Blue-throated Macaw
Ara glaucogularis


Guacamayo barbiazul

Description:

Of 85 cm.. length and a weight between 600 and 1000 g..

The Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis) they have a very vivid coloration. Very similar to the more common Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), easily differentiated by wide turquoise blue stain that reaches the throat.

These beautiful macaws have bright turquoise blue feathers that cover the throat, crown, the back and the back of your wings and tail. Yellow gold feathers grow in a strip between the crown Blue and neck, on the sides of the face and in the ventral part of the body, the wings and tail.

In the face There is a patch sparsely feathered skin near the base of the great bill dark which has 5 or 6 horizontal stripes of blue feathers, unique for each Blue-throated Macaw and that they can be used to individually identify adults. The skin This patch is predominantly white with a tinge of pink around the bill.

The Blue-throated Macaw sample little sexual dimorphism.; However, the males they tend to be a little larger than the females with approximate masses of 600 and 800 g., respectively.

The newborn infants they are completely pink and have no feathers. The gray color of the underparts grows as they age, and is later replaced by colorful feather, fully developed. The irises It also changes color with age. The color of the eyes a breeding it is initially black and change to Brown shortly after the opening of the eyes.

When is the Macaw one to three years, their eyes Gray become, then white. In the old mature, the irises It turns yellow and will be more golden color to the 10 years, becoming a gold richer with age.

The largest macaws They show a ring dark grey color that surrounds the pupil. This ring can be used to estimate the age of the Macaw.

  • Sound of the Blue-throated Macaw.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Ara_glaucogularis.mp3]
Habitat:

Very scarce and localised. They inhabit in the Gallery forests and tree islands surrounded by tropical savanna.

Seasonal rains cause floods in October to may and transform the Savannah in a swamp covered with grass that surrounds the high forest islands, permanently dry. The presence of Palms is required Motacú (Attalea phalerata) for the survival of the Blue-throated Macaw Since this species feeds, In addition to using it to build their nests. Also have favoritism by the Acrocomia aculeata.

They are most frequently between the elevations 200 and 300 m. Most of these macaws habitat is used for cattle breeding. However, the land is not suitable for cultivation, so there is one alteration of habitat for agriculture.

In general, observed in pairs; apparently less sociable nearby conspecifics than. Young people believed that they remain with their parents for only a brief period of time, Perhaps that explains the infrequency in which observed small flocks or family groups. Probably communal roosts, sometimes with the Blue-and-yellow Macaw. They tend to use hangers in tall trees, especially of the species Tabebuia.

Although cattle trample young trees, Palms Motacú mature they are very resilient and resist damage. This Palm is also fire-resistant. As a result, Palms Motacú, often dominate the forest fragments in the Beni savanna (Llanos de Moxos).

Reproduction:

The Blue-throated Macaw are monogamous and they mate for life. It is not known if these macaws are matched with another partner if your original partner, dies. Nothing more is known about systems of mating for this species in the wild.

Generally They nest in cavities of Palm trees, often the species Attalea phalerata, but they will also use other Palm species or trees Tabebuia. You can use the holes previously occupied by other species, for example, woodpeckers.

Dead Palm trees are ideal for nesting, insofar as they are excavated by large larvae after a tree has died.

Some species of macaws, including the Blue-throated Macaw, palm leaves are eaten, causing the death of the tree. The trunk of the Palm will be recessed by larvae, resulting in the creation of a potential nest. It is still not known if it is a coincidence or if these birds do this intentionally to create nesting sites.

Nesting couples do not remain in a nest consecutive reproductive seasons and generally seek different nesting sites each year.

The reproduction do it once a year if environmental conditions permit; However, If eggs or chicks are lost, the breeding pair can produce a second clutch in the same breeding season.

It has been speculated that the two sub-populations they breed at slightly different times: the population of North from August to November and the population of South from November to March.

The female It puts one to three eggs by laying and incubated during 26 days. The chicks have a mass of about 18 g at hatching; they leave the nest to 13 to 14 weeks and not be completely independent parents for a full year. They will reach their sexual maturity to the 5 years.

Food:

The Blue-throated Macaw do not feed on seeds and nuts to the same extent that other many other species of macaws make it. On the other hand, they eat mainly fruit of large Palm trees, including the of the Attalea phalerata and Acrocomia aculeata.

They supplement their diet with seeds and leaves of Hura crepitans, Inflorescences of Syagrus botryophora and palm trees Astrocaryum vulgare.

The birds consume nearly mature and ripe fruit and take fluids from fruits of immature Palms Attalea.

Distribution:

The Blue-throated Macaw only found in the Beni Department, Bolivia (between 200 and 300 meters above the sea level). In total, They inhabit an area of 2508 square kilometers.

There is a two inhabited areas by two subpopulations, to the Northwest of Trinidad (the capital of Beni), and the other to the South of Trinidad. This separation may have occurred because of the indigenous peoples that historically inhabited this area and that they hunted to the Blue-throated Macaw in order to use their feathers in their ornamental costumes. This separation also could have been caused more recently by the wild bird trade. With the high population of humans, the birds in these areas would have a greater chance of being caught. The formation of large human settlements in this area also resulted in a loss of suitable habitat and fragmentation of the habitat of this species. Therefore, There is no Blue-throated Macaw in the vicinity of Trinidad.

Reports of birds in Tarija and Chuquisaca they have not been tested. Stock in Paraguay and North of Argentina they are still being corroborated and seem unlikely. Apparently resident. Scarce and highly dispersed.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Critically endangered

• Population trend: Stable

The Blue-throated Macaw is currently classified as in critically endangered on The IUCN Red list and figure in the Appendix I by the CITES. Trapping for this species is illegal because the Blue-throated Macaw they are protected by the national law of Bolivia and Convention on international trade in endangered species of Fauna and Flora Silvestres (CITES) from 1986. (Strem, 2008; “Blue-throated Macaw”, 2009)

The capture for the pet trade It is the main reason that the Blue-throated Macaw are so critically endangered. The rarity of this species drove the selling price, What gives as a result an increase in the pressure of capture. As more birds were captured, the rarity of the Blue-throated Macaw was on the rise. This became a vicious circle that greatly reduced the wild population of these macaws to currently observed numbers. There are currently an estimated number of 50 to 250 specimens in the nature. (Hesse and Duffield, 2000; Jordan and Munn, 1993; “Blue-throated Macaw”, 2009)

Since the Spix's Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) became extinct in the 2000, the species Ara glaucogularis It is now the rarest among macaws in the world. With the low estimated wild population, extreme conservation actions are needed.

The World Parrot Trust has many volunteers and employees who work in the conservation of the Blue-throated Macaw. These people watch over nests to protect the chicks from predation. The chicks are also examined periodically to be sure that they are healthy and receive adequate food from their parents. If the female is not doing as well as expected, is then supplemented with formula. New nest boxes have been built and current nesting sites have been improved. The support of local landowners has also been established. (Gilardi, et to the., 2005; Kyle, 2006; Kyle, 2007b; Kyle, 2007to)

In captivity:

The Blue-throated Macaw they are relatively easy to breed in captivity, and the captive population is many times greater than the wild population.

This species of Macaw is now more common in captivity in United States and South Africa in its natural habitat. In a recent study of the species of the Appendix I of the CITES, carried out by the Committee CITES of the AF A, This species was the second more documented; only the Scarlet Macaw It had been documented in greater numbers in captivity. In addition, the majority of owners have had success in breeding, Although it is uncommon to obtain seed of the second generation (only three owners have reported it). Without a doubt, This will change in the near future, When juveniles reach the age and maturity appropriate to reproduce.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a specimen lived during 22 years in captivity. It has been reported that these animals can live up to 32,8 years in captivity, but this has not been verified.

As a special, a specific installation of United States produces more than seventy copies of Blue-throated Macaw a year. The price of this species It has undergone the most drastic of all species of parrots fall; initially, It was not unusual to see couples of Blue-throated Macaw It is sold by even 10.000 $ American, While it is now possible to find a pair of unrelated young by 3000 $ American or even less.

On the other hand, export made by breeders of United States in other countries it is difficult to carry out at this time because of strict restrictions on trade in this species by the CITES. The legal trade of legal birds certainly slightly relieve the threat looming over the flocks remaining wild birds.

Their feathers have also been used for the decoration of ornamental costume by indigenous groups.

Only breeders of a long experience with the most common species of Ara should consider obtaining these macaws.

