Black-fronted Parakeet †
Cyanoramphus zealandicus

Black-fronted Parakeet

Description:

Black-fronted Parakeet

Of 25 cm.. length

The Black-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus zealandicus) They appeared to be very similar to other species Cyanoramphus; They were olive green; the forecrown It was black; the lores (the regions between the eyes and the peak on the sides of the head of a bird) and stretches along the eyes They were red; the lower part of the back It was red; the uppertail-coverts red. the outerweb of the flight feather They were blue violet. The eye rings They were light blue. Adults probably had irises orange, while young birds had eyes dark or brown.

The legs They were brown and gray bill It was pale bluish gray with a blackish tip.

Habitat:

According to Des Murs (1845, 1849), Lt. M. J. Marolles shot three birds Tahiti in 1844, in Port Phaeton, in the isthmus Taravao. The bird was rare at that time, and only he was in the isthmus and the mountains Tahiti you. Marolles saw only four or five individuals in total, and the locals told that parrots lived in large trees in inaccessible cliffs and deep valleys. It is not known nothing about it.

Reproduction:

No data

Food:

No data

Distribution:

The Black-fronted Parakeet they were from Tahiti, on French Polynesia. Three known specimens collected (two of which are now in Liverpool and one in Tring) collected on the trip Cook in 1773, a fourth collected by Amadis in 1842, now in Perpignan and a fifth collected by the Marolles in 1844, now in Paris (Voisin et al. 1995).

It not registered any specimen from 1844.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Extinct.

• Population trend: Extinct.

• Population size : No individual is not.

Justification of the red list category

The frentinegro Perico were known Tahiti, (French Polynesia), but it has not been seen since 1844 and it is now regarded as a kindextinct. Possible causes include deforestation, the hunting and predation introduced species.

Hume y Walters suggest that as the Tahitians lingo green and red parrot feathers brought from Tonga, it is possible that excessive hunting in the past has been, at least in part, responsible for the disappearance of Black-fronted Parakeet.

Alternative names:


- Black fronted Parakeet, Black-fronted Parakeet, Black-Fronted Parrot, Tahiti Parakeet (inglés).
- Kakariki de Tahiti, Perruche de Tahiti (francés).
- Schwarzstirnsittich, Tahiti-Laufsittich (alemán).
- Periquito-do-tahiti (portugués).
- Perico de Frente Negra, Perico frentinegro (español).

John Latham
John Latham
Scientific classification:


- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus zealandicus
- Citación: (Latham, 1790)
- Protónimo: Psittacus zealandicus

Images:
We cannot display this gallery

Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Iconographie ornithologique by Marc Athanase Parfait Œillet des Murs (1804-1878) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Watercolour painting by George Forster annotated ‘Psittacus pacificus’. Made during Captain James Cook’s second voyage to explore the southern continent (1772-75). George Forster [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Burrowing Parakeet
Cyanoliseus patagonus

Burrowing Parakeet


Description:

39-52 cm. length between 260 and 280 g. of weight.

Burrowing Parakeet

The Burrowing Parakeet (Cyanoliseus patagonus) has the forecrown, crown, lores, cheeks and nape olive brown with slight yellowish tinge; sides of neck, the mantle and back Brown olive; rump and uppertail-coverts bright canary yellow.

Blades brown, some slightly blue; covered primary blue, other yellowish olive brown. Primaries and Outer secondaries dark blue with edges innerwebs distal; inner secondary bluish brown. Underwing-coverts Yellow olive; underside of flight feather brown. Breast olive brown with white-cream area at the top of chest; rest of the underparts yellow-orange red patch through central belly. Uppertail brown tinted blue, especially next to the tips; undertail brown.

The bill It is grayish-black; the periophthalmic skin skin whitish; the irises is pale yellow; the legs They are pale yellowish brown.

Both sexes similar. Immature has horn upper mandible and the irises brown.

  • Sound of the Burrowing Parakeet.

Description Burrowing Parakeet subspecies
  • Cyanoliseus patagonus andinus

    (Dabbene & Lillo, 1913) – Similar to the species nominal but it lacks the bright yellow belly with pale areas on the sides of chest and rump olive colored duller. This and subspecies Cyanoliseus patagonus conlara they have the upperwing-coverts more brown than the nominal species.

  • Cyanoliseus patagonus bloxami

    (Olson, 1995) – Size larger than the nominal species (wings 250-263), upperparts, throat lower chest and dark brown; bill larger and heavier and patches creamy most extensive on the sides of chest (in some birds merge to form a band breast pale).

  • Cyanoliseus patagonus conlara

    (nores & Yzurieta, 1983) – Breast darker than the other Argentine subspecies.

  • Cyanoliseus patagonus patagonus

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Nominal.

Habitat:

The species usually inhabit areas open pastures, although it has also been reported in Savanna, wooded valleys cliffs and farmland some 2.000 m. Usually in a fairly arid land, although often it found near elevations or streams. Gregarious, forming large flocks, sometimes exceeding 1.000 birds, with common roosts trees, on wiring (sometimes in villages) and tunnels dug to nest.

Reproduction:

It reproduces colonially in warrens carved into cliffs (usually limestone or sandstone Chile) often with stunning views. In San Luis, Argentina, reproduction is reported in the wet season (November–April), the birds return to nest in the cliffs lay eggs in September and November to December in San Luis, spreading of bird breeding sites in April; apparently earlier in Chile. Clutch 2-4 eggs. The male takes care of feeding the female during the incubation period. The young leave the nest to 2 months of age, However, They continue to be fed by their parents until 6 months of age.

Food:

The diet of the Burrowing Parakeet It consists mainly of seeds and fruits predominance of fruit in the summer months (November to February). Food reported include berries of buckthorn joke and Discaria, fruit of Geoffroea decorticans, Prosopis caldenia, P. chilensis and P. flexuosa and seeds of Carduus mariana. Sometimes damaged grain crops; often it feeds on the floor or around.

