Cuban Parrot
Amazona leucocephala

Cuban Parrot

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description:

28-33 cm.. length and 260-301 g. of weight.

The Cuban Parrot (Amazona leucocephala) has a plumage rather variable, a main color ranging from bright green to olive color,, some birds feathers yellow dispersed in wings and in the back.

Front, fore crown, lores and area around eyes, white; lower cheeks and throat, red-pink; feathers the back of the crown and nape, bluish-green with black margins, giving the whole a heavy barred effect; similar pattern on the sides of neck but with the bluish tint absent; ear-coverts charcoal grey. Feathers of the back and the mantle, green with black distal margins but less intense than in the nape and head; rump and uppertail-coverts, dark green with weak margins to some feathers rump.

Cuban Parrot

Alula, greater coverts and flight feather, blue on the outerweb, gray on inner; remaining coberteras green with dark margins, showing most distinct barring on lesser coverts. Under the wings, green with dark margins, flight feather grey. Breast green with dark margins to most feathers; feathers on belly with vinaceous base showing green at margins forming a patch variable-sized, barely noticeable in some birds, striking in other; the thighs green or with some vinaceous feathers; undertail-coverts green. feathers tail green with red at base. Bill yellow-horn: irises reddish brown; legs yellowish brown.

Both sexes are similar, but males of the subspecies caymanenis reportedly larger and brighter than females. Usually, the immature show less black borders on the body feathers and less red wine in the belly.

  • Sound of the Cuban Parrot.

Description 4 subspecies:
  • Amazona leucocephala bahamensis

    (Bryant,H, 1867) – Larger that the nominal species, with slate blue on the back of the crown and more extensive white color head. Pens red wine in the belly, reduced or absent and red at the bottom of the tail less extensive.


  • Amazona leucocephala caymanensis

    (Cory, 1886) – It differs from other subspecies by the turquoise dye in the chest and in the rump and rosacea suffusion (sometimes yellowish) in white feathers head. Plumage Barred yellower and less thick than the nominal species (especially below and on upperwing-coverts), with less white in the head and much less pronounced the patch red wine belly.


  • Amazona leucocephala hesterna

    (Bangs, 1916) – Smaller and darker than the nominal species and that the subspecies caymanensis, Most individuals with red confined to a point under the eye and patch smaller target in the crown, it lacks the rosy tint of the subspecies caymanensis. Patch red wine in the larger belly than the subspecies caymanensis.


  • Amazona leucocephala leucocephala

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – Nominal.

Habitat:

Cuban Parrot Video

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Cuban Parrot They inhabit in different habitats in different islands. In Cuba They inhabit dense forests; in the Bahamas, in native broadleaf forests and pine forests, and in the Cayman Islands, in dry forests in the plateau ridge and agricultural lands nearby (Bond 1979, King 1981, Sibley y Monroe 1990). Usually in small groups but forages while forming larger groups in places where food is plentiful; couples or family groups in flocks discernable. More usually in pairs during breeding. They sleep communally outside the breeding season.

Reproduction:

The Cuban Parrot make their nests in cavities or palm tree hollows created by termites or woodpeckers. The population of Abaco It is particularly interesting because nests in natural holes in substrate limestone in the soil (O'Brien et al., 2006); there, chicks and adults are completely isolated from the frequent fires in the pine forests They are forming their habitat. Breeding March until mid-summer Cuba and Abaco. The laying usually it comprises between 2 and 4 eggs, the incubation period hard of 26 - 28 days and the chicks remain in the nest between 56 and 60 days.

Food:

The diet It includes yema Leaf Roystonea, the cones and new shoots tender the Pinus caribea, sea ​​grape uvifera and Conocarpus erretis, fruits and seeds of Smilax, Sabal, Durant, Exothea, Ernodea, Tabebuia, Acacia, Metopium, Tetrazygia, Swietenia, Cupania and Lisiloma. Sometimes they are persecuted for damage cultivated fruits like Mango (Mangifera) and grain.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 590.000 km2

The Cuban Parrot live in Cuba, Island Pines, Bahamas and Cayman Islands. Formerly observed throughout the island Cuba but it is now difficult to see or are extinct in much of the island. Still locally they distributed throughout the provinces but only remain common in a few redoubts, including peninsulas Zapata and Guanahacabibes and in Sierra de sewage.

You can see in the Isle of Pines (Isle of youth) which dropped dramatically in the twentieth century, especially during the sixties, with most of the population surviving on Lanier Swamp National Park.

Formerly distributed by all the major islands of the Bahamas, but currently extinct, Except in Gran Inagua (spread south, east and north) and Abaco (especially in the southern third). You can visit Little Inagua from Great Inagua.

Mainly in the central and eastern parts of Grand Cayman where habitat loss is less severe. A residual population persists Cayman Brac but it became extinct in little Cayman about 1932.

Mainly resident, but with some seasonal movements, for example in the Isle of youth, where birds possibly (at least once) they moved to the coast from the interior dry non-breeding season.

The decline across the range is due to the habitat destruction and capture of birds Vivas (for use as pets locally and for export).

Poor breeding success Grand Cayman in the seventies it was due to mosquito attacks against the offspring. Birds that nest on the ground in Abaco attacked by wild cats. The hurricanes They can cause shortages of food and nesting sites. It is likely that Bahamas are stable, but generally decreasing. You can not be considered safe in most of its range.

Distribution 4 subspecies:

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Status Near Threatened (UICN)ⓘ

Justification of the red list category

The Cuban Parrot It is classified as near threatened because it is suspected to have suffered a reduction in population in Cuba, which has not ceased, mainly due to the capture and destruction of nesting sites.

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 13600-23000

Justification of the population

Population estimates for Bahamas and Cayman Islands they are as follows: 2.000 in Grand Cayman in 1995 (Bradley 2000), about 450 in Cayman Brac in 2013 (Marsden, 2013), 8.000-13.000 in Great Inagua, 3.000-5.000 in Abaco and around 10 individuals in new Providence (Bahamas National Trust 2016, S. Cant-Woodside in a bit., 2016). It is estimated that the population of Cuba amounts of 7.000 - 14.000 copies based on estimates recorded population density and the fact that it is likely that only a proportion of the estimated extent of occurrence deal. Therefore, the total population It is estimated in 20.460-34.460 individuals, which is equivalent to 13.640-22.973 mature individuals, round here 13.600-23.000 mature individuals.

Justification of trend

It is considered that the species is declining mainly due to the capture and destruction of nesting sites. It is considered that the population of the Bahamas It has remained stable or increased. The population of the Cayman Islands It has increased since the species was protected in 1989 (Bradley 20000). It is believed that the Cuban population It has decreased in recent years, mainly due to the poaching (Canizares 2012, M. Canizares in a bit., 2016). Although there is no data on the extent of this decline, the species has been classified as Vulnerable in Cuba (Canizares 2012). Therefore, It is suspected that the total population has decreased 10-20% over three generations.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix 1.

