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White-bellied Parrot
Pionites leucogaster

Lorito Rubio


White-bellied Parrot


23 cm.. height.

the unmistakable White-bellied Parrot (Pionites leucogaster) has the lores, cheeks and throat, bright yellow lemon; “ear-coverts”, forecrown and crown, bright orange red; sides and rear of the neck, orange, but paler.

Upperparts green. Primary coverts blue; other coverts green. Primaries blue with green margins in outerweb. Underwing-coverts green. Breast and center belly, white; undersides of belly and feathers the thighs, green; undertail-coverts Yellow. Upper, the tail green; undertail, pale grayish brown. Bill, color pale horn; cere Pink; irises reddish brown; legs pink.

Both sexes are similar.

Immature paler, especially the yellow color face.

  • Sound of the White-bellied Parrot.

Description 3 subspecies:

  • Pionites leucogaster leucogaster

    (Kuhl, 1820) – Nominal.

  • Pionites leucogaster xanthomerius

    (Sclater,PL, 1858) – As the nominal species but with the thighs and flanks bright yellow lemon (no verde); tail green.

  • Pionites leucogaster xanthurus

    (Todd, 1925) – As the nominal species, but with the thighs yellow; flanks and tail, yellow and green the uppertail-coverts.


Prefers low humid forests, areas of land and várzea with probable preference for the latter and for clearings in the forests. Also observed in the drier forests (where it is less common) in the South of its range. Gregarious; Observed in the company of Blue-headed Parrot (Pionus menstruus) on Eastern Amazonia. Seen in small groups or couples.

Since they have very heavy body and very short wings, the White-bellied Parrot You can not fly long distances.


With plays in January and nests in hollow trees; a nest 30m found in the cavity of a tree in the east of its range. Clutch Normal probably 2-4 eggs.


Very similar in habits Lorito Chirlecrés (Pionites melanocephalus) but no specific information about their diet; probably seeds, fruit and berries.


The size of its distribution area (reproduction / resident): 2.140.000 km2

The White-bellied Parrot It extends through southern amazon in Brazil, from northwest maranhão and around Bethlehem in the State of For, west on Mato Grosso to the North of Bolivia and Southeast of Peru, to the top of Ucayali, where it approaches the range of Lorito Chirlecrés (Pionites melanocephalus). Reports in eastern Ecuador (well within the limits of the latter) still not substantiated.

Distribution 3 subspecies:



• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Usually common but perhaps more scarce in drier forests on the southern fringes of the range. It is not at serious risk, but decreases locally (for example, the Eastern Amazonia) due to deforestation, and possibly extinct now Santa Cruz, Bolivia, due to the loss of habitat. Trapped for Local international trade (at least years), but apparently not yet having a serious impact on wild populations.

Conservation Actions Underway

• No specific conservation actions are known for this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Expand the network of protected areas to effectively protect the IBA.
• Effectively treat resources and manage existing and new protected areas., using the emerging opportunities for funding the management of protected areas with the overall goal of reducing carbon emissions and maximize the conservation of biodiversity.
• Conservation on private land is also essential, through the expansion of market pressures for rational land management and prevention of logging on land not suitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006).
• Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of protected riparian forest areas such as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), that function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

"White-bellied Parrot" in captivity:

Do not have the capacity to speak of his larger parrots cousins, but they are very assets and can be very good pets, Despite not being very common to see them in captivity.

Alternative names:

White-bellied Parrot, White bellied Parrot, White-bellied Caique (English).
Maïpouri à ventre blanc, Caïque à ventre blanc (French).
Rostkappenpapagei, Rostkappen-Papagei (German).
Marianinha-de-cabeça-amarela, maipuré, marianinha, mariquita, periquito-d’anta, periquito-de-anta, periquito-de-cabeça-preta Pionopsitta barrabandi (Portuguese).
Lorito Gordo de Cabeza Rojiza, Lorito Rubio (español).
Loro de Vientre Blanco (Peru).

scientific classification:

Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pionites
Scientific name: Pionites leucogaster
Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
Protonimo: Psittacus leucogaster

Images “White-bellied Parrot”:

Videos "White-bellied Parrot"

“White-bellied Parrot” (Pionites leucogaster)


  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Photos:

(1) – Pionites leucogaster xanthomeria By Mirjam (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Pionites leucogaster leucogaster White-bellied Parrot (this subspecies is also know as the Green-thighed Parrot). Two in a cage with a nestbox By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as 140) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Pionites leucogaster xanthomerius A pet adult male White-bellied Caique perching by a row of books By pionetes (Own work (self-portrait)) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Five White-bellied Parrots (also known as White-bellied Caique) at Bird Park, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. This subspecies is also known as the Green-thighed Caique (Pionites leucogaster leucogaster) By Chad Bordes (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – White-bellied Parrot by Peter TanFlickr
(6) – White-bellied Parrot in captivity at Iguaçu Bird Park, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. Photographed on 23 April 2003 By Arthur Chapman [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – White-bellied Parrot (Pionites leucogaster) often referred to as the White-bellied Caique in captivity by whiskymac (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – White-bellied Parrot (often referred to as the White-bellied Caique); a chick. Its feathers have not opened yet By Ruth Rogers (originally posted to Flickr as Caique) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – A painting of a White-bellied Parrot (originally captioned “Psittacus badiceps. Bay-headed Parrot”) by Edward Lear (1812-1888) Edward Lear [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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Large Fig Parrot
Psittaculirostris desmarestii

Large Fig Parrot



18 cm.. length and a weight between 108 and 126 g..

The Large Fig Parrot (Psittaculirostris desmarestii) is a small Parrot, Chunky, of head large, with one tail short of tip, can only be confused with the Double-eyed Fig-Parrot.

The Large Fig Parrot have the front of the crown burning Orange, paler towards the nape; lores orange red; area above and below the eye, clear turquoise and bright blue-violet; cheeks and elongated headphones feathers bottom of color green pale bright, diffuse orange in the Center. Stripe blue in the part back from the neck.

Upperparts green, with a wash light color olive on the part lumbar and Hip; coverts of the wings green, with orange spots at the tip of the greater coverts more internal; vane outside of the flight feather more blue-green that the coverts and with margin yellow on the tips; vane blackish brown internal; bend of wing light blue. Wing feathers Turquoise Green (the longest yellow); below, the wings, with yellow band in vane inner, with the exception of the primaries outermost.

The underparts of a green more light, broken by a close and continuous band of pale blue at the top of the chest, bordered below by a reddish-brown band.

Upper, the tail green; below greyish green.

The bill black; irises dark brown; legs gray-green.

The females the males are, except in the lowlands of the South where lack of yellow in the back of the neck, present in males (in this species, young birds are like the female).

The immature they have a crown dirty yellowish in most subspecies, although immature of the Southeast they have the crown green. In Misool, the juveniles they have a blue dot in the eye that is lost with the plumage of the adult.

