Amazonian Parrotlet
Nannopsittaca dachilleae

Cotorrita Amazónica



Cotorrita amazonica

Very small size, 12 cm.. height.

The Amazonian Parrotlet (Nannopsittaca dachilleae) has pointed wings, something square tail. Distinguishable from this species is the forehead and Crown with blue dye, feet and pink Bill, area naked clear around the eye. Usually green body on the back, and more yellowish belly.

Common and abundant in riparian forest, until the 300 m. Possibly associated with the guadua. They fly low over rivers in compact and small flocks of 3 to 12 individuals.

Seen climbing on trees.

It is presumed that they nest in bromeliads conglomerates or other epiphytes.

Calls are described as acute, they sound very similar to the chicks of birds of farm.

The Amazonian Parrotlet sound.

[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Cotorrita amazonica.mp3]

It is found in the western part of the Amazon basin, from the South and South-East of Peru until Bolivia Northwest. Probably West of Brazil.

It is a scarce bird that rarely has photographed. The conservation of the rainforest is crucial to their survival. There are many threats to the ecosystem of the Amazonian Parrotlet, the collection of the Guaua bamboo, the Habitat fragmentation and pollution.

Conservation:

According to the IUCN categories is considered near threatened (NT). Deforestation, mainly for colonization, extraction of timber and mining, affect their populations.

Alternative names:

- Manu Parrotlet o Amazonian Parrotlet (inglés)
- Amazonaspapagei, Amazonassittich, Urwaldsittich (Alemania)
- Toui de D'Achille, Toui de l'Amazone (Francia)
- Periquito-da-amazônia (Brasil).
- Periquito-da-Amazônia (Portugal).
- Periquito Amazónico (Perú).

Scientific classification:


- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Nannopsittaca
- Nombre científico: Nannopsittaca dachilleae
- Citation: O'Neill, Munn & Franke, 1991
- Protónimo: Nannopsittaca dachilleae

Amazonian Parrotlet (Nannopsittaca dachilleae)

Photo: olhares.uol.com.br
Source: Book parrots, Parrots and macaws Neotropical

Blue-winged Parrotlet
Forpus xanthopterygius

Cotorrita Aliazul

Description:

12 to 13 cm.. height.

The Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius) has the forecrown, the crown, back of the neck and ear-coverts, green; cheeks, eye area and lores, emerald green. Upperparts and wings, green, except the part inferior of the back, rump, primaries and greater coverts, are cobalt blue and blue color toward the base of the secondaries. Under, the wings with the coverts a rich cobalt blue color; the flight feathers Matte metallic blue. the underparts of color green with shades yellow and with feathers of color red Emerald around the thighs and vent. Upper, the tail green; undertail, pale green.

Bill and cere Pink with gray base up to the upper mandible; bare periophthalmic pale grey: irises dark brown: legs Gris-Rosado pale.

Female all green.

Immature similar to the adult respective but the color blue of them males young mixed with green.

  • Sound of the Blue-winged Parrotlet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Blue-winged Parrotlet.mp3]
Subspecies description
  • Forpus xanthopterygius flavescens

    (Salvadori, 1891) – Similar to the species nominal but the males with the rump pale blue; underparts and facial area more yellowish; undertail, the tail more bluish.

  • Forpus xanthopterygius flavescens

    (Hellmayr, 1929) – Generally paler and more yellowish which the nominal. Front, throat and cheeks males, yellow.

  • Forpus xanthopterygius xanthopterygius

    (Spix, 1824) – The nominal

  • Forpus xanthopterygius crassirostris

    (By Taczanowsk, 1883) – As the species nominal but blue pale with emerald green in it forecrown. Primary coverts pale, of color grisaceo-violeta that contrast with the coverts more large of color blue more dark. Upper mandible laterally compressed in the Center.

    Algunos autores como (Stotz et al., 1996, Collar 1997) han seguido a Pinto (1945) y considerado a esta subespecie como especie monotípica bajo el nombre científico Forpus crassirostris

Habitat:

Frequent habitats woodlands more dry such as Open forests and riparian, closed and caatinga; at the edge of the range that is located in the Savannah, palm groves, scrub semiarid and pastures. In the Amazon Western seems to be mainly distributed along the rivers in a growth riparian more light. Mainly in the land low, but reported to 1,200 m in the mountains of the southeast of Brazil. Gregarious, in herds of up to 50.

Reproduction:

It nests, mainly, in the cavities of trees, Although also termite tree, posts in fences, nests Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus), which can be occupied by force and lined with grass stalks, or even nests of the Red-rumped Cacique (Cacique haemorrhous). Clutch 3-7 eggs.