Alternative names:

- Blue-throated Macaw, Blue throated Macaw, Caninde Macaw, Wagler's Macaw (inglés).
- Ara canindé, Ara à gorge bleue (francés).
- Blaukehlara, Kaninde (alemán).
- Arara-de-garganta-azul (portugués).
- Guacamayo Barbazul, Guacamayo barbiazul, Guacamayo de Barba Azul, Papagayo azul y amarillo (español).
- Guacamaya caninde, Guacamaya garganta azul (Bolivia).
- Andapury, Arara (Guaraní).
- Bagará (Emberá).
- Carú (Yucuna).
- Koatá (Tunebo).

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Ara
- Nombre científico: Ara glaucogularis
- Citation: Dabbene, 1921
- Protónimo: Ara glaucogularis

Blue-throated Macaw images:

————————————————————————————————

Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
– Macaws. A comprehensive guide by Rick Jordan.

Photos:

(1) – A Blue-throated Macaw at Chester Zoo, Cheshire, England By Steve Wilson – over 2 million views thank you from Chester, UK (Blue throated MacawUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Blue-throated Macaws at Chester Zoo, England. Photograph shows upper bodies of two macaws By David Friel [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Blue-throated Macaw at Cincinnati Zoo, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA By Photo by Greg Hume (Greg5030) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Blue-throated Macaw at Cincinnati Zoo, USA By Ted (originally posted to Flickr as DSC_0388) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Blue-throated Macaw; photograph shows upper body of pet parrot By Ruth Rogers (originally posted to Flickr as Candinde Macaw) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A Macaw Ara ararauna at Indira Gandhi Zoological Park in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Prades By Adityamadhav83 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – The back of a Blue-throated Macaw showing the blue over its back and top of head By Eric Savage from USA [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna at Himeji Central Park, Hyogo, Japan – opencage.info
(9) – Blue-throated Macaw at Chester Zoo, England By Matt Sims (originally posted to Flickr as DSC_0236) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Blue-and-yellow Macaw
Ara ararauna


Guacamayo azuliamarillo

Description:

Of 86 cm.. length and a weight between 995 and 1380 g..

Guacamayo azuliamarillo

The Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) has the forecrown and both sides of the head to behind eyes bright green, faded to bright ultramarine blue in the crown and nape.

The upperparts Blue bright overseas. Upper wing coverts Blue bright overseas; flight feather Violet Blue top, Yellow Gold to olive brown down; Depending on the light, the underwing-coverts, yellow.

Broad patch yellow on the sides of the neck and ear-coverts edged ahead by a black stripe, to expand to form a black patch in the throat.

Undertail-coverts blue. Uppertail dark purple suffusion overseas; undertail, the tail golden yellow to olive brown depending on the light; Tips new feather of the tail striped wide.

Bill dark grey; cere naked and facial patch (including lores and cheeks to behind eyes) White crossed by narrow lines of feathers Black in knowledge and cheeks top (the skin of the face pink when they are excited); irises pale yellow; legs dark grey.

Both sexes similar.

The youth they have the wings and tail Cafe-grisacea and eyes Brown.

Habitat:

They inhabit areas with large trees, often near water, including the edges of humid forest in lowlands (in its most forests and marshes, avoiding the lowland forest of tierra firme), in the Savannah gallery forest, Savannah with trees and scattered Palms, marshy forests and swampy areas with Palm trees (Mauritia flexuosa). Also bosque deciduous away from the water in Colombia and Panama.

They sometimes feed in more open areas, posing on the floor, for example, for feeding of fruits of Palm.

Gregarious. Usually, observed in pairs, family groups or flocks of up to 25 birds (sometimes many more, especially near the roosts).

The Blue-and-yellow Macaw are observed more often in the morning and afternoon, halfway between the roosts and feeding areas.

Communal roosts in the trees.

Reproduction:

Are monogamous and they usually form a couple throughout their lives.

It nests in a hole in the top of a dead Palm tree (for example, Mauritia flexuosa).

Breeding between the months of February and March in Suriname; Between January and may in Trinidad (formerly); Between December and February in Colombia (observed birds in breeding conditions). Egg laying observed in February in Guyana and between November and January at Peru.

The laying, generally, is two or three eggs, incubated by the female for a few 28 days, the chicks leave the nest to the 90 days after birth.

Food:

They feed on a wide variety of locally available fruits (mostly from various Palm trees), nuts, Spring sprouts, etc., elements reported including fruits of Astrocaryum, Mauritia and palms Acrocomia, seeds of platypodium grandiflorum, Sloanea, Brosimum, Were, Spondias, Inga, Parkia, Hura crepitans and Enterolobium, nectar Combretum laxum and aril of Hymenaea Courbaril.

The Blue-and-yellow Macaw they eat quietly at the top of the canopy, often near clearings. Large flocks may congregate in areas of ribera, often with other species of parrots, to supplement their diet with minerals that are ncuentran in clayey soils.

Distribution:

Its distribution is varied and discontinuous: East of Panama and the tropical lowlands of South America to the South-East of Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay.

In Panama, from the top of the Rio Bayano (Maybe just once) to the East of Darien mainly in the drainage of the Tuira River and the Chucunaque River.

Along the lower tropics (some 500 m) in Colombia; apparently absent from the Valle del Cauca, Nariño, and the humid rain forest from the center of Choco.

In the eastern lowlands of Ecuador, and perhaps earlier in Guayas, on the slope of the Pacific.

Tropical zone of Venezuela, mainly to the South of the Orinoco, in Monagas only in the north shore (for example in the drainage of the Amana River).

Extinct in Trinidad from 1970; escapes of captive birds reported since.

Spread sheets and coastal river systems of Guyanas and Suriname.

Widespread in Brazil, but extinct in Bay, South of Rio de Janeiro and in Santa Catarina, during the years 1950 or 1960; they remain in the southeast of Brazil only in the State of São Paulo Western, as a wandering bird from populations further to the West in the region of the Pantanal and the lowlands of Bolivia and Peru.

Current situation in the Paraguay (probably Northeast, perhaps earlier in the South) It is not clear.

The records of Argentinto continue being corroborated.

Resident General, but with some movements of foraging season.

Locally common, but, apparently, decrease in Panama.

Fairly common in less disturbed areas of Colombia.

Scarce, irregular and decreasing to the West of the Andes in Colombia and Ecuador.

Local in Venezuela.

The largest population of the Blue-and-yellow Macaw situated in the coastal area of Suriname and apparently it is very common in the Northwest of Guyana, much less numerous in the South; local in the French Guayana due to the persecution. Most common in parts of Brazil (especially in the Amazon), but rarer in Pantanal. Locally common in the Amazon area of Peru but with a drastic fall around the main centres of capture (for example, Iquitos and Pucallpa).

Apparently rare Bolivia, in the Northwest area, but common (at least locally) in the East.

In the 15th century and probably until the end of the 19th century its distribution area encompassed virtually all the the Caribbean basin.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Decreasing

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as ‘rare‘ (Stotz et to the. 1996).

Not regarded as threatened, Although it is appreciated as bird cage, and their populations are declining and several are now extinct, including the of Trinidad.

The species has undergone intense trade: from 1981, When it began trading in the Appendix II of CITES, 55,531 individuals captured in nature have been registered in international trade (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, January 2005).

An investigation by the UN indicates that removal of chicks of Blue-and-yellow Macaw, in the Amazon, exceeds the 26%, which leads to overexploitation of the species.
"If a population already it is being overfished", any rate and type of extraction would have serious effects on their viability and could bring it rapidly to extinction. The extraction of adults, even in populations healthy, is even more critical because a rate of the 3% already produces population declines, and if they are being subjected simultaneously to extraction of chicks and adults, hunting rates must not exceed the 1% or 2% "so there is no risk of extinction", Esteban Carrillo and Diego Fernando Builes doors explained, authors of research.
The genera Amazon (Loras) and Ara (macaws) they are particularly vulnerable, due to factors such as its low reproductive rates, low survival of chicks, later the first reproduction age, large proportion of non-reproductive adults and specific requirements for the construction of nests. In addition are the two most desired genera as pets, and whose extraction generates greater economic "gains" local hunters.
In particular, the Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), that it is distributed in lowland forests from Panama to Bolivia Centre and the South-East of Brazil, It is common, but decreases according to the human activity and local extinctions have already.
Sensitivity analysis on the stage of hunting adults for crafts shows that this type of extraction can have profound effects. Through a program of modelling, It was determined that only extract the 3% of adults, the growth rate turns negative, to extract the 8% the adult begins to have chance of extinction, and with extraction rates equal or greater to the 10%, the probability of extinction of the population in the following 100 years ranges between 52% and 100%.

