of pet trade in native Dominican Republic (T. White in a bit., 2012).

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The Hispaniolan Parrot in captivity:

It is easily reproduced in captivity and used as substitute mother para criar a las crías de la Puerto Rican Parrot as part of the recovery program for the species (highly threatened).

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-managed program cría en cautividad and not be sold as a pet, with the objective of ensure their survival long-term.

Alternative names:

Hispaniolan Amazon, Hispaniolan Parrot, Salle’s Amazon, Salle’s Parrot, San Domingo Amazon, San Domingo Parrot (English).
Amazone à ventre pourpre, Amazone de Sallé, Amazone d’Hispaniola (French).
Blaukronenamazone, Haitiamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-hispaniola (Portuguese).
Amazona de la Española, Amazona Dominicana, Cotorra, Cotorra de la Española (español).

scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona ventralis
Citation: (Statius Müller, 1776)
Protonimo: Psittacus ventralis

Images Hispaniolan Parrot:



Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – The parrot Cuca – Cuca The Parrot by Jose Uribe AlneyFlickr
(2) – Hispaniolan Amazon. Two in a cage By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as DSCN0712) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Couple of parrots Amazona ventralis in the Jaragua National Park, República Dominicana By Yolanda M. Leon (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Hispaniolan Amazon in a cage By Patrick Hawks (originally posted to Flickr as Hispaniolan Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Blaukronenamazone (Amazona ventralis) Bávaro, Punta Cana, Dominican Republic By Martingloor (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – BARRABAND, Jacques (1767/8-1809) [Perroquet à face rouge male (Hispaniolan Amazon [Amazona ventralis])] From Natural History of Parrots (by François Levaillant, 1801-1805) – Wikimedia

Sounds: Ante Strand, XC15749. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/15749

Cuban Parrot
Amazona leucocephala

Cuban Parrot

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description:

28-33 cm.. length and 260-301 g. of weight.

The Cuban Parrot (Amazona leucocephala) has a plumage rather variable, a main color ranging from bright green to olive color,, some birds feathers yellow dispersed in wings and in the back.

Forehead, fore crown, lores and area around eyes, white; lower cheeks and throat, red-pink; feathers the back of the crown and nape, bluish-green with black margins, giving the whole a heavy barred effect; similar pattern on the sides of neck but with the bluish tint absent; ear-coverts charcoal grey. Feathers of the back and the mantle, de color verde con márgenes distales negros pero menos intensos ​​que en la nape and head; rump and uppertail-coverts, dark green with weak margins to some feathers rump.

Cuban Parrot

Alula, greater coverts and flight feather, blue on the outerweb, gray on inner; remaining coberteras green with dark margins, showing most distinct barring on lesser coverts. Under the wings, green with dark margins, flight feather grey. Breast de color verde con márgenes oscuros a la mayoría de las plumas; feathers on belly with vinaceous base showing green at margins forming a patch variable-sized, barely noticeable in some birds, striking in other; the thighs green or with some vinaceous feathers; undertail-coverts green. feathers tail green with red at base. Bill yellow-horn: irises reddish brown; legs yellowish brown.

Ambos sexos son parecidos, but males of the subspecies caymanenis reportedly larger and brighter than females. Usually, the immature show less black borders on the body feathers and less red wine in the belly.

  • Sound of the Cuban Parrot.

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  • Amazona leucocephala bahamensis

    (Bryant,H, 1867) – Larger that the nominal species, with slate blue on the back of the crown and more extensive white color head. Pens red wine in the belly, reduced or absent and red at the bottom of the tail less extensive.


  • Amazona leucocephala caymanensis

    (Cory, 1886) – It differs from other subspecies by the turquoise dye in the chest and in the rump and rosacea suffusion (sometimes yellowish) in white feathers head. Plumage Barred yellower and less thick than the nominal species (especially below and on upperwing-coverts), with less white in the head and much less pronounced the patch red wine belly.


  • Amazona leucocephala hesterna

    (Bangs, 1916) – Smaller and darker than the nominal species and that the subspecies caymanensis, la mayoría de los individuos con el color rojo confinado a un punto bajo el eye and patch smaller target in the crown, it lacks the rosy tint of the subspecies caymanensis. Patch red wine in the larger belly than the subspecies caymanensis.


  • Amazona leucocephala leucocephala

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – Nominal.

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Habitat:

Vídeo Amazona Cubana

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Cuban Parrot They inhabit in different habitats in different islands. In Cuba They inhabit dense forests; in the Bahamas, in native broadleaf forests and pine forests, and in the Cayman Islands, in dry forests in the plateau ridge y en tierras agrícolas cercanas (Bond 1979, King 1981, Sibley y Monroe 1990). Usually in small groups but forages while forming larger groups in places where food is plentiful; couples or family groups in flocks discernable. Más usualmente en parejas durante la cría. They sleep communally fuera de la temporada de cría.

Reproduction:

The Cuban Parrot make their nests in cavities or palm tree hollows created by termites or woodpeckers. The population of Abaco It is particularly interesting because nests in natural holes in substrate limestone in the soil (O’Brien et al., 2006); allí, chicks and adults are completely isolated from the frequent fires in the pine forests They are forming their habitat. Breeding March until mid-summer Cuba and Abaco. The laying usually it comprises between 2 and 4 eggs, the incubation period hard of 26 a 28 días y los pichones permanecen en el nido entre 56 and 60 days.

Food:

The diet It includes yema Leaf Roystonea, the cones and new shoots tender the Pinus caribea, sea ​​grape uvifera and Conocarpus erretis, fruits and seeds of Smilax, Sabal, Durant, Exothea, Ernodea, Tabebuia, Acacia, Metopium, Tetrazygia, Swietenia, Cupania and Lisiloma. Sometimes they are persecuted for damage cultivated fruits like Mango (Mangifera) and grain.

Distribución y estatus:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 590.000 km2

The Cuban Parrot live in Cuba, Island Pines, Bahamas and Cayman Islands. Formerly observed throughout the island Cuba pero ahora es difícil de ver o está extinguida en gran parte de la isla. Todavía se distribuyen localmente por todas la provincias pero solo siguen siendo common in a few redoubts, incluyendo las penínsulas de Zapata and Guanahacabibes and in Sierra de sewage.

You can see in the Isle of Pines (Isle of youth) which dropped dramatically in the twentieth century, especially during the sixties, with most of the population surviving on Lanier Swamp National Park.

Formerly distributed by all the major islands of the Bahamas, but currently extinct, Except in Gran Inagua (spread south, east and north) and Abaco (especially in the southern third). You can visit Little Inagua from Great Inagua.

Mainly in the central and eastern parts of Grand Cayman where habitat loss is less severe. A residual population persists Caimán Brac but it became extinct in little Cayman about 1932.