Distribution:

Extensión de su área de distribución (cría/residente): 1.590.000 km2

The Burrowing Parakeet They are distributed by the South South America, extending from northern Santa Cruz and Chubut in Argentina, passing by Rio Negro and Pampa, up to Buenos Aires, San Luis and Córdoba, San Juan, La Rioja, Catamarca, Tucumán and Salta, reaching westward across southern Uruguay.

They were recorded in the early 1920 from the center of Formosa, Argentina, away from Andes mountains, and above the center Chile from the North of The lakes to north of Atacama, but now they are confined to a few localities in the foothills of the Andes, for example in Bio Bio.

Will produce some seasonal movements, including the northward migration of birds south in the Argentine winter and shifts down Chile.

In Argentina It is locally common or abundant, although in some places (p. e.g.. in Córdoba and Buenos Aires Eastern) They are rare or occasional. Few and far between in Uruguay. drastic decline during the twentieth century Chile, so that the subspecies Cyanoliseus patagonus bloxami It is considered at risk, with an estimated population of less than 3.000 individuals at the end of the decade 1980. The decrease in parts of the Argentina It is attributed to the catch for the trade, the hunting for food, converting grassland and arable land persecution as crop pest. Probably continues to decline overall.

Burrowing Parakeet subspecies distribution
Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 95000 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

Although the demographic trend It appears to be declining, It not believed to be declining fast enough to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable at the discretion of the demographic trend (> 30% decrease in ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and therefore does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un descenso continuo estimado en >10% in ten years or three generations, or specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The species is still common in many parts of its range in Argentina, with only small contractions reported in range Córdoba (R. M. Fraga a slightly. 2003). The population size of four subspecies was estimated as follows by MASELLO et al. (2011): Cyanoliseus patagonus patagonus 43.330 nests, Cyanoliseus patagonus conlara 1.700 individuals, Cyanoliseus patagonus andinus 2.000 nests, Cyanoliseus patagonus bloxami 5.000-6.000 individuals. Based on these figures, the population Total overall can be about 95.000 mature individuals.

Justification trend

They suspected that the population is declining due to continuing habitat destruction and unsustainable levels of exploitation.

Threats

The species has been the subject of a intense trade: from 1981, year it was included in the Appendix II of the CITES, they have been 122.914 individuals caught in international trade (UNEP-WCMC CITES CITES Trade Database, January 2005).

Conservation actions underway

The species is included in the Appendix II of the CITES.

In captivity:

The average life expectancy is of 15-20 years in captivity. Protected by Appendix II of the CITES.

To help conservation Burrowing Parakeet, You can report your hunt, sale, trade and illegal possession, thus, We will be cooperating with the conservation of this species and not be complicit in the decline of their populations and their future extinction of wild.

Alternative names:


- Burrowing Conure, Burrowing Parakeet, Burrowing Parrot, Patagonian Burrowing Parrot, Patagonian Conure, Patagonian Parrot (inglés).
- Conure de Patagonie, Perriche de Patagonie, Perruche de Patagonie (francés).
- Felsensittich, Felsen-Sittich (alemán).
- Periquito-das-barreiras (portugués).
- Loro Barranquero, Loro de la Patagonia, Loro Patagonico, Tricahue (español).
- Loro barranquero (Argentina).
- Tricahue (Chile).
- Loro barranquero, Loro Patagonico (Uruguay).
- Perico Barranquero (México).

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Cyanoliseus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoliseus patagonus
- Citation: (Vieillot, 1818)
- Protónimo: Psittacus patagonus

Burrowing Parakeet Pictures:

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Burrowing Parakeet (Cyanoliseus patagonus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Burrowing Parrot captive in Madeira By Rakkhi Samarasekera from London, United Kingdom (P6122982Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two Burrowing Parrots in Limari Province, Chile By Gerzo Gallardo (Flickr: Parrots) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Tricahues couple burrowing parrot on the RN River Cypresses By BioVipah (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Burrowing Parrot (also known as the Patagonian Conure) to Lille Zoo, France By Olivier Duquesne (originally posted to Flickr as Perroquet) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A Burrowing Parrot at Birds of Eden, an aviary in Western Cape, South Africa By Dick Daniels (http://carolinabirds.org /) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A painting of a Burrowing Parrot, also known as Patagonian Conure, (originally captioned “Psittacara patagonica. Patagonian Parrakeet-Maccaw”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888 – Wikipedia

Sounds: Cristian Pinto, XC380836. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/380836.

Austral Parakeet
Enicognathus ferrugineus

Austral Parakeet


Description:

28–36 cm. length.

Austral Parakeet

The Austral Parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus), It is mostly green; the lores and forecrown rather dull brick-red; the front of the crown with yellow and green feathers in the center, and edges dark green olive feathers central part of the crown.

The feathers of the upperparts They are olive green with darker edges, giving a scalloped effect. The upperwing-coverts They are olive color with dark margins. Flight feather green with metallic blue suffusion. Underwing-coverts green with dark tips; Bottom of the flight feather pale grey. The underparts They are mainly pale green olive, with darker margins (except in the the thighs) and a large opaque red spot on the central belly. In the long run tail It is dark red off above; pale grayish below. The upper mandible horn is dark colored with a black tip; the bottom is dark horn-colored; irises reddish brown; legs dark gray.

Both sexes are similar. The immature It has a duller red on the head and patch in the belly red less dense and less extensive.

  • Sound of the Austral Parakeet.

Subspecies description:
  • Enicognathus ferrugineus ferrugineus

    (Statius Müller, 1776) – Nominal.