The researchers warn that the only way of sustainable extraction is subsistence hunting, It is done with the aim of obtaining animal protein or by-products of hunting for the needs of human groups linked to rural areas. Likewise, they needed to hunt for chicks rates are decreased below the 10%, in order to not affect population viability.
"The recommendation that we do is the establishment of protected areas that include their important places for nesting and food as the salt and the cananguchales", as well as list the species on Appendix I of Cites and completely prohibit their trade to be carried out studies and analyses of population viability (PVA, for its acronym in English), "that it establish rates and sustainable extraction forms", conclude the researchers.

(By: Fin/pbs/feb/vbr) – agenciadenoticias.unal.edu.co

Habitat degradation in South America, pollution, development and logging are also affecting the populations of Blue-and-yellow Macaw.

In captivity:

The Blue-and-yellow Macaw they have great popularity as pets. They are beautiful birds with complex behavior, and a good ability to mimic words and sounds. Are social and Smart and they can be great companions of their owners, If managed well. (Juniper, 1998)

With regard to its longevity, There is anecdotal records of animals kept as pets who have lived more than 50 years, but none has been confirmed. If it has been confirmed a specimen that lived 43 captive years. In captivity, these animals have been known that they can be raised from the 8 years of age.

Although these birds are rewarding colleagues, its large size, the complexity of their behavior and its longevity, they do need to have a large space and a big commitment. His capture in native habitats also often includes the death of their parents in order to get their young, as well as the destruction of important nesting trees.

The results of illegal trade involves much destruction.

Alternative names:

- Blue-and-yellow Macaw, Blue & Yellow Macaw, Blue and yellow Macaw, Blue-yellow Macaw (inglés).
- Ara bleu, Ara ararauna, Ara bleu et jaune, Ara bleu et or (francés).
- Gelbbrustara, Ararauna (alemán).
- Arara-canindé, arara-amarela, arara-azul, arara-de-barriga-amarela, araraí, ararauna, arari, Canindé (portugués).
- Guacamaya Azuliamarilla, Guacamayo Azul y Amarillo, Guacamayo Azulamarillo, Guacamayo azuliamarillo, Papagayo amarillo, Paraba azul amarillo (español).
- Guacamayo, Guacamaya azul, Papagayo, Guacamaya pechiamarilla (colombiano).
- Guacamaya azuliamarillo, Guacamayo pecho amarillo (ecuatoriano).
- Paraba azul (boliviano).
- Canindé (Guarayo).
- Ararakáng (Guaraní).

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

Orden: Psittaciformes
Familia: Psittacidae
Genus: Ara
Nombre científico: Ara ararauna
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protónimo: Psittacus Ararauna

Blue-and-yellow Macaw images:

Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Book, Parrots, parrots and macaws.

Photos:

(1) – Blue-and-yellow Macaw at Cincinnati Zoo, USA By Ted (originally posted to Flickr as DSC_0389) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Blue-and-yellow Macaw (also known as the Blue-and-gold Macaw) at Gramado Zoo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By diegodobelo (Zoo de GramadoUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Guacamayo azul y amarillo by, Luc Viatour [GFDL, CC BY 2.0 or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Portrait of a Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) in the Vogelburg (bird park) Hochtaunus, Weilrod, Germany – Wikipedia
(5) – Ara ararauna ou Arara-canindé By No machine-readable author provided. Observatore assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) in Santa Fé do Sul, São Paulo State, Brazil By Miguelrangeljr (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Blue-rumped Parrot
Psittinus cyanurus


Lorito Dorsiazul

Description:

Of 18 cm.. of length and a weight of 85 g..

Ilustración Lorito Dorsiazul

The Blue-rumped Parrot (Psittinus cyanurus) is a small Parrot, robust and with a tail very short.

Since the crown up to the nape is a bluish grey, glossy on the front of the crown; the lower cheeks and chin grayish brown; the nape sharply demarcated from the the mantle black, with a strongly mottled grey; the low back and rump Blue light violet, brighter than the blue of the head. The patch in the shoulders reddish brown; upperwing-coverts medium Green, the edges of yellowish-green, especially in internal and great stockings coverts; primary coverts blue; flight feather green, with the primaries finely lined with yellow along the inner edges; carpal edge Blue and yellow. Lower parts of the wings Dark, with bright red feathers on the underwing-coverts and axillary.

Underparts grayish brown, becoming a blue-green shutdown, with yellow marks in the vent. Uppertail greenish blue in the Center, inner featherss of yellow light with vane outer greener; undertail-coverts yellow

A long bill with red notches in the upper mandible, lower mandible duller; irises yellowish white; legs bluish grey.

The female has the head and upper mandible brown; lacks black on the back and shows just a little blue in the rump; the underparts are light green, Gray as in the male Brown not.

The youth are like females, but with the head green.

Subspecies description:
Subspecies
  • Psittinus cyanurus abbotti

    (Richmond, 1902) – Males with green spread at the front of the crown, the back of neck black, Green mantle and the rump green (marked with turquoise), the underparts greenish. Female with the head green. Larger than the subspecies Psittinus cyanurus pontius.

  • Psittinus cyanurus cyanurus

    (Forster,JR, 1795) – The species nominal

  • Psittinus cyanurus pontius

    (Oberholser, 1912) – As well as the species nominal but larger.

Habitat:

There is some evidence of possible regular movements in the North of its distribution area, with a view to passing birds above Fraser Hill in Malaysia, 1,300 m.

The Blue-rumped Parrot is also seasonal in parts of the South visitor of Burma.

They are distributed in lowland forests (usually below 700 m) and related habitats, including open forests, secondary growth, huertas, mangroves, dry forests, swamp forest, cultivated areas, including oil palm plantations (Elaeis guineensis), near forests (where are the post-cria concentrations considered pests in some areas), dense thickets and groves of coconut (Cocos nucifera).

The Blue-rumped Parrot they are not shy, and can be found in groups of up to 20 birds, whether eating in silence at the canopy level, quickly flying above the forest, or above the tops of the trees hacuendo calls continuously.

Reproduction:

The breeding season of the Blue-rumped Parrot extends from February to may in Malaysia, and from June to September in Borneo, Although some birds have been seen inspecting possible nesting cavities at other times of the year.

During the courtship the grooming each other is common; the male jumps by placing both feet on the back of the female during mating. The implementation is up to three eggs, which are deposited in a hole in the top of a tree, little more is known about the reproductive cycle.

Food:

The diet of the Blue-rumped Parrot is composed of seeds, fruits and flowers.

Distribution:

Its distribution ranges from around the 11° N in Peninsular Thailand and South of Tenasserim, Burma, through the peninsula of Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra and Borneo (Kalimantan, Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei). Also found in the Riau (including Bintan) and groups of Lingga Islands to the North of the South of Sumatra, in BANGKA, and, in West Sumatra, in Simeulue and the Group Mentawai including Siberut, Sipura, Pagai Utara and Pagai Selatan.

It is only locally common and less abundant than other sympatric species of Psittaculas in most of its range.

Distribution of subspecies:
Subspecies
Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The size of the world population Blue-rumped Parrot He has not formally quantified, but it is believed that they are more than 100.000 individuals (Juniper and Parr 1998), and the species is described as common in primary habitats and rare in secondary habitats and plantings (pit et to the. 1997).

In general, the loss of the forest cover between 2000 and 2010 It has been estimated in 23,7% in the case of Sumatra, the 12,0% in Borneo and the 8,2% for Peninsular Malaysia (Miettinen et to the. 2011).

In Sumatra, It has been estimated that you close to of the 36% primary forest cover in 1990, lost in 2010 (including degraded primary forest) (Margono et to the. 2012).

Descents are compounded by the pressure of the capture; However, the Blue-rumped Parrot uses of forest fragments, forest exploitation, secondary vegetation, other modified habitats and habitats at elevations, What has prevented a faster decrease in its population. However, many lowland forests have been logged.. Therefore, suspected of may be suffering a decrease in the moderately rapid population.

Conservation Actions Underway:

In captivity:

Pretty rare in captivity.