Mainly resident, but with some seasonal movements, for example in the Isle of youth, where birds possibly (at least once) se trasladaron a la costa desde el interior seco en la temporada de no cría.

The decline across the range is due to the habitat destruction and capture of birds Vivas (for use as pets locally and for export).

El mal éxito de la cría en Grand Cayman in the seventies it was due to mosquito attacks contra las crías. Birds that nest on the ground in Abaco attacked by wild cats. The hurricanes They can cause shortages of food and nesting sites. It is likely that Bahamas are stable, but generally decreasing. You can not be considered safe in most of its range.

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Conservation:

State of conservation ⓘ


Status

Near Threatened (UICN)ⓘ

Rationale for the Red List category

The Cuban Parrot It is classified as near threatened because it is suspected to have suffered a reduction in population in Cuba, which has not ceased, mainly due to the capture and destruction of nesting sites.

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Near-threatened.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 13600-23000

Justification of the population

Population estimates for Bahamas and Cayman Islands they are as follows: 2.000 in Gran Cayman in 1995 (Bradley 2000), about 450 in Cayman Brac in 2013 (Marsden, 2013), 8.000-13.000 in Great Inagua, 3.000-5.000 in Abaco and around 10 individuals in new Providence (Bahamas National Trust 2016, S. Cant-Woodside in a bit., 2016). It is estimated that the population of Cuba amounts of 7.000 a 14.000 copies based on estimates recorded population density and the fact that it is likely that only a proportion of the estimated extent of occurrence deal. Therefore, the total population It is estimated in 20.460-34.460 individuals, which is equivalent to 13.640-22.973 mature individuals, rounded here to 13.600-23.000 mature individuals.

Justification of trend

It is considered that the species is declining mainly due to the capture and destruction of nesting sites. It is considered that the population of the Bahamas It has remained stable or increased. The population of the Cayman Islands It has increased since the species was protected in 1989 (Bradley 20000). It is believed that the Cuban population ha disminuido en los últimos años, mainly due to the poaching (Canizares 2012, M. Canizares in a bit., 2016). Although there is no data on the extent of this decline, the species has been classified as Vulnerable in Cuba (Canizares 2012). Therefore, It is suspected that the total population has decreased 10-20% over three generations.

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CITES Appendix 1.

• Protegido en las Bahamas under the Wild birds Protection Act (Protection).

• Legalmente protected in the Cayman Islands from 1989.

• Los artificial nests a variety of designs are in use in several locations Cuba and they have been used by more than 1.300 birds (Waugh 2006). The facts of artificial materials have proved more durable (Waugh 2006).

• Los volunteers counts in the center of Cuba They have been conducted twice a year since 2009 and more than 1.500 local people are involved in the activity.

• Para la reforestación y el enriquecimiento de los bosques se utilizan importantes especies vegetales para la alimentación de loros.

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[spoiler title=”Conservation Actions Proposed” open=”0″ style=”1″]

• Desalentar la captura de aves de la naturaleza a través de campañas de educación pública.

• Fomentar mejores prácticas de mantenimiento de aves para increase the longevity of captive birds and reduce the demand for wild populations.

• En Abaco, protect vital areas of broadleaf forests.

• En Cuba, make and erect more artificial nests.

• Vigilar las population trends across its range.

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Cuban Parrot in captivity:

Currently international trade Cuban Parrot It is legally prohibited; However, at regional level, the illegal traffic This species is one of the most worrying in Cuba.

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, debe colocarse en un programa bien gestionado de cría en cautividad y no ser vendido como animal doméstico, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

bahaman parrot, Caribbean Amazon, Caribbean Parrot, Cuban Amazon, Cuban Parrot, Rose-throated Parrot, White-headed Amazon, White-headed Parrot (English).
Amazone à face rouge, Amazone à tête blanche, Amazone de Cuba (French).
Kubaamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-cuba (Portuguese).
Amazona Cubana, Cotorra (español).

Carl Linnaeus

scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona leucocephala
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protonimo: Psittacus leucocephalus


Images Cuban Parrot:


Cuban Parrot (Amazona leucocephala)


Sources:

(1) Avibase
(2) Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
(3) Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(4) Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Rose-throated Parrot. Amazona leucocephala Long Beach, Zapata N.P. Cuba by gailhampshireFlickr
(2) – A Cuban parrot (amazona leucocephala) in Naturarte Center. santa Clara, Cuba 2011 by lezumbalaberenjenaFlickr
(3) – A Cuban parrot (Amazona leucocephala) Vega de Palma, Camajuaní, Cuba by lezumbalaberenjenaFlickr
(4) – Amazona leucocephala by Ekaterina Chernetsova (Papchinskaya)Flickr
(5) – Amazona leucocephala by Ekaterina Chernetsova (Papchinskaya)Flickr
(6) – Cuban Parrot (Amazona leucocephala) by HeathFlickr
(7) – Cuban Amazon by Eric SavageFlickr
(8) – Two Cuban Amazons in Matanzas, Matanzas Province, Cuba By Laura Gooch (BI110211-174 – Cuban Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Cuban Amazon parrot on Grand Cayman Island By Lhb1239 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Cuban Amazon (also known as the Rose-throated Parrot) at Jungle Island, Miami, USA By Chris Acuna from Miami, USA (Jungle Island-20090823-086) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(11) – A Cuban Amazon in Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. It is in a small round cage on a balcony By Alex Graves (Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(12) – A Cuban Amazon flying in Matanzas, Matanzas Province, Cuba By Laura Gooch (BI110211-159 – Cuban Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(13) – Cayman parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), Grand Cayman By Charlesjsharp (Own work, from Sharp Photography, sharpphotography) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(14) – Parrots in captivity /. London :George Bell and Sons,1884-1887 [i.e. 1883-1888] by Biodiversity Heritage LibraryFlickr

Sounds: Hans Matheve, XC256757. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/256757

White-fronted Parrot
Amazona albifrons

White-fronted Parrot

Content

Description:

22 a 26 cm.. length.

The White-fronted Parrot (Amazona albifrons) has the forecrown white; lores, upper cheeks and ring of feathers around eyes, red; the crown pale blue mingles with the green nape; the feathers with dark margins; sides neck green with narrow black margins. Mantle, back and scapulars, grass-green, sometimes with olive tint; the mantle with indistinct black tips; rump green, perhaps more emerald colors than the rest of the upperparts.

Grandes coberteras and alula, red, other coverts green. The outerweb of the primaries, green, They turn blue at the tips; outerweb of the secondaries, blue; innerwebs of the flight feather, blackish. Under, the wings bluish green. Underparts green with weak blackish edges to feathers on throat and the chest. Upper, the tail It is yellow in the center, outer feathers red at the base, blue in the outerweb. Bill light colored horn, darker at the tip; bare periophthalmic pale grey; irises pale yellow; legs pale grey.