• Protected in Bahamas under the Wild birds Protection Act (Protection).

• Legally protected in the Cayman Islands from 1989.

• The artificial nests a variety of designs are in use in several locations Cuba and they have been used by more than 1.300 birds (Waugh 2006). The facts of artificial materials have proved more durable (Waugh 2006).

• The volunteers counts in the center of Cuba They have been conducted twice a year since 2009 and more than 1.500 local people are involved in the activity.

• For reforestation and forest enrichment important plant species are used for feeding parrots.

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Discourage catch birds of nature through public education campaigns.

• Promote best practices for keeping birds increase the longevity of captive birds and reduce the demand for wild populations.

• In Abaco, protect vital areas of broadleaf forests.

• In Cuba, make and erect more artificial nests.

• To monitor population trends across its range.

Cuban Parrot in captivity:

Currently international trade Cuban Parrot It is legally prohibited; However, at regional level, the illegal traffic This species is one of the most worrying in Cuba.

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

bahaman parrot, Caribbean Amazon, Caribbean Parrot, Cuban Amazon, Cuban Parrot, Rose-throated Parrot, White-headed Amazon, White-headed Parrot (English).
Amazone à face rouge, Amazone à tête blanche, Amazone de Cuba (French).
Kubaamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-cuba (Portuguese).
Amazona Cubana, Cotorra (Spanish).

Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona leucocephala
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protonimo: Psittacus leucocephalus


Images Cuban Parrot:


Cuban Parrot (Amazona leucocephala)


Sources:

(1) Avibase
(2) Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
(3) Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(4) Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Rose-throated Parrot. Amazona leucocephala Long Beach, Zapata N.P. Cuba by gailhampshireFlickr
(2) – A Cuban parrot (amazona leucocephala) in Naturarte Center. santa Clara, Cuba 2011 by lezumbalaberenjenaFlickr
(3) – A Cuban parrot (Amazona leucocephala) Vega de Palma, Camajuaní, Cuba by lezumbalaberenjenaFlickr
(4) – Amazona leucocephala by Ekaterina Chernetsova (Papchinskaya)Flickr
(5) – Amazona leucocephala by Ekaterina Chernetsova (Papchinskaya)Flickr
(6) – Cuban Parrot (Amazona leucocephala) by HeathFlickr
(7) – Cuban Amazon by Eric SavageFlickr
(8) – Two Cuban Amazons in Matanzas, Matanzas Province, Cuba By Laura Gooch (BI110211-174 – Cuban Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Cuban Amazon parrot on Grand Cayman Island By Lhb1239 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Cuban Amazon (also known as the Rose-throated Parrot) at Jungle Island, Miami, USA By Chris Acuna from Miami, USA (Jungle Island-20090823-086) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(11) – A Cuban Amazon in Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. It is in a small round cage on a balcony By Alex Graves (Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(12) – A Cuban Amazon flying in Matanzas, Matanzas Province, Cuba By Laura Gooch (BI110211-159 – Cuban Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(13) – Cayman parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), Grand Cayman By Charlesjsharp (Own work, from Sharp Photography, sharpphotography) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(14) – Parrots in captivity /. London :George Bell and Sons,1884-1887 [i.e. 1883-1888] by Biodiversity Heritage LibraryFlickr

Sounds: Hans Matheve, XC256757. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/256757

St. Vincent Parrot
Amazona guildingii

St. Vincent Parrot

Content

Description:

40 cm.. length and 580 – 700 weight g.

The plumage of the St. Vincent Parrot (Amazona guildingii) It is very variable, virtually no two similar birds.

Its forecrown, lores, supercilii area and upper cheeks are blanquecinas; crown yellow; Feathers back neck and its sides, pale blue dark blue tips; fusion green feathers on the neck show black points. Upperparts dark brown with dark black tips to some feathers. Scapulars gold; coverts outer primaries with pale blue in outerweb.

St. Vincent Parrot

Wing coverts brown with a green band subterminal and dark extremes some feathers; carpal edge yellow-orange with scattered green feathers. Primaries blue with bases yellow-orange; the Outer secondaries They are equal with green subterminal bands, the inner secondary green with blue tips; tertiary interior dark green tinted golden brown on outerweb, Outside tertiary green at the base becoming dark blue at the tips.

Under the wings, with lesser coverts brown with green tips, greater coverts Yellow; flight feathers blackish with yellow at the base. Throat orange with blue tips or blue-green; upper chest golden brown with dark brown tips giving a barred effect; belly yellower than gold chest green blackish subterminal band and pointed to some feathers; undertail-coverts green-yellow. Tail Orange at the base with blue broadband and wide ends central bright yellow. Bill pale gray-horn; irises orange; legs grey.


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Both sexes are similar. The immature They have softer colors.

Geographic variation

Parrots eastern side of San Vicente They are possibly genetically isolated from the western side: the small bird population East (perhaps only about 80 in 1982) show a high proportion of green and have their high-pitched voices.

  • Sound of the St. Vincent Parrot.

Habitat:

Video "St. Vincent Parrot"

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The St. Vincent Parrot mainly they inhabit mature forests humid altitudes of 125 some 1000 m, although they prefer lowland forests, where they spend most time. Occasionally they leave the forest to visit cultivated areas and even gardens. Gregarious and usually in groups 20-30 individuals or in pairs. They forage in flocks and roost use Community. They defend the area around the nest while raising although also kept in groups while feeding and sleeping.

Reproduction:

Nests in hollow mature forest trees such as Dacryodes or Sloanea large. Couples begin breeding activity around February with eggs laid between April-May. In dry years, eggs can be deposited as soon as in January-February or as late as in July. If conditions are particularly wet, birds can not be played at all. Clutch two eggs, rarely three. low productivity with 50% Natural suffering nest failure and successful nests with only two young people in the best years.

Food:

Its diet includes plants of Cordia sulcata, Clusia, Sloanea, Dacryodes excelsa, Ficus, Cecropia peltata, Mangifera indica, Melisoma virescens, Euterpe, Ixora ferrea, Micropholis chrysophylloides, Acrocomia aculeata, Simarouba amara, iron Krugiodendron, Dussia martinicensis, Andira inermis, No Ingoides, Byrsonima coriacea, Talauma dodecapetala, see venosa, Psidium guajava and Aiphanes erosa. The Pouteria multiflora It is your favorite.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 100 km2

Endemic of the San Vicente Island in the Lesser Antilles. The distribution is closely related to the presence of native rain forests that during most of the twentieth century have been confined to the east and west sides of the central foothills of the island.

Currently the largest flocks of St. Vincent Parrot inhabit the headwaters of Buccament, Cumberland, Colonaire, Congo-Jennings-Perseverance and Richmond Valley’s, where much of the remaining native forest concentrated; elsewhere in fewer.