Subspecies description

Subspecies description
  • Psittaculirostris Psittaculirostris desmarestii

    : (Desmarest, 1826) – The nominal.

  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii blythii

    : (Wallace, 1864) – Males and females are similar to the occidentalis, but with cheeks bright orange-yellow; the blue color under the eyes, absent.

    The youth, similar to adults, but with blue under the eye.

  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii occidentalis

    : (Salvadori, 1876) – Both the male and the female with the cheeks and throat golden yellow, becoming yellow bright in the elongated ear-coverts; Blue pale and greenish below the eyes; absent the blue color of the neck.

    The youth, equal to adults.

  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii intermedius

    : (Victoria, 1909) – Both adults similar to the nominal species, but much deeper orange color of the crown and nape; cheeks green and ear-coverts Yellowish orange to some feather-tipped; the nuchal collar blue, absent the least.

    The youth, equal to adults

  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii godmani

    : (Ogilvie-Grant, 1911) – In the male, the blue color in the occiput and under the eye, is absent; orange-red in the crown and nape with a yellow stripe on the back of the neck; cheeks and headphones coverts bright; the band light blue above the chest is more extensive, but the red-orange band below is absent or minimal. The female is green on the back side of the neck, absent yellow band.

    The youth, equal to adults.

  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii cervicalis

    : (Salvadori & D’Albertis, 1875) – Male and females are similar to the subspecies godmani, but with the nape and back neck , are blue; darker blue chest band; Orange the part low of the chest and the abdomen.

    The youth with the crown and nape green.


The Large Fig Parrot are found in the land low and forests in the hills, riparian forests, edge forest and occasionally in sheets, usually below 1.100 m, at the local level to the 1,650 m.

Very active, are released from branch to branch and quickly fly in groups of 2 to 6 birds through the trees in search of food, make calls constantly.


Its breeding season It has registered in various moments of the year, with reproductive behaviors observed in July and September. Little is known of their breeding habits but they have been observed to use the nests communally, in groups of up to three couples, also it has observed them in noisy groups in the vicinity of alleged nests high in the trees.

During the courtship, mutual grooming is common, and during copulation the male places one foot on the back of the female and one on its perch.


The diet is made up mainly of figs and their seeds, nectar, and probably insects.

The birds gather in small groups to feed at the top of the fruiting fig trees. Cut the fruit with their sharp beaks to expose seeds.


Size area (reproduction / resident): 82.400 km2

West and South of Irian Jaya, Indonesia New Guinea, Since the papuan islands (West Batanta, Salawati and Misool), through the peninsulas of Vogelkop to Bomberai and Onin in the South, and in the north of the Peninsula Wandamen, in the South and East of the lowlands and hills (in the area of Karimui) 137 ° E, reaching around of Popondetta on the north coast of the southeastern peninsula. The species is unique and locally common, with a stable world population estimated at more of 150.000 specimens. The subspecies Psittaculirostris desmarestii occidentalis they are declining, probably because the bird trade and habitat loss.

Subspecies distribution

Subspecies distribution
  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii desmarestii

    : The nominal – West of New Guinea (East of regions of peninsula Vogelkop)

  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii blythii

    : Islands of Misool (West of papua islands)

  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii occidentalis

    : West of peninsula Vogelkop, Salawati and Batanta Islands

  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii intermedius

    : West of New Guinea (peninsula Onin)

  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii godmani

    : South of New Guinea (from the southeast of Irian Jaya to Fly River)

  • Psittaculirostris desmarestii cervicalis

    : Southeast of New Guinea (from Fly River at the East end of Papua New Guinea)



• Current IUCN Red List category: Least concern

• Population trend: Decreasing

The size of the world population Although not it has quantified, It is thought that it may be above the 150,000 specimens. The species, according to sources, is usually Rare and local (pit et to the. 1997).

The population is suspected that it may be in decline due to the destruction of habitat and fragmentation underway, and perhaps also by the captures for the bird trade.

"Large Fig Parrot" in captivity:

Rare in captivity.

The Large Fig Parrot It Active and playful. Pretty quiet; only makes noise when shaken. It is customary to caregiver quite easily. You can stay in the colony only in a large aviary.

Alternative names:

Large Fig Parrot, Demarest’s Fig Parrot, Desmarest’s Fig Parrot, Desmarest’s Fig-Parrot, Flame-headed Fig Parrot, Large Fig-Parrot (ingles).
Psittacule de Desmarest (French).
Buntbrust-Zwergpapagei, Buntbrust-Zwergpapgei (German).
Lóris-da-cabeça-dourada-de-desmarest (Portuguese).
Lorito de Desmarest (español).

scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: c
Scientific name: Psittaculirostris desmarestii
Citation: (Desmarest, 1826)
Protonimo: Psittacus Desmarestii

Images “Large Fig Parrot”:

Videos "Large Fig Parrot"


“Large Fig Parrot” (Psittaculirostris desmarestii)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Birdlife


(1) – By Zdenek ChalupaBiolib
(2) – By Vladimir MotyčkaBiolib
(3) – Would Janmad (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – animalphotos
(5) – “Buntbrust-Feigenpapagei desmarestrii Psittaculirostris 090501 We 228“. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.

Sounds: BAS van Balen (Xeno-canto)

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Blue-winged Racquet-tail
Prioniturus verticalis

Blue-winged Racquet-tail


Blue-winged Racquet-tail


27 cm. long, not to mention their racquets, measuring of 5 to 6 cm..

The Blue-winged Racquet-tail (Prioniturus verticalis) It has a bright green head, brighter around the lores and the base of the beak; front of the bright blue Crown with central red dot.

Light yellowish green mantle; back and rump Green. green wings, with a wash of dark blue in both bands of all primaries. green wing feathers. The underparts light yellowish-green, more green on the belly and coverts infracaudales. At the top of the queue, Foreign feathers green with black tips; dark the infracaudales, with blue bathed at the edges of the vane inner; tail blades, blackish

Whitish gray peak; dark brown irises: grey legs.

The female It has a light blue Crown, with the absence of the male Red stain: the areas of green yellow more turned off.

Young without snowshoes.


It lives in the lowlands of humid forests., next to forests, the mangroves, dense remnants of forest fragments and agricultural areas. The birds are seen most frequently in pairs, in quick flights over the top of the dense vegetation. They feed on fruit trees, staying calm and hard to spot.


A nest was discovered in September 1991 with a female: the nest was in a large Palm tree with a broken lid in a Grove near the forest.
Little else is known about the reproductive ecology of this species..


It is known that it feeds on fruit trees, little more is known about their eating habits.