Anatomy-parrots-eng

It presents an undistinguished sexual dimorphism. The female It differs from the male in the red face It is limited to the region eye ring and it lacks the red hue in wing coverts. The immature male It looks like female but with red on the primary coverts.

  • Sound of the White-fronted Parrot.

Description 3 subspecies:

White-fronted Parrot

  • Amazona albifrons albifrons

    (Sparrman, 1788) – Nominal.


  • Amazona albifrons nana

    (Miller,W, 1905) – smaller the species nominal. Little differentiated from nominal but the green plumage It is perhaps paler, yellower. Some individuals Coast peaceful show some red on the throat.


  • Amazona albifrons saltuensis

    (Nelson, 1899) – Similar to the nominal but the plumage It is heavily steeped in blue. The blue of the crown It extends to the nape.

Habitat:

This adaptable Amazona uses all kinds of wooded habitats and open field with trees, incluyendo bosque semi-perennifolio semi-perennemente húmedo y estacional (especially at the edge), pine forests, bosque de galería, terrenos agrícolas con bosques abiertos, savannah and tropical arid scrub with cactus, tending to more frequent open areas in the vertiente caribeña.

Usually they prefer drier forests, but where it is simpátrica with Yellow-lored Parrot (Amazona xantholora), tiende a preferir la vegetación más húmeda y cerrada.

In Yucatan the White-fronted Parrot habitan en plantaciones costeras de coco mientras se cría. In altitudes of 900 m (Oaxaca), 1.800 m (Honduras) and 1.500 m (Sonora meridional: register only known outside the tropics).

En parejas en época de cría pero usually gregarious, distributed primarily in small groups, with occasional concentrations of hundreds of birds and some communal roosts (for example, mangroves) with several thousand birds.

Reproduction:

Video "White-fronted Parrot"

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The White-fronted Parrot nest in trees, cavities of the palm tree termitarium, a veces en la cavidad excavada por algún pájaro carpintero. Árboles de la especie Bursera simaruba and Caesalpinia gaumeri are among the favorites to nest in Yucatan. Breeding January July, depending on the location.

A clutch contains 3-5 eggs. Only the female incubates. The incubation lasts around 24 days.

Food:

Registered foods include guilt of Acacia gaumeri (Yucatan), fruits of Lemaireocereus thurberi and Pachycereus and cocoons of Jatropha cordata (Sonora), Ehretia tinijolia and Metopium browneii (Campeche); They also feed on cultivated fruits like mango and grain, incluyendo maíz. Birds often get excited and shout while feeding.

Distribución y estatus:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 2.330.000 km2

The White-fronted Parrot They extend Mexico, from the South of Sonora (north to about 28 ° N) along the Sinaloa and West Durango hacia el sur a través de la región del Pacífico hasta Oaxaca and north through Tehuantepec isthmus the Atlantic coast in southern Veracruz and to the East by Tabasco the entire Península de Yucatán, including northern Guatemala and Belice.

They are present in southern Chiapas and in the lowlands of the Pacífico de Guatemala and, según se informa, in West El Salvador, extending through the lowlands of peaceful, arid and Caribbean lowlands Honduras hasta el Pacífico noroeste de Costa Rica and Nicaragua (where distribution is not detailed).

Mainly seasonal residents but visitors in some parts of the range (for example, Yucatan, El Salvador western and eastern mountains Guatemala).

Introduced in urban areas Cozumel Island, in the State of Quintana Roo (Mexico). Their presence only in urban areas of the island, the ability of the species to live successfully in urban areas, the abundance of fruit trees and use as a pet by the islanders allows us to suggest that registered individuals are the result of leakage or were released by their owners.

Usually common and together with the Orange-fronted Parakeet (Eupsittula canicularis), It is the largest parrot in the vertiente del Pacífico de América Central; although obviously scarce in some areas. The deforestation It is possibly promoting increases in population Caribbean slope of Central America. Capturadas para el pet trade and hunted as food, for example in Yucatan, where recently there has been a population decline due to the persecution of parrots that feed on fruit after loss of wild foods cultivated by Hurricane Gilbert. Its capture se autoriza únicamente durante los meses de octubre a febrero en los estados de Warrior, Jalisco, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Sinaloa and Tabasco and from September to January in Veracruz.

Distribution 3 subspecies:

  • Amazona albifrons albifrons

    (Sparrman, 1788) – Nominal. Costa Pacífica de México from Nayarit a Oaxaca and South of Chiapas in the lowlands Pacífico de Guatemala. Birds in the northern Guatemalan lowlands and the arid interior, they can refer to the subspecies Amazona albifrons nana.


  • Amazona albifrons nana

    (Miller,W, 1905) – Veracruz until Costa Rica, including all península de Yucatán.


  • Amazona albifrons saltuensis

    (Nelson, 1899) – Sonora, Sinaloa and Durango, in Mexico.

Conservation Amazona:

State of conservation ⓘ


Status


Minor Concern ⓘ

(UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Increasing.

Rationale for the Red List category

• Esta especie tiene un very large range and therefore it is not close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of size range (Extent of occurrence below 20,000 km2 combined with a size decreasing or fluctuating range, extension / calidad de hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número de lugares o fragmentación severa).


• La tendencia de la population appears to be increasing and, therefore, the species does not approach the thresholds Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (Wholesale 30% decrease in ten years or three generations).

• The population size is very large and, therefore, not approaching the thresholds for vulnerable under the criterion of population size (less than 10.000 mature individuals with continuing decline estimated a higher percentage of 10% en diez años o tres generaciones o con una estructura poblacional específica).

• Por estas razones la especie es evaluada como la least concern.

Justification of the population

Partners in Flight estimated that the total population of 500.000-4.999.999 individuals (A. Panjabi in a bit., 2008).

Justification of trend

• Se sospecha que la población está aumentando a medida que la degradación del hábitat está creando new areas of suitable habitat.

The White-fronted Parrot in captivity:

Due to the decline of these birds in the wild, especially in the Mexican populations, the White-fronted Parrot is now, unlike other times, offered for sale only rarely. What's more, among birds received by importers, the males generally far outweigh the females por lo que es difícil encontrar una pareja.

Según muchas observaciones, the White-fronted Parrot captured still quite tímidas y poco sociables, especially if they were mature when they were trapped. The birds immature, which can be stained by the yellowing of his crown, relatively well sympathize with their caregivers and are easily adapted to a life in a cage or aviary. It is said to have some talent to imitate.