The Blue-rumped Parrot It is not a bird which like to interact with humans, nor is it a particularly playful bird. Are described as docile I love to sing in rainy days. Due to its melodic voice, they are often alone as songbirds. However, not all of them are born as birds cantadoras, in fact, Some are dumb.

It is recommended to buy the younger, since they are more likely to sing. However, in general it's parrots very quiet with occasional whistles and high-pitched vocation, that it can be irritating when held captive in an apartment.

They have very limited ability to speak. Some of them learn to speak – but most never make it.

Unfortunately, they are easy to catch, since they remain immobile when frightened. Hunters have only to shoot into the air or make some noise on turning the birds when they are resting so that they can be easily caught. This has led to its State endangered extincion ..

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a Lorito Dorsiazul was still alive after 10,2 years in captivity. Taking into account the longevity of the similar species, maximum longevity is probably underestimated in this species.

The Blue-rumped Parrot It is a beautiful bird when it is in its natural habitat, its potential as a pet it is said that it is limited. Usually do better in an environment of Aviary, with plenty of space so that you can explore the surrounding area. It is even better protect their natural habitat and let them enjoy freedom.

Alternative names:

- Blue-rumped Parrot, Blue rumped Parrot (inglés).
- Perruche à croupion bleu, Perroquet à croupion bleu (francés).
- Rotachselpapagei, Rotachsel-Papagei (alemán).
- Papagaio-de-rabadilha-azul (portugués).
- Lorito de Lomo Azul, Lorito Dorsiazul (español).

Johann Reinhold Forster
Johann Reinhold Forster

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Genus: Psittinus
- Nombre científico: Psittinus cyanurus
- Citation: (Forster, JR, 1795)
- Protónimo: Psittacus cyanurus

Blue-rumped Parrot images:

Blue-rumped Parrot (Psittinus cyanurus)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Blue-rumped Parrot Psittinus cyanurus. Bird Park Kuala Lumpur by Bernard DUPONT – Flickr
(2) – Bird Park Kuala Lumpur By Bernard DUPONT from FRANCE (Blue-rumped Parrots Psittinus cyanurus) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Blue-rumped Parrot in a cage By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as DSC01255) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Male blue-rumped parrot (Psittinus cyanurus) by Chlidonias – zoochat
(5) – Female blue-rumped parrot (Psittinus cyanurus) by Chlidonias – zoochat
(6) – Psittacus Malaccensis. (Latham, not Gmellin) Blue-rumped Parrot By William Swainson, F.R.S., F.L.S. (Zoological Illustrations, Volume III.) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Martjan Lammertink (Xeno-canto)

Blossom-headed Parakeet
Psittacula roseata


Cotorra Carirrosa

Description:

Of 30 to 36 cm.. length between 85 and 90 g. of weight.

Ilustración Cotorra Carirrosa

The Blossom-headed Parakeet (Psittacula roseata) has the forecrown, lores, cheeks and ear-coverts mauve-pink, fading to pale blue in the lower cheeks, the sides of neck, the crown and back neck, with wide black stripes as “mustache” to form a narrow collar between black blue head and green body; nape bright green fading to a duller green on upperparts.

Upperwing-coverts, mostly green with a brown patch coverts smaller and medium; greater coverts outer and alula darker green. The primaries dark green (darker in vane inner) with a margin yellowish narrow in them vane outer.

Underwing-coverts green. The underparts pale green. Uppertail, centrally bright blue, with creamy white tip; outer feathers green on vane outer, yellowish-green on inner, tipped yellow; undertail-coverts dull yellowish.

Upper mandible orange-yellow, the lower black: cere whitish; irises yellowish white; legs gray-green.

The female has the head pale blue-gray, without “moustache” black and collar ring replaced by yellow opaque olive extending from the nape, around the sides of neck; tail slightly shorter. The upper mandible yellow, the lower dark grey.

The immature has the head greenish, the gray tint chin and the bill yellowish to the 15 months, when both sexes develop similar to plumage adult female; the males acquires adult plumage at about 30 months.

  • Sound of the Blossom-headed Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Cotorra Carirrosa.mp3]
Subspecies description

Once considered the same species Psittacula cyanocephala, where he was often wrongly classified as Psittacula cyanocephala rosa.

  • Psittacula roseata juneae

    (Biswas, 1951) – Like species nominal, but the overall color body It is yellower; more extensive stain or red patch shoulder; central feathers tail paler color, side feathers tail yellower.

  • Psittacula roseata roseata

    (Biswas, 1951) – The species nominal.

Habitat:

The Blossom-headed Parakeet inhabit open forests, including Savannah, secondary forests, forest edge, clear and cultivated land. Partially deforested areas persists and seems to prefer forest edges adjacent farm.

Mainly observed in the lowlands to about 1.500 meters above sea level. Usually, in small flocks, form larger congregations where food is plentiful. He joins mixed flocks with Rose-ringed Parakeet, the Plum-headed Parakeet and Red-breasted Parakeet and form communal roosts in dense vegetation.

Reproduction:

The nests This species is found in tree cavities, usually at a moderate height; they can dig the hole for themselves or modify old nests of other species (for example, woodpeckers or barbets).

Nest usually in colonies of several couples. The laying is of 4-5 (rarely six); eggs are more spherical than those of other congeners. The breeding season It is from January to April (May sometimes).

Food:

Foods are reported: wild flowers and Granada, nectar, including grain sorghum and maize, fruits such as figs and apricots, red peppers and chard seeds. Their diet is very similar to the Plum-headed Parakeet.

Distribution:

Distributed by the foothills of Himalaya East until Indochina. Of Sikkim (India) and South of Bhutan through Assam until Bengal and Bangladesh and east along the north and center Burma, South of China (Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong province), Thailand, Laos, Kampuchea and Viet Nam.

Mainly sedentary with seasonal movements in southwest Burma, where Blossom-headed Parakeet They are common in the months of March and April, but otherwise few months, generally common despite the obvious decline in some areas (for example, Thailand and Burma), mainly due to large-scale deforestation, and persecution. Few in Viet Nam.

Resident but with some local movements in relation to the food supply.

Held captive and apparently the subject of strong catch in some parts.

Distribution of subspecies
  • Psittacula roseata juneae

    (Biswas, 1951) – From East Bangladesh to the North of Burma and east through southern China, Thailand, Laos, Kampuchea and Viet Nam.

  • Psittacula roseata roseata

    (Biswas, 1951) – The species nominal.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Near-threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

This species has been upgraded from Least concern due to new information on population trends. It is listed as Near-threatened on the grounds that it is experiencing rapid moderate decline due to habitat loss, unsustainable levels of exploitation and hunting pressure.

This species has suffered greatly loss of habitat (Forshaw 2006), What, in combination with capture for trade bird cage and general persecution as a pest, have caused the Blossom-headed Parakeet it becomes rare or rare in Thailand (pit et to the. 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998) and Myanmar (Juniper and Parr 1998).

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but the species according to sources, has a population variable through its range

International trade records showed that 836 birds were exported between 1981 and 1985, but this increased to 6.873 birds between 1986-1990, mainly Viet Nam and Thailand (pit et to the. 1997).

In Laos, habitat encroachment has been so severe in the lowlands, few remaining areas large enough so that the nests Blossom-headed Parakeet they can escape from theft, and there is little active effort to reduce this pressure (JW Duckworth in litt. 2013).

In Cambodia, changes in land use in the lowlands have been too quickly (RJ Timmins in litt. 2013), and it is expected that the intended conversion bosque deciduous Dry for agribusiness plantations may cause a decrease of 30% or more in the national population of this species in the next 20 years (F. Goes in some. 2013).

Actions ongoing:

    The species is known to occur in some protected areas, as the Kirirom National Park, Cambodia (F. Goes in some. 2013).

Conservation actions proposed:

    – Conduct periodic surveys to track broad population trends.
    – Monitor the rates of loss and degradation of habitat.
    – Quantify the impact of harvesting for trade.
    – List species list CITES.
    – Increase the area of ​​suitable habitat that are protected.
    – Carry out awareness raising activities to discourage theft of nests and capture.
In captivity:

The Blossom-headed Parakeet It is a rare bird and very expensive, requiring experienced breeders. Immature of this species are nearly identical to those of the Slaty-headed Parakeet and Plum-headed Parakeet, so when buying an immature Blossom-headed Parakeet, be sure to do so only from a reputable breeder.

To ensure the success of breeding, each partner should have their own aviary. No house them with Plum-headed Parakeet wave Slaty-headed Parakeet, in order to avoid hybridisation.