Is distributed in the Islands to the South-West of the Sulu archipelago, including Tawi-tawi, Bongao (considered probably extinct), Manuk Manka, Sanga Sanga (probably extinct), Tumindao, (There are no recent records) and Sibutu. Although reports indicated that the species was common in the mangroves of Tawi-tawi during the last century, Today it seems to have suffered a serious decline. Today the world population is estimated to be less than 5.000 and the species is being affected by the capture and the rapid elimination of the last forests on the islands.

The birds are also, apparently, used for shooting practice by the Islanders. In 1991 small numbers were observed near virgin forests. During 1994, in Tawi-tawi, There was a rapid elimination of its remnant forest and only six birds were observed.


Critically Endangered

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Critical Hazard

• Population trend: Decreasing

This parrot has been upgraded to the category a Critically Endangered due to observations that suggest that it now has a very small population, with the suspicion of a fast and rapid deterioration due to the continuous logging of forests, as well as his persecution. Conservation actions are hampered by security concerns. Urgent action is required to assess the gravity of the situation of the species, lessen the impact of threats, start your recovery.

The population was previously estimated at less of 1.000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2001), but the most recent observations indicate that it could currently be less than 250 mature individuals, Therefore the population is now in the band of 50 to 249 mature individuals, probably equivalent to a total population of 75 to 375 individuals.

Military activity and the insurgency are still presenting a serious obstacle to the general conservation activity in the Sulus. There is no formal protected areas in the archipelago. In 1997, began an awareness campaign focused on the conservation of terrestrial biodiversity in Tawi-Tawi. There is a proposal to finance the conservation of Tawi Tawi, Coastal zone Sulu, Although neither the result nor the potential benefits for the species are known. A municipal resolution has been developing, hoping to put an end to the hunting of endemic species (I. Sarenas in litt., 2010).

"Blue-winged Racquet-tail" in captivity:

Unknown in captivity.

Alternative names:

Blue-winged Racquet-tail, Blue winged Racquet tail, Blue-winged Racket-tail, Blue-winged Racket-tailed Parrot, Blue-winged Racquet Tail, Blue-winged Racquet-tailed Parrot, Sulu Racket-tail, Sulu Racket-tailed Parrot, Sulu Racquet-tail, Sulu Racquet-tail Parrot, Sulu Racquet-tailed Parrot (ingles).
Palette des Sulu, Palette à ailes bleues, Perroquet à raquette des Sulu (French).
Sulu-Spatelschwanzpapagei, Sulu Spatelschwanz-Papapgei, Sulupapagei (German).
Prioniturus verticalis (Portuguese).
Lorito momoto de las Sulu, Lorito Momoto Sulu, Lorito-momoto de las Sulu (español).

scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Prioniturus
Scientific name: Prioniturus verticalis
Citation: Sharpe, 1893
Protonimo: Prioniturus verticalis


“Blue-winged Racquet-tail” (Prioniturus verticalis)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Birdlife


(1) – preening in top of tree by Desmond Allen – Lynx
(2) – “Prioniturusverticaliskeulemans” by {{{Name}}} – Ibis 1894. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

Sounds: Desmond Allen (Xeno-canto)

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Australian Ringneck
Barnardius zonarius

Australian Ringneck




Among 32 to 44 cm.. length and a weight between 121 and 200 g..

Two species were traditionally recognized in the genus Barnardius, Barnardius zonarius and Barnardius barnardi, but both hibridaban in the contact area and are currently considered a single species.
The Australian Ringneck (Barnardius zonarius) It has the head of blackish brown with cheeks, both sides of the throat and underside of the headset coverts densely dotted with dark blue (You can display a few red spots on the front of the Crown); the back of the neck of bright yellow.
Middle of the mantle of dark green with thin dark stripes; slightly more bright green rump; a little more off than the rump supracaudales coverts.

External Middle coverts slightly greenish-yellow color, Green the inner coverts, the large green with blue-green and pale inner margins coverts green outer margins in the outermost feathers; curve of the wing of Turquoise, It extends slightly towards small coverts; primary coverts dark brown with vane dark blue external; blackish flight feathers, strongly marginalized in foreign feathers, showing fusion from the blue color in the vane external to the blue gray of the tips.

Under, with turquoise coverts blackish flight feathers. Dark green chest with fine dark stripes; upper part of the abdomen of bright yellow, Green the lower belly area, slightly impregnated yellow; subcaudales coverts greenish-yellow. Central tail feathers of dark green merging to dark blue, the external of pale blue with dark bases and white tips. Under, pale blue tail.

The greyish white Peak: the Brown irises; legs grey

The female It has peak and smaller head, the slightly Browner head, and you can display a mark in the form of bar at the bottom of the wings.

The immature, they are a brand of pale bar on the wings (disappearing earlier in males than in females); they are more turned off, with a head of Brown and dissemination of greyish-Brown mantle and upper chest area; the tail is green above. Adult plumage is reached between 12 and 15 months.

Subspecies Barnardius zonarius

  • Barnardius zonarius semitorquatus

    (Quoy and Gaimard, 1830) – Of 40 cm.. length approximately. It is more than nominal, but with the red front, abdomen green more off, Pico mas grande. Female plumage more pale and head color more Brown, the Red coloration of the forehead is narrower in some absentee.

  • Barnardius zonarius zonarius

    (Shaw, 1805) – Equal to the Barnardius zonarius collared, but with a yellow abdomen and without the prominent crimson red stripe on the forehead, that if you have the subspecies collared.

  • Barnardius zonarius macgillivrayi

    (North, 1900) – Cloncurry Ringneck – Crown and nape of an intense green color and some reddish tones on the cheeks. Is lighter green shades, No red frontal band, and with a broad band uniform across your abdomen. Not recognized by all experts.

  • Barnardius zonarius barnardi

    (Vigors and Horsfield, 1827) – It has an intense green crown and nape and certain reddish tones on the cheeks.. Their underparts are Turquoise green with an irregular band yellow orange across the abdomen. Your back and mantle are blackish blue and also this subspecies has a red band on the forehead.
    Presumably either the nominal race.


Australian Ringneck

The Australian Ringneck is mainly sedentary, with occasional movements during extreme weather conditions. The species occupies a range of habitats, including eucalyptus red zones (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), along water courses, acacia scrub and mallee (Eucalyptus gracilis), eucalyptus open woodlands, agricultural fields, desert shrubland and suburban areas.

In general has adapted better to the effects produced by settlements that the Mallee Ringneck, and it has been particularly successful in the South-West wheat belt, in where the birds are observed while they eat at road verges. The subspecies collared has a more specific habitat, preferring the high forests of coastal eucalyptus, particularly marri (Eucalyptus calophylla).

The Australian Ringneck form strong pair bonds and, normally, is found in small family parties or groups of up to eight birds. They are usually visible, loud and inquisitive, being more active during the morning and evening. They tend to remain silent while they feed on the ground, but they chatter loudly when feeding in the canopy and when gathering to sleep after drinking, remaining assets after the sunset.