Según fuentes, the first crías en cautividad They were born in 1949 in the United States by I.D. Putman; the second in 1977 on República Federal Alemana by H. Müller (Walsrode) and a third set in Switzerland in 1979; Desde entonces varios avicultores europeos han reportado éxitos de cría. El último informe llegó en 1985 from the bird park Metelen Heide in Muen-sterland (Western Germany). Allí un clutch de cinco huevos produjo cuatro crías a mediados de junio de 1984 después de un período de incubación de 28 days. The young left the nest after about 70 days, pero todavía eran cuidados y alimentados activamente, mainly by the parent, for a few weeks more.

Its price in the European market round 1000 EUR. generally silent the Amazons largest. It can be noisy just before and during the breeding season.

These birds can become agresivas en la temporada de cría and can attack the caregiver. The nest boxes are better positioned to nest inspection can be performed from outside the aviary. The inspection of the nest is best when adult birds are out of the nest, no obstante la cría en cautividad rara vez se ha logrado entre particulares.

Susceptibles a las infecciones intestinales durante el período de aclimatación.

Their life expectancy can overcome the 50 years.

Alternative names:

White-fronted Parrot, Spectacled Amazon, Spectacled Parrot, White fronted Parrot, White-browed Amazon, White-browed Parrot, White-fronted Amazon (English).
Amazone à front blanc, Amazone à lunettes (French).
Weißstirnamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-testa-branca (Portuguese).
Amazona de Frente Blanca, Amazona Frentialba, Cotorra Frentiblanca, Lora frentiblanca, Loro Frente Blanca, loro frente-blanca, Loro Frentiblanco, Cotorra Guayabera (español).
Cabeza de Manta, Loro Manglero, Cocha, Cocho, Cucha (Mexico).


Clasificación científica Amazona albifrons:

Anders Sparrman

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona albifrons
Citation: (Sparrman, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus albifrons


Images White-fronted Parrot:



Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife
  • The New Parrot Handbook by Werner Lantermann,Matthew M. Vriends

Photos:

(1) – White-fronted Amazon By David Oliva (originally posted to Flickr as Cotorro 007) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Weißstirnamazonen im Tiergarten Schönbrunn By spacebirdy(also known as geimfyglið (:> )=| made with Sternenlaus-spirit) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or FAL], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – white-fronted amazon (Amazona albifrons) By Christoph Anton Mitterer (Flickr: P8155550) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – White-fronted Amazon Amazona albifrons pair perching in a tree at Guanacaste, Costa Rica By Steve Jurvetson (originally posted to Flickr as love birds) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – White-fronted Amazon, (Amazona albifrons). A pet parrot on a perch. Red feathers on this parrots shoulders indicate that it is a male By ➨ Redvers (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Weißstirnamazonen im Tiergarten Schönbrunn By spacebirdy(also known as geimfyglið (:> )=| made with Sternenlaus-spirit) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or FAL], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A captive White-fronted Amazon in Copán Ruinas, Copán, Honduras By Troy from Charlottesville, USA (Flickr) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A White-fronted Amazon – upper body by sumba [CC BY 2.0 of], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – A pet juvenile White-fronted Amazon in Poole, Dorset, England By Kyle Payne from England (Odd Looking Seagull) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – White-fronted Amazon, Amazona albifrons, Remove alone B. Planet EarthFlickr

Sounds: Richard E. Webster, XC353211. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/353211

Diademed Parrot
Amazona Diadema

amazona autumnalis

Content

Description:

31–35 cm. length and 450-550 g. of weight.

The Diademed Parrot (Amazona Diadema) It is generally green, with black edges to feathers crown, to the mantle and the chest; crown green to nape; the back of the green neck, mauve margin; feathers of the cere and forecrown, red; yellow-green, less yellow in upper cheeks, up to the ear-coverts; secondaries red on the bases, the green rest; tail green; eye ring pale yellow; eyes oranges; bill dark grey.

Note:


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Previously treated as conspecific with the Red-lored Amazon (Amazona autumnalis), It is very similar to the subspecies Amazona autumnalis salvini

  • Sound of the Diademed Parrot.

Habitat:

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

It is likely to frequent a variety of habitats from lowland forest species, including edges evergreen forest, as well as modified areas containing scattered trees or plantations (Del Hoyo et al., 1997, pit et to the., 2016).

They are in loose flocks or pairs, are gregarious When feed.

Reproduction:

The laying is of 2-3 eggs. Breeding season, It is supposed to be in early: January-March.

Food:

It feeds mainly from fruits and seeds, even some cultivated species (Del Hoyo et al., 1997), although there are no published data (Del Hoyo et al., 2016).

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 71.800 km2

Endemic low Black river and the northern margin of Amazon River, in the states of amazon and Northwest of For, in Brazil.

Conservation Amazona diadema:

State of conservation ⓘ


Endangered

Endangered (UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Rationale for the Red List category

    Based on a model of future deforestation on amazon basin and susceptibility to this new species capture, it is suspected that its population will suffer a very fast along three generations descent from 2002, so it is in danger of extinction.

Justification of trend

    This species is expected to lose between 49 and 55% suitable habitat within its distribution throughout three generations (37 years) starting at 2002, based on a model of Amazon deforestation (Soares-Filho et to the). Given its susceptibility to capture, It is suspected that species decline by 50-79% during this time.

[spoiler title=”Threats” open=”0″ style=”1″]

• The main threat to this species is the accelerating deforestation in the Amazon Basin as land is cleared for ranching and soy production, provided by the expansion of the road network, together with his susceptibility to capture (Soares-Filho et to the. 2011).

• The species is assumed to experience some pressure catch, probably mainly for internal trade, since this species is rare in aviculture (Del Hoyo et al ., 1997, pit et to the ., 2016).

• Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land to a private owner is legally obliged to keep as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers with perennial vapors) and include an amnesty for owners who deforested before July 2008 (That they would later be absolved of the need to reforest illegally vacated land) (Bird et to the., 2011).

[/spoiler]

[spoiler title=”Conservation Actions Underway” open=”0″ style=”1″]

• No specific conservation actions are known for this species, although part of their habitat is protected.

• It is distributed in the Jau National Park where it is rare or uncommon (Borges et al ., 2001, Borges & Almeida 2011).

[/spoiler]

[spoiler title=”Conservation Actions Proposed” open=”0″ style=”1″]

• Carry out surveys to estimate the size of the population.

Monitor deforestation rates in the range using remote sensing techniques.

• Study the level of Trapping threat.

• Increase the area of ​​suitable habitat that receives protection effective.

• Boost changes in laws related to deforestation and forest protection.

[/spoiler]

The Diademed Parrot in captivity:

Rare in aviculture.

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well managed captive breeding program and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Diademed Amazon, Diademed Parrot, Red-lored Parrot (Diademed) (English).
Amazone à diadème, Amazone diadème, Amazone du Brésil (French).
Diademamazone (German).
Papagaio-diadema (Portuguese).
Amazona diadema (español).