The Blossom-headed Parakeet, generally, they are not aggressive with other smaller birds, usually calm and they are not very destructive to wood. The female is, usually, the dominant bird; reach breeding age at about the age of 3 years. New partners should be made several months before the start of the breeding season for birds have sufficient time to establish a strong link between them. A good pair bond usually translate into better results Play. However, are very difficult birds to breed in captivity.

Since Blossom-headed Parakeet It is so rare, We should be considered well-managed breeding programs, before acquiring one of these copies for your particular pet enjoy. This Parrot You need constant training and behavioral counseling from an early age to ensure its potential owners the enjoyment of a free bird destructive habits and annoying.

Alternative names:

- Blossom-headed Parakeet, Blossom headed Parakeet, Eastern Blossom-headed Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche à tête rose (francés).
- Rosenkopfsittich (alemán).
- Periquito-de-cabeça-rosa (portugués).
- Cotorra Carirrosa, Cotorra de Cara Rosada (español).

Dr. Biswamoy Biswas
Dr. Biswamoy Biswas

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Genus: Psittacula
- Nombre científico: Psittacula roseata
- Citation: Biswas, 1951
- Protónimo: Psittacula roseata

Blossom-headed Parakeet Images:

————————————————————————————————

Blossom-headed Parakeet (Psittacula roseata)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Rose-headed Parakeet in Guwahati, Assam, India By © Raj Kamal Phukan – Oriental Bird Images
(2) – Psittacula roseata blossom headed parakeet – Birds-pet-wallpapers
(3) – Blossom-headed Parakeet (Psittacula roseata) by Elite-Pets
(4) – Juvenil Blossom-headed Parakeet (Psittacula roseata) by desbecsetdesplumes
(5) – Blossom-headed Parakeet (Psittacula roseata) in Tenerife – Loro Parque – link
(6) – Birds of Asia, Vol. V, Parts XXV-XXX, by John Gould, 1873-1877. Painted by John Gould & Henry C. Richter [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Frank Lambert (Xeno-canto)

Alexandrine Parakeet
Psittacula eupatria


Alexandrine Parakeet

Description:

De entre 50–62 cm. in length and weighing between 198-258 grams.

Illustration Alexandrine Parrot

The Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria) has the forecrown, lores and crown bright green, merging to lavender-blue on cheeks, ear-coverts and back of the crown; thin dark line from the back of the cere to eye ring; narrow black band from the base of bill, laterally across the base of the cheeks, that binds with a wide collar pink around the back of the neck.

Nape, the mantle, scapulars, rump and uppertail-coverts greenish-grey. Upperwing-coverts smaller brown; rest of upperwing-coverts green (brighter and emerald body feathers). The primaries and secondaries greyish green with dark tips to the vane previous interns, Blackish below.

Underwing-coverts gray-green. The underparts brighter yellowish green, chest with grayish tint. Upper, the tail light green with yellow tip; undertail, golden yellow.

Bill red with paler tip: cere whitish; irises pale yellow; legs rose gray.

The female no black and pink markings neck and it is generally duller.

The immature It resembles the female (The males are sometimes distinguished by larger size).

  • Sound of the Alexandrine Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Cotorra Alejandrina.mp3]
Subspecies description
Subspecies
  • Psittacula eupatria Avensis

    (Kloss, 1917) – Similar to the subspecies Psittacula eupatria magnirostris but with the neck more yellow, the bill smaller and close blue neckband, reduced or absent. Yellower below the subspecies Psittacula eupatria nipalensis.

  • Psittacula eupatria eupatria

    (Linnaeus, 1766) – The species nominal

  • Psittacula eupatria magnirostris

    (Ball, 1872) – It differs from the subspecies Psittacula eupatria nipalensis by blue coloration above band pink, which it is more limited and sometimes non-existent and the pink band nape that is wider; swe other subspecies differs by having the bill Larger.

  • Psittacula eupatria nipalensis

    (Hodgson, 1836) – Larger and grayer than the species nominal, less lavender in head and wider black stripe mustache.

  • Psittacula eupatria siamensis

    (Kloss, 1917) – Face and neck yellow, nape bluish. Slightly smaller than the subspecies Psittacula eupatria Avensis.

Habitat:

The Alexandrine Parakeet It is distributed in a variety of wet and dry forests and woodlands, but also they are seen in cultivated areas, mangroves (for example, of Rhizophora mueronata on the islands of the Bay of Bengal) and coconut plantations, mainly in the lowlands up 900 meters above sea level; on Punjab province (Pakistan) extend areas of subtropical pines (Pinus roxburghii) and into irrigated plantations in desert areas; ascend to the foothills of Himalaya in areas of trees (will Shorea) and riparian forests, rarely above the 1.600 m.

In the Bandhavgarh National Park, the Alexandrine Parakeet prefers forests more dense than the Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) and Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri).

Usually they found in small groups, but sometimes they form large flocks where food is plentiful and communal roosts, where birds can come together in one big tree.

Reproduction:

The nest of the Alexandrine Parakeet They found in tree cavities (for example, of Dalbergia, Shorea or Salmalia), palms or, very rarely, buildings, but generally far from human settlements.

The nest It comprises a chamber filled with wood shavings produced by barbets or woodpeckers during excavation or extension of the cavity; entry generally clean round.

The breeding season usually from November to December and from March to April, depending on the location (for example, February to March in the Punjab and Andaman Islands and from December to February in the center Burma).

The average size clutch is of 2-4 eggs measuring 34,0 x 26,9 mm. The incubation period average is 28 days usually after the placement of the second egg. The chicks leave the nest at about seven weeks of age. They are bred for about three weeks and usually are weaned between the 12 to 16 weeks of age.

Food:

Diet Alexandrine Parakeet It includes a variety of cultivated and wild seeds, flowers, nectar, grains, fruits and vegetables.

Considered serious pest in some places: the 70% their diet Pakistan comes from cultivated areas.

It feeds mainly early in the morning and afternoon.

Known foods include guava (Psidium guajava), nectar Salmalia, Butea and Erythrina, fleshy petals Bassia latifolia and young leaves of vegetables.

Distribution:

The situation in Afghanistan of the Alexandrine Parakeet is uncertain, possibly some group in the northeast corner, about Jalalabad.
In Pakistan, isolated colonies Are and Peshawar, most widespread and common in irrigated lowlands Punjab; They are distributed from Punjab (India), foothills Himalaya and South of Nepal, throughout the India and Sri Lanka, and east through Bangladesh.

In Bhutan and Assam in Burma Central and Southern (not found in northern), extending from northern Thailand, Central and North Cambodia and Laos and north to central and southern Viet Nam.

Present at the Islas Andaman (no al on Ten Degree Channel) and Narcondam (India) and in the Coco Islands (Bangladesh), Bay of Bengal.

Seasonal movements in some areas and in other locally nomadic.

Generally common, but much rarer in the east and sporadically distributed by South India.

Decreasing in Sri Lanka, where it is now rare, especially in the north.

Sharp declines in Thailand and probably in other parts of Indochina.

His appearance around some urban areas could be due to leaks.

Introduced in parts of Europe (Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Middle East (Turkey, Bahrein, United Arab Emirates, Iran) and Japan.

Distribution of subspecies
Subspecies
  • Psittacula eupatria Avensis

    (Kloss, 1917) – South of Assam (Northeast of India) and Myanmar, but the area of ​​contact with the subspecies Psittacula eupatria nipalensis and Psittacula eupatria siamensis, It is unknown.

  • Psittacula eupatria eupatria

    (Linnaeus, 1766) – The species nominal

  • Psittacula eupatria magnirostris

    (Ball, 1872) – Islands Bay of Bengal, Andaman, Coconut and Narcondam.

  • Psittacula eupatria nipalensis

    (Hodgson, 1836) – Pakistan through Punjab (India) until Assam, Bangladesh, Nagaland and Manipur, including skirts Himalaya and Nepal, to the South , approximately I8 ° North; the contact area with the subspecies Psittacula eupatria Avensis, unknown.

  • Psittacula eupatria siamensis

    (Kloss, 1917) – West and north of Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Viet Nam.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Near-threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

This species has been upgraded from Least concern based on new information on population trends. Is listed as Near-threatened, Since, although it is still common in some areas and their status is clouded by wild populations, It is suspected to be subjected to population decline moderately fast due to the continuing loss of habitat, to unsustainable levels of exploitation, the pursuit and capture.

