Brown-necked Parrot
Poicephalus fuscicollis

Brown-necked Parrot

Description:

32 cm.. length and weight between 310-400 g..

The Brown-necked Parrot (Poicephalus fuscicollis) has a plumage variable; head and neck gray-brown / light pink, slightly festooned with orange / brown; band orange / red through crown on female (absent in the males); back and wings, dark green; rump and underparts, green; the thighs, bend of wing and the carpal edge, red / orange; tail black / brown; irises dark brown; eye ring white / grey; bill color horn.

Immature with the head and the neck, green to yellow / brown; body dark green / oliva.

Taxonomic status:

In a study initiated in 1992, the taxonomic status of Lorito was revised Robusto (Poicephalus robustus) (Gmelin), and two species were proposed; Poicephalus robustus, restricted to montane forests of southern Africa, Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus, with wider distribution in wooded areas, and Poicephalus fuscicollis fuscicollis, similar to the Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus ostensibly, but with discontinuous, restricted to a narrow range of forests and West Africa.

  • Sound of the Brown-necked Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Poicephalus fuscicollis.mp3]

Description 2 subspecies:

  • Poicephalus fuscicollis fuscicollis

    (Their Robust de Kuhl) (Kuhl, 1820) – Nominal.

  • Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus
  • Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus

    (Gray-headed parrot) (Reichenow, 1898) – With a plumage variable; head and neck silver / grey, festoneado slightly orange / brown; band orange / red through crown on female (absent in the males); back and wings, dark green; rump and lower partess, green / blue ; the thighs, bend of wing and the carpal edge, orange / red; tail black / brown; irises dark brown; eye ring white / grey; bill color horn.

Habitat:

Usually, prefers habitats of forests, as Mopane (Colosphermum mopane), miombo (Brachystegia) and riparian forests.

Most populations are residents but in the dry season become nomads, wandering in search of food.

Reproduction:

Nest in natural cavities of trees, usually on the trunk or at the bottom of a branch. The laying is of 2-4 eggs, they are incubated only by the female during 28-30 days. The male contributes to providing food for the female and chicks. Them They learn to fly when they have a 68-83 days old, only become fully independent 4-5 months later.

Food:

It feeds almost exclusively on fruit, mainly foraging in the upper canopy, using its beak to climb branches. The following foods have been recorded in your diet:

Sclerocarya birrea (Marula)
Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia (Kudu-berry)
Commiphora mollis (Velvet cork)
Xanthocercis zambesiaca (Nyala tree)
Terminalia (cluster leaves)
Gmelina arborea (Melina)

Distribution:

It is distributed from South Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania until Zambia, Angola, Malawi and South of Africa; It is rare in the Caprivi Strip (Namibia), North of Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, the Limpopo and Southeast of South Africa.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

  • Poicephalus fuscicollis fuscicollis

    (Kuhl, 1820) – Nominal. Inhabits most mangrove forests including and can be found in West Africa, from Gambia and South of Senegal to the North of Ghana and Togo.

  • Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus

    (Reichenow, 1898) – Is located in South Africa, North of Zimbabue, Mozambique, areas Namibia, Angola, Zambia, North of Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda and the southern part of the South Africa.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

This species has a extremely large range and therefore it is not close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of size range (Extension <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión o calidad de hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número De lugares o fragmentación severa). A pesar de que la population trend appears to be declining, do not believe that the decline is fast enough for approaching the threshold of vulnerable under the criterion of population trend (> 30% decline in ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estimada> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as least concern.

Local and most uncommon in the range, Although more numerous and frequent in Ghana. South Subspecies considered vulnerable in South Africa where, although erratic movements give the impression that the population fluctuates, It has suffered a decline due to the capture of the LBMs, the habitat destruction and persecution by farmers of pecan nuts; There are only fragmented patches of native vegetation. Generally scarce or rare across West Africa (except Ghana).

We know very little about the biology released subspecies Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus.
Although it has a very wide distribution area and is not classified as threatened, an analysis of the UICN and CITES They recorded a significantly high traffic Poicephalus robustus (including the Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus) between 1991 and 1995, It is involving a risk to natural populations. The lack of data on the ecology and behavior of this species restricts the establishment of conservation measures necessary to protect and effectively manage populations.

Loro de Cuello Marrón en cautividad:

It easily adapts to captivity and is seen in the pet trade.

Alternative names:

Brown-necked Parrot, Angola Brown-necked Parrot, Brown-necked Parrot (Brown-necked), Gambia Brown-necked Parrot, Uncape Parrot (English).
Perroquet à cou brun, Perroquet à cou brun (nominal), Perroquet à cou brun (nominale), Perroquet à cou brun (race nominale) (French).
Graukopfpapage (German).
Brown-necked Parrot (Portuguese).
Loro de Cuello Marrón, You You Fuscicollis (Spanish).

Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Poicephalus
Scientific name: Poicephalus fuscicollis
Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
Protonimo: Psittacus fuscicollis

Images Brown-necked Parrot:

Poicephalus [robustus or fuscicollis] suahelicus

Poicephalus [robustus or fuscicollis]

Poicephalus [robustus or fuscicollis] suahelicus

Poicephalus [robustus or fuscicollis] suahelicus

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Brown-necked Parrot (Poicephalus fuscicollis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Birdlife
Parrots.org

Photos:

(1) – Youth, captive, friendly Poicephalus robustus fuscicollis by Bob CorriganFlickr
(2) – Brown-necked Parrot By Tremeau de Rochebrune, Alphonse [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Peter Boesman (Xeno-canto)

Blaze-winged Parakeet
Pyrrhura devillei


Blaze-winged Parakeet

Description:

Blaze-winged Parakeet

It measures 25 to 28 cm. and 70 weight GR.

The Blaze-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura devillei) has the forecrown with thin red line; crown and neck Brown; collar grey; cheeks green; bend of wing red

In flight notorious is the armpit Red with yellow line at the end; Red patch in the belly. The tail is opaque red.

Was formerly considered as a subspecies of the Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis), of crown brown, darker underparts, and underwing-coverts especially red and yellow.

Bill black; eye ring naked white; irises brown. Tail long.

It has no sexual dimorphism.

  • Sound of the Blaze-winged Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Pyrrhura_devillei.mp3]

Habitat:

It lives in the Woods, on the clear and marshy edges, until the 1000 m.

It is a species tolerant of disturbance of the habitat.

Fly in flocks between 6 to 12 individuals.

Reproduction:

It nests in hollow of trees and is plays between October and December.

Food:

Feed a wide variety of dried fruits and fruit.

Distribution:

Is distributed between the South of Brazil (Mato Grosso from the South), North of Paraguay (Northwest of Conception and Southeast of Alto Paraguay) and Southeast of Bolivia.

In Brazil only it is known in Mato Grosso from the South, where is limited to the mountain ranges of Bodoquena and Maracayu, in the Ecotone between the Planalto and the lowlands of the Pantanal, and along the River Taboco in the municipality of Aquidauana. It has a very limited range in the Paraguay, from where the records of them last is limited to the Gallery of forests along the Apa River.

Conservation:

• Red list category of the UICN current: Near-threatened

• Population trend: Stable

The size of the world population Blaze-winged Parakeet It has not been quantified, but this species has been described as “rare“.

This species is suspected that they have experienced a moderately rapid decline due to the extensive loss and degradation of its habitat range within. Now survive in a highly fragmented landscape. Its area of distribution in Brazil It has suffered a great loss and degradation of forests through agricultural expansion and coal production. The forests of the North of Conception and those who are in Chaco, in the easternmost area of Paraguay, are being subjected to a pressure increased and have seen a considerable deforestation in the past 10 years (R. Clay in litt., 2009).

There is one hybridization apparent with the Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis) observed in the Apa River (R. Clay in litt., 2009).

The trade is apparently minimal (pit et to the., 1997).

Cotorra de Deville en cautividad:

These small parrots are very rare in captivity, Although its potential for pets is excellent. Are birds animated and soon procured confidence with its owner. They often enjoy bath and are not hard chewing. They are mostly calm and they shall only be loud when they are excited. They can be aggressive toward other birds. Playful and curious and generally resistant.

Alternative names:

Black-winged Parakeet, Black-winged Conure, Blaze winged Parakeet, Blaze-winged Conure, Blaze-winged Parakeet, Deville’s Conure (English).
Conure de Deville, Perriche de Deville, Perruche de Deville (French).
Devillesittich, Deville Sittich, Deville-Sittich (German).
tiriba-fogo (Portuguese).
Chiripepé ala anaranjada, Cotorra de Deville, Perico de Alas Naranjas, Periquito alianaranjado (Spanish).
Periquito alianaranjado (Bolivia).
Chiripepé ala anaranjada (Paraguay).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura devillei
Citation: (Massena & Souancé, 1854)
Protonimo: Conurus Devillei

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Blaze-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura devillei)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Blaze-winged Parakeet, Pousada Aguape, Mato Grosso Sul, In Brazil Flickr by Wildlife Travel
(2) – Iconographie des perroquets :Paris :P. Bertrand,1857 biodiversitylibrary

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Black-capped Parakeet
Pyrrhura rupicola

Black-capped Parakeet


Black-capped Parakeet

Description:

25 cm. length and 70 g. weight.