Scientific classification Diademed amazon:

Johann Baptist von Spix

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Diademed Parrot
Citation: (von Spix, 1824)
Protonimo: Psittams diadema


Diademed Parrot images.:



Sources:

Photos:

(1) – diadem parrot. Red lored parrot. 11 November 2015, Tikal, Guatemala by ze_da_binha
(2) – Diademed Parrot – amazon with tiara – Diademed amazon – amazon tiara By Florin Feneru from Orpington, UK (Diademed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Red-lored Amazon at Loro Parque, Cross port, Tenerife, Spain. This subspecies is also called the Diademed Amazon By Carlos Urdiales [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Red-lored Amazon at Xcaret Eco Park, Riviera Maya, Mexico. Photographed as it started to rain By Tomasz Wagner from Burnaby, BC, Canada (Parrot – Amazona autumnalis) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Diademed amazon (Diademed Parrot) Loro Parque, Tenerife by Florin FeneruFlickr
(6) – PL. XXXI I Chrysolis diadema (î^wl By Blanchard, Emile; Bonaparte, Charles Lucian; Bourjot Saint-Hilaire, Alexandre; Le Vaillant, François; Souancé, Charles de. [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: GABRIEL MILK, XC119110. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/119110

Festive Parrot
Amazona festiva

Amazona festiva

Content

Description

38-41 cm.. tall and 370g. weight.

The Festive Parrot (Amazona festiva) has the cheeks and sides neck Green with strong blue diffusion; lores and a close frontal band red; feathers above and behind them eyes blue; Forehead rather yellowish green. Crown Green but darker; Feathers of the nape of color green with a band terminal dark. Mantle, scapulars, top of the back and uppertail-coverts dark green; Rump and the greater part of the low back bright red. Primary coverts Violet Blue. Other coverts dark green.

Amazon-festive-6

Edge carpal of the wing and margin of the outerweb of the primaries, blue; innerwebs black; secondaries dark blue-tipped, secondaries more interior Green. Underwing-coverts green. Chin and throat blue; Breast and belly green; coverts infra-flows brighter yellowish green. Tail green, of paler green yellowish at the tip; Trace reddish at the base of some feathers.


Anatomy-parrots-eng

The bill color cuerno-marron; Iris yellow, legs dark grey.

Ambos sexos son similares.

Immature have irises dark and show a less intense color in the head. Its back low is practically Green; some of the pens outside of it tail they have a red base.

Subspecies description

  • Amazona festiva bodini

    (Finsch, 1873) – It has a banda ancha Violet Blue and red in the front behind the eyes.


  • Amazona festiva festiva

    (Linnaeus,1758) – The nominal.

Habitat:

Video "Festive Parrot"

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Festive Parrot they attend primary and secondary lowland forests, mainly várzea, swamp forest and River Islands, as well igapó (permanently flooded forest), usually are found near the water and can prevent forests of Earth firm, aunque también reportadas en bosques de galería y sabanas con árboles dispersos.

Observed in cocoa plantations in Brazil. At altitudes of 500 metres in Colombia and 100 metres in Venezuela. Usually in small flocks with larger meetings occasionally reported. Flocks of up to 50 birds are about Leticia between the months of May-June. Tend to gather is by the afternoon and in the evening in products communal.

Reproduction:

It nests in hollow of trees dead between mayo to June.
A breeding pair averages 3 huevos en cada nidada y el período de incubación es generalmente cerca de 28 days.

Food:

Usually in numerous flocks, little of its power is known.

Distribution:

The Festive Parrot found in the North of South America mainly as two large populations disjunct in the basins of the amazon and Orinoco.

A population occupies the Northwest of Guyana (very few records) and Venezuela in southern Apure in the Río Meta and a half Orinoco to Delta Amacuro.

The second extends from parts of the lowlands of the East (Colombia including the lower part of the Río Casanare, lower Río Meta and Río Vaupés towards the South through the amazon of Ecuador (where birds are reported in Río Napo, but few recent records) and northeast of Peru, and further to the East through the West of Brazil, from Río Branco, Río Negro and bottom of the río Madeira up to the Basin Amazon East in Amapá and For and at the mouth of the amazon on Ilha Mexiana (where is its status uncertain).

Probably in its greater part resident, Although sporadic Bird on the edge of its distribution area in Ecuador and Guyana, They suggest seasonal movements outside their range, obviously low in Guyana and local in Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, pero más común en partes de la Amazonia occidental in Brazil and locally the Amazona más común en algunas áreas de Colombia (for example by of Leticia).

Pursued to the trade in live birds in parts of its area of distribution (for example, Peru). Its swampy habitat is not much in demand for agriculture, by what does not seems to have a contraction apparent large scale of its population.

Subspecies distribution:

  • Amazona festiva bodini

    (Finsch, 1873) – Este de Colombia to the basin of the Orinoco of Venezuela


  • Amazona festiva festiva

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – The nominal.

Conservation:

State of conservation ⓘ


Status

Near Threatened (UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

While it has declined locally, sigue siendo bastante común a lo largo de una gran parte de su área de distribución, and may even be close to cities as Manaus and Iquitos.

The size of the world population It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “Rare

Consequently, is considered of least concern by BirdLife International and the IUCN , Although it was categorized as vulnerable in 2012, because of patterns of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest and the susceptibility to hunt, predicts that the population will decrease quickly during the next three generations.

Festive Parrot in captivity:

Very rare in captivity.

His temperament is extremely excitable. Males tend to be aggressive. Good to excellent imitator.

It feeds on the sunflower seeds or other provided you ,fruit, vegetables etc..

Alternative names:

Festive Parrot, Festive Amazon, Red-backed Amazon, Red-backed Parrot (English).
Amazone tavoua, Amazona festiva (French).
Blaubartamazone (German).
Papagaio-da-várzea, papa-cacau, tauá, tavua (Portuguese).
Amazona de Lomo Rojo, Amazona Festiva, Lora Festiva (español).
Lora Festiva (Colombia).
Loro de Lomo Rojo (Peru).
Loro Lomirrojo (Venezuela).


scientific classification:

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona festiva
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protonimo: Psittacus festivus


Festive Parrot Images:



Sources:

  • Parrot Book, Parrots and macaws Neotropical
  • avibase

Photos:

(1) – Festive Amazon at Loro Parque, Teneriffe By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Festive_Amazon_BW. JPG: Berthold Werner (Festive_Amazon_BW. JPG) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Festive Amazon at Tulsa Zoo, USA. This subspecies is known as Bodinus’ Amazon By Christopher G from Tulsa Oklahoma, USA (Amazon Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A pet Festive Amazon By Tutu … F. Lopes (originally posted to Flickr as ♠) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Two Festive Amazons in an aviary at a bird park in Kaluga Oblast, Russia. They are the subspecies Amazona festiva bodini, common name Bodinus’ Amazon. They are probably jostling for room on their perch By Remiz [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Festive Parrot By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Amazona_festiva-8.jpg: frank wouters [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Image from http://search.abaa.org/dbp2/book1700_08832.html

Sounds: Sergio Chaparro Herrera

Tres Marias Parrot
Amazona tresmariae

Tres Marias Parrot

Content

Description:

38-40 cm.. length and 580-650 g. of weight.