The Alexandrine Parakeet It is widely captured and sold as bird cage.

In Cambodia, nests theft and capture adults, They represent the main threats, It is one of the most sought after birds (F. Goes in some. 2013).

Despite the virtual disappearance of the species Thailand, still they appear in pigeons illegal trade in bird markets Bangkok, Although, possibly, its origin is Cambodia (P. Ronda in a little. 2013).

The illegal trade, and the destruction of nesting sites, threat to species Pakistan (S. Khan in a little. 2013). Also, It reported that the species is threatened by extensive poaching at the hands of local tribes Gujarat (V. Vyas in some. 2013).

Habitat loss and degradation are also grave threats. In Cambodia, use changes in the lowlands it has been rapid (R. Timmins in some. 2013) and rates of degradation and loss of lowland forests is expected to impact more on the species (F. Goes in some. 2013). Conversion rates of habitat Laos They are described as severe (JW Duckworth in litt. 2013).

Conservation Actions Proposed:

    – Conduct periodic surveys to monitor the population trend of the species.
    – Conduct surveys and assess the situation in Pakistan (S. Khan in a little. 2013).
    – Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation through the distribution of the species.
    – Quantify the impact of harvesting for trade.
    – Enforcing trade restrictions.
    – Carry out awareness raising activities to discourage the capture and trade.
    – Increase the amount of suitable habitat that receives protection.
In captivity:

The Alexandrine Parakeet is a popular bird among poultry. It is ideal for outdoor aviaries and can not tolerate temperatures below 5 ° C. They reproduce well in aviaries. This Psittacula It is one of the oldest species of captive parrots Eurasian continent. Named after the legendary Emperor Alexander the Great, I had numerous specimens exported by his legionnaires back to several Mediterranean countries. Since then, this parrot has been popular with the nobles of all countries Anatolia, European and Mediterranean Empire.

This is a kind Active, He likes water and readily accepts different or new foods. It has a strong peak and therefore it is important to keep the hanger without toxicity without chemicals as disinfectants, fungicides, insecticides or pesticides. The Alexandrine Parakeet, like other parrots, They are among the best imitators.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a specimen was still alive after 30 years in captivity. In captivity, these parrots have been known that they can raise from the 4 years of age.

These birds Smart They make good pets for those willing to provide ongoing obedience training. If neglected, or appropriate training is given, the Alexandrine Parakeet it becomes prone to tear the feathers and other behavioral problems. The large and powerful beak of the parrot has a strong bite and therefore not recommended as a pet for children. a large cage is required to accommodate their beautiful, long narrow tail.

It is not a difficult species to breed, in fact usually successful.

Alternative names:

- Alexandrine Parakeet, Alexandrine Parrot, Andaman Parakeet, Large Indian Parakeet, Large Parakeet, Rose-breasted Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche alexandre (francés).
- Grosser Alexandersittich, Alexandersittich (alemán).
- Periquito-grande-alexandre (portugués).
- Cotorra Alejandrina, Cotorra de Alexander (español).

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Genus: Psittacula
- Nombre científico: Psittacula eupatria
- Citation: (Linnaeus, 1766)
- Protónimo: Psittacus Eupatria

Alexandrine Parakeet Images:

————————————————————————————————

Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Alexandrine Parakeet at Kowloon Park, Hong Kong By Charles Lam from Hong Kong, China (YummyUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Alexandrine Parakeet Alexandrine Parrot gold. A 17 year old pet parakeet at home in Mumbai By Rudolph.A.furtado (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Alexandrine Parakeet (also known as the Alexandrine Parrot) at Rainbow Jungle (The Australian Parrot Breeding Centre), Kalbarri, Western Australia By Sheila Bradford [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – An male Alexandrine Parakeet (also known as Alexandrian Parrot) in a tree By Sammy Sam [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria). A pair By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Two_species_of_Psittacula_on_perch.jpg: Thomas Guignard [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Alexandrine Parakeet flapping her wings By Iamoarampage at English Wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Alexandrine Parakeet at Kowloon Park, Hong Kong By Charles Lam from Hong Kong, China (RestingUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Alexandrine Parakeet at Kowloon Park, Hong Kong By Charles Lam from Hong Kong, China (YummyUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria Melghat Tiger Reserve Maharashtra By Dr. Raju Kasambe (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – A painting of an Alexandrine Parakeet, also known at Alexandrian Parrot, (originally captioned “Palæornis hooded. Hooded Parrakeet.”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: David Edwards (Xeno-canto)

Black-collared Lovebird
Agapornis swindernianus


Inseparable Acollarado

Description Inseparable Vireo:

13 cm. length and weight of 39 to 41 g.

Inseparable Acollarado

The Black-collared Lovebird (Agapornis swindernianus) has the forecrown, the lores and crown emerald green. Narrow black band at the nape, behind yellow lined. Mantle and scapulars green; rump and coverts bright blue. Upperwing-coverts green. Flight feather Blackish with vane Green external on the upper face. Underwing-coverts emerald green.

The underparts pale green pretty boring, particularly on chest; flanks brightest. Central feathers of the tail, large black hand with green tips; other red at the base, green tips with broad black subterminal band.

Bill greyish black; irises yellow; legs Dark yellow green.

Both sexes similar.

The immature they are like adult, but without the nuchal collar. The Green head, the Blue rump and red tail, colors are duller than adults. Iris brown. beak pale gray with black spot at the base.

Subspecies description:
  • Agapornis swindernianus emini (Neumann, 1908) – Of 13 26cm in length. The collar is red and black and is narrower, It does not extend to the beginning of chest.
  • Agapornis swindernianus swindernianus (Kuhl, 1820) – The species nominal
  • Agapornis swindernianus zenkeri (Reichenow, 1895) – Of 13 cm.. length. Under the black band it has reddish coloration extends to the chest diluted.

Inseparable Habitat Vireo:

The Black-collared Lovebird They inhabit lowland tropical evergreen forests, both primary and secondary, generally below the 700 m. although some reports indicate sightings 1.800 metres in Uganda.

Visits occasionally cultivated land. In general, in small flocks (until 20 birds), sometimes in larger groups during the dry season.

It is a bird, generally, arboreal; frequent the treetops, where they can be very difficult to detect when they remain silent.

Forman communal roosts in their favorite places.

Playing Inseparable Vireo:

Reproduction of this species is, to a great extent, unknown; They have been observed in arboreal termite nests and is suspected breeding in the northern basin Congo river It is in July.

Food Inseparable Vireo:

Their main food is, apparently, seeds Ficus, extracted from its fruits, in mature forests, light areas near the forest and trees growing areas around the villages; They also take millet, maize and other seeds, as well as insects and their larvae.

Birds in the distrito de Ituri, Democratic Republic of the Congo, feeding were observed in the rice crops and Sesame.

Distribution black-collared lovebird:

The Black-collared Lovebird they are endemic in West Africa center in at least two (possibly three or four) separate populations.

In West Africa The species is found in Liberia, Ivory Coast (Tai National Park) to the South of Ghana, which recently they occurred in the Bia National Park.

In West Central Africa Its distribution extends from southern Cameroon south on Gabon and east to the north Congo river and extreme southwestern Central African Republic.

You can also see from the basin Congo river in West Uganda.

Distribution of subspecies:
  • Agapornis swindernianus emini (Neumann, 1908) – Spread across the center and east of Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west end of Uganda.
  • Agapornis swindernianus swindernianus (Kuhl, 1820) – The species nominal
  • Agapornis swindernianus zenkeri (Reichenow, 1895) – Distributed through southern and eastern Gabon Cameroon to southwest Central African Republic and West Democratic Republic of the Congo.

of

Black-collared lovebird conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The size of the world population Black-collared Lovebird It has not been quantified, but the species, According to sources, It is considered rare in Ghana and probably confined to forest reserves. Described as common in Gabon and Democratic Republic of the Congo and reasonably common in lowland Bwamba of Uganda.

The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

As a curiosity, emphasize that governments Liberia and Uganda stamps have been printed with his image.

The Inseparable Vireo in captivity:

Probably It not kept out of their range; some captured birds died after a few days or weeks; No further information is available.

As with any other pet, It is essential to ensure that the birds you are about to buy have been bred in captivity, not captured in the wild. In addition to conservation and ethical reasons, trapped wild animals are more likely to get sick and die.