Food:

Its diet includes fruit of Cecropia, seeds of Mikania and Trema micrantha and flowers of Ambrosia and Marcgravia; Forages in open areas, sometimes in land.

Distribution:

Tamaño del área de distribución (reproducción/residente): 5.780.000 km2

Its distribution is discontinuous in South America, since the Basin Amazon to the North of Argentina with people separated in the North of Colombia. This last occurs in the lands low in the Caribbean arid from Cartagena through the valley bottom of the river Magdalena South to North of Bolivar and East to the base of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The species reappears in the end South of Colombia about Leticia and possibly in the Putumayo, and records from the Northeast borders of the Ecuador and from the East of Peru to the East of Bolivia in Beni and Santa Cruz; It extends through the basin of the Western Amazon of Brazil eastward to the East of Amazon and in large part of the interior of the this of Brazil towards the Southeast, possibly up to Rio Grande do Sul.

Apparently absent from parts of the East and northeast of Brazilian Amazon with its northeastern limits in Maranhão and Ceará.

Are distributed in the northeast of Argentina, in Missions, Northeast of Currents, Chaco oriental and Formosa Eastern.

Is located in the East of Paraguay and can be observed over the West in the Chaco.

Apparently introduced in Jamaica, but the current situation is unknown.

Mainly resident Although migrant altitude in the southeast of Brazil, with seasonal movements in Argentina in relation to food supply. Common in the East of the cordillera, sometimes locally abundant (for example, in the northern parts of Bay), less abundant in the West, being rare and local (Perhaps reducing) in the Northwest of Colombia and scarce throughout the East of Peru and Bolivia. Perhaps increasing in parts of the Amazon Western with cleared of forest dense, but probably in decline in Paraguay, where previously was common and now rare.

The Blue-winged Parrotlet have been caught for the trade, with captive birds out of those countries in the area of distribution. Is unlikely that the trade has been affected to their abundance in the Middle wild.

Distribution of subspecies

With the aim of preserving the stability of the nomenclature, It has designated a lectotype for the name widely used xanthopterygius, What makes the correct name for the species present. Four subspecies currently recognized.

  • Forpus xanthopterygius flavescens

    (Salvadori, 1891) – Bolivia and Southeast Peru.

  • Forpus xanthopterygius flavescens

    (Hellmayr, 1929) – Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará and Northeast South of Brazil to the North of Bay.

  • Forpus xanthopterygius xanthopterygius

    (Spix, 1824) – The nominal

  • Forpus xanthopterygius crassirostris

    (By Taczanowsk, 1883) – West Amazon in South Colombia, East of Ecuador and this from Peru to center of Amazon, Brazil.

    Algunos autores como (Stotz et al., 1996, Collar 1997) han seguido a Pinto (1945) y considerado a esta subespecie como especie monotípica bajo el nombre científico Forpus crassirostris

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population of the Blue-winged Parrotlet It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

Suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

In captivity:

In captivity they are not very frequent. They are birds enable you require a large cage. Quiet and something timid. Not is easy to accommodate them with other parrots.
Can be prone to it Obesity.

Note:

Among the various species of the Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius), There is, Unfortunately, a very extensive variety of colors mixed due to the crossing in captivity of the nominal species with several of their subspecies, as well as the different crossings between subspecies. Therefore, is quite doubtful to find still species and subspecies properly colored, especially in the poultry raising European. Only the subspecies Forpus xanthopterygius flavescens, as pure subspecies, is still fairly easy for recognizing.

Alternative names:


- Blue-winged Parrotlet, Blue winged Parrotlet, Blue-winged, Large-billed or Turquoise-winged Parrotlet, Blue-winget parrotlet (inglés).
- Toui de Spix, Perruche-moineau à ailes bleues, xT. à gros bec ou T. de Spengel (francés).
- Blauflügel-Sperlingspapagei (alemán).
- Tuim, bate-cu, caturra, coió-coió, cu-cozido, cuiúba, cu-tapado, meudo, periquitinho, periquito, periquito-do-espírito-santo, quilim, tabacu, tapa-cu, tuietê, tuim-de-asa-azul, tuitiri (portugués).
- Catita enana, Catita Enana Sudamericana, Cotorrita Aliazul, Periquito Azulejo, Viudita (español).
- Catita enana (Argentina).
- Catita enana (Colombia).
- Periquito de Ala Azul (Perú).
- Viudita (Paraguay).