The time of nesting is from June to February, starting earliest in the North.

The birds are territorial around the nest, and there are many fights at the beginning of the breeding season. In courtship, the male drops his wings, WAGs tail producing a buzzing sound, He chatters loudly and shakes head. Courtship feeding is also common. The nest is built at different heights, usually in the natural hollow of a tree based on decomposition of waste wood inside.

Between four and seven (normally five) white eggs are laid during the implementation, sometimes producing two offspring. The female incubates during 19 days and leaves the nest only to feed herself or be fed by the male. At the beginning, She feeds the chicks alone, but a week after hatching, the male joins food tasks. The young leave the nest about four weeks after. Family groups remain together for some time after the chicks have fled the nest..


The diet consists of nectar, flowers, seeds, fruit, insects and their larvae (that sometimes stripping the bark of lso trees). The cereal crops and orchards are often attacked by the Australian Ringneck, registering birds digging up onion bulbs (Romulea longifolia).

The more arboreal southwestern subspecies has preference by the ripe fruits of eucalyptus, especially those of marri.


The Australian Ringneck they are in the West, Central and South of Australia. Is distributed from Port Augusta, the Eyre Peninsula and Cordillera Gawler, to the North, through the center of Southern Australia in the Northern Territory, where stretches through of the MacDonnell Ranges and lies to the North of Newcastle Waters and Winnecke Creek.

Birds may also go more towards the East, sometimes up to the border of Queensland, and an off-eastern boundary record comes from Pine Creek in New South Wales.

In Western Australia, the species is increasing in the South West which concentrates around King George Sound, in the South, to murchison river, in the North, reaching inside for Kalgoorlie and Wiluna the east. Further north, is scattered through the Northwest corner, and extends eastward to the upper part of the Grey River system.

There is a small isolated population, probably, at the East end of Western Australia in the Gardiner Range region. Escapes have been recorded in the District of Port Wakefield, about Melbourne, Canberra, Sydney, Darwin and Hobart, in Tasmania.

A population of probable leak in the Lofty Mountains It was destroyed to prevent cross-breeding with the Mallee Ringneck, but there is a zone of hybridization with the Mallee Ringneck in the Montes Flinders. The two species are found and hybridize in other places also.

The world's population is piobablemente well above the current estimate of 100.000 specimens given by Lambert (1993).

A moderate number of captive.

The birds can be low temperatures under permit in some districts to prevent damage in orchards.

Subspecies B distribution. zonarius



• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Growing
The size of the world's population has not been quantified, It is estimated over 100 000 specimens. The species, according to sources, is the most common species of birds in the wheat belt of Australia (pit et to the. 1997).

The population is suspected that it may be increasing. To mitigate the effects of the degradation of the habitat, new areas of suitable habitat are being created.

In the East, numbers are affected by scrub clearing Mallee and forests for agriculture. The Australian Ringneck they were considered vermin in Western Australia and in the seasons of hunting by be considered pests of orchards. Fugadas birds in aviaries are seen around the urban areas in the East.

"Australian Ringneck" in captivity:

Son aggressive toward other birds, especially during the breeding season, and it is better to accommodate them with a couple by Aviary.

Although friendly, they are not as sociable with people like other parrots. They are formidable chewing and require a heavy duty cage. You can learn to imitate.

Una muestra vivió 17,9 years in captivity. According to some sources, these animals can live up to 31,6 years in captivity, but this has not been verified.

Common in Europe, less in the United Kingdom and United States. UU.

Alternative names:

Australian Ringneck, Banded Parakeet, Banded Parrot, Barnard’s Parakeet, Barnard’s Parrot, Bauer’s Parakeet, Buln Buln, Buln-buln Parakeet, Buln-buln Parrot, Cloncurry Buln-buln, Cloncurry Parrot, Eastern Ringneck, Mallee Parrot, Mallee Ringneck, Mallee Ringneck-Parrot, Mrs Morgan’s Parrot, North Parakeet, Northern Buln-buln, North’s Parrot, Port Lincoln Parrot, Port Lincoln Ringneck, Port Lincoln Ringnecked Parrot, Ringneck, Ring-necked Parrot, Scrub Parrot, Twenty-eight Parakeet, Twenty-eight Parrot, Western Banded Parakeet, Western Ringneck, Yellow-banded Parrot, Yellow-collared Parakeet, Yellow-collared Parrot, Yellow-naped Parakeet, Yellow-naped Parrot (ingles).
Perruche à collier jaune, Perruche de Bauer, Perruche de Port Lincoln (French).
Ringsittich (German).
Periquito-port-lincoln (Portuguese).
Perico de Port Lincoln (español).

scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Barnardius
Scientific name: Barnardius zonarius
Citation: (Shaw, 1805)
Protonimo: Psittacus zonarius

Images “Australian Ringneck”:

Videos "Australian Ringneck"


“Australian Ringneck” (Barnardius zonarius)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Parromania
– AnAge: The Animal Ageing and Longevity Database – Genomics.senescence.info
– Birdlife


(1) – An Australian Ringneck in Perth, Western Australia, Australia By Luke Durkin (Img_9967 (3)Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – An Australian Ringneck at Gloucester National Park, Western Australia, Australia By Ken & Nyetta (Ring Necked CocatooUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Australian Ringneck in Karratha, Pilbara, Western Australia, Australia By Jim Benton from Karratha, Australia (ring necked parrot_1Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Twenty Eight Parrot (Barnardius zonarius collared) at Mundaring Weir picnic reserve. It is eating by holding food in is left foot By Casliber (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – “Barnardius zonarius macgillivrayi – Buffalo Zoo” by Dave PapeOwn work. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.
(6) – A painting of an jpg Australian Ringneck (originally captioned “Platycercus baueri. Bauer's parakeet.” by Edward Lear 1812-1888. – Edward Lear [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Patrik Åberg (Xeno-canto)

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Rock Parrot
Neophema petrophila

Rock Parrot




22 cm. height and a weight between 47 and 54 g..

The male of the Rock Parrot (Neophema petrophila) has a band front of color blue dark that is surrounded by a small and striking edge blue marine. The blue becomes even a little bit behind the eye. The area between the eyes and ears, the region of the eye and the anterior part of the cheeks are Navy Blue. The upper part of the crown, the neck, the the mantle, the back, rump and covered wing are olive green. The cheeks, except the front edge, the region of the throat and the chest are olive-gray color. The belly, flanks, the thighs and anal region are opaque yellow.

The curvature of the wing and feathers of the median of the wings are Navy Blue. The flight feather are black with a dark blue marks.