The Tres Marias Parrot (Amazona tresmariae) has head and throat yellow.

The upperparts are green. The underparts They are green but more yellowed than upperparts. Thighs yellow. Primaries and secondaries green, violet-blue becoming the tip. should carpal yellow. Speculum red on the basis of the five outer secondaries. The curve wings, pale red, with some yellow.

The tail is green, with yellowish green tip and lateral feathers basically marked with red on the inner band; outermost feathers fringed blue. The legs They are pale gray. The irises It is orange. The bill is horn-colored, gray towards the base of the upper jaw. Cere dark gray.


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Ambos sexos son similares. The immature They are completely green head, except the yellow patch in forecrown. The curve wings, green. should carpal yellowish green.

Taxonomic note:

It is granted status species by the Congreso Internacional de Ornitología.

Habitat:

Video "Tres Marias Parrot"

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

They have preference by deciduous forests or evergreen, clear, Savanna Woods, pine forests, densos bosques de galería; menos comúnmente en bosques secos de espinos, mangroves or coastal marshes and cultivated areas with scattered trees.

Resident throughout its area of distribution.

Reproduction:

Nest en agujeros en troncos de árboles o ramas caídas.

Food:

consume outbreaks, leaves news, fruits palm, seeds of Acacia, fruits of Macuna, figs and some fruits of cultivated land.

Distribution:

Endemic to the Islas Marías, on the west coast of Mexico.

Amazon tresmariae Conservation :

State of conservation ⓘ


Status


Minor Concern ⓘ

(UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

The Tres Marias Parrot It has an extremely large range and, therefore, it does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable at the discretion of the distribution area size (Extension <20,000 km2 combined with a size decreasing or fluctuating range, extensión o calidad del hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número de lugares o fragmentación severa).

A pesar de que la population trend appears to be declining, It not believed to be declining fast enough to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations).

The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed that approximates Vulnerable thresholds under the criterion of population size (<10.000 mature individuals with an estimated continuing decline> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Usually it regarded as a subspecies of the Yellow-crowned Parrot (Amazona ochrocephala).

Tres Marias Parrot in captivity:

These birds belong to Appendix I of the CITES, with special protection because they are highly sought.

Alternative names:

Panama yellow-crowned amazon, Tres Maria Yellow-headed Parrot, Tres Marias Amazon, Tres Marias Parrot, Yellow-headed Parrot (Tres Marias Is.) (English).
Amazone à tête jaune (forme des Tres Marias), Amazone de Três Marias, Amazone des Tres Marias (French).
Gelbkopfamazone-tresmariae, Tres-Marias-Amazone (German).
Tres Marias Parrot (Portuguese).
Tres Marias Parrot, Tres Marias Amazon, amazona de Tres Marias, Amazona cabeciamarilla de tres marias, Loro de las islas María (español).


Clasificación científica Amazona tresmariae:

Edward William Nelson
Edward William Nelson

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona tresmariae
Citation: Nelson, 1900<

Tres Marias Parrot images:


Tres Marias Parrot (Amazona tresmariae)


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Photos:

(1) – Amazona tresmariae at Cougar Mountain Zoological Park, USA perching on a zoo keepers left hand By Derrick CoetzeeCamera location47° 33′ 11.72″ N, 122° 04′ 50.26″ W View this and other nearby images on: Openstreetmap – Google Earth 47.553255; -122.080628 [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Amazona tresmariae in a cage at Cougar Mountain Zoological Park By Derrick Coetzee from Seattle, USA (Tres Marias Amazon in cage 2) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Amazona tresmariae at Cougar Mountain Zoological Park, USA. There are two with a woman zoo keeper By Derrick Coetzee [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Tres Marias Amazon in cage by D CoetzeeFlickr
(5) – Loro de cabeza amarilla de las Islas Tres Marías by (c) Juan Cruzado Cortés – naturalista.mx

Saint Lucia amazon
Amazona versicolor

Saint Lucia amazon

Content

Description:

43 cm.. length and 700-800 g. of weight.

Saint Lucia amazon

The Saint Lucia amazon (Amazona versicolor) has the lores, cheeks and forecrown, bright blue; crown, ear-coverts and lower cheeks, paler blue with iridescent emerald suffusion from some angles; dark tips to feathers on head.

Hindneck neck, nape and upperparts, yellowish-olive, many feathers with visible black tips, giving the whole a barred effect strong, especially in the upper region. Wing coverts yellowish green olive. Primary coverts dyed blue, rest with black tips to some feathers. Primaries blue; bases of external secondarys forman speculum red, blue tips; secondary internal green and blue at the base to the tips. Underwing, yellowish green with blackish tips to some feathers; flight feather bluish green. Chin and throat, bright blue with blackish tips to feathers; tips of feathers on lower throat and top of the chest, bright red forming a patch distinct red patch or mottled red area; chest and belly rather yellowish-green, blackish tips and brick red in the subterminal area of some feathers, giving scalloped appearance with scattered rusty patches; the thighs and undertail-coverts, green-yellow. Tail bluish green in the center, outer feathers green with large yellowish green tips and hidden red bases. Bill grey; irises orange; legs grey.


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Probably no sexual dimorphism.

Immature has irises brown.

  • Sound of the Saint Lucia amazon.

Habitat:

Video "Saint Lucia amazon"

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

Mainly they inhabit the canopy montana primary rainforest, but they make inroads into areas of secondary growth to feed. Reported flocks of up 20 birds. living forms community.

Reproduction:

They nest in tree hollows. Nests observed in trees Dacryodes excelsa, Pouleria and Tetracera caribaeum. Época de cría in February-August. Clutch usually two eggs, although, usually, only one young per nest thrives.

Food:

Its diet includes flowers and fruits of Clusia, Fruits of Talauma dodecapetala, Acrocomia irenensis, Pouleria, Dacryodes excelsa, Sloanea massoni, Byrsonima martinicensis, Miconia mirabilis, Pterocarpus officinalis and Euterpe globosa; also they have been seen feeding on bananas after the hurricane and presumably due to the depletion of natural food sources. Absence of common areas from August to November possibly linked to the lack of fruitfulness of Clusia.