Johann Baptist von Spix
Johann Baptist von Spix

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Forpus
- Nombre científico: Forpus xanthopterygius
- Citation: (von Spix, 1824)
- Protónimo: Psittaculus xanthopterygius

Images Blue-winged Parrotlet:

————————————————————————————————

Blue-winged Parrotlet (The xanthopterygi of Forp)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A male Blue-winged Parrotlet in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil By Wagner Machado Carlos Lemes [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius) Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo (state), Brazil By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A male Blue-winged Parrotlet in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil By Wagner Machado Carlos Lemes [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A male Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius) looking out from a nest in the Vale do Ribeira, Brazil By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius) at Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By Arthur Chapman [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Andean parakeet
Bolborhynchus orbygnesius

Catita andina

Catita andina

16 cm.. height.

The Andean parakeet (Bolborhynchus orbygnesius) is usually dark green, with blue wing patch (visible in flight), clear peak, tail broad at the base and finished at tip of yellowish color with bluish tinge in the interior.

It is usually found in deserts and semi-arid areas, between 3000 to 4000 m (It has been reported to the 1500 and to the 6000 m).
Possibly perform altitudinal migration, descending to mountainous valleys after reproduction. You can also visit rural areas and agricultural land.
Walks in couple or flocks of more or less 300 individuals. They breed in caves dug into ravines.
The diet consists of seeds, buds and fruits.

Has not been considered as threatened, their populations are stable.

Is found in the North-West of Peru to Bolivia and to the West of the Andes in Peru.

They are shy and quiet birds, very sensitive to cold, stress and infections. Birds may die without apparent reason. They are rare in captivity.

Sound of the Andean parakeet.

[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/andean parakeets.mp3]

Andean Parakeet (English).

Andean parakeet (Bolborhynchus orbygnesius)

Sources:

– Book parrots, Parrots and macaws Neotropical
– Photo: By Charles Hesse – All rights reserved

Brown-breasted Parakeet
Pyrrhura calliptera


Brown-breasted Parakeet

Description:

22-23 cm.. height.

Brown-breasted Parakeet

The Brown-breasted Parakeet (Pyrrhura calliptera) is easily recognized by the Wing mirror yellow in flight. In general it is green, with a red spot on the ear; chest brown reddish and sides of the neck Brown dark characteristic.

Shoulder mostly yellow up to half of the wing and the end of the same pardo-olivaceo.
The primary feathers are blue and their covert wing external and internal yellow, usually with orange blend.
The tail reddish brown. Its bill pale yellowish; irises yellow; eye ring white.

The immature lack of yellow in the wings.

  • Sound of the Brown-breasted Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Pyrrhura calliptera.mp3]
Habitat:

It inhabits in Misty jungles Andean and sub-andinas with canopy 15 to 25 m, secondary forests and Paramo, from 1700 to 3400 m. They fly at dawn and at dusk flocks, usually small of 6 to 12 individuals on the canopy of the forest.

Reproduction:

It nests in, generally, in cavities of trees located in wooded pastures or pasture surrounded by secondary forest fragments, bedrooms for both nests.
Farming conditions they have been observed in August and October, as well as between January and November in Fusagasugá, Farallon de Medina and Soatá (Cortes-Herrera et to the., 2007) and from September to February in the Chingaza National Park (Arenas-Mosquera 2011).

The size average of the laying is of 5-6 eggs of color whitish. The chicks take of 60 to 70 days to complete its development.

Food:

Diet Brown-breasted Parakeet consists in fruit (including plants of the Ericaceae, Lauraceae, Melastomataceae and Clusiaceae (Cortes-Herrera et to the., 2007), seeds and corn grown, Although flocks larger were observed in areas open to eating leaves and seeds (O. Courteous in litt., 2012).

Distribution:

Distribución de tamaño (reproducción/residente): 1,000 km2

Endemic. Cordillera Oriental in Colombia. From Boyacá to southwest of Cundinamarca. Has also been reported in the departments of Santander, Norte de Santander and Casanare in the localities of the Arrayanes and Salina.

The population total has been estimated at 5.000-10.000 individuals.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

This species has a range very small and a small population, known in less than ten places in what is rapidly declining due to the loss of habitat and persecution as as plague to include the corn grown within their diet.

These declines in the range of the population is expected to continue. Therefore, qualified as vulnerable.

It is estimated that its population amounts to between 5.000 and 10.000 individuals, equivalent approximately to 3.300-6.700 mature individuals.

In captivity:

Not usually find it in captivity.