The feathers of the uppertail-coverts are an olive green-brown color and the undertail yellow. The upper part of the feathers of the tail are matte blue streaked olive green. The bottom is dark gray. The irises the eye is dark brown, the bill is dark gray, the cere is brown, legs grayscale and nails dark grey.

The female: is very similar to the male, but its colors are more opaque, especially the blue. The frontal band is a little thinner.

The immature do not have the frontal band blue. The only decoration is a bare periophthalmic characteristic white.

2 subspecies

  • Neophema petrophila petrophila

    (Gould, 1841)

  • Neophema petrophila zietzi

    (Mathews, 1912)


The Rock Parrot they frequent the coastal dunes, mangroves, marshes, agricultural areas, lightly treed savanna, areas of mallee (Eucalytus slender), scrublands abound where the Salt plants (Atriplex). Also visit the coast, where small rivers flow into estuaries. They appreciate the plantations of casuarina and margins of brackish water bordering the coasts and rocky islets where nests are less susceptible to predation. Throughout the year, These birds do not deviate more than several hundred meters from the sea.

Large gatherings of the Rock Parrot, sometimes, There are land, When there is abundance of food. But, like most of Neophema, this parakeet can be hard to spot, and it will only be visible when you take flight due to some danger.

Their plumage is not anti-absorbente and often remains wet, which gives it a darker shade. They tend to use the same Burrows to the Pacific Shearwater (Puffinus pacificus), the 2 species sometimes have the same habits and the same mating rituals.


The Rock Parrot reproduced from august to december, sometimes in February. Occasionally, There is a second litter.

The nest is placed in the crevice of a low cliff, on a facade or on some rocky ledge. Since relatively recently, they have come to nest on small islands of limestone, the entry hole is often hidden behind a curtain of vegetation.

Sometimes, abandoned Burrows of the Pacific Shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) they are used as a nest by the Rock Parrot. In other cases, These parakeets usurp active nests of the Paíno Pechialbo (Pelagodroma marina).

Spawning contains 4 or 5 eggs and your incubation lasts a few 18 days. The chicks are altricial and stay in the nest during 30 days.


The Rock Parrot are, above all, vegetarian. They like to eat cultivated seeds, fruits and a variety of herbs. They also eat young shoots, shrubs and plants that are tolerant of saline environments.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 1.700.000 km2

There are two separate populations by the Great Australian Bight, which does not offer the suitable coastal islands for nesting.

The Eastern population extends from about Robe, Southern Australia, in the East, to Nuyts archipelago, approximately 133 °E in the west (although breeding records in Kangaioo Island, they have not been confirmed).

The Western population extends from Israelite Bay to archipelago of the Recherche.

In Western Australia, to the West around the Cabo Leeuwin and to the North of Shark Bay.

To the North of Perth the species nests in the continent, but in other parts, birds occupy the coastal islands, at least for breeding, also sometimes traveling from the Mainland to settle on the islands of the coast.

The population of the Rottnest Island on the coast of Perth suffered, in the past, illegal capture, but has grown rapidly in recent years.

The Rock Parrot they are considered common and partially nomadic residents throughout its area of distribution; so far, coastal islands have not been subjected to the same pressures of development than continental zones.



• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population Trend: Decreasing.

In accordance with Handbook of the Birds of the World, This species is not threatened at the global level. His surprising absence from the region of the Great Australian Bight It can be explained by the lack of sites available in which to nest. In these places, rocks are in fact very limited in number, so the nests bad are protected in the absence of rocks and crevices where they serve this species as a refuge against the attacks of predators. The Rock Parrot they prefer to nest on the islets off the coast, Surely in order not to deal with rats, foxes, cats, lizards, monitors and monitor lizards.

Its population is estimated above of the 20,000 individuals.

"Rock Parrot" in captivity:

The Rock Parrot they are extremely rare in captivity and is likely to be more present in the aviaries of Europe.

In Australia they are only in the hands of some fans.

These parrots are extremely slow, within the genus Neophema, is the least active, so these birds tend to the Obesity, which is very damaging for the fertility.

The Rock Parrot they are birds peaceful in the nature, that make noise. They are birds that they spend too much time on the ground and they bathe regularly. The first generations in captivity will be very susceptible to various infections, including, among others, intestinal parasites. These birds also regularly die without apparent reason.

Alternative names:

Rock Parrot, Rock Elegant, Rock Elegant-Parakeet, Rock Grass-Parakeet, Rock Parakeet, Western Rock-Parrot (ingles).
Perruche des rochers, Perruche pétrophile (French).
Klippensittich (German).
Periquito-da-rocha (Portuguese).
Papagayo de las Rocas, Periquito Roquero (español).

scientific classification:

John Gould
John Gould

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Neophema
Scientific name: Neophema petrophila
Citation: (Gould, 1841)
Protonimo: Euphema petrophila

Images “Rock Parrot”:

Videos "Rock Parrot"


“Rock Parrot” (Neophema petrophila)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – A Rock Parrot with grass seed in rain near Cape Leeuwin Lighthouse, Cape Lioness, Western Australia, Australia By Cas Liber (CAs Liber) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Rock Parrot at Greens Pool, Western Australia, Australia By butupa (IMGP8254Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Neophema petrophila rock parrot free wallpaper in free pet category – free-pet-wallpapers
(4) – Neophema petrophila free wallpaper in free pet category – free-pet-wallpapers
(5) – Grass Parrots {Neopherma} – myparrots

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Grey Parrot
Psittacus erithacus

Loro Yaco



Description Loro Yaco:

Of 33 cm.. length and an average weight of 475 g..

The Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) is famous for its intelligence and ability to mimic sounds and human speech, so it is one of the most popular of all pets avian. It is one of the largest parrots in Africa.

They have the feathers of the lores, the cheeks, the frenyou and the crown silver grey, more clear tips. The of the the mantle and lower area of the back darker, slate gray with light margins, giving a scaly appearance; the lower area of the back and tail are silver grey. Upper wing coverts, secondaries and scapulars slaty-grey. Primaries grey dark (almost black), more clear below that top.

Wing feathers light grey, with the exception of the greater coverts that are of a dark grey tone.

feathers of the chest slate gray with pale gray margins fused with much lighter silver feathers on the belly; flanks and the thighs clear silver grey color.

Tail and their coverts, bright Scarlet.

Older birds they can show scattered red feathers between the plumage gray, especially in the the thighs and the belly.

The bill black; irises yellow; naked facial area with some fine white hairs; legs dark grey.

Without sexual dimorphism in the plumage.

Immature they have the tail darker red towards the tip, Grey dye in undertail- coverts and the irises grey.

Subspecies description:

  • Psittacus erithacus erithacus

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – Subspecies nominal

  • Psittacus erithacus princeps

    (Alexander, 1909) – Very similar to the nominal, except that they are a little smaller. Some bird breeders argue that the Princeps is a regional type of Psittacus erithacus erithacus, instead of separate subspecies.