  • Enicognathus ferrugineus minor

    (Chapman, 1919) – Smaller and darker than the nominal, with a abdominal patch Red less extensive (sometimes absent).

Habitat:

The Austral Parakeet occurs mainly in forests, including forests of Nothofagus, Araucaria and Quercus, but also in more open habitats with shrubs Berberis darwinii and Drimys winteri, also they visit cultivated areas, mainly at sea level in the southern part of the range, may reach 1200 meters and even 2.000 meters north. Observed in flocks of 10-15 individuals, coming to meet more than 100 birds outside the breeding period; flocks of 10 or more in Fire land with reports of attacks caused by Red-backed Hawk (Geranoaetus polyosoma).

In April and before the arrival of winter flocks leave the mountains to take refuge in lower valleys of lower altitude.

Reproduction:

They nest in the cavity of the trees, filling very deep holes with twigs and branches where building nests are no cavities available. The breeding season It comprising the months of November to December. Clutch 4-8 eggs. To the 26 days are born nestlings, emplumándose to 7-8 weeks.

Food:

predominantly eat seeds (can cause damage to grain crops). Its diet It includes herbaceous seeds and bamboo, Drimys winteri, acorns and nuts Araucaria, fruit, berries and sprouts p. Nothofagus and bulbous roots.

Distribution and status:

Extensión de su área de distribución (reproducción / residentes): 2.010.000 km2

Distributed by the south end of South America, psittacine distribution is the southernmost in the world.

They can be observed from Land of Fire north through Chile to province O'Higgins and east of Andes in Argentina, extending through Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro Western and Neuquén Western.

Generally residents, even in the extreme south, although the foothills move to raise (at least in Land of Fire) with some predictable local movements in the north. Generally common, It is very abundant in the wooded coast Land of Fire. Large areas remain intact habitat and inhabiting several large protected areas.

Very rare in captivity.

Distribution of subspecies:
Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the Red List Category

This species has a very large range, and therefore does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion. The trend population seems to be stable, and therefore the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion population trend (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estimada en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or in a particular population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as ‘quite common(Stotz et to the. (1996).

Justification trend

The population suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

In captivity:

Very rare in captivity.

Chilean law prohibits the purchase, sale and possession of this magpie.

If you have a Austral Parakeet I recommend you give it to SAG or the Center for Rehabilitation of Wildlife of Codeff ([email protected], background: 777 25 34 – Santiago), because in that place you will come across many other parrots of the same species that suffered the same process, and specialized people who care very well, For then return to the wild.

Alternative names:


- Austral Conure, Austral Parakeet, Emerald Conure, Emerald Parakeet, Magellan Conure, Magellan Parakeet (inglés).
- Conure émeraude, Conure magellanique, Perriche magellanique, Perruche magellanique (francés).
- Smaragdsittich, Smaragd-Sittich (alemán).
- Periquito-austral (portugués).
- Cachaña, Cachaña austral, Cotorra Austral, Cotorra Cachaña (español).

Scientific classification:

Antiguamente separada del género monoespecífico Microsittace.

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Enicognathus
- Nombre científico: Enicognathus ferrugineus
- Citation: (Statius Mulller, 1776)
- Protónimo: Psittacus ferrugineus

Images Austral Parakeet:

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Austral Parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Austral Parakeet (also known as Austral Conure or Emerald Parakeet) in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile By Miguel Vieira [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two Austral Parakeets in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina By Francesco Veronesi [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Austral Parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus) seen near Laguna Onelli, Glaciers National Park, Santa Cruz, Argentina By Fabienkhan (Personal Picture) [CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons – credit : Fabien Dany – www.fabiendany.com
(4) – Cachañas in San Martin de los Andes, Province of Neuquen, Argentina By Ignsal (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – An Austral Parakeet in Magallanes Province, Chile By Paulo Fassina (Parrot EatingUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Austral Parakeet – Torres del Paine National Park, Chile by Eleanor BriccettiFlickr

Sounds: Bobby Wilcox, XC236937. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/236937

Blue-throated Parakeet
Pyrrhura cruentata

Blue-throated Parakeet

Description:

30 cm.. length and 90 g. of weight.

Blue-throated Parakeet

The Blue-throated Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) It is a very colorful bird; has the forecrown, crown and rear of the neck, dark brown with pale orange sides and with some feathers (especially posteriorly) giving speckled appearance; lores, cheeks top, supercilii area and ear-coverts, dull red, merging on sides of neck with yellowish patch bordered behind by blue band running across nape; bottom of the cheeks, green.

Mantle, back and scapulars, green; broad crimson patch on the lower back and rump; uppertail-coverts green. Bend of wing bright red; upperwing-coverts green. Outerwebs of the primaries, blue, green on the innerwebs; secondaries green on outerweb, Gray on innerwebs; flight feather with dark tips; infra-wing coverts minor, olive green, the gray greater coverts; underside of flight feather, olive gray wash. Chin green; the throat and the top chest, blue with some dark tips; underparts green with variable-sized crimson patch on belly. Upper, the tail It is golden in color with green tint; brown below. Bill grey; bare periophthalmic grey; irises yellow orange; legs grey.

Both sexes similar, but the irises perhaps brighter in the male. Immature more off, with less red at bend of wing.

  • Sound of the Blue-throated Parakeet.

Habitat:

The Blue-throated Parakeet inhabit, mainly, in primary forests of the Atlantic forest or on the edges of forests and, sometimes, in slightly modified natural forests, penetrate in agricultural areas where high forest trees shade cacao. Unknown seasonal and dry forests. (Usually in lowlands below 400 m, but 960 metres in Minas Gerais, Brazil, usually in flocks of 6-20 birds(mainly 8-12), at least where they are locally common.

Reproduction:

Nests in tree hollows. The breeding, apparently, It occurs in the austral spring, from June to October. Clutch 2-4.