Some estimates of its population between 1870 and 1920 They are contradictory, but the species evidently decreased substantially 1950. Estimates of the population in the early seventies suggested that between several hundred to 1.000 then birds inhabited the island. Survey 1982 involved a total of 421 ± 52 birds while estimating 1988 He suggested 440-500. Perhaps they increased to 800 birds in 1994. The declining population and shrinking range, is linked to the loss of forest cover wet once (at least in the western side) almost reached sea level. Deforestation seems to have stopped in at least some valleys, but habitat remains at risk due to forestry, expansion of banana, charcoal production and loss of nests for collectors looking young birds for trade. Survey 1984 He suggested that only survived in 16 km2 of primary forest. His capture for pets and international trade It remains a threat, but this and hunting, that was probably the main threat from late 1950 - 1970, They have declined in importance following an education campaign. The remaining population is also at risk because of hurricanes that can cause loss of plants that consume and nesting sites, and direct mortality. In 1902 much of the favorite habitat of this species was destroyed by the eruption of Monte Soufrière and these parrots are clearly vulnerable to future volcanic eruptions. Parts of the remaining forest habitat are now protected areas and the species is protected under domestic law. CITES Appendix I.

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Vulnerable Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: In increased.

• Population size: 250-999

Justification of the red list category

Habitat conservation, the law enforcement and public awareness campaigns have halted the slide of this species to extinction and have even reversed some of the earlier reductions. However, still qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a very small population and range on one island.

Justification of the population

The species has a wild population of about 730 birds (Loro Parque Foundation 2008), which is equivalent to 487 mature individuals, placed here in the band 250-999 individuals.

Justification of trend

The number of this species continues steadily (Culzac-Wilson 2005).

Threats

It hunting for food, capture for trade in birds in cages and habitat loss were the main causes of the decline of this species. Deforestation has been a result of forestry activities, expansion of banana, production of charcoal, loss of nesting trees felled by hunters looking young birds for trade, as well as natural disasters such as hurricanes and volcanic eruptions (Snyder et to the., 2000).

The nine-banded armadillo o negro tattoo (Salmo salar), introduced on the island, undermines the large trees causing his fall, reducing the number of appropriate nests for St. Vincent Parrot (Culzac-Wilson 2005). a highway is planned through the island, funded by the Taiwanese government, that would destroy large areas of suitable habitat and increase deforestation rates (Culzac-Wilson et al., 2003). Genetic isolation of separate subpopulations may be of greater concern.

Conservation Actions Underway

Appendices I and II CITES. national legislation protecting the species applies. The Reserve Pargo de San Vicente It was established to protect the entire habitat occupied (Juniper and Parr 1998). Successful public education campaigns have apparently improved the public perception of the species and, combined with the above measures, They have reversed some of the earlier reductions. There captive populations San Vicente and Barbados (Woolcock 2000, Sweeney 2001). In 2005 a large species conservation plan published (Culzac-Wilson 2005) .

Conservation Actions Proposed

Continue to monitor the population. Continue and enhance existing security measures, including the development of captive breeding program. Study the reproductive success, movement patterns and habitat requirements of this species (Snyder et to the., 2000) . Oppose plans for cross-country road and propose a better option. Implement species conservation plan.

St. Vincent Parrot in captivity:

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-managed program captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Guilding’s Amazon, Guilding’s Parrot, St Vincent Amazon, St Vincent Parrot, St. Vincent Amazon, St. Vincent Parrot, St.Vincent amazon (English).
Amazone de Guilding, Amazone de Saint-Vincent (French).
Königsamazon, Königsamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-são-vicente (Portuguese).
Amazona de San Vicente, Amazona de St. Vicente (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona guildingii
Citation: (Vigors, 1837)
Protonimo: Psittacus Guildingii

St. Vincent Parrot images:


St. Vincent Parrot (Amazona guildingii)


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A St Vincent Amazon in the rehabilitation and breeding centre in the Botanical Gardens, Kingstown, on the island of Saint VincenBy Amazona_guildingii_-Botanical_Gardens_-Kingstown_-Saint_Vincent-8a.jpg: Chennettederivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A St. Vincent Amazon at World Parrot Refuge, Coombs, British Columbia, Canada By Herb Neufeld (World Parrot Refuge – Coombs, BC) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – St. Vincent Amazon (Amazona guildingii) also known as St. Vincent Parrot By Beralpo at ru.wikipedia [CC BY 2.5], from Wikimedia Commons
(4) – St. Vincent Parrot – Source: own work – Location: Bronx Zoo, New York – Author: self, User:Stavenn By No machine-readable author provided. Stavenn assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – St. Vincent Amazon at Houston Zoo, USA By Kent Wang (originally posted to Flickr as Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – St Vincent Parrot (1) by Mark MorganFlickr

Sounds: Jesse Fagan, XC48891. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/48891

Lord Howe Island Parakeet †
Cyanoramphus subflavescens

Lord Howe Island Parakeet

Content

Lord Howe Island Parakeet

Description:

21-27 cm.. of length and a weight of 80 g..

The Lord Howe Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus subflavescens) was a medium-sized green parrot with a head bright green, the crown crimson red and a strip on the eyes; the eyes were red and bill grey. The upperparts They were bright green with a dark red spot on each side of the rump (usually they are hidden by the wings when resting) and a blue border in wings; the underparts were yellowish green.

Both sexes appeared similar, but the female It was smaller.

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Cyanoramphus [novaezelandiae or subflavescens] (sensu lato) by some authors.

In 2012, World Bird List of IOC recognized him as a species [IOC world birdnames Archived 2012-08-06 at the Wayback Machine.].

Habitat:

The Lord Howe Island Parakeet It was occasionally observed in flocks. There is little information on their habitats, probably they lived in forests inhabited and cultivated areas Lord Howe Island. No information on the use of different habitats for different activities.

Reproduction:

Nothing is known of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality of this extinct species. However, It has been estimated that the life of Lord Howe Island Parakeet It should be similar to that of Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii), About three years. the age of sexual maturity is also known populations of this species, although a juvenile female was seen mating with a male just a week after achieving independence, and it is said that the captive birds are reproduced when they were under one year old.

Little else is known about breeding Lord Howe Island Parakeet, probably they reproduced in response to climatic conditions and food availability, nesting in tree holes or hollow pipes, in crevices between rocks or cliffs.

Food:

Meal Lord Howe Island Parakeet probably it consisted of plant material, as seeds, fruit, buds and leaves of native trees and shrubs. Other existing populations mainly ate seeds, fruits and berries, egg yolks, sprouts and flowers, as well as, occasionally, a small number of invertebrates.

Distribution:

Endemic of the isla Lord Howe in the Sea of ​​Tasmania, part of New South Wales, Australia.

