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- Amazona agilis

Black-billed Parrot

Description:

25 cm.. length and 178 g. of weight.

Black-billed Parrot

The Black-billed Parrot (Amazona agilis) It is the smallest of the Amazon parrots, and it is one of only two species Amazon endemics Jamaica.

This species, brightly colored, has a plumage, in its most, of color green with them underparts lighter, green or yellow. The slightly darker edges in feathers of the back of the neck, one dan scalloped effect. Flight feather darker at the tip; feathers of the tail blue in the margins with red bases to outer feathers. Their eyes They are surrounded by a dark brown ring dark grey, and the bill is black.

The adult male they have the coverts red on the outer of the wings, While these feathers They are usually green in females and in the immature.

  • Sound of the Black-billed Parrot.

Habitat:

It is in the wet limestone forests to elevations of 1.600 m. They can be seen in the upper canopy, and they can also be found foraging in cultivated land and plantations near the edge of the forest.

Form groups 6 to 30 individuals.

Reproduction:

The Black-billed Parrot used for nest the tree holes are formed from or related to weathering processes and pathogen attacks insects, at least a 18 meters above the ground. It has reported the use of cavity left by the Jamaican Woodpecker (Melanerpes radiolatus).
Like other species of parrots, the vigorous vocalizations among couples announce nesting territories.

The breeding season It is from March to August. The laying is of 2-4 eggs, with a range of about 48 hours between successive eggs. Eggs are incubated only by the female during 24 days. During this time the male will feed and exchange food with female. The incubation It begins after the first egg is placed, so hatching occurs at intervals, up to seven days between the first and last hatch. Chicks this Amazon They spend up to eight weeks in the nest.

Most failed nests do in the early mating period, as a result of predation by Jamaican Boa (Epicrates subflavus) (Gruber 1980) and to a lesser extent Jamaican Crow (Corvus jamaicensis).

Food:

The Black-billed Parrot It feeds on fruit, seeds, dried fruits, berries and flowers in the forest canopy. The populations of this species will move in response to the location of food sources. This species also feed on crops and can cause considerable damage to fruit ripening.

Distribution and status:

Tamaño de su área de distribución (reproductor/residente): 5.100 km2

Its distribution area It is restricted to the wet limestone forests midlevel, which they have declined dramatically in recent 40 years. Locally common by all the Cockpit Country, particularly in disturbed habitat edge where it is more common than Yellow-billed Parrot (Amazona collaria), with which occasionally is associated.

The populations of the Black-billed Parrot also they found in Mount Diablo, in the center of the island. Historical reports also placed at the eastern end of the island, although recent sightings in that area are rare. However, small flocks have been recently in the John Crow Mountains. Preliminary surveys indicate population estimates much higher than those described above, and possibly more than 10.000 individuals in the region of Cockpit Country (C. Levy in some 1999).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 6000-15000

Justification of the red list category

This species has a range very small within which its habitat is declining in extent, area and quality; and additional reductions of the population are being caused by the trampeo and predation, qualifying the species as Vulnerable. Currently it does not qualify as endangered because the habitat is severely fragmented and is known in more than five places. However, the species can requalify for inclusion in a top list in the future due to population decline likely if the three proposed mining concessions Cockpit Country They are awarded.

Justification of the population

Preliminary population estimates are best placed to world population in the band between 10.000 and 19.999 individuals (S. Koenig in a bit., 2008). This is equivalent to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, round here 6,000-15,000 mature individuals. Further studies are needed to get an accurate figure.

Justification of trend

The data suggest that decrease of at least 50% of the population of this species could occur in the next 40-50 years as a result of habitat destruction due to three proposed mining concessions, two of which have recently been granted (Koenig, 2008). However, It is not sure if the third concession is granted (S. Koenig in some. 2010), and as such it is projected to suffer a decrease of species 30-49% over the next 37 years (three generations).

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. protected under the Protection Act Wildlife Jamaica and Endangered Species Act of 2000, which together prohibit keep the species as a pet and local and international trade.

• Since 1995 He has worked to delineate its distribution, estimate the size of the population, identify long-term factors limiting reproductive performance and train local people in research methods and techniques for monitoring (Davis 1997, BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• Habitat in Blue Mountains National Park and John Crow, but the implementation and management of the park are weak (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• There is a permanent campaign public awareness high profile to prevent bauxite mining in Cockpit Country, by making the area is declared closed to mining by the Minister Discretion (S. Koenig in some. 2007, 2009).

• The proponents remain optimistic that, while losing a large area of ​​habitat, be declared closed a large area of ​​habitat for mining (S. Koenig in some. 2007, 2009).

• they have begun discussions that could lead to the ban the importation of psittacine to Jamaica to reduce the risk of leakage and hybridisation (S. Koenig in some. 2007, 2009).

• Populations of captive breeding.

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Survey to delineate the range and evaluate the numbers (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• Establish a monitoring program long-term.

• Designate Cockpit Country closed to mining.

• Ensure facto protection Blue Mountains National Park and John Crow (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• Design and implement Educational programs in the area occupied by the species and adjacent areas (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998) and develop a structured breeding program.

• Improve implementation of the legislation against poaching.

In captivity:

CITES Appendix II. protected under the Protection Act Wildlife Jamaica and Endangered Species Act of 2000, which together prohibit keep the species as a pet and local and international trade.

Populations of captive breeding.

Alternative names:


- Black-billed Parrot, Active Amazon, Active Parrot, All-green Amazon, All-green Parrot, Black billed Parrot, Black-billed Amazon (inglés).
- Amazone verte (francés).
- Rotspiegelamazone (alemán).
- Papagaio-de-bico-preto (portugués).
- Amazona de Pico Negro, Amazona Jamaicana Piquioscura (español).

Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Amazona
- Nombre científico: Amazona agilis
- Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Protónimo: Psittacus agilis

Images Black-billed Parrot:

Black-billed Parrot (Amazona agilis)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Black-billed Parrot in Jamaica By Ron Knight from Seaford, East Sussex, United Kingdom (Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Amazona agilis in Wuppertal zoo By Simon J. Tonge [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Black-billed Amazon at Vienna Zoo, Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria By Alois Staudacher (Rotspiegelamazone) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Black-billed Amazon at Vienna Zoo, Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria By Alois Staudacher (Rotspiegelamazone) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A Black-billed Parrot in Jamaica By Ron Knight from Seaford, East Sussex, United Kingdom (Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A Black-billed Amazon at Vienna Zoo, Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria By Alois Staudacher (Rotspiegelamazone) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Black-billed Amazon in the John Crow Mountains, Portland, Jamaica By Brennan Mulrooney (originally posted to Flickr as Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A Black-billed Parrot in Jamaica By Ron Knight from Seaford, East Sussex, United Kingdom (Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Psittacus agilis By Barraband, Jacques; Bouquet; Le Vaillant, François [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – [Little green parrot (Black-billed Amazon [Amazona agilis])] From Natural History of Parrots (by Francois Levaillant, 1801-1805) by Jacques Barraband – Wikimedia

Sounds: Ross Gallardy, XC308430. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/308430

 
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