Food:

The diet of the Blue-throated Parakeet includes plants of Talisia esculenta, Alchornea iricurana, Mabea fistulifera, Trema micrantha and Cecropia. The fruits of Miconia hypoleuca They may be important in times of shortage. Birds feeding in the canopy and the lower edge vegetation, never out of the woods; Once he observed feeding on the Golden-capped Parakeet (Aratinga auricapillus).

Distribution and status:

Tamaño de su área de distribución (cría/residente): 281.000 km2

Endemic East Brazil, from Bahia until Rio de Janeiro. Formerly they were known from Jequié and islanders, Bay, but the latest reports are North Río Jequitinhonha, south of which, reports come from remaining patches of forest (including the Monte Pascoal National Park) to the border Espírito Santo.

Birds remain in the few forested areas of eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil as the Rio Doce State Park, the Book Caratinga (about Raúl Soares) and about Mantena and several locations in northern Espirito Santo, including Biological reserves Great stream and Sooretama and neighboring Linhares Sooretama reserve. It is apparently absent from the southern state but survives near Desengano State Park in the State of Rio de Janeiro, the southernmost site which have been observed recently.

Resident. Common and widespread in the late nineteenth century, but decreased dramatically with massive deforestation within its range due to agriculture, speak, mining, roads and urban development. The final bastion (the only place where birds remain common) It is complex reserve Sooretama / Linhares; there are much smaller numbers in other forest remnants (protected but widely separated). Habitat loss continues Bay with some sites (for example Monte Pascoal) under intense pressure.

Rare in captivity, but trapping for illegal trade is an additional threat. Listed in Appendix I of the CITES and protected by Brazilian law.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 2500-9999 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

This species survives in scattered fragments of Atlantic Forest, where the extent of suitable habitat continues to decline rapidly. The remaining populations are small, severely fragmented into isolated reserves, where protection is largely inadequate and are suspected to be declining rapidly. Therefore, qualifies as Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The population It is calculated on the number 2.500-9.999 mature individuals based on an evaluation of known records, descriptions of abundance and size range. This is consistent with estimates of population density recorded for congeners or close relatives with similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of its distribution area is occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3.750-14.999 individuals, round here 3.500-15.000 individuals.

Justification of trend

continued rapid population decline is suspected because rates loss of habitat.

Threats

The extensive and continuous clearing of the forest You are responsible for its current fragmented distribution. Their apparent tolerance to shade cocoa plantations provides little hope because shading techniques since the early 1980 They have involved the use of banana trees and Erythrina, rather than stand, and unstable prices have led to conversion to pasture. Many other populations are affected by specific threats site, as conflicts between habitat conservation and the rights of local communities in the Monte Pascoal National Park. The capture for the cage bird trade It is a relatively new phenomenon, Although the species is rare in domestic and international markets.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix I. It is considered nationally Vulnerable in Brazil (Silveira y Straube 2008, MMA 2014), and is protected by Brazilian law. It is in the National Parks of Chapada da Diamantina and Monte Pascoal, on Experimental Station Barrolândia, on Linhares Forest Reserve, on Book Caratinga, in sweet River and probably in the Desengano State Parks, and in the Biological Reserves Great Stream, Deer Stream and Sooretama (Wege and Long 1995).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Survey to locate additional populations and protect undetected (Snyder et to the., 2000), especially in southern Bay and northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ensure protection de facto key reserves, especially Sooretama, Linhares and Station Vera Cruz. Confiscation of birds of trade and well-planned release of these birds in areas of the previous range of species to improve recovery and connectivity of disjunct populations (J. Gilardi in little).

In captivity:

Protected by CITES Appendix I.

Rara in national and international markets. Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:


- Black-tailed Parakeet, Blue throated Conure, Blue throated Parakeet, Blue-chested Parakeet, Blue-throated Conure, Blue-throated Parakeet, Ochre Marked Conure, Ochre-marked Parakeet, Red-eared Parakeet, Red-rumped Parakeet (inglés).
- Conure tiriba, Perriche tiriba, Perruche tiriba (francés).
- Blaulatzsittich, Blaulatz-Sittich (alemán).
- cara-suja, fura-mato, tiriba, tiriba-fura-mato, Tiriba-grande, tiriva (portugués).
- Cotorra Tiriba, Perico Grande (español).

Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied
Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied

Scientific classification:


- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Pyrrhura
- Nombre científico: Pyrrhura cruentata
- Citation: (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820)
- Protónimo: Psittacus cruentatus

Images Blue-throated Parakeet:

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Blue-throated Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Ochre-marked Parakeet (also known as Blue-chested Parakeet, Blue-throated Parakeet, or Blue-throated Conure) at Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria, one of the Canary islands, Spain By ipfreaks (originally posted to Flickr as Papagei) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Blue-chested Parakeet, (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure. Pet parrot By ➨ Redvers (originally posted to Flickr as Hector and toy 8) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Blue-chested Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure at Central Park Zoo, New York, USA By Claire Houck [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Blue-chested Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure. Pet with yellow toy By ➨ Redvers (originally posted to Flickr as Hector and toy 4) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Blue-chested Parakeet (also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure); two on a perch By TJ Lin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: Jeremy Recall, XC85365. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/85365

Black-billed Parrot
Amazona agilis

Black-billed Parrot

Description:

25 cm.. length and 178 g. of weight.

Black-billed Parrot

The Black-billed Parrot (Amazona agilis) It is the smallest of the Amazon parrots, and it is one of only two species Amazona endemics Jamaica.

This species, brightly colored, has a plumage, in its most, of color green with them underparts lighter, green or yellow. The slightly darker edges in feathers of the back of the neck, one dan scalloped effect. Flight feather darker at the tip; feathers of the tail blue in the margins with red bases to outer feathers. Their eyes They are surrounded by a dark brown ring dark grey, and the bill is black.