Alternative names:

- Black-collared Lovebird, Black collared Lovebird (inglés).
- Inséparable à collier noir, Inséparable à collier, Inséparable du Libéria (francés).
- Grüköpfchen, Grünköpchen, Grünköpfchen (alemán).
- Inseparável-acollarado (portugués).
- Inseparable Acollarado, Inseparable de Cuello Negro (español).

Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Genus: Agapornis
- Nombre científico: Agapornis swindernianus
- Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
- Protónimo: Psittacus Swindernianus

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Black-collared Lovebird (Agapornis swindernianus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Black-collared lovebird, the great unknown – fischospi
(2) – A painting of a Black-collared Lovebird (originally captioned “Psittacula swinderniana. Swindern's Parakeet”) by Edward Lear (1812-1888) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Black-cheeked Lovebird
Agapornis nigrigenis


Inseparable Cachetón

Description Inseparable cachetón:

Between 13-14 cm long and 40 g. of weight.

Inseparable Cachetón

The Black-cheeked Lovebird (Agapornis nigrigenis) they have the forecrown, lores and ear-coverts blackish brown with dark brown discoloration on the crown, sides neck and nape, and forming a dark mask.

Mantle, scapulars, rump and uppertail-coverts green. Upperwing-coverts green with bluish suffusion in outer feathers, including alula; vane outside of primaries and secondaries green with bluish suffusion, darker and more green tips; vane grey internal, black at the tips. Underwing-coverts green yellow and green. Chin and front of the throat discoloration to blackish with oxidized orange patch located at the bottom of the throat and top of the chest (bright orange during playback); rest of underparts mostly pale, slightly yellowish, green, bright emerald on flanks and around the thighs.

The tail green, except for four outer feathers which show patch of red: Subterminal point dark green in all feathers, except central feathers.

Bill coral red, white at base; irises brown; eye ring white (about 2mm wide); legs grayish brown.

Both sexes similar.

The immature they have the underparts with a wash of dark green; feathers chest and the belly with dark margins. Base bill blackish.

Inseparable habitat cachetón:

The Black-cheeked Lovebird It is found in woods Mopane (Colophospermum mopane) and Acacias, in the valleys of the rivers altitude between 600 and 1.000 m, adjacent forests Baikiaea plurijuga, of which they are dependent during the wet season. They are also distributed in coastal forests, attracted by the higueras.
Avoid groves miombo Brachystegia.

Generally it is within walking distance of reliable water sources, in small flocks of up to a few dozen birds. You can settle in the community as Lilian's Lovebird.

Inseparable play cachetón:

The breeding of this species is only known in captivity, but I think you may be similar to the Lilian's Lovebird. Breeding takes place in the months of November-December September perhaps the Victoria Falls.

It is less sociable than other Agapornis, and he dislikes reproduced in Cologne. The female usually puts four eggs, they are incubated for 24 days. The chicks leave the nest to the 40 days of life.

Inseparable Power cachetón:

The need to drink water at least twice a day is a critical determinant of the daily and seasonal activities Agapornis nigrigenis. In the non-breeding season, this species congregate in large flocks of up to 800 birds, reaching peak levels in the early mornings and evenings, when birds drink and feed.

The diet of the Black-cheeked Lovebird It includes seeds, cereals, flowers, buds and berries. Known foods include seeds Amaranthus, Rottboellia high, Rhus quartiniana, Albizia anthelmintica, Combretum massambicense, Syzygium guineense and grasses Hyparrhenia and Eragrostis, also young leaves Pterocarpus antunesii.

Distribution:

The Black-cheeked Lovebird they have a very restricted distribution area (maybe just 6.000 km2), from south Kafue National Park, to the south-west Zambia (only very small numbers), along the valley Zambezi up to the Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe.

Some birds, possibly, also they distributed in the Zambezi region, adjacent to the northeastern end Namibia, for example, Isla Impalila at the confluence of the rivers Zambezi and When; possibly also in the northernmost tip Botswana.

In the dry season, the core areas of forests Mopane totaling only 2.500km2, but the birds are introduced into the fields when crops ripen (causing some damage).

There are some Local movements seasonal.

Many Black-cheeked Lovebird maintained in captivity, above all in South Africa.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

The population of Black-cheeked Lovebird, based on surveys 1994, It was estimated at about 10,000 individuals, however due to alleged declines in population since then, Today the population can vary within a range between 3,500 and 15,000 birds.

It is believed that three factors have caused the loss of population Black-cheeked Lovebird in the last century:

    – A strong exploitation for cage bird trade from 1920 until the Decade of 1960 (Moreau 1948, Dodman 1995c)

    – The progressive desiccation of their habitat (Moreau 1948, Dodman 1995c), probably the main threat given the highly localized range of the species (Warburton 2003).

    – The partial substitution of crops sorghum and millet, (an attractive source of food).

There is evidence that trade in wild species is currently at a very low level, with isolated incidents and export trade (Dodman 1995c, Warburton y Perrin 2005c), although it is clear that any international demand is met with enthusiasm (Warburton y Perrin 2005a, (d)).

Some birds are captured for consumption and also pursued as pests. Farmers take steps to mitigate the damage to crops, but they are largely ineffective.

Current levels of hunt It is not likely to have a serious long-term impact on the population, but it might endanger local populations suffering from the effects of desiccation.

Recently there may have been local declines due to loss of water supplies shallow in the dry season, perhaps due to climate change in the long term. The number of permanent water sources in forests Mopane It has decreased since the beginning of the century 20. The low availability of water in the dry season It is probably the main factor in the disappearance of permanent populations Bovu and Sinde Rivers, and changes in the population in the Ngweze river. This is compounded by a decrease in annual precipitation in habitat of the species, on average, about 5 mm per year between 1950 and 1995, causing an increase in the dependence of the kind of artificial water sources. The recent creation of hand-pumping wells along the river basins Ngweze, Not chifulo and Machile can lead to a decrease in surface water availability.

In some areas, pools of water are poisoned to kill the fish and this may affect the species.

The species may also be threatened by declining water in the dry season from seasonal rivers in the south-west Zambia, due to decreased levels of rainfall.

Wooded Mopane exploited for firewood and wood, although the habitat is being regenerated and invading other habitats in some areas.

Disease virus beak and feathers They are present in the wild population, but there is no evidence that this is a serious threat.

Conservation actions underway CITES Appendix II.

– The catch birds for trade is prohibited (T. Dodman in a bit., 2000), although there are still a number of captive populations.

– In Zambia, the trade ban was implemented in wild birds 1930 (Warburton y Perrin 2005d).

– Approximately 35% their habitat lies within the Kafue National Park and around Game Management Areas (P. Leonard in a bit., 1999, T. Dodman in a bit., 2000), while most of the main array is included within the Machile and the IBA Kafue National Park (Leonard 2005).

– Detailed research programs on this species is being undertaken in the early 1990 (1995b Dodman, Warburton 1999a, b, Dodman et al., 2000, T. Dodman in some. 2000) of which they have been published reports.

– A education project It focused on the species was held in southwest Zambia in September of 2001, the participation of local schools, settlers and explorers Wildlife Authority of Zambia (Warburton, 2003).

Source: Birdlife

Conservation Actions Proposed:

– Regular Conduct (for example, monthly) What monitor selected sites (such as water sources during the dry season) to control their population, focusing on the core distribution (Dodman 1995c, Dodman et al. 2000, Warburton 2003, Warburton y Perrin 2005d ).

– Conduct a Annual monitoring areas such as mid rivers Machile and Not chifulo and pools of the region Followers South Kafue National Park and monitor the availability of surface water in the dry season (Warburton y Perrin 2005d).

– Investigate your state in Caprivi Eastern (Dodman (1995c, Dodman et al., 2000).

– Encourage their return to the old areas of the range (Warburton 1999b).

– Follow a program environmental education involving school visits and meetings with agricultural communities (Dodman 1995c, Dodman et al. 2000, Warburton 2003) to reduce the capture and disturbance in water sources (Warburton y Perrin 2005d).

– Provide training in ornithology and conservation potential local bird guides and meetings with the people on the protection of resources, such as trees and water (Dodman 1995c).

– Maintain and create water resources with minimal disturbance (Warburton 2003).

– Continue to enforce the ban on trade in wild birds of this species (Warburton 2003, Warburton y Perrin 2005d) and further develop captive breeding programs.

– To investigate the effect of burning grass seeds (Warburton y Perrin 2005b). – Management of water sources to encourage their use by species, and evaluate the impact of pumping wells in surface water supplies (Warburton y Perrin 2005d).