Conservation:

• The last record we have of this species dating 1869. EXTINCT.

The population declines were mainly due to habitat modification, hunting, poisoning, and the introduction of predators (especially cats and rats).
However, the main threat to the Lord Howe Island Parakeet was the hunting and its capture by settlers. Formerly he abounded in the Lord Howe Island and it was said to be a plague, and it is destroying crops and orchards of the inhabitants of the island.

There are only two copies of Lord Howe Island Parakeet. From the collection John Gould, taken by John MacGillivray in September of 1853 on tour HMS Herald, and are in the Museum of Natural History [Schodde, R.; & Mason, I.J. (1997). Birds (Columbidae to Coraciidae). In Houston, W.W.K. & Wells, A. (eds) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 37.2. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne. ISBN 0-643-06456-7 p.147.].

Alternative names:

Lord Howe Island Parakeet, Lord Howe Island red-crowned parakeet, Lord Howe Parakeet, Red-Fronted Parakeet (English).
Perruche de Lord Howe (French).
Lord Howe-Laufsittich (German).
Periquito de Lord Howe (Portuguese).
Perico de Lord Howe (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Salvadori-Thomas
Salvadori Tommaso

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Cyanoramphus
Scientific name: Cyanoramphus subflavescens
Citation: Salvadori, 1891
Protonimo: Cyanorhamphus subflavescens

Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Red-crowned Parakeet (Lord Howe Is. subsp.) – profile | NSW Environment & Heritage

Photos:

(1) – Cyanorhamphus subflavescens (Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Volume 20) by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain] (2) – Hand coloured lithograph (circa 1928) showing (Cyanorhamphus subflavescens) Which is now a synonym of the Lord Howe Island Red-fronted Parakeet (Gray novaezelandiae subflavescens) From The Birds of Australia (1910-28) by Gregory Macalister Mathews (1876-1949) Artwork by Henrik Gronvold (1858–1940) a Danish bird illustrator. by Henrik Grönvold [Public domain]

Cactus Parakeet
Eupsittula cactorum

Cactus Parakeet

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description:

25 cm.. length and 75-90 g. of weight.

The Cactus Parakeet (Eupsittula cactorum) has the forecrown, lores lower cheeks and brown off; crown with slaty tinge; sides neck, the nape and upperparts up to the rump grass-green.

The primary coverts They are bluish green in the outerweb, the remaining are green grass. Flight feather (above) green on innerwebs, blue green on outerweb, blue black at the tips (below) gray. Underwing-coverts greenish yellow. Throat and upper breast dull brown; lower breast and belly fairly bright orange-yellow, the thighs and vent greenish-yellow color. Uppertail green, four distal blue central feathers; undertail gray.

Cactus Parakeet

Upper mandible horn, greyish at base and on lower mandible; perioftálmico patch naked white; irises brown-orange; gray-gray legs.

Both sexes similar. Immature paler than adult, with crown green, more olive upper chest and throat, and the irises darker.

  • Sound of the Cactus Parakeet.

Subspecies description:

  • Eupsittula cactorum cactorum

    (Kuhl, 1820) – Nominal.


  • Eupsittula cactorum caixana

    (Spix, 1824) – Generally paler than nominal, with belly yellow instead of orange.

Habitat:

Video "Cactus Parakeet"

Parrots in the world

Especies del género Eupsittula

  • Eupsittula nana
    • —- Eupsittula nana astec
    • —- Eupsittula nana nana
    • —- Eupsittula nana vicinalis
  • Eupsittula canicularis
    • —- Eupsittula canicularis canicularis
    • —- Eupsittula canicularis clarae
    • —- Eupsittula canicularis eburnirostrum
  • Eupsittula aurea
  • Eupsittula pertinax
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax aeruginosa
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax arubensis
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax chrysogenys
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax chrysophrys
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax griseipecta
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax lehmanni
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax margaritensis
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax ocularis
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax paraensis
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax pertinax
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax surinama
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax tortugensis
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax venezuelae
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax xanthogenia
  • Eupsittula cactorum
    • —- Eupsittula cactorum cactorum
    • —- Eupsittula cactorum caixana

Its distribution area closely matches the dried vegetation and prickly caatinga Northeast Brazil, but it encompasses higher drier semi-desert areas created by overgrazing and dry forests (caatinga arborea) and seasonal savannah lusher (closed). Usually in pairs or (mainly outside the breeding season) flocks of up to 20 birds, most abundant where food is abundant (as rice crops).

Reproduction:

Crianza undocumented released. Clutch six eggs in captivity.

Food:

The diet includes seeds, fruits (including cactus), berries, dried fruits, flowers and cocoons, taken both trees and shrubs and soil. Sometimes it attacks crops (for example rice, grapes and corn).

Distribution and status:

Population expansion (breeding / resident): 1.220.000 km2

Distributed by the interior Northeast Brazil. The Cactus Parakeet extending from the drier parts of Bay and adjacent northeast Minas Gerais, Brazil north through Piauí and Southeast of Maranhão, up to Pernambuco and Paraíba, passing by Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará. Absent in coastal areas: a record of Belém at the mouth of Amazon in For It seems wrong or possibly refers to a leak.

It is usually common (the most common parrot in some locations) with a stable population, although the decline is inevitable in some areas due to massive loss of habitat by agriculture and plantations of exotic trees. Continuing degradation and conversion caatinga by grazing and cultivation they represent a long-term threat. Present in the Serra da Capivara National Park. Any Local persecution due to predation crop. Atrapada to trade small numbers in captivity.

Distribution of subspecies:

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Status Least Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the red list category

The trend population seems to be stable and, therefore, the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population trend (> 30% decrease in ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 mature individuals with an estimated> 10% continuous decline in ten years or three generations, or specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common(Stotz et to the. (1996).

Justification trend

It is suspected that the population is stable the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threat.

Threats

Local persecution because of the invasion of crops. This species is also trapped for pet bird trade.

"Cactus Parakeet" in captivity:

Young birds are removed from their nest before they can fly, and then sold, for example, at the fair in inner cities.
These birds can become very tame, and it is not rare to see a Cactus Parakeet living “on freedom” in the owner's house, as a member of the family so to speak. It however is seeing a rare bird in captivity outside their range. Not as common as other species more familiar aratinga. In addition, usually they reach very high prices.

The illegal trade It has greatly reduced the population of these Aratingas in nature, and threatens the survival of the species in many areas. Habitat destruction appears to be a minor problem.

For more information – Loro Parque

Alternative names:

Caatinga Conure, Caatinga Parakeet, Cactus Conure, Cactus Parakeet (English).
Conure des cactus, Perriche des cactus, Perruche des cactus (French).
Kaktussittich (German).
Aratinga-vaqueira, giguilim, Jandaia-gangarra, merequém, periquito-da-caatinga, periquito-gangarra (Portuguese).
Aratinga Cactácea, Aratinga de los cactos, Periquito de los Cardones (Spanish).