The Grey Parrot They inhabit the tropical jungle primary and secondary, the forest edges and clearings, gallery forest and mangroves; wooded Savannah, haunting, often, land cultivation and even gardens.

Partially confined in the lowlands, Although in the East of its range have been recorded at altitudes of 2.200 m.

They reach the highest densities in primary lowland forests, intermediate in the primary montane and lower density in plantation of coconut.

gregarious, they form large communal roosts of up to 10.000 individuals, often at some distance from the feeding areas.

Preferred places of shelter are trees or palm trees on the water, also islands in the rivers.

Are dispersed into smaller groups (until 30) to feed.


The reproduction of the Grey Parrot takes place in loose colonies, in which each pair occupies its own tree. Individuals select their partners carefully and have a monogamous union of lifelong It begins at sexual maturity, between three and five years of age.

Few details are known about the courtship in nature, but have been observed and recorded flights of visualization around the nest cavities. The males feed their mates (power dating) and both sing soft monotonous notes. At this time the female goes to sleep to the nest cavity, While the male takes care of it.

In captivity, the Grey Parrot fed males to females after copulation events and both sexes participate in a mating dance in tipping its wings.

The nest they build it in the cavities of some tree (for example, Terminalia, Ceiba or Distemonathus), between 10 and 30 meters above the ground.

Sometimes breeds in colonies of up to several hundred couples loose (in Prince for example), but in most places they nest alone.

Breeding season varies with locality. In East africa, breeding has been recorded in the months of January-February and June-July, both in dry periods.

Young chicks have been released for sale from March onwards in Ghana. Other records suggest as a rule from the breeder, the dry season.

The females lay from three to five eggs, that you are in charge of incubate while they are powered entirely by the male. The incubation lasts approximately thirty days and the young man emerges from the nest at twelve weeks of age.

Food Loro Yaco:

Their diet consists of a variety of seeds, nuts, fruits and berries.

Known within their power are the fruits and seeds of Ficus, heisteria, Dacryodes, Petersianthus, Combretum, Macaranga, Raffia, Her heart, Ceiba, Sapida, Bombax, Celtis, Hunting, Parkia, Terminalia and Prunus.

The fruit of the Palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) is her favourite in some areas, coming to bear its fruit over long distances before being consumed.

In Bioko, they prefer the berries of Tragacantha tail (Fam. Malvaceae).

They can be a pest, causing considerable damage to corn crops in some areas.

Loro distribution Yaco:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 2.760.000 km2

The Grey Parrot are distributed between the West and centre of Africa, of Guinea-Bissau and this from Sierra Leone, across the South of Mali, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria, until Cameroon, extending to Bioko and Islands Sao Tome and Principe in the gulf of guinea; from Gabon and the Congo through Zaire, Uganda and Western Kenya, the Southwest and East - Central of Zaire and Northwest of Tanzania.

Usually sedentary. Common where large extensions of forest persist and still abundant in some localities, especially in the tropical jungles of the Congo basin. But, due to the extensive loss of forests in some parts of the range (for example, of Nigeria to Sierra Leone) and the catch on a massive scale (the second best-selling parrot in the world in the Decade of 1980) There have been dramatic declines in some places (for example, in Liberia, Ghana, Kenya and around Kinshasa, Zaire, and other cities of the Congo basin).

Subspecies distribution:

  • Psittacus erithacus erithacus

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – Species nominal

  • Psittacus erithacus princeps

    (Present on the islands of Saint Thomas (in this possibly introduced) and Principe)

Conservation “Grey Parrot”:


• Current Red List of UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing

The Grey Parrot They are protected by the convention CITES, consisting in annex II (species that may be threatened by a trade out of control).

If it is considered not threatened globally, the fact of being one of the species of the family Psittacidae (parrots and parakeets) most sold in the world makes its distribution is shrinking dramatically in certain places, its disappearance may be close in many of these areas according to the organization The World Parrot Trust [4].

The following data are quite illustrative in this respect:

    1. In the period 1982-1989 It was the second psittacida then suffered more trade of Agapornis fischeri, with averages of more of 47.000 specimens exported from Africa annually [1].

    2. The export quotas under the CITES agreement for psittacines are often not adjusted to scientific criteria due to the lack of detailed population studies and the annual renewal rates of the populations. [2].

    3. Too often these quotas are widely exceeded by exporting countries.. These may include Cameroon exported 23.000 grays in 1996, When I had a share of 12.000! [2]. Although these facts to do that Cameroon could not legally exported in 1997, the current quota of 12.000 grays is exceeded with more of 15.000 all the years [5]. Another example, is the Republic of Congo, with an annual fee of 10.000 grays, that has also been sanctioned by the impossibility of exporting them in 2001 and 2002 by the large number of existing fraudulent export [6].

    4. In the year 1999, the European Union imported (legally under the Convention CITES) from Africa 33.341 greys parrots, number only surpassed in this family by parrots of the genus Lovebirds (71.588 of Agapornis roseicollis, 63.867 of Agapornis fischeri and 33.720 of Agapornis personatus). Spain It was the second destination of these parrots grays, after Netherlands, imported 6.216 specimens [7].

    5. There are specific areas Africa It supported much of the pressure from hunters of parrots for their trade. One of them is the area of Lobeke, in the southeast of Cameroon, where they hunt every year more than 15.000 grays, most of them die by mishandling in the capture and transport [5].

The aforementioned illegal trade is no stranger to our country, where was recently dismantled an international network of illegal import of this species from the Republic of Congo, who had brought to Spain at least 3.982 specimens from the year 1998 [7].

On the other hand, in some countries these birds are raised industrially for sale. This favours on the one hand the fact that decreases the importation of birds hunted in the wild [2], and on the other increases the number of birds on the market, and with it the chance of leaks or intentional releases, that they can get to colonize areas outside its area of distribution. An example of a Spanish company of these characteristics, among the many that are, It has more than 300 breeding pairs, can be found in [8].


[1] NECKLACE, N.J.. 1997. Family Psittacidae (Parrots). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos (Ed: J. pit, A. Elliot, J. Sargatal). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. pp. 280-477.
[2] MAY, D.L.. 2001. Grey Parrots of the Congo Basin Forest. PsittaScene 13-2(47): 8-10.
[3] AALANGDONG, O.I., AUGUSTINE, S. 1999. Langyintuo. Crop damage by wildlife in Northern Ghana. Abstracts of the 2nd International Wildlife Management Congress, Gödöllö, Hungary.
[4] The WPT 12. The World Parrot Trust. African Grey Parrot. www.worldparrottrust.org
[5] NGENYI, A. 2002. African Grey Parrot trade in Cameroon. PsittaScene 14-2(51): 2-3.
[6] El Periódico de Catalunya. Dismantled a network of trafficking in protected species in Barcelona. 11-11-2004.
[7] Report of Animal Aid. 2002. From Rainforest to Retail. Leading DIY chain and the horror of the wild bird trade.
[8] Psittacus Catalonia, SL. Information available in: www.psittacus.com

“Grey Parrot” in captivity:

The ancient Egyptians already kept these birds as pets.. Later the Greeks and the Romans did the same.