The adult male they have the coverts red on the outer of the wings, While these feathers They are usually green in females and in the immature.

  • Sound of the Black-billed Parrot.

Habitat:

It is in the wet limestone forests to elevations of 1.600 m. They can be seen in the upper canopy, and they can also be found foraging in cultivated land and plantations near the edge of the forest.

Form groups 6 to 30 individuals.

Reproduction:

The Black-billed Parrot used for nest the tree holes are formed from or related to weathering processes and pathogen attacks insects, at least a 18 meters above the ground. It has reported the use of cavity left by the Jamaican Woodpecker (Melanerpes radiolatus).
Like other species of parrots, the vigorous vocalizations among couples announce nesting territories.

The breeding season It is from March to August. The laying is of 2-4 eggs, with a range of about 48 hours between successive eggs. Eggs are incubated only by the female during 24 days. During this time the male will feed and exchange food with female. The incubation It begins after the first egg is placed, so hatching occurs at intervals, up to seven days between the first and last hatch. Chicks this Amazon They spend up to eight weeks in the nest.

Most failed nests do in the early mating period, as a result of predation by Jamaican Boa (Epicrates subflavus) (Gruber 1980) and to a lesser extent Jamaican Crow (Corvus jamaicensis).

Food:

The Black-billed Parrot It feeds on fruit, seeds, dried fruits, berries and flowers in the forest canopy. The populations of this species will move in response to the location of food sources. This species also feed on crops and can cause considerable damage to fruit ripening.

Distribution and status:

Tamaño de su área de distribución (reproductor/residente): 5.100 km2

Its distribution area It is restricted to the wet limestone forests midlevel, which they have declined dramatically in recent 40 years. Locally common by all the Cockpit Country, particularly in disturbed habitat edge where it is more common than Yellow-billed Parrot (Amazona collaria), with which occasionally is associated.

The populations of the Black-billed Parrot also they found in Mount Diablo, in the center of the island. Historical reports also placed at the eastern end of the island, although recent sightings in that area are rare. However, small flocks have been recently in the John Crow Mountains. Preliminary surveys indicate population estimates much higher than those described above, and possibly more than 10.000 individuals in the region of Cockpit Country (C. Levy in some 1999).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 6000-15000

Justification of the red list category

This species has a range very small within which its habitat is declining in extent, area and quality; and additional reductions of the population are being caused by the trampeo and predation, qualifying the species as Vulnerable. Currently it does not qualify as endangered because the habitat is severely fragmented and is known in more than five places. However, the species can requalify for inclusion in a top list in the future due to population decline likely if the three proposed mining concessions Cockpit Country They are awarded.

Justification of the population

Preliminary population estimates are best placed to world population in the band between 10.000 and 19.999 individuals (S. Koenig in a bit., 2008). This is equivalent to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, round here 6,000-15,000 mature individuals. Further studies are needed to get an accurate figure.

Justification of trend

The data suggest that decrease of at least 50% of the population of this species could occur in the next 40-50 years as a result of habitat destruction due to three proposed mining concessions, two of which have recently been granted (Koenig, 2008). However, It is not sure if the third concession is granted (S. Koenig in some. 2010), and as such it is projected to suffer a decrease of species 30-49% over the next 37 years (three generations).

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. protected under the Protection Act Wildlife Jamaica and Endangered Species Act of 2000, which together prohibit keep the species as a pet and local and international trade.

• Since 1995 He has worked to delineate its distribution, estimate the size of the population, identify long-term factors limiting reproductive performance and train local people in research methods and techniques for monitoring (Davis 1997, BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• Habitat in Blue Mountains National Park and John Crow, but the implementation and management of the park are weak (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• There is a permanent campaign public awareness high profile to prevent bauxite mining in Cockpit Country, by making the area is declared closed to mining by the Minister Discretion (S. Koenig in some. 2007, 2009).

• The proponents remain optimistic that, while losing a large area of ​​habitat, be declared closed a large area of ​​habitat for mining (S. Koenig in some. 2007, 2009).

• they have begun discussions that could lead to the ban the importation of psittacine to Jamaica to reduce the risk of leakage and hybridisation (S. Koenig in some. 2007, 2009).

• Populations of captive breeding.

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Survey to delineate the range and evaluate the numbers (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• Establish a monitoring program long-term.

• Designate Cockpit Country closed to mining.

• Ensure facto protection Blue Mountains National Park and John Crow (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• Design and implement Educational programs in the area occupied by the species and adjacent areas (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998) and develop a structured breeding program.

• Improve implementation of the legislation against poaching.

In captivity:

CITES Appendix II. protected under the Protection Act Wildlife Jamaica and Endangered Species Act of 2000, which together prohibit keep the species as a pet and local and international trade.

Populations of captive breeding.

Alternative names:


- Black-billed Parrot, Active Amazon, Active Parrot, All-green Amazon, All-green Parrot, Black billed Parrot, Black-billed Amazon (inglés).
- Amazone verte (francés).
- Rotspiegelamazone (alemán).
- Papagaio-de-bico-preto (portugués).
- Amazona de Pico Negro, Amazona Jamaicana Piquioscura (español).

Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Amazona
- Nombre científico: Amazona agilis
- Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Protónimo: Psittacus agilis

Images Black-billed Parrot:

Black-billed Parrot (Amazona agilis)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Black-billed Parrot in Jamaica By Ron Knight from Seaford, East Sussex, United Kingdom (Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Amazona agilis in Wuppertal zoo By Simon J. Tonge [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Black-billed Amazon at Vienna Zoo, Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria By Alois Staudacher (Rotspiegelamazone) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Black-billed Amazon at Vienna Zoo, Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria By Alois Staudacher (Rotspiegelamazone) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A Black-billed Parrot in Jamaica By Ron Knight from Seaford, East Sussex, United Kingdom (Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A Black-billed Amazon at Vienna Zoo, Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria By Alois Staudacher (Rotspiegelamazone) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Black-billed Amazon in the John Crow Mountains, Portland, Jamaica By Brennan Mulrooney (originally posted to Flickr as Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A Black-billed Parrot in Jamaica By Ron Knight from Seaford, East Sussex, United Kingdom (Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Psittacus agilis By Barraband, Jacques; Bouquet; Le Vaillant, François [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – [Little green parrot (Black-billed Amazon [Amazona agilis])] From Natural History of Parrots (by Francois Levaillant, 1801-1805) by Jacques Barraband – Wikimedia

Sounds: Ross Gallardy, XC308430. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/308430

Bald Parrot
Pyrilia aurantiocephala

Bald Parrot

Description:

23 cm.. length.

The Bald Parrot (Pyrilia aurantiocephala) has the mandible and the upper maxilla, black with a large orange dot in the base; head naked orange chrome; lores, forecrown, pileum, nape, face and chin no true feathers; coverts only black bristles and some white bristles in lores; true feathers beginning in dorsal area neck, spectrum yellow in proximal half and yellow-green in distal half with black apex, passing rapidly to parrot green as basic color the mantle, back, uropigium, and of the uppertail-coverts; feathers in bend of wing and scapulars, yellowish orange with base scarlet; lesser wing coverts green, except scarlet carpal edge; median and greater wing coverts, with large suffusion of ultramarine blue.

The upper surface of the of remiges black with outerweb shaded with indigo blue; undersurface of remiges black color with a a shamrock greenish on the innerwebs; the outerweb and the apex of the upper surfaces of the rectrices, indigo blue, shaded to varying degrees with green; the base innerwebs of the rectrices, yellow; feathers of the chest with greenish yellow base and apex, forming a large banda pectoral; lower breast, abdomen and crissum, emerald green sprinkled with cyan; underwing-coverts scarlet; the thighs yellow; feet feet orange yellow with suffusion of ochre; irises orange.

The immature with the bare lores to the area around the eyes, orange, the rest of the head feathered dull green; upper breast greenish yellow. Bill yellow in very young birds.

Note:

This parrot was initially believed it was an immature species Vulturine Parrot (Pyrilia vulturina) due to the orange color head calva. However, when it was discovered that individuals were sexually mature, He described as a new species. In fact, the youth of both species have feathers head greenish, unlike adults.

Formerly, It was included in the genus Pionopsitta.

  • Sound of the Bald Parrot.

Habitat:

Seen in gallery forest and forest ‘campinarana‘ (on white sand soils). This region is threatened by logging (Gaban-Lima et al., 2002).

viewed individually, in pairs or small flocks of up to 10 birds. It is most active during the early morning that other parrots, and before going to sleep. It stays in the upper canopy where it is well camouflaged.

Reproduction:

The breeding season possibly either during September; little is known about their breeding habits.

Food:

Feeds of seeds, fruits and possibly larvae of gall wasps (Cynipidae).

Distribution:

Tamaño de su área de distribución (cría/residente): 407.000 km2

The Bald Parrot They are known only in some locations covering the lower basin of Madeira River and the upper basin of Tapajós River in the Brazil Amazon, more specifically in the Rio São Benedito (Field observations) and Cururu-acu River, both tributaries on the right bank of the river Teles Pires, himself a tributary of Tapajós.
There are several recent records of this new species from the micro-region of Madeira in the vicinity of Borba.

Since the species is currently known only from Two types of habitat and a relatively small area, it is unlikely that the population is much higher 10.000 individuals, so it is considered that it is near-threatened. It is likely to occur more records now that has been formally recognized as a species, and this may clarify its exact state.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Population size: 6.700 specimens.

Justification of the red list category

This species has recently described a moderately small population is declining due to loss of habitat. Therefore, it is classified as near threatened.

Justification of the population

The population preliminarily estimated with a number of at least 10.000 individuals, approximately equivalent to 6.700 mature individuals. This requires confirmation.

Justification of trend

It is suspected that this species has lost 8,8-13,1% of habitat within its distribution over three generations (21 years) starting from a model of deforestation Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006, Bird et to the., 2011). Therefore, you suspect your decrease in population <25% durante tres generaciones.

In captivity:

unknown in captivity.

Alternative names:


- Bald Parrot, Orange-Headed ParrotT (inglés).
- Caïque chauve (francés).
- Orangekopfpapagei, Langkopfpapagei (alemán).
- Papagaio-de-cabeça-laranja (portugués).
- Lorito Calvo (español).

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Pyrilia
- Nombre científico: Pyrilia aurantiocephala
- Citation: Gaban-Lima, Raposo & Höfling, 2002

————————————————————————————————

Bald Parrot (Pyrilia aurantiocephala)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
– Department of Zoology, Bioscience Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Street Mata~o, dish 14, not. 101, POCKET 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil – Notes

Photos:

(1) – Bald Parrot (Pyrilia aurantiocephala) – Watercolor, Romain Risso. By Gossipguy (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Blue-bellied Parrot
Triclaria malachitacea

Blue-bellied Parrot

Description:

28 cm.. length between 110-155 g. of weight.

Blue-bellied Parrot

The Blue-bellied Parrot (Triclaria malachitacea) has the head, neck and all the upperparts and wing-coverts, grass-green.

Flight feather grass-green with narrow blue tips to primaries, except the outermost, with a narrow pale blue margin to outerweb. Under, the wings with coverts green, and flight feather, bluish green. The underparts mainly green with large purplish-blue patch on centre of chest and the belly. Upper, the tail It is green with blue tips to central feathers; undertail, bluish green. Bill pink white: cere Pink; brown the irises; legs grey.