Scientific classification:

Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Eupsittula
Scientific name: Eupsittula cactorum
Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
Protonimo: Psittacus cactorum


Images Cactus Parakeet:


Cactus Parakeet (Eupsittula cactorum)


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Photos:

(1) – The pet Caatinga Parakeet in Riachão do Jacuípe, Baiano northeast, Brazil By Paulo Marcos from Painted-BA, Brazil (Periquito MartinsUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Caatinga Parakeet (also known as Cactus Parakeet) in Brazil By Phillipe (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Eupsittula cactorum – Conura cactus – Cactus conure – conure cactus by Florin FeneruFlickr
(4) – Parakeet CAATINGA (Eupsittula cactorum) by Cantosdanatureza WITH
(5) – Parakeet cactuses - aratinga cactácea by Animal Encyclopedia 2
(6) – Cactus parakeet – conographie parrots :.Paris :P. Bertrand,1857.. biodiversitylibrary.org/page/47804387

Olive-throated Parakeet
Eupsittula nana

Olive-throated Parakeet

Content

Description:

20 - 26 cm. long and 72-85 grams. It is one of the smallest Aratingas.

Olive-throated Parakeet

The Olive-throated Parakeet (Eupsittula nana) has the head and upperparts dark green; feathered area of cere yellow to orange-red.

Upperwing-coverts dark green, outer more emerald. The Outer secondaries and inner primaries deep dark blue tipped black above; the outer primary blue only towards tips. The greater underwing-coverts and underside of the flight feather dull slate or brownish-grey; the remaining coberteras are light green. Chin, throat and sides neck chocolate-brown they are merging with brownish olive on top of chest which turns yellow at the bottom and the belly; undertail-coverts light green. Uppertail dark green with blue diffusion, especially towards the tip; undertail metallized yellow-olive. Bill brown with the tip paler; irises yellow to orange; legs blackish-gray.

All plumages are similar but immature has irises brown.

  • Sound of the Olive-throated Parakeet.

Subspecies description:

three subspecies Panamanian and Honduran birds previously bore the respective names outmost and melloni, but light regional variations in Central America (p. e.g.. birds in southern paler and those of Tabasco, Mexico and Honduras They are darker) not justify more separations as described below.

  • Eupsittula nana astec

    (Souance, 1857) – Similar to the nominal but the throat and (especially the underparts) more pale brown, the bill perhaps smaller average.

  • Eupsittula nana nana

    (Vigors, 1830) – Nominal.


  • Eupsittula nana vicinalis

    (Bangs & Penard,TO, 1919) – Slightly larger than the subspecies Eupsittula nana astec, up brighter and greener down

NOTE The continental population is sometimes treated as a full species under the name A. astec, although the differences are minimal Jamaican birds.

Habitat:

They live mainly in forests and forest edges (especially adjacent lowland) in wet areas (- 1.100 m in Honduras, - 700 m in Costa Rica and a 300 m in southern Mexico), It is less frequent in large tracts of rainforest; reported in arid areas (Veracruz) and pine forests (Honduras), open country with scattered trees (including acreages) and plantations. More common in Jamaica in wet limestone forests midlevel. Usually it remains below the canopy. larger groups can be formed (c. 30) after breeding or when food is plentiful. mixed flocks with Crimson-fronted Parakeet reported in Costa Rica.

Reproduction:

Arboreal termitarium prefer to lay their nests, where birds excavate the cavity; also used treeholes. Nests often on the edge of a river or forest. Breeding season in March, Jamaica; April May, Belize and Guatemala. The implementation is of 3-4 eggs that hatch in 26-27 days. After hatching, it takes about 50 days until the chicks are ready for independence.

Note: In most birds, male / female relationships occur only during the breeding season and only work in coordinating parental care. La monogamy perenne, or linking partner throughout the year, It occurs in at least a dozen families of birds, including cockatoos and parrots.

Food:

Registered foods include higos ficus, Psidium, Inga, Hura, fruit of Hieronyma and guilt of tamarindo unripened. attacking crops, especially corn, and it is considered highly destructive in some areas.

Distribution:

Extending its range (breeding / resident): 1,373,500 km2

distributed by the Gulf and the Caribbean slope of Central America and Jamaica; a population in Hispaniola (Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic) It comes from a recent introduction from Jamaica. In Mexico, the Olive-throated Parakeet It extends from eastern San Luis Potosí and South of Tamaulipas, through South Veracruz until Oaxaca, North of Chiapas and Yucatan; then by the wet north Guatemala and the Caribbean slope of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica to western Panama. It is located along Jamaica except in high mountains and wet Range John Crow in the East.

Locally common resident and abundant (commonly the most abundant parrot in some locations) although it is likely to be decreased in some areas (p. and. Jamaica and Costa Rica) due to the loss of habitat. Less common in southern Costa Rica and rare in Panama, where possibly a seasonal visitor Southern Lemon.

Caught for live bird market, but rare in international trade.

Subspecies description:

  • Eupsittula nana astec

    (Souance, 1857) – Veracruz, Mexico, - Panama


  • Eupsittula nana nana

    (Vigors, 1830) – Nominal. Jamaica, apparently in most areas except in the high mountains and the wet mountain range John Crow


  • Eupsittula nana vicinalis

    (Bangs & Penard,TO, 1919) – East of Mexico south of Veracruz, contact area with the latter species unknown

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 500,000-4,999,999 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

Although the demographic trend appears to be declining, It not believed to be declining fast enough to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable at the discretion of the demographic trend (> 30% decrease in ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and therefore does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un descenso continuo estimado en >10% in ten years or three generations, or specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

The subspecies Eupsittula nana nana It is endemic to Jamaica, where still widespread but probably has a moderately small population (approximately 10.000 mature individuals), all in one subpopulation, inferring that is in continuous decline due to a variety of threats including loss and degradation of the habitat, pursuit and capture for trade. Therefore, It has been classified as Near-threatened.

Justification of the population

Partners in Flight They estimate that the total population is 500,000-4,999,999 individuals (A. Panjabi a slightly. 2008).

Justification trend

They suspected that the population is declining due to continuing habitat destruction and unsustainable levels of exploitation.

"Olive-throated Parakeet" in captivity:

Uncommon in international trade. Their life expectancy is over 15 years.

It is included in the Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Silvestre (CITES).

The Olive-throated Parakeet It is important to attract tourists with hotel advantages in the Caribbean and tropical areas that offer free bird tour with reservations. It is one of the reasons that this beautiful bird should remain free.