While the Grey Parrot they can be good pets, If you have children in your home, buying a Grey Parrot It would be a bad idea, by both the Parrot and the children that can be easily damaged with its claws and beak.

The Grey Parrot can also be difficult for some people to maintain, This is probably due, Unlike other pets, because these are always active and should be checked several times a day. These parrots can be unordered, for example, When they are eating the seeds or other foods it is likely that they end up throwing debris out of the cage and even against the walls.

More Intelligent any dog, calls attention to the 24 hours of the day. His extreme intelligence and sensitivity takes you easily to the depression if it is unrequited.

It is a bird very long-lived, There are those who say that these animals can live 73 and up 93 years. More longevity record reliable, However, is a specimen that was still alive after 49,7 years. In captivity, these animals they tend to breed to the 5 years of age.

Their cages they must also be cleaned daily, due to their feces, they are totally inconsistent and appear in their feeders, toys, or anywhere else in the cage. Because of this, you have to wash the cages thoroughly to remove any odor and bacteria.

To the Grey Parrot like biting everything, and when I say everything, I say this seriously. They mostly enjoy chewing on pieces of wood, probably because they do in nature, However, be aware that they will chew everything at your fingertips, clothing, curtains, the skin of our sofas, etc. If you have many objects in the House, make sure they are in a safe place when you let your birds out of the cage.

Note: In the European Community and the United States this prohibited the marketing of these parrots if they have been captured in wild environments.

Alternative names “Grey Parrot”:

Grey or Timneh Parrot, African Gray Parrot, African Grey Parrot, Gray Parrot, Grey Parrot (English).
Perroquet jaco ou P. de Timneh, Jacko, Perroquet gris, Perroquet gris du Gabon, Perroquet jaco (French).
Graupapagei (German).
papagaio-do-congo, Papagayo Cinzento, Jacco (Portuguese).
Cotorra Africana, Loro Yaco, Loro Gris Africano, Loro Gris, Loro Gris de Cola Roja, Yaco (español).

scientific classification “Grey Parrot”:

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Psittacus
Scientific name: Psittacus erithacus
Citation: Linnaeus, 1758
Protonimo: Psittacus erithacus

Images “Grey Parrot”:

Videos "Grey Parrot"

“Grey Parrot” (Psittacus erithacus)


    – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
    – Birdlife
    – Spanish Society of Ornithology / BirdLife – SEO


    (1) – Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) at a bird park in Singapore By Michael Gwyther-Jones (originally posted to Flickr as Singapore) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (2) – Loro gris do Congo. Photo taken na Illa de Arousa, Galiza By L.Miguel Sánchez Bugallo (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Lmbuga) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (3) – Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Pet parrot held on a hand. By Eli Duke [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (4) – Young African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) at Weltvogelpark Walsrode (Walsrode Bird Park, Germany) OLAF Oliviero Riemer [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (5) – Loro gris do Congo. Photo taken na Illa de Arousa, Galiza By L.Miguel Sánchez Bugallo (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Lmbuga) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (6) – A Congo African Grey Parrot eating a piece of apple. It is perching on an open cage door and there is another parrot in the cage in the background By Peter F. (originally posted to Flickr as thanksgiving) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (7) – A pet Congo African Grey Parrot on held back By Sonny SideUp (originally posted to Flickr as Bird Tossing) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (8) – By Hans – pixabay

    Sounds: Martin St-Michel (Xeno-canto)
    (9) – A pet Congo African Grey Parrot in a cage By Ângela from Portugal (Hello hello!Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

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Plum-headed Parakeet
Psittacula cyanocephala

Cotorra cabeciazul



Among 33–37 cm. in length and weighing between 56–85 grams.
The Plum-headed Parakeet or Plum headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) has the forecrown, lores, cheeks and ear-coverts bright red malva, fading to blue on lower cheeks, the crown and back neck, with black stripe “mustache” forming a collar black narrow, then bordered by a wide swath of pale green.

Mantle, back and scapulars dark green; rump and uppertail-coverts bright blue green.
Upperwing-coverts smaller and medium bright green with brown patch in the minors; greater coverts and alula darker and duller.
The primaries and secondaries dark green. Underwing-coverts bluish green, underparts brighter yellowish green. Upper, the tail bright color in the center, with white tips, slightly spatulate, outer feathers brighter yellowish green.

The Upper mandible orange-yellow, and the lower beak blackish, but pale flesh at chin; irises yellowish white; legs greenish-grey.

Head of the female grey-blue, in the beige throat and the sides of the neck, without black markings or maroon on wing-coverts; bill paler, tail somewhat shorter.

The greenish head of the immature sometimes tinged with gray; central feathers tail shorter.

The females reach adult plumage to 15 months; young male reach full adult plumage to 30 months.


Video – "Plum-headed Parakeet" (Psittacula cyanocephala)

Plum-headed parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala)

Preferred habitat Plum-headed Parakeet They are the mosaic of forests and farmland in the plains and hills, including humid forests deciduous, sal forest (Shorea) and subtropical Pine (Pinus roxburghii), usually below the 500 meters in the north of the range, but locally 1.500 m.

Move small flocks, although larger congregations are formed in places where food is abundant, particularly during ripening crop, and also, loudly, in communal roosts with bamboo thickets or other dense vegetation.

They forage in mixed flocks in the company of the Malabar Parakeet and Slaty-headed Parakeet.


The Plum-headed Parakeet nests in holes in the trunk or hamstring, sometimes in an old nest extended “Woody Woodpecker” or “bearded”. In Pakistan, Tall Pines (Pinus roxburgii), dead or dying, They are favorite nesting.

The nest chamber no liner except wood shavings produced during construction. Often reproduced in loose colonies. The male defends the nest site from other species (as the Rose-ringed Parakeet) for a few weeks before breeding. The female incubates alone. The breeding season It, mainly, in the months of December / January April; occasionally also in July-August Sri Lanka.

The laying is of 4-5 eggs, rarely 6.


Registered foods include flowering shrubs (Justicia adhatoda) and wild Granada (Punica granatum), nectar Salmalia, flowers Butea and Bassia, grains, including the sorghum and the corn, fig and apricot fruit, red peppers and chard seeds (Echinops and Cnicus). Preference for bamboo seeds in the Bandhavgarh National Park, sometimes destructive to crops.