The female lacks the patch in the belly blue violet. The immature is as the adult but the respective young male has less blue purple in underparts.

  • Sound of the Blue-bellied Parrot.

Its singing It is similar to a Thrush (Molothrus).

Habitat:

The Blue-bellied Parrot They live in the rain forests of coppice, generally preferring the canopy and the upper floors of tall forest, rich in bromeliads, along watercourses in the valleys. Visit cultivated areas with orchards and plantations and sometimes wooded suburban areas (for example in São Paulo).

Mainly observed at altitudes of 300-700 m, perhaps 1,000 meters in some places, but also they inhabit lowlands at sea level. The sporadic nature of reports, with apparent absence of apparently suitable areas, He suggests some critical aspects of their ecology poorly understood.

Reproduction:

Observed nests in cavities of large trees or stumps of palm. Strongly territorial, at least during rearing, with separation until nests 2 km. The breeding season It covers the months of September to January, maybe a little earlier or later.

Food:

Its diet it's formed, mainly, by fruit, seeds, outbreaks and nectar, some insects and their larvae (looking birds seen flying insects); Specific foods include Pachystroma, Actinostemon, Sebastian, Eugenia, Campomanesia and Euterpe edulis, also occasionally Cortex, and Citrus plantations.

Distribution and status:

Tamaño de su área de distribución (cría/residente): 361.000 km2

This rare species is endemic Atlantic forests of Southeast Brazil, mainly in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, in the southeast of Brazil. There are additional records South Bahia (none since 1833), Minas Gerais, Brazil (some dubious records), Espírito Santo (four or five sites), Paraná (three modern records) and Santa Catarina (Mesorregión del Valle del Itajaí, Valle de Tijucas and the region of Serra do Mar, in upstate [Rosario 1996, G. Kohler in some. 2011]).

The species is quite common in large forest fragments in the Valle de Itajaí (G. Kohler in some ., 2011). Due to changes in habitat in the lowlands Santa Catarina, the most recent records in that state come from montane forests (G. Kohler in some ., 2011). Two records in Missions, Argentina, require confirmation. The population was estimated previously less than 5.000 individuals (Lambert et to the ., 1993), But Bencke (1996) suggested that there may be 10.000 in Rio Grande do Sul and significant numbers in the eastern slope of the Serra do Mar; However, the apparent rarity of the species suggests that these figures may be an overestimation (J. Gilardi in litt., 2010). In general, it is suspected that the population is declining, although in the State Park Tres Picos, Rio de Janeiro, It seems to have been stable since 2003 (A. Foster in a bit).

Population little known due to camouflage habits. Perhaps more numerous in the many facing slopes east of the Serra do Mar in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo; habitat loss on a large scale has certainly caused a serious decline in its population, and the fragmentation of its range. Although forests of humid highlands remain in substantial amounts in Serra do Mar, the replacement of forests in valleys and lower slopes with banana plantations could lead to further declines.

Captured for local LBMs and marketed in small numbers at international level. There are records of several protected areas, but most of them may be insufficient to support the populations of this species due to its low density.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened.

• Population trend: decreasing.

Justification of the red list category

This species is classified as near threatened because they suspect is in a moderately rapid decline due to loss of habitat and, perhaps to a lesser extent, to the capture for trade bird cage.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is generally described as “rare” (Stotz et to the ., 1996), although it is locally common in some places.

Justification of trend

Se sospecha una decrease moderate and continuous of the population depending on rates of habitat loss and perhaps, to a lesser extent, capture for the bird trade. The decrease is not thought to be faster because the species occurs in montane areas where deforestation is typically less severe, It seems to tolerate mature secondary forests and anecdotal observations suggest that is locally stable, for example in the State Park Tres Picos, Rio de Janeiro. (A. Foster in a bit ., 2013).

Ecology and conservation of Loro Ventriazul in forest fragments remaining in Rio Grande do Sul

This project aims to collect basic information on population, distribution and ecology Blue-bellied Parrot in the center of Rio Grande do Sul, where a large population of the species is rapidly declining due to habitat fragmentation. The use of radiotelemetry technique will determine the area of ​​use of species and assess its capabilities dispersion. Studies biology of this species is the aim to determine the elements of your diet and collect information about the behavior and reproduction. Through this information, It is intended to outline a regional plan for conservation Blue-bellied Parrot and their habitat, together with local actors. (TO)

Conservation status:

UICN: Vulnerable (with + 2c, (d), Cl, Q2a). Previously in danger of extinction (Q2a: see Collar et al., 1994). CITES: Appendix II.

State of national protection: Protected by federal law and included in the list IBAMA of Brazilian species threatened with extinction (Bernardes et al 1990).

In captivity:

unknown in captivity.

Alternative names:


- Blue-bellied Parrot, Blue bellied Parrot, Purple-bellied Parrot (inglés).
- Crick à ventre bleu, Caïque à ventre bleu (francés).
- Blaubauchpapagei, Blaubauch, Blaubauch-Papagei (alemán).
- Papagaio-de-peito-roxo, araçoiaba, araçuaiava, cica, sabiá-ci, sabiá-cica (portugués).
- Loro de vientre azul, Loro Sabiá-cicá, Loro Ventriazul (español).
- araçoiaba, araçuaiava, cica, sabiá-ci, Sabiá-cica (Brasil).