Alternative names:

Dwarf Conure, Dwarf Parakeet, Jamaican Conure, Jamaican Parakeet, Olive-throated Parakeet, Olive-throated Parakeet (Jamaican) (English).
Conure aztèque , Conure naine, Conure naine (nominal), Conure naine (nominale), Conure naine (race nominale) (French).
Aztekensittich, Jamaikasittich (German).
Periquito-da-jamaica (Portuguese).
Aratinga jamaicana, Aratinga Pechisucia, Perico Amargo, Perico azteco, Perico Pechiolivo, Perico Pechisucio, perico pecho sucio, perico pecho-sucio, Periquito pechisucio (Spanish).
Perico azteco (Costa Rica).
Perico Amargo (Dominican Rep.).
Periquito pechisucio (Honduras).
Perico Pechisucio, perico pecho sucio, perico pecho-sucio (Mexico).
Perico Pechiolivo (Nicaragua).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Eupsittula
Scientific name: Eupsittula nana
Citation: (Vigors, 1830)
Protonimo: Psittacara nana

Images Olive-throated Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Olive-throated Parakeet (Eupsittula nana)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Jamaican Parakeet (aka Olive-throated Parakeet or Aztec Parakeet) in captivity in Costa Rica By http://www.birdphotos.com (Own work) [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Aratinga nana astec in Belize By Dominic Sherony [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Aratinga (nana) astec in Tikal, Guatemala By Aztec_Parakeet_(Aratinga_astec)_-Guatemala-8.jpg: Walter Rodriguez from Berlin, Germanyderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Aratinga (nana) astec in Tikal, Guatemala By Walter Rodriguez from Berlin, Germany (parakeetUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Eupsittula nana. Celestún Biosphere Reserve, Yucatan, México By Katja Schulz from Washington, D. C., USA (Olive-throated Parakeet) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A painting of an Olive-throated Parakeet, also known as the Olive-throated Conure, (originally captioned “Psittacara nana. Dwarf Parrakeet Maccaw.”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Guy Kirwan, XC284214. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/284214
[contact-form][contact-field label=”Name” type=”name” required=”true” /][contact-field label=”Email” type=”email” required=”true” /][contact-field label=”Web” type=”url” /][contact-field label=”Message” type=”textarea” /][/contact-form]

Slender-billed Parakeet
Enicognathus leptorhynchus

Slender-billed Parakeet

Content

Slender-billed Parakeet

Description:

40 - 42 cms. length and 200 - 250 g. of weight.

The Slender-billed Parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus) has the lores, forecrown and a narrow ring feathers around the eyes bright crimson red; cheeks and sides neck, green; feathers of the crown, the nape, the the mantle and back, with dark green margins producing a scalloped effect (more pronounced in the crown, where the feathers are brighter and more emerald).

Scapulars, rump and uppertail-coverts They are green. Primary coverts green with blue suffusion; other coverts green. Flight feather green-blue above with dark margins in innerwebs near the tips; light gray below. Underwing-coverts brighter yellowish green. Underparts yellowish green with patch dull red in centre of belly. Upper, the long tail red is off; greenish toward the tip; undertail, dull red suffused greyish.

The upper mandible It is dark gray with colored tip horn, the lower mandible is horn; Strait bare periophthalmic grey; irises orange-red; legs grey.

Both sexes are similar.

Immature darker, with the upper mandible shorter, less red in the face little or no red on belly.

  • Sound of the Slender-billed Parakeet.

Habitat:

The Slender-billed Parakeet dwells in wooded areas, mainly Nothofagus and Araucaria, although they can be seen in more open cultivated fields or pastures, especially in winter. Its range is located from sea level in winter 2.000 meters in summer. Usually in flocks, of a few individuals to several hundred, even during the breeding season; large communal concentrations sometimes composed of several thousand birds.

Reproduction:

Nests generally treeholes, often at a certain height and several couples using the same tree; very deep holes fill them with twigs to raise the base level. Occasionally nidifican in rock crevices, building the nest with twigs (for example, Bamboo thicket This chusquea) if there is no tree cavities available. Breeding season in November-December. Clutch 5-6 eggs.

Food:

Its diet It consists of seeds of wild and cultivated plants (They are sometimes considered a pest), including grains and thistles, seed cones araucaria (March April) open with its elongated peaks, acorns, seeds of Nothofagus and bulbous roots. generally place vigilantes while the rest of the birds feed.

Distribution and status:

Distribution area (breeding / resident): 195.000 km2

The Slender-billed Parakeet It is confined to the center Chile, from the South of Santiago through coastal lowlands and valleys on the slopes of hills Pacific, south to the Chiloe Island and maybe Palena river in the North of Aysen; They can also be seen in Isla Mocha off the southwest coast Bío Bío.

made some movements altitudinal seasonal, with moving from coastal lowlands to the foothills of the hills between spring and autumn bird (September-May).

Fairly common, although in recent decades its population has decreased due, fundamentally, deforestation, his capture and the Newcastle disease.

Less frequent and perhaps only sporadic in the northern and southern ends of its range.

Caught locally as pets, although quite rare in captivity outside Chile.

Conservation:

  1. Current category Red List UICN: Least concern.
  2. The population trend: Stable.
  3. Population size : Unknown.

(classified in Appendix II of CITES)

Justification of the Red List Category

This species has a range very large, and as a result does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20.000 km2). La tendencia de la population seems to be stable, and therefore the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion population trend (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size It has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or in a particular population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The world population It has not been quantified, but the species according to sources is locally common (pit et to the., 1997).

Justification trend

The population suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

"Slender-billed Parakeet" in captivity:

Virtually unknown until 1976.

It is a nice and noisy bird, whose docility and cunning behavior have meant it to be hunted down and captured to commercialize as pets, common practice but absolutely unlawful, because they are removed from their natural means of inhabitancy in South Chile, which they can not be replaced in urban areas and in captivity. People who do sell through a network of illegal trafficking. However, it is a rare bird watching in captivity outside Chile.

In captivity, According to sources, a specimen lived 15,3 years.

Alternative names:

Chilean Parakeet, Long-billed Conure, Long-billed Parakeet, Slender billed Parakeet, Slender-billed Conure, Slender-billed Parakeet, Slight-billed Conure, Slight-billed Parakeet (English).
Conure à long bec, Perriche à long bec, Perruche à long bec (French).
Langschnabelsittich, Langschnabel-Sittich (German).
Periquito Delgado-faturado (Portuguese).
Choroy, Cotorra Choroy (Spanish).