Possibly frugivores than their counterparts, preferring smaller seeds.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident) 2,780,000 km2

The Plum-headed Parakeet They live in low-lying hills Himalaya, from the North-East of Pakistan through Nepal, Bhutan and West Bengal and through substantially the entire India and Sri Irinka, besides the Islas Rameswaram.

Usually frequents though, apparently, reducing its population Sri Lanka due to loss of habitat, making birds now, to a large extent, they are absent in the lowlands. It has also reduced its population in the kathmandu valley, Nepal.

Resident, but locally nomadic outside of breeding season, in response to the food supply; more predictable seasonal movements in some areas.


State of conservation ⓘ

Status Minor Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

• Current Red List of UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Decreasing

The Intermediate Parakeet (Psittacula intermedia) (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) is now considered a hybrid between the Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) and Slaty-headed Parakeet (Psittacula himalayana) (Rasmussen and Collar (1999))

The size of the world population Plum-headed Parakeet It has not been quantified, but the species, according to information, it is enough common in nepal and in general, common in india (pit et to the. 1997).

Its population is suspected to be in decline due to ongoing habitat destruction.

"Plum-headed Parakeet" in captivity:

Large captive population. Although this species is not exploited as much as sympatric (in the same geographic region) Alexandrine Parakeet, trade takes its toll on local populations across the range.

They are birds Smart and many can learn to speak, but not as easily as other larger parrots.

Most of the Plum-headed Parakeet enjoy being close to your caregiver, However, They do not like caresses.

They tend to be Shy at the beginning; But, with the time, patience and daily interaction, They do become docile bird quite easily.

These tend to be parrots assets in an aviary environment and can become apathetic in an environment of cage. Their preferred environment should be an aviary, or an environment that allows them to travel and move freely in a safe environment.

In a communal aviary, usually they get along with other birds – However, You can be assertive with larger birds.

Unlike the rest of psittaculas, They are not very vocal and vocalizations, especially male, usually quite melodious.

It's not a difficult kind of create. Unlike many parrots, the-headed Parrot your partner do not bind for life.

With regard to its longevity, according to sources, a specimen lived for 18,8 years in captivity. The maximum longevity could be underestimated in this species.. In captivity, estos animales pueden criar, approximately, to the 2 years of age.

Alternative names:

Plum-headed Parakeet, Blossom-headed Parakeet, Plum headed Parakeet (English).
Perruche à tête prune, Perruche à tête de prune (French).
Pflaumenkopfsittich, Plaumenkopfsittich (German).
Periquito-cabeça-de-ameixa (Portuguese).
Cotorra cabeciazul, Cotorra Ciruela, Cotorra de Cabeza Azul (español).

scientific classification:

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Psittacula
Scientific name: Psittacula cyanocephala
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Protonimo: Psittacus cyanocephalus

Plum-headed Parakeet Images:

Especies del género Psittacula


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Birdlife


(1) – Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) at Bogazici Zoo, By Nevit Dilmen Turkey (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) at the mini zoo, Kapparis. Standing on a nesting box in a cage By Glen Bowman (originally posted to Flickr as Cyprus-162) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) male in flight Location: Thattekad, Kerala, India By Lip Kee Yap [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – An adult female Plum-headed Parakeet at Flying High Bird Sanctuary, Apple Tree Creek, Queensland, Australia By paulgear (Picasa Web Ablums) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – plum-headed parakeet – Psittacula cyanocephala by Dhruvaraj S – Flickr

Sounds: Conrad Pinto (Xeno-canto)

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Mindoro Racquet-tail
Prioniturus mindorensis

Mindoro Racquet-tail


Mindoro Racquet-tail


27 cms length.

The Mindoro Racquet-tail (Prioniturus mindorensis) They are closely related to the Blue-crowned Racquet-tail but it is distinguished by the patch crown in the mindorensis it is blue with a slight violet tinge and stands out sharply against the forecrown green; the bill is larger and the rackets are never as long as in adult specimens of the discurus.

-similar female to female Blue-crowned Racquet-tail, but often with violet traces in the patch crown.

Formerly considered conspecific (belonging to the same species) with the Blue-crowned Racquet-tail (Prioniturus discurus).


They can be found in humid lowland forests, most recently being observed records, in groups of birds visiting the IBA Siburan.


No information about their reproductive behavior.


Surely it feeds their congeners fruits, berries, nuts and seeds.


Extending its range (breeding/resident): 12.100 km2

endemic to the Mindoro Island in Philippines.



Rationale for the Red List category: Vulnerable.

Population size: 2500-9999 specimens.

The population trend: In decline.

Rationale for the Red List category

This newly divided species is listed as Vulnerable it is believed to have a small town, which infers that is in decline due to the continuous pressure of capture and loss of habitat.

Justification of the population

The population size of this species has not been formally quantified, but it is estimated preliminarily that has less than 10.000 mature individuals. So, placed in the band 2.500-9.999 mature individuals, which it is supposed equivalent to a total population of 3.750-14.999 individuals, rounded here to 3.500-15.000 approximately. It is presumed that all mature individuals form a single subpopulation.

Justification trend

It is inferred that the population of the species is continuous decrease due to the constant pressure capture and habitat loss (Juniper and Parr 1998).


Little information is available about threats to this species, but it is believed that the continuous capture for pet trade and the continuous loss of habitat through agricultural expansion, timber harvesting and development are causing a negative population trend.

conservation actions

Conservation actions underway

No specific conservation actions are known for this species., although suitable habitat is officially protected.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Surveys to quantify the population.
Study the habitat needs of the species.
Assess the level of threat of capture pressure.
Using remote sensing techniques to track the change in land use in Mindoro.
Carry out awareness activities to reduce trapping activities.

"Mindoro Racquet-tail" in captivity:

Not found in captivity.

Alternative names:

Blue-crowned Racquet-tail (mindorensis), Mindoro Racket-tail, Mindoro Racquet-tail (English).
Palette à couronne bleue (mindorensis), Palette de Mindoro (French).
Mindoro-Spatelschwanzpapagei (German).
Prioniturus mindorensis (Portuguese).
Lorito momoto de Mindoro (español).

scientific classification:

Joseph Beal Steere
Joseph Beal Steere

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Prioniturus
Scientific name: Prioniturus mindorensis
Citation: Steere, 1890
Protonimo: Prioniturus mindorensis

Images "Mindoro Racquet-tail"

“Mindoro Racquet-tail” (Prioniturus mindorensis)


Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Mindoro Racquet-tail Prioniturus mindorensis (Young bird with no racquets) in Mounts Iglit-Baco National Park, Mindoro, Philippines by Djop Tabaranza Accessible at hbw.com/ibc/1405853.
(2) – Mindoro Racquet-tail (Prioniturus mindorensis) – https://www.hbw.com/species/mindoro-racquet-tail-prioniturus-mindorensis

Sounds: Desmond Allen, XC79225. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/79225.