Johann Baptist von Spix

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Triclaria
- Nombre científico: Triclaria malachitacea
- Citation: (von Spix, 1824)
- Protónimo: Psittacus malachitaceus

Images Blue-bellied Parrot:

————————————————————————————————

Blue-bellied Parrot (Triclaria malachitacea)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Triclaria malachitacea – Paranapiacaba – Santo André by Carlos HenriqueFlickr
(2) – Blue-bellied Parrot (also known as the Purple-bellied Parrot); two in a cage with a nestbox By TJ Lin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A female Blue-bellied Parrot (also known as Purple-bellied Parrot) at Walsrode Bird Park, Germany By ipfreaks [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Rufous-conic (Triclaria malachitacea) – by female Cláudio Dias TimmFlickr
(5) – Rufous-CICA (Blue-berried Parrot) – Guide to Birds in ePUB by Márcio DuarteFlickr
(6) – Psittacus cyanogaster or Blue-Bellied Parrakeet by Biodiversity Heritage LibraryFlickr

Brown-backed Parrotlet
Touit melanonotus

Brown-backed Parrotlet

Description:

15 cm.. length.

The Brown-backed Parrotlet (Touit melanonotus) has the forecrown, the lower cheeks, the sides of neck, the crown and the rear of the neck, grass-green; lores and upper cheeks paler and more yellowish green; ear-coverts brown. Mantle, back and center rump dull blackish-brown color; scapulars, sides rump and uppertail-coverts green.

Inner coverts and median, alula and primary coverts, blackish brown (latter with narrow green margins to outerweb); other coverts greenish brown grass. Tertiary brown. Flight feather green on the outerweb with black opaque brown at the tips and innerwebs. Underwing, with coverts dull green, flight feather, pale grayish green. Chin yellowish; underparts pale grayish green, blur on the sides of chest. Upper, the tail centrally green with black spot on the tips of the outerweb. Outer feathers bright red at the base with broad black subterminal bands and a small green patch tips; undertail, the tail pale green tones and duller with greyish stain on the tip, pale red in outer featherss. Bill yellow distally, greyer towards base; irises grey; legs grey.

The females may show duller bluish-grey on underparts. Immature not described.

  • Sound of the Brown-backed Parrotlet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Cotorrita dorsinegra.mp3]
Habitat:

Mainly reported in moist forests on the lower mountain slopes. Most records are in altitudes between 500-1.000 m (1.400 metres in the Itatiaia National Park), but some are lowlands to near sea level (for example, Cardoso Island). Gregarious and generally in small groups 5-20 birds.

Reproduction:

Virtually no information on the breeding. Presumably it occurs in September-October, but this is unconfirmed (Collar 1997a, Necklace et to the ., 2013). A juvenile was photographed in the National Park Organ Mountains in December of 2008 (Young y Pimentel 2009).

Food:

Known foods include seeds large tree legumes and fruits Rapanea acuminata, Clusia sp. and mistletoe.

Distribution:

Tamaño de su área de distribución (cría/residente): 400.000 km2

The Cotorrita Dorsinegra has a limited distribution in southeast Brazil, from Bay (three records in the nineteenth century) to the South of São Paulo, leaping Espirito Santo (though presumably be extinct there).

sporadically, albeit broad, reported in State of Rio de Janeiro, including Sierra Cantagalo, National Park Organ Mountains and the surrounding areas of Teresopolis, including near the The Desengano State Park. They were also observed in the Itatiaia massif (including the Itatiaia National Park) where distribution may include adjacent parts of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Also observed in other locations of unspecified Serra do Mar in the State of Rio de Janeiro and in the city of Rio de Janeiro (for example, in the National Park of Tijuca and forest Corvocado).

Reported in several locations in the Sao Paulo State, to the South of the Cardoso Island, near the border with Paraná. There may be seasonal movements or dispersions (perhaps mainly altitudinal and relatively short distances). Registered in several protected areas such as State Park Serra do Mar and the Itatiaia National Park.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Population size : 2500-9999 specimens.

JUSTIFICATION category Red List

It is likely that the population of this species is small and decreases, with small subpopulations. For these reasons, the species is classified as Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The evaluation of the Brazilian Red List poultry (MMA 2014) It is estimated that there <10.000 individuos maduros con <1,000 individuos maduros en cada subpoblación.Justification of trend

Se sospecha una decrease moderate and continuous of the population because rates of habitat destruction and degradation.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. In Brazil, this species is considered Vulnerable nationally (Silveira & Straube 2008, MMA 2014), and it is protected by Brazilian law. It is distributed in many protected areas, with recent records: Desengano State Parks and Pedra Branca, Itatiaia, Organ Mountains y Tijuca Parques Nacionales (Rio de Janeiro); Experimental Station Ubatuba, Area Environmental Protection Iguape, Serra do Mar, Ilha do Cardoso and State Parks Intervales (São Paulo); Salto Morato Natural Reserve y Marsh Antwren (Paraná) (Wege and Long 1995, Aleixo y Galetti 1997, Necklace et to the ., 2013)

Conservation Actions Proposed

Examine the suitable habitat in Bahia and Espirito Santo to clarify their distribution and status. To determine the seasonal abundance at different elevations. You consolidate the protected areas where distributed.

In captivity:

It is not known in captivity.

Alternative names:


- Brown-backed Parrotlet, Black-backed Parrotlet, Black-eared Parrotlet, Brown backed Parrotlet, Wied's Parrotlet (inglés).
- Toui à dos noir (francés).
- Braunrückenpapagei, Braunrücken-Papagei (alemán).
- Apuim-de-costas-pretas, apuim-de-cauda-vermelha, apuim-de-costa-preta, apuim-de-costas-escuras, papagainho, periquitinho (portugués).
- Cotorrita Dorsinegra, Lorito de Lomo Negro (español).

Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied
Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Touit
- Nombre científico: Touit melanonotus
- Citation: (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1820)
- Protónimo: Psittacus melanonotus

Images Brown-backed Parrotlet:

————————————————————————————————

Brown-backed Parrotlet (Touit melanonotus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Brown-backed Parrotlet in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Brown-backed Parrotlet in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Brown-backed Parrotlet in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Guilherme de Melo Becher (Xeno-canto)

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