Admiral Phillip Parker King
Admiral Phillip Parker King

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Enicognathus
Scientific name: Enicognathus leptorhynchus
Citation: (King, PP, 1831)
Protonimo: Psittacara leptorhyncha

Images Slender-billed Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Slender-billed Parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus)


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife
  • surmagico

Photos:

  • (1) Enicognathus leptorhynchus (Slender-billed parakeet), Vogelpark Walsrode Taken sometime during 1985 by Rüdiger StehnFlickr
  • (2) Enicognathus leptorhynchus Paso Mamuil by Malal xerofitoFlickr
  • (3) they choroy, recovering after being stoned Austral By Blizzard (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
  • (4) Slender-billed Parakeets rehabilitating in a Parque Tumbes in a large aviary, Talcahuano, Bio Bio Region, Chile. In January 2012, about a 100 parrots were rescued from a pet shop in La Granja, Santiago Province, Chile. They were rehabilitated for about three months before being released to the wild. By Municipality of Talcahuano [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
  • (5) Enicognathus leptorhynchus – thin nose cones – Slender-billed conure – conure Beaked by Florin FeneruFlickr
  • (6) A painting of a Slender-billed Parakeet (originally captioned “Psittacara leptorhyncha Long-billed. Parrakeet-Maccaw.”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Ross Gallardy, XC296142. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/296142

Kawall's Parrot
Amazona kawalli

Kawall's Parrot

Content

Description:

35-36 cm.. length.

The Kawall's Parrot (Amazona kawalli) after not having been recorded in the wild for a few 70 years, It was rediscovered in the early 1980.

Wrongly confused with Southern Mealy Parrot (Amazona farinosa) which differs from the remarkable white band at the base of bill.

Kawall's Parrot

They have forecrown, the lores, the cheeks and ear-coverts green, although in some birds appear blackish. The crown, sides and back of the neck, as well as the nape, They are green with broad blackish margins to feathers, giving the whole a intricate scaly appearance, with escalation most pronounced in the nape and the the mantle. Upperwing-coverts green, with the coverts smaller and medium dark shades showing weak at tips; some feathers yellowish green in the leading edge of wing . Primaries green with black towards the tips and some blue in outerweb (a specimen with primary external bright yellow in a wing); red in the three secondaries External form a speculum bright. The underparts They are green with scaling effect derived from the blackish tips to the feathers on the sides of the low chest; some feathers with dark tips in the middle of the chest although little visible; undertail-coverts, more greenish yellow. Upper, the tail It is green with wide band terminal greenish yellow, lateral feathers variably marked dark red (sometimes lined with black-brown and blue) in basal half; undertail, the tail similar but slightly off.


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Bill gray bare skin cream in the base and a cream patch on the upper mandible; irises reddish-orange; legs gray.

The male has the lores and perhaps gray bill largest. Immature not described.

  • Sound of the Kawall's Parrot.

Habitat:

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Kawall's Parrot They inhabit tropical rainforests, with apparent preference for the edges of rivers and forests permanently flooded (igapó).

Reproduction:

Nests observed in tree cavities flooded forest

Food:

Foods reported include seeds trees Hevea brasiliensis and H. spruceana, mesocarpio palm fruit Maximiliana maripa and seeds of Eichleria and Joannesia.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 1,160,000 km2

The few published records come from the Amazon basin of Brazil; on top of Juruá (under Eirunepé), in the Amazon; the confluence of Roosevelt river and Río Aripuanã, to the South of For; and southern Santarém, For.

Possibly they overlooked in the field due to morphological similarities with some of the best known and there are almost certainly more individuals than congeners the few records suggest. Distribution map based on alleged occurrence among localities known. No details on the population or condition.

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Status Near Threatened (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened.

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the red list category

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin and the susceptibility of the species to habitat fragmentation and hunting , It suspected population decline by 25-30% in the next three generations and, therefore, It has risen to Near Threatened.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “rare” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

It is suspected that this species has lost 19.1-33.6% of habitat suitable within their distribution during three generations (37 years), based on a model of Amazon deforestation (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006, Bird et to the., 2011). However, it is considered that the species has a wider distribution than indicated on the map used in this analysis (A. Lees in litt 2011), As it suspected to decline by 25-30% during three generations.

Conservation Actions Underway

The species in Appendix II CITES.

Conservation Actions Proposed

First of all, expand the network of protected areas to effectively protect the IBA. Second manage more effectively the resources and existing and new protected areas, using the emerging opportunities for funding the management of protected areas with the overall goal of reducing carbon emissions and maximize the conservation of biodiversity. Especially relevant conservation on private land, through the expansion of market pressures for proper land management and prevention of deforestation on land not suitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to Brazilian Forest Code which would lead to a decrease in the width of coastal areas as forest protected Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), that function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

"Kawall's Parrot" in captivity:

The Kawall's Parrot It is a half-noisy parrot, not very active and hard chewing. They can easily tame. They are not common in aviculture. They are hardy once acclimated. Its minimum temperature tolerance is 15 degrees. Any lower temperature than this requires supplemental heat until the Parrot has acclimatized.

Alternative names:

Kawall’s Amazon, Kawall’s Parrot, Kawall’sParrot, White-cheeked Amazon, White-faced Amazon (English).
Amazone de Kawall (French).
Kawallamazone, Stromamazone (German).
papagaio-dos-Garbes (Portuguese).
Amazona de Kawall, Loro de Kawall, Loro de Kawallí, Amazonas de mejillas blancas, Amazonas de mejillas blancas,
loro de garbes
(Spanish).


Scientific classification:

Rolf Grantsau

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona kawalli
Citation: Grantsau & Camargo, 1989
Protonimo: Amazona kawalli

Kawall's Parrot images:

Amazona de Control


Videos Kawall's Amazon:


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Kawall's Amazon at Rio Cristalino, Mato Grosso, Brazil by Jacek Kisielewski [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Kawall's Parrot (Amazona kawalli) Cristalino Jungle Lodge, Mato Grosso, Brazil by Amy McAndrewsFlickr
(3) – ROLF GRANTSAU* e HÉLIO F. DE ALMEIDA CAMARGO ** Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo CP 7172, São Paulo, Brazil – NEW KIND OF BRAZILIAN AMAZON

Sounds: Jeremy Recall, XC313948. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/313948

Imperial Parrot
Amazona imperialis

Imperial Parrot

Content

Description:


Anatomy-parrots-eng

The largest gender Amazona, measuring up 45 cm.. length.

The Imperial Parrot (Amazona imperialis) has the lores and forecrown, deep purple; cheeks and ear-coverts, brown; crown purple with dark emerald edges; sides neck and nape, deep purple with black tips, sometimes with a subterminal band emerald.

Mantle, back and scapulars, green bluish tipped pens some. Wing coverts green with scarlet at bend of wing. Primaries dark brown-black with green at the base of the outerweb; outer secondaries purple with patch in crimson outerweb, forming a speculum; inner secondary dark green tipped blue.