Alternative names:


- Brown-breasted Parakeet, Brown breasted Parakeet, Brown-backed Conure, Brown-backed Parakeet, Brown-breasted Conure, Flame-winged Conure, Flame-winged Parakeet (inglés).
- c, Perriche à poitrine brune, Perruche à poitrine brune (francés).
- Braunbrustsittich, Braunbrust-Sittich (alemán).
- Tiriba-de-peito-marron (portugués).
- Cotorra Pechiparda, Perico Bello, Periquito Aliamarillo (español).

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Pyrrhura
- Nombre científico: Pyrrhura calliptera
- Citation: (Massena & Souancé, 1854)
- Protónimo: Conurus callipterus

————————————————————————————————

Brown-breasted Parakeet (Pyrrhura calliptera)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Wiki Aves de Colombia

Photos:

(1) – Flame-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura calliptera) By Ron Knight from Seaford, East Sussex, United Kingdom (Flame-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura calliptera)) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Pyrrhura calliptera By J. Davernes (biodiversitylibrary.org) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Budgerigar
Melopsittacus undulatus


Common Budgie

Description

18 cm. length and a weight between 22 and 32 g..

Periquito-Comun

In the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) of adults, the cere Blue contrasts with the frontal zone; the front of the face and throat are pale yellow. The latter is covered by a line of black spots. The area which is located below the cheeks is purple.

The central part of the pileum extending from the rear of the eyes to neck It is covered with alternating thin black bands and bands of pale yellow. These bars are expanded on the the mantle and wing-coverts, forming a scaly effect.

The underparts, the area beneath the wings, the lower part of the back and rump create a beautiful pale green together. The tail is opaque blue tones with a central yellow stripe on the side feathers.

The female has a Brown wax.

The immature they are more turned off with bars on the front. The black spots on the throat they are absent.

  • Sound of the Budgerigar.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Periquito Comun.mp3]
Habitat:

The Budgerigar they are distributed by a wide variety of open habitats, including open forests, lightly wooded grasslands and savannas. Also appreciate the areas of Mallee, farmland, the vegetation that grows along the rivers, bushes adapted to drought and open plains. They come fitted with desert areas of Mulga (Acacia aneura). Although they are able to survive several days without water, These birds are never far from a water source.

In areas where fruit production is steady and in others where it is stable for very long periods, the movements of the Budgerigar they are easily predictable.

In the South end, There are pilgrimages only in cases of prolonged drought and wandering parakeets return to their territory with the first rains and recolonizan when the level of the rivers return to normal.

Reproduction:

The Budgerigar they build their nests of June to September in the North its area of distribution. They reproduce between August and January in the South. Nests can be installed at any time of the year after the rains fall. Establish a second breeding as soon as conditions are favorable.

These parakeets usually nest in colonial way. The nest is located in a natural cavity in a tree, in a strain, an any fence post, or in a large fallen branch.

The female lays from 4 to 6 eggs and incubation lasts a few 18 days. The chicks remain in place of birth during 30 days before flying.

Food:

The Budgerigar It vegetarian, they eat herbs and seeds of quenopodios. Plants vary in categories and proportions, According to which regions and times.

The East inside of Australia, These birds feed exclusively on seeds that are on the ground, While in the middle of the continent, There is more variety of plants to select. In the first case, grain size barely exceeds the 2 mm diameter and the second, more than 40 plant varieties make up the diet of these parakeets.

From time to time, the Budgerigar, they come in growing areas and take advantage of the ripe fruits.

Distribution:

The Budgerigar are distributed widely throughout the Interior of Australia, Although they are rare in the coastal districts of the This and the end South-West (absent of Tasmania, Arnhem Land and Cape York Peninsula).

The species may be of common to very abundant, but they are nomadic, and may change from year to year areas.

These parakeets, frequently, they burst from the arid areas to more humid areas and there are temporary movements towards the South during the summer, but these changes may be affected by annual rainfall patterns.

We have introduced, without success, in a number of places around the world (or they have escaped from captivity and could not be) including South Africa, United Kingdom, Japan, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Switzerland, Colombia, the Society Islands, New Zealand and Oman.

In the EE.UU. the species has managed to colonize Hawaii and California (leaks also occur regularly in the city of New York City). In Florida a population was originally registered in the area of St. Petersburg, in the Decade of 1950 and now has more of 3.000 individuals; These birds are mobile and have been recorded along the coast This of all the South from Jacksonville to Miami, and in the West everything Hudson to South of Fort Myers, from time to time go towards the North in Gainsville.