– Identify a selection of reasonably accessible sites where visitors can go to see the species, and guarantee options for generating income through ecotourism, In colaboration with BirdWatch Zambia (T. Dodman in some. 2012).

Source: Birdlife

The Inseparable cachetón in captivity:

Rare in aviculture. Not easy to find these birds in stores, However, It is quite common among poultry farmers around, and always present in ornithological exhibitions.

The Black-cheeked Lovebird They are less noisy than other species of birds Lovebird; enjoy bathing, They are biting hard, lively and social; They adapt well to life in Cologne, can coexist with birds of the same species and the Lilian's Lovebird (Agapornis lilianae); if space is limited sharing, They can fight each other, although it is generally more peaceful than other species Agapornis; both adult and immature newly imported, They are susceptible first duarnte 10 months; more resistant after acclimatization.

No leaves never completely tame. They do not like the noise, so it is less suitable than others Agapornis life in close contact with man.

Alternative names:

- Black-cheeked Lovebird, Black cheeked Lovebird, Blackcheeked Lovebird, Black-faced Lovebird (inglés).
- Inséparable à joues noires (francés).
- Rußköpfchen, Erdbeerköpfchen (alemán).
- Inseparável-de-faces-pretas (portugués).
- Inseparable Cachetón, Inseparable de Cara Negra, Inseparable de Mejillas Negras (español).

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Genus: Agapornis
- Nombre científico: Agapornis nigrigenis
- Citation: Sclater, WL, 1906
- Protónimo: Agapornis nigrigenis

Black-cheeked Lovebird images:

————————————————————————————————

Black-cheeked Lovebird (Agapornis nigrigenis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Arkive

Photos:

(1) – Black-cheeked Lovebird (Agapornis nigrigenis) – San Diego Zoo By DickDaniels (http://carolinabirds.org /) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Black-cheeked Lovebird at London Zoo, England By Gediminas (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Black-cheeked Lovebird with visible pin feathers on head, Birmingham Nature Centre, West Midlands, England By Simon Redwood (originally posted to Flickr as Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Birds-pet-wallpapers – link
(5) – back to childhood – link
(6) – By Gonzalo Blanco – Linx

Black-winged Lovebird
Agapornis taranta


Inseparable Abisinio

Description Inseparable Abyssinian:

Of 16 cm in length and a weight between 49 and 66 g..

Inseparable Abisinio

The Black-winged Lovebird (Agapornis taranta) has the forecrown, lores and feathers eye ring, red; rest of the head and nape green dyed brown. Mantle and green scapulars, rump and uppertail-coverts brighter green. Upper, the wing-coverts green with the exception of coverts outer primaries that they are black. Primaries blackish brown with a narrow green margin towards the vane outer; secondaries black. Under, the wing-coverts black. Chin and throat pale green tinged brown; rest of the underparts pale green. Central feathers of the tail green with toes in black, the green side with yellow in vane inner, subterminal black bar with green tips.

Bill red; irises dark brown; legs grey.

The female no red in the head, and feathers sometimes under the wings marked in green.

The immature are like females, with the bill yellowish. The Immature males show the color black feathers under the wings with red feathers scattered on the forehead.

Partially sympatric and very similar to Red-headed Lovebird (Agapornis pullarius) with which it has an throat red or orange (no verde) and rump blue (no verde). Usually found in small flocks on the tops of tall trees, where the plumage It blends well with the foliage. Its flight It is fast and direct.

Proposal subspecies Agapornis Taranta nanus (Southwest of Ethiopia) supposedly in bill smaller and wings shorter, but generally not accepted. Birds at higher altitudes are larger, but not recognized subspecifically. Monotypic.

Inseparable habitat Abyssinian:

The Black-winged Lovebird, at high altitudes (1.800-3.800 m), They are linked, normally, mountain forests dominated Podocarpus, Juniperus, Hagenia and Hypericum; below , on the 1.400 m, They found in grassy savannas and forests Acacia, Combretum and Euphorbia; also frequent cultivated areas and peripheries of urban areas Addis Ababa.

Gregarious, at least outside breeding season, when usually they found in small flocks (8-20) on the tops of the tallest trees, gathering in greater numbers when food is locally abundant.

Used communal roosts in tree cavities (often old nests woodpeckers or Banded Barbet).

Sometimes it associated with Yellow-fronted Parrot.

Occasionally they lie face down on captivity.

Playing black-winged lovebird:

The Black-winged Lovebird nest in tree cavities, in holes in walls and even some nests Baglafecht Weaver.

In captivity, female leads Nesting material (small pieces of branches, leaves and grass) put in almost any part of their plumage.

The Black-winged Lovebird it's the only one Agapornis using their own pens to build nest.

The breeding season, According to sources, It between March and November. It is not clear if the egg laying is synchronized with the rainy season. Normally, starting up five eggs, but they can reach eight captive.

Inseparable Power Abyssinian:

The diet release of the Black-winged Lovebird It consists mainly fruit, including Ficus figs and berries juniper.

Perform seasonal movements in relation to food availability.

Distribution:

The Black-winged Lovebird They are endemic to the highlands of Ethiopia from the South of Eritrea through the Harari Region and Addis Ababa including Great Rift Valley.

Frequently in montane forests: relatively uncommon at low altitudes in areas of savannah.

Conservation:

• Current red list of UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Increasing

The Black-winged Lovebird It is not globally threatened, although it is included in Appendix II (Anexo B) Convention CITES.

It has a very small distribution area, so you have a greater risk of extinction because if their habitat is destroyed or uncontrolled catches are made can lead to extinction.

Considered crop pest in some areas, though not of great importance, may become the subject of chemical spraying to prevent attacks.

However they are more frequent since 1989, perhaps due to reduced sales of this species for the pet trade.

In the news they are not considered endangered, but we must not fail to protect them and avoid both habitat destruction and illegal capture.

The Inseparable Abyssinian in captivity:

Although not as common as other species Agapornis (Rosy-faced Lovebird or the Yellow-collared Lovebird), this handsome Agapornis It has a very pleasant disposition.

They are more tolerant with others Agapornis, provided they have enough space, and they are one of the least noisy species.

Dwelling, on freedom, high mountain areas, It is not surprising that the Black-winged Lovebird I can tolerate ambient outdoor aviary, as long as they stay out of drafts and temperatures are not too extreme.

birds are relatively resistant, similar to Fischer's Lovebird or the Yellow-collared Lovebird, although they are not as much as Rosy-faced Lovebird.

Typical for all Agapornis, the Black-winged Lovebird is very sociable and loves the companionship. Their natural behavior is to live closely with a partner / a.

Despite being a very sociable pet and tender, they will need a lot of attention if kept separate. Most They are kept in pairs to satisfy his great need for constant companionship, acicalamiento mortgage, and socialization.

For reproduce in captivity You need tranquility and a spacious and equipped cage at least two nest boxes.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, one specimen lived 14,6 years in captivity. In captivity, these animals are known to breed, approximately, to the 2 years of age.

Alternative names:

- Black-winged Lovebird, Abyssinian Lovebird, Black winged Lovebird (inglés).
- Inséparable d'Abyssinie, Inséparable à ailes noires, Inséparable taranta (francés).
- Tarantapapagei (alemán).
- Inseparável-de-asa-preta (portugués).
- Inseparable Abisinio, Inseparable de Frente Roja, Agapornis Taranta (español).

Edward Smith-Stanley
Edward Smith-Stanley

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Genus: Agapornis
- Nombre científico: Agapornis taranta
- Citation: (Stanley, 1814)
- Protónimo: Psittacus taranta

Black-winged Lovebird Images:

————————————————————————————————

Black-winged Lovebird (Agapornis taranta)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Agapornis taranta – Black-winged Lovebird in the San Diego Wild Animal Park, California By Carlos Urdiales [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A male Black-winged Lovebird in a guava tree (eating semiripe) guavas, in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia By Veli Pohjonen (Own photographing in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A female Black-winged Lovebird in Ethiopia By Alastair Rae from London, United Kingdom (Black-winged Lovebird) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Inseparable from Abyssinia by avicue
(5) – Black-winged lovebird by mundoexotics
(6) – A painting of a male Black-winged Lovebird (also known as Abyssinian Lovebird) (originally captioned “Psittacula panic. Abyssinian parrakeet”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Andrew Spencer (Xeno-canto)

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