Distribución y estatus:

Size of the area of distribution (raising / resident): 230 km2

Confined to St. Lucia in the Lesser Antilles, now in the central and southern mountains, aunque antiguamente eras más generalizadas en todas partes en donde crecía el bosque húmedo. The species has suffered a contraction of the range since the nineteenth century and now It occupies an area of ​​only 65-70 km2 from Millet and Mont Lacombe in the North, until Mont Beucop and Calfourc in the East, Piton Pig, St Piton, St Desrache and Big store in the south to Morne Gimie in the west and Mont Houlemon in the Northwest. The results of studies on the species suggest that the southwestern part of this area is the most densely populated of parrots, while relatively few live in the northeast.

Plentiful mid-nineteenth century, but decreasing rapidly to very little in the early twentieth century. Subsequently they recovered, with an estimated population of 1.000 birds in 1950. They declined again sixties, en su mayoría debido a la caza; observations in 1977 They estimated that there were more than 100 birds. steady increase since then with an estimated population of 300-350 birds in 1990.

The threats main arise from habitat loss and its hunting for food and pet trade as. Forestry practices that lead to the removal of mature trees (favorite breeding sites) podrían suponer una presión adicional. They seem to be less susceptible to hurricanes than their counterparts in Dominica, pero esto puede deberse a esfuerzos de conservación en lugar de cualquier capacidad intrínseca de soportar los efectos de tormentas severas.

Can compete for nesting sites with Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus), which it has increased considerably since 1950.

Amazona versicolor Conservation:

State of conservation ⓘ


Vulnerable

Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: In increased.

• Population size : 230-330

Rationale for the Red List category

Conservation action may have saved this species from extinction. Los números ahora están aumentando y hay alguna evidencia de una extensión pequeña de la gama. However, the habitat area apparently adequate (but vacated) It may be waning. If this begins to affect the habitat occupied, the species can be described as danger of extinction. In the news, its small population size and small size on one island are calling it Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The population is estimated at 350-500 individuals, approximately equal to 230-330 mature individuals.

Justification of trend

No new data on population trends, so it is assumed that the species continues increasing.

[spoiler title=”Threats” open=”0″ style=”1″]

The human population St. Lucia It is growing at a considerable rate, increasing the pressure on the forest and resulting in habitat loss (Copsey 1995). The selective logging of mature trees You can significantly reduce breeding sites (Juniper and Parr 1998), and hurricanes, the hunting and the trade pose new threats. There have been recent efforts to raise the moratorium on hunting within forest reserves, lo que amenazaría seriamente esta especie (J. D. Gilardi in litt., 1999).

[/spoiler]

[spoiler title=”Conservation Actions Underway” open=”0″ style=”1″]

Coat of arms of Saint Lucia

Appendices I and II of CITES. This protected by national legislation (J. D. Gilardi in litt., 1999).

Education programs and awareness have made this bird in a símbolo nacional.

This has eliminated successfully hunting (Juniper and Parr 1998), helped by a moratorium on hunting within forest reserves (J. D. Gilardi in litt., 1999).

In 1975 program was established cría en cautividad, and in 1995 se había desarrollado un total de 19 young birds (Copsey, 1995).

[/spoiler]

[spoiler title=”Conservation Actions Proposed” open=”0″ style=”1″]

Maintain the moratorium on hunting within all forest reserves. Conduct a studyo básico de la alimentación y la ecología de la cría. Designate the remaining habitat protected areas. Reassess the objectives of the program cría en cautividad.

[/spoiler]

La Amazona de Santa Lucía en cautividad:

Extremadamente rara; currently only it found in the Jersey Zoo

Appendices I and II CITES. This protected by national legislation.

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-managed program cría en cautividad and not be sold as a pet, with the objective of ensure their survival long-term.

Alternative names:

Blue-masked Amazon, Blue-masked Parrot, St Lucia Amazon, St Lucia Parrot, St. Lucia Amazon, St. Lucia Parrot, St.Lucia amazon, Versicolored Parrot, Versicoloured Parrot (English).
Amazone de Sainte-Lucie, Amazone versicolore, Amazone versicolore de Sainte-Lucie (French).
Blaumaskenamazone, Blaustirnamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-santa-lúcia (Portuguese).
Amazona de Santa Lucia, Amazona de Santa Lucía, Amazona de Sta. Lucia (español).

Clasificación científica Amazona versicolor:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona versicolor
Citation: (Statius Müller, 1776)
Protonimo: Psittacus versicolor

Imágenes Amazona de Santa Lucía:


Saint Lucia amazon (Amazona versicolor)


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Saint Lucia Parrot(Amazona versicolor) by Josh MoreFlickr
(2) – Chrysotis bouqueti (a.k.a. Amazona versicolor, the St. Lucia amazon, or the St. Lucia parrot) by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Allen T. Chartier, XC9438. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/9438

St. Vincent Parrot
Amazona guildingii

St. Vincent Parrot

Content

Description:

40 cm.. length and 580 – 700 weight g.

The plumage of the St. Vincent Parrot (Amazona guildingii) It is very variable, virtually no two similar birds.

Its forecrown, lores, supercilii area and upper cheeks are blanquecinas; crown yellow; Feathers back neck and its sides, pale blue dark blue tips; fusion green feathers on the neck show black points. Upperparts dark brown with dark black tips to some feathers. Scapulars gold; coverts outer primaries with pale blue in outerweb.

St. Vincent Parrot

Wing coverts brown with a green band subterminal and dark extremes some feathers; carpal edge yellow-orange with scattered green feathers. Primaries blue with bases yellow-orange; the Outer secondaries They are equal with green subterminal bands, the inner secondary green with blue tips; tertiary interior dark green tinted golden brown on outerweb, Outside tertiary green at the base becoming dark blue at the tips.

Under the wings, with lesser coverts brown with green tips, greater coverts Yellow; flight feathers blackish with yellow at the base. Throat orange with blue tips or blue-green; upper chest golden brown with dark brown tips giving a barred effect; belly yellower than gold chest green blackish subterminal band and pointed to some feathers; undertail-coverts green-yellow. Tail Orange at the base with blue broadband and wide ends central bright yellow. Bill pale gray-horn; irises orange; legs grey.


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Ambos sexos son similares. The immature They have softer colors.

VARIACIÓN GEOGRÁFICA

Parrots eastern side of San Vicente They are possibly genetically isolated from the western side: the small bird population East (perhaps only about 80 in 1982) show a high proportion of green and have their high-pitched voices.

  • Sound of the St. Vincent Parrot.

Habitat:

Video "St. Vincent Parrot"

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The St. Vincent Parrot principalmente habitan en bosques húmedos maduros en altitudes of 125 some 1000 m, although they prefer lowland forests, where they spend most time. Occasionally they leave the forest to visit cultivated areas and even gardens. Gregarias and usually in groups 20-30 indivíduos o en parejas. They forage in flocks and roost use Community. Defienden el área alrededor del nido mientras que crían aunque también se mantienen en grupos mientras se alimentan y duermen.