Parakeets, occasionally escaped, they may appear in Tasmania.

The world population is estimated at around 5.000,000 copies.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Growing

This species is not threatened at all, even they are abundant, and in some places where resources are good, countless flocks darken the sky, to cause branches to break from 4 centimeters in diameter, When large number of birds used them as support for their breaks.

Populations fluctuate widely depending on weather conditions.

The cattle that live on farms in the Centre of Australia has made to the Budgerigar they will benefit from new water supplies. Like this, the number of parakeets are in constant increase.

These parakeets are the most well known psittacidas in the world.

In captivity:

This parakeet was discovered in 1805 and since then it has become the most popular captive bird in the world. While it is considered as domestic fowl, However, is a gregarious and instinctive animal, with the same needs that the parrots who freely roam the lands of Australia.

The Budgerigar It dynamic, curious, melodious and because of its small size, the beauty of their plumage and their entertaining behaviour, truly charming. This is what makes it a coveted bird. However, It is still a bird that needs to fly, play and socialize with their peers. Like any bird, It is sensitive to the social and environmental context. In fact, their real needs are too often overlooked, many parakeets suffer neglect or even abuse.

In captivity, the Budgerigar It is larger than its counterpart in nature. Measures of 20 to 25 cm. from head to tail and weighs between 30 and 45 g.. In addition to the colour of your coat, wild type, There are numerous mutations (other coat colors) associated with the increase in crossings and selections in certain genes, that translates into more spontaneous mutations.

The Budgerigar has two silent by year average, and the first moult occurs between the fourth and sixth month. The molt is complete renovation of the plumage of the bird. Pens fall to others push, includes your tube of keratin that parakeets will open with their beaks to release pen and relieve the irritation that engenders the same thrust. It can be more or less painful and intense. Some plucking is so fast that the bird may experience some difficulties during the flight.

Check the intensity of the change of the parakeet through black head tubes, tiredness and especially the number of feathers on the ground.

The food of the Budgerigar is based on the millet and the birdseed, Although it must be complemented with other seeds or vegetables (as the lettuce, Spinach, pepper, carrot, corn on the COB). The fruits are also a good dietary supplement for these birds. Occasionally it can provide a little bread or biscuit, but always with caution that not give them anything very sweet. The avocado, the chocolate and the parsley they are deadly toxic for the Australian parakeets.

The the parakeet cage It must be sheltered from the cold, a temperature between the 20-25 º C. It must be of one sufficient size so you have freedom of movement and can exercise. The balusters must be arranged horizontally so that they can climb up them. Wash the cage at least once a month with a disinfectant, change the water daily and clean the shells of the food. A cat litter tray can be placed to make their needs.
It is also important to let the parakeet out occasionally and fly freely around the room. Windows must be closed and curtains, because you can hit them.
Are very sociable birds and it is better to live with other parakeet. The best couple is formed by a male and a female. This will attempt to kill his companion if it is of the same gender.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, these animals can come to live until 21 years in captivity. The same sources indicate that these parakeets suffer from a high incidence with respect to ovarian cancer.

Alternative names:

- Budgerigar, Budgerygah, Budgie, Canary Parrot, Grass-Parakeet, Lovebird, Scalloped Parrot, Shell Parakeet, Shell Parrot, Undulated Parrot, Warbling Grass-Parrot, Zebra Parrot (ingles).
- Perruche ondulée (francés).
- Wellensittich (alemán).
- Periquito-australiano (portugués).
- Periquito Australiano, Periquito Común, Cotorra Australiana, Cata Australiana (español).

George Shaw

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Genus: Melopsittacus
- Nombre científico: Melopsittacus undulatus
- Citation: (Shaw, 1805)
- Protónimo: Psittacus undulatus

Budgerigar pictures:

————————————————————————————————

Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Budgerigar at Zoo Atlanta, USA By TheSussman (Mike) (originally posted to Flickr as Parakeet) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two budgerigar at Henry Doorly Zoo, USA By Jeff Coffman (originally posted to Flickr as DSC_1265) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – male budgerigar. taken near Cameron’s Corner, Qld By Benjamint444 (Own work) [GFDL 1.2], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Detail shot of budgerigars head By Kirk (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Melopsittacus undulatus flock, Karratha, Pilbara region, Western Australia By Jim Bendon from Karratha, Australia (budgies_4) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – By User Magnus Manske on en.wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Exterior diagram of a green budgerigar By ZooFari [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Marc Anderson (Xeno-canto)

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