The Red-spectacled Parrot (Amazona pretrei) has the forecrown, lores, fore crown and upper cheeks up to the ear-coverts, bright red; back of the crown, nape, the mantle, back and rump, green with a narrow terminal band black in most feathers; scapulars green; uppertail-coverts pale green. Leading edge of wing, carpal area, alula and primary coverts, bright red; other coverts, narrow green with black tips.
Flight feather, violet blue green tips. Under wings green. The underparts They are mostly green, slightly tinged with yellowish, with black tips to most feathers giving a scalloped effect; the thighs red; undertail-coverts pale yellowish green. Tail green with broad pale yellowish-green tip and patches of red on base of innerwebs of the three feathers outermost. The bill pale yellow with pale orange based on upper mandible; bare periophthalmic white; iris orange; legs gris pardusco.
The female probably it shows much less red in the wing with the carpal edge and primary coverts, mostly or wholly green. Immature apparently similar to female adult.
It´s monotypic. Some times it is considered conspecific with Amazona tucumana, but they are best treated as forming a superspecies.
Video Red-spectacled Parrot
Parrots in the world
Species of the genus Amazona
This rider is strongly associated with forests Araucaria angustifolia for use as roosts non-breeding season. It prefers open savanna forests and low riparian forests for reproduction, with trees and conifers of the genus Podocarpus, Scutia and Celtis and where they are absent Araucaria angustifolia. Most records located at altitudes between 300-1.000 m, but they are distributed and raised at lower elevations in southern Rio Grande do Sul.
Are dispersed in pairs during breeding but are highly gregarious outside the breeding season. They form large concentrations community, often in plantations pinus exotic and Eucalyptus. The largest winter meetings coincide with the ripening seeds araucaria. flocks of 30 to 50 birds, composed of young adults and newborns, They may meet before the dispersion, from the breeding grounds to winter quarters.
The Red-spectacled Parrot nest in tree hollows, for example, Casearia, Ouillaja brasiliensis and Ficus. With reproduce at the end of September to January, with young people and fledglings, usually, in early December in the south. Clutch 2-4 eggs.
Foods reported include seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (especially important in May-August) and Podocarpus lambertii (important in some areas in January-February), fruits of Eugenia, Campomanesia and Melia. The diet is altered with the town and the station. They take a variety of fruit in the spring and summer (October to February), among others: Cupania, Eugenia, Phytolacca, Allophylus, Nectandra, Ocotea, Campomanesia, Cytharexylum, Myrcianthes, Blepharocalyx, Ficus and Symplocos.
The diurnal movements cover up 100 km, perhaps in relation with the availability of food.
Distribution and status:
This species is endemic to South Brazil and distributed only in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (Martínez, 1996). Some individuals have been recorded in the forests Missions, in the northeast of Argentina (Chebez 1994) and they have recently also been reported from Paraguay (sec Lowcn et al., 1997).
It is a kind Nomad; They tend to focus on the remaining forests Araucaria Southeast Santa Catarina between March and June to feed on seeds production Araucaria augustifolia. During August and January, the Red-spectacled Parrot They are dispersed in small flocks ranging from tens to hundreds of individuals in a wide distribution throughout the state Rio Grande do Sul, particularly in habitats Cima da Serra fields, Plateau East, Alto Uruguay, Depression Central and Southeast Saws.
Reductions in seed supply Araucaria They may have been the cause of change in the feeding of Ecological Station Aracuri-Esmeralda in 1991 (Municipality of many Capões) to areas around Southeast Santa Catarina. Here the remaining forest patches Araucaria They can provide enough seed to feed the populations Red-spectacled Parrot. The intensive cattle grazing and agriculture have almost eradicated habitat Araucaria. These impacts on habitat have reduced natural regeneration and also may have reduced the number of nesting sites in old trees.
a census in 1994 It estimated the total population of the Red-spectacled Parrot in 10.000 individuals, Repeated surveys have shown the sizes of the nearby population 12.600 individuals in 1996. and about 16.300 individuals in 1997 (J. Martinez in the proceedings 1997, N. Prestes in the proceedings 1997).
Conservation status ⓘ
Vulnerable ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ
• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.
• Population trend: Decreasing.
Justification of the red list category
The combination of a comparison of population estimates 1971 and 1997 and deforestation rates during the same period suggest that the species has declined rapidly, qualifying the species as Vulnerable. Current threats loss of habitat and capture They suggest that this decline is likely to continue.
Justification of trend
Se sospecha una continued rapid population decline due to destruction, degradation and fragmentation of habitat and illegal trade.
The Red-spectacled Parrot in captivity:
Unknown until years 80, when a few reached Europe; not well known elsewhere.
relatively silent compared to other Amazonian species. Inquisitivas although generally quiet. have a nice nature, but they can occasionally be quite noisy, especially first thing in the morning and evening. They become confident relatively quickly. Outside the breeding season, They can be set in a colony system. chewing hard and excellent flying and stair climbers, so they need ample opportunities for exercise.
Its captive breeding rarely it has succeeded.
It is believed that the main threat to this bird is the illegal domestic trade, particularly in the municipalities of Lagoa Vermelha, Barracao, Esmeralda and many Capões. Approximately 500 chicks are taken annually from nests to be sold in large urban centers Caxias do Sul, Florianópolis, Curitiba and São Paulo (Prestcs et al., 1997).
It is a species that should only be kept in captivity for the purpose of achieving their reproduction and subsequent insertion into wildlife.
1 – Red-spectacled Parrot, Pretre’s Amazon, Pretre’s Parrot, Red spectacled Parrot, Red-spectacled Amazon (English).
2 – Amazone de Prêtre (French).
3 – Prachtamazone (German).
4 – papagaio-da-serra, charã, Charao, charão, chorão, maragato, Papagaio-charão, papagaio-chorão, serrano (Portuguese).
5 – Amazona Charao, Amazona de Cabeza Roja, Charao, CharaoChorao (Spanish).
– Order: Psittaciformes
– Family: Psittacidae
– Genus: Amazona
– Scientific name: Amazona pretrei
– Citation: (Temminck, 1830)
– Protonimo: Psittacus pretrei
Images Red-spectacled Parrot:
(1) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie (originally posted to Flickr as Perroquet familial) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A pet Red-spectacled Amazon in a parrot cage. It is 32 cm land and 295 gm in wt By Amazona_pretrei_-bird_cage-8c.jpg: The Andrea Guimarãesderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Some of its wing feathers are clipped By Amazona_pretrei_-Rio_Grande_do_Sul_-Brazil-8e.jpg: Mariederivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Amazona pretrei, a native of the southernmost Brasil. Specimen in Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria By Bjoertvedt (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A pet Red-spectacled Amazon in captivity. It has a ring on its right leg By Andrea O Guimarães (originally posted to Flickr as I’m watching you) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie (originally posted to Flickr as Temporaire) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie (originally posted to Flickr as Calins… :)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – A pet Red-spectacled Amazon in a parrot cage. It is 32 cm land and 295 gm in wt By Andrea O Guimarães [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Amazona pretrei = = Parrot Psittacus pretei Priest By Jean-Gabriel Priest (1768–1849) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Sounds: Vitor Q. Piacentini, XC27028. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/27028.