Imperial Parrot

Under wings green, coverts with blue tips. Throat, chest and belly, deep purple with black tips; some feathers (especially in the chest) show the subterminal band pinkish-vinous or olive-green, while others (visible from certain angles) bright blue sides and ends; the thighs and sides belly green with blue tips; undertail-coverts green with blue markings and vinous. Tail green at the base with a subterminal band dull reddish-brown and vinous tip. Bill dark horn, paler at the base; irises orange; legs dark gray.

The female is paler. The immature It has green on crown, the nape and lower cheeks.

  • Sound of the Imperial Parrot.

Habitat:

Video "Imperial Parrot"

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Imperial Parrot frequents the canopy of primary rainforest mountain, sometimes dwarf forests (above 1.200 m), preferring areas with mature trees Dacryodes excelsa and palms as Euterpe dominicana. Mainly they distributed in altitudes of 600-1300 m, but reports at altitudes 150-300 meters when birds fall in response to food shortages or food preferences. The communal roosts They form in traditional sites, for example in large trees Dacryodes or Sloanea berteriana, They are using one year to another (but not necessarily throughout the year.

Reproduction:

Nest in holes in high forest trees, for example Dacryodes or Sloanea. The nesting territory, probably defended throughout the year. Breeding season usually occurs during the dry season between February June, when resources are more abundant. Clutch two eggs. Possibly they breed only every two years, with a calf usually by clutch.

Food:

Foods reported include fruits of Dacryodes, Licania ternatensis, Richeria grandis, Amanoa caribaea, Simarouba amara, Symphonia giobulifera, Pouteria pallida, Tapura antillana, flowers and fruits of Chimarrhis cymosa, nuts and sprouts young palms Euterpe. Usually it is fed in the morning and evening.

Distribution y status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 240 km2

The Imperial Parrot It is endemic to the Dominica Island in the Lesser Antilles. Formerly she lived in the central highlands around Morne Diablotin (1.447 m, the highest mountain in Dominica) in the North of Morne Anglais, in the South. In 1950 It was reduced to two disjoint forest areas, about Morne Diablotin and around Morne Anglais, where the last reliable vision was in 1983. In Morne Diablotin, per se, birds found in increasing altitudes due to habitat loss and alteration on the lower slopes. Probably now absent on the south side, with the northwest side, particularly in the upper valley of río Picard, in the area of Morne Plaisance and Dyer Estates, It is critical.

Resident. Early observers believed that the Imperial Parrot It was scarce. further investigation (1870) He revealed that it was common to abundant, but the numbers were reduced rapidly due to the loss of habitat, hunting and capture for the pet trade. The census 1975 He suggested a total of 150-250 birds. In 1979, only 16 in Morne Anglais, when a hurricane further reduced the population. In 1987 a survey estimated the total population to 60 specimens. A census 1990 He suggested 80 parrots (possibly, but less than 100), with 80-100 estimated 1993. The species is at serious risk of loss of habitat (mainly due to the conversion of forest tree crop plantations, especially bananas, provided by the new infrastructure) and impacts of hurricanes (to which birds are highly vulnerable in such a restricted range) that destroy food plants and nesting sites. Hunting and gathering for local pet markets have significantly decreased thanks to a Program successful conservation education. Foreign collectors birds remain a persistent threat, but birds are extremely rare in captivity locally or in international trade. Part habitat is protected in the North Forest Reserve, but the important neighboring areas are excluded and remain at risk. Completely protected by national legislation. CITES Appendix I.

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Endangered Endangered (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Increasing.

• Population size: 160-240

Justification of the red list category

Conservation action in the past 30 years has improved the situation of this species. The numbers have increased in recent years, but still they can only be 250 mature individuals, calling the species as endangered. If the population continues to increase, It will be finally reduced to Vulnerable unless there is concomitant decreases in available habitat.

Justification of the population

The population is estimated at 250-350 individuals in total, approximately equivalent to 160-240 mature individuals (PR Reillo in a bit., 2012).

Justification of trend

No new data on demographic trends, but it is suspected that the species continues to increase at a rate not quantified due to conservation efforts.

Threats

A combination of habitat loss (mainly conversion to plantations, especially bananas (Snyder et to the., 2000) , and hurricane-related damage), It hunting for food and capture for the cage bird trade, They have been the main reasons for the decline of this species to 1990 (PR Reillo in some). Local trade has been considerably reduced, if not eliminated, as a result of a successful education program, but foreign collectors birds may pose a threat (Snyder et to the., 2000). The competition for nesting sites of the largest Red-necked Parrot (Amazona arausiaca) presumably it will be more significant as the lowland forest is lost and the two species are increasingly putting contact (Ministry of Agriculture and Environment of Dominica 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway

Appendices I and II of CITES. It is protected by national legislation. En los últimos años, They have made considerable efforts to protect adequate habitat and sensitize local citizens to their needs. Successful education programs for conservation have significantly reduced local trade. It is protected in all national parks, Forest Reserve in North and Central Forest Reserve, but important areas adjacent to these reserves remain unprotected (Ministry of Agriculture and Environment of Dominica 2000, Snyder et to the., 2000). An area 33 km 2 of North Forest Reserve it has been designated as Morne Diablotin National Park (Collar (1997-, Wiley et al 2007) . It is also present in small amounts in the Morne Trois Pitons National Park (Reillo 2001, Wiley et al., 2007) . In 2011 reports were published first breeding in captivity of the species (Reillo et al., 2011).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Monitor the population. Continue the implementation of the protection of National Parks Morne Diablotin and Morne Trois Pitons and Forest Reserves North and Central. Study the ecology of this species and the factors affecting their status (including interspecific competition) (Ministry of Agriculture and Environment of Dominica 2000, Zamora y Durand 1998, Wiley et al 2007) . Continue prohibiting trade in this species, exports to captive breeding and importation of non-native psitáquinas as pets in Dominica (PR Reillo in some. 2012).

The Imperial Parrot captive:

Completely protected by national legislation. CITES Appendix I.

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-managed program captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, with the objective of ensure their survival long-term.

Alternative names:

August Parrot, Dominican Amazon, Dominican Parrot, Imperial Amazon, Imperial Parrot (English).
Amazone de Bouquet, Amazone de la Dominique, Amazone impériale, Amazone sisserou (French).
Kaiseramazone (German).
Papagaio-imperial (Portuguese).
Amazona Imperial (Spanish).

Charles Wallace Richmond

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona imperialis
Citation: Charles Wallace Richmond (American ornithologist), 1899
Protonimo: Amazona imperialis


Images Imperial Parrot:


Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Imperial Amazon (also known as the Imperial Parrot and Sisserou Parrot) at the Parrot Conservation and Research Centre Botanical Gardens, Roseau, Dominica By Amazona_imperialis_-Roseau_-Dominica_-aviary-6a.jpg: Andrew Szymanskiderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Amazona imperialis By David William Mitchell (1813–1859) (The Genera of Birds. Volume 2) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Jesse Fagan, XC188165. accessible Sound of Imperial Amazon