Reproduction:

Nests in hollow mature forest trees such as Dacryodes or Sloanea large. Las parejas comienzan la actividad de cría alrededor de febrero con los huevos puestos entre abril-mayo. In dry years, eggs can be deposited as soon as in January-February or as late as in July. Si las condiciones son especialmente húmedas, birds can not be played at all. Clutch two eggs, rarely three. low productivity with 50% Natural suffering nest failure and successful nests with only two young people in the best years.

Food:

Its diet includes plants of Cordia sulcata, Clusia, Sloanea, Dacryodes excelsa, Ficus, Cecropia peltata, Mangifera indica, Melisoma virescens, Euterpe, Ixora ferrea, Micropholis chrysophylloides, Acrocomia aculeata, Simarouba amara, iron Krugiodendron, Dussia Martinicensis, Andira inermis, No Ingoides, Byrsonima coriacea, Talauma dodecapetala, see venosa, Psidium guajava and Aiphanes erosa. The Pouteria multiflora It is your favorite.

Distribución y estatus:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 100 km2

Endémica de la San Vicente Island in the Lesser Antilles. La distribución está estrechamente relacionada con la presencia de los bosques húmedos nativos que durante la mayor parte del siglo XX se han confinado a los lados este y oeste de las estribaciones centrales de la isla.

Currently the largest flocks of St. Vincent Parrot inhabit the headwaters of Buccament, Cumberland, Colonaire, Congo-Jennings-Perseverance and Richmond Valley’s, where much of the remaining native forest concentrated; en otros lugares en menor número.

Some estimates of its population between 1870 and 1920 They are contradictory, but the species evidently decreased substantially 1950. Estimates of the population in the early seventies suggested that between several hundred to 1.000 then birds inhabited the island. Survey 1982 suponía un total de 421 ± 52 birds while estimating 1988 He suggested 440-500. Perhaps they increased to 800 birds in 1994. The declining population and shrinking range, está vinculada a la pérdida de la cubierta húmeda del bosque que una vez (at least in the western side) almost reached sea level. Deforestation seems to have stopped in at least some valleys, but habitat remains at risk due to forestry, expansion of banana, charcoal production and loss of nests for collectors looking young birds for trade. Survey 1984 sugirió que sólo sobrevivían en 16 km2 of primary forest. His capture for pets and international trade It remains a threat, but this and hunting, that was probably the main threat from late 1950 a 1970, They have declined in importance following an education campaign. The remaining population is also at risk because of hurricanes that can cause loss of plants that consume and nesting sites, así como la mortalidad directa. In 1902 much of the favorite habitat of this species was destroyed by the eruption of Monte Soufrière and these parrots are clearly vulnerable to future volcanic eruptions. Parts of the remaining forest habitat are now protected areas and the species is protected under domestic law. CITES Apéndice I.

Conservation:

State of conservation ⓘ


Vulnerable

Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: In increased.

• Population size: 250-999

Rationale for the Red List category

Habitat conservation, la aplicación de la ley y las campañas de concienciación pública han frenado el deslizamiento de esta especie hacia la extinción e incluso han revertido algunas de las disminuciones anteriores. However, todavía califica como Vulnerable because it has a very small population and range on one island.

Justification of the population

The species has a wild population of about 730 birds (Loro Parque Foundation 2008), which is equivalent to 487 mature individuals, colocados aquí en la banda de 250-999 individuals.

Justification of trend

El número de esta especie continúa aumentando constantemente (Culzac-Wilson 2005).

Threats

It hunting for food, capture for trade in birds in cages and habitat loss were the main causes of the decline of this species. Deforestation has been a result of forestry activities, expansion of banana, production of charcoal, loss of nesting trees felled by hunters looking young birds for trade, así como desastres naturales tales como huracanes y erupciones volcánicas (Snyder et to the., 2000).

The nine-banded armadillo o tatú negro (Salmo salar), introduced on the island, socava los árboles grandes causando su caída, reduciendo el número de nidos adecuados para la St. Vincent Parrot (Culzac-Wilson 2005). a highway is planned through the island, funded by the Taiwanese government, que destruiría grandes áreas de hábitat adecuado y aumentaría las tasas de deforestación (Culzac-Wilson et al., 2003). Genetic isolation of separate subpopulations may be of greater concern.

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Appendices I and II CITES. national legislation protecting the species applies. The Reserve Pargo de San Vicente It was established to protect the entire habitat occupied (Juniper and Parr 1998). Las campañas exitosas de educación pública han mejorado aparentemente la percepción pública de la especie y, combined with the above measures, They have reversed some of the earlier reductions. There captive populations San Vicente and Barbados (Woolcock 2000, Sweeney 2001). In 2005 a large species conservation plan published (Culzac-Wilson 2005) .

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Continue to monitor the population. Continue and enhance existing security measures, incluyendo el desarrollo del programa de cría en cautividad. Study the reproductive success, movement patterns and habitat requirements of this species (Snyder et to the., 2000) . Oppose plans for cross-country road and propose a better option. Implement species conservation plan.

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St. Vincent Parrot in captivity:

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-managed program cría en cautividad and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Guilding’s Amazon, Guilding’s Parrot, St Vincent Amazon, St Vincent Parrot, St. Vincent Amazon, St. Vincent Parrot, St.Vincent amazon (English).
Amazone de Guilding, Amazone de Saint-Vincent (French).
Königsamazon, Königsamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-são-vicente (Portuguese).
Amazona de San Vicente, Amazona de St. Vicente (español).

scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona guildingii
Citation: (Vigors, 1837)
Protonimo: Psittacus Guildingii

St. Vincent Parrot images:


St. Vincent Parrot (Amazona guildingii)


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A St Vincent Amazon in the rehabilitation and breeding centre in the Botanical Gardens, Kingstown, on the island of Saint VincenBy Amazona_guildingii_-Botanical_Gardens_-Kingstown_-Saint_Vincent-8a.jpg: Chennettederivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A St. Vincent Amazon at World Parrot Refuge, Coombs, British Columbia, Canada By Herb Neufeld (World Parrot Refuge – Coombs, BC) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – St. Vincent Amazon (Amazona guildingii) also known as St. Vincent Parrot By Beralpo at ru.wikipedia [CC BY 2.5], from Wikimedia Commons
(4) – St. Vincent Parrot – Source: own work – Location: Bronx Zoo, New York – Author: self, User:Stavenn By No machine-readable author provided. Stavenn assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – St. Vincent Amazon at Houston Zoo, USA By Kent Wang (originally posted to Flickr as Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – St Vincent Parrot (1) by Mark MorganFlickr

Sounds: Jesse Fagan, XC48891. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/48891