The Black-capped Parakeet (Pyrrhura rupicola) has the lores, the forecrown and the Crown, blackish brown; cheeks, ear-coverts and supercilii area, of color olive beige; back of the neck brown with narrow pale edges.

Upperparts green. External primary coverts, alula and leading edge of the wings bright red; other coverts mainly green. The flight feather, mainly bluish green, by top with narrow black tips; grey dark below.

Underwing-coverts green. The throat feathers, sides neck and top of the chest, Black base with wide white margins, becoming yellowish-white at the bottom of the chest and almost no formation of continuous pale band; belly and undertail-coverts green with brown stain in the center of the belly. Upper, the tail mainly green.

The bill slaty-grey; Cere pale grey; bare periophthalmic off-white; irises brown; legs blackish.

Both sexes similar.

The immature has primary coverts almost completely green, as well as the leading edge of the wings.

  • Sound of the Black-capped Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Pyrrhura rupícola.mp3]

Subspecies description:

  • Pyrrhura rupicola rupicola

    (Tschudi, 1844) – The nominal

  • Pyrrhura rupicola sandiae

    (Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1944) – It differs from the species nominal much closer to the Gray margins to the feathers of the throat and the front of the neck. These pale fringes measure only 2-2,5 mm. wide (specimens with the plumage new) in comparison with the 4-5 mm of the nominal species. Like this, the dark basal portion of these pens is more prominent. In addition, the whitish edges to the feathers of the back of the neck they are practically obsolete and the sides of the neck much smaller.

Habitat:

It is found in the Amazon rainforest, including formations of várzea and the Mainland, below 300 m. Visits have been recorded in the East of the Andes. Fly in flocks of 30 individuals, or small groups in reproductive age.

Reproduction:

It is believed that it can nest in the months of February-March, Although the copulation of observed during the month of September. Sunset until the seven eggs in captivity than hatch during 23 to 24 days.

Food:

Usually feed in the canopy but there is no specific information about the diet and breeding.

Distribution:

Can be seen in the Western basin of the Amazon. There has been in the East of Peru from the South of Loreto until Mother of God and Puno, and in the North of Bolivia in Pando.

Also distributed in Peace and the Yungas and in the lowlands of the North of Beni, from the East to the border with Rondônia in Brazil, with a record until the date in the extreme west of Brazil (Rio Branco, Acre).

In general common (Perhaps more scarce on the edges of the range), but it can be locally decreasing due to the alteration of its habitat.

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura rupicola rupicola

    (Tschudi, 1844) – The nominal

  • Pyrrhura rupicola sandiae

    (Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1944) – Southeast of Peru, West end of Brazil and North of Bolivia.

Conservation:

• Red list category of the UICN current: Near-threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The Parrot Capirotada world population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the. (1996).

This species is suspected that may be losing from the 13,7 to the 15,5% of their habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation of the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006, Bird et to the. 2011). Given the susceptibility of this species to be hunted or trapped, leads to the suspicion of a probable decline in population close to the 30% in three generations.

Cotorra Capirotada en cautividad:

Should be noted that until the year 1981, the Black-capped Parakeet It was considered a rarity in aviculture. From that date began to be imported in quantity although at a very high price.

Their behavior Active, his sympathetic character, their robustness and ease of reproduction attached to the made of own a voice very little annoying, they make an excellent animal for those poultry producers who are initiated into this wonderful hobby. These qualities allow guess that being reared by hand might be a few lovely pets. It is sad to observe that, too often, the maximum principal that justifies to poultry"play to preserve"is converted into"play to sell”.

Alternative names:

Black-capped Parakeet, Black capped Parakeet, Black-capped Conure, Rock Conure, Rock Parakeet (English).
Conure à cape noire, Perriche à cape noire, Perruche à cape noire (French).
Schwarzkappensittich, Schwarzkappen-Sittich (German).
tiriba-rupestre (Portuguese).
Cotorra Capirotada, Perico de Frente Negra (Spanish).
Wewey, Aboro gushóus (Chimane).

Tschudi-Johann Jakob of
Tschudi-Johann Jakob of

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura rupicola
Citation: (Tschudi, 1844)
Protonimo: Conurus rupicola

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Black-capped Parakeet (Pyrrhura rupicola)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Pyrrhura rupicola sandiae by pedroduarte
(2) – Maroon-tailed Parakeet ssp. (in front); and Pyrrhura rupicola, Black-capped Parakeet (behind) by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Barred Parakeet
Bolborhynchus lineola

Catita Barrada

Description:

They measure 17 cm. long and weigh between 47 and 55 g.

The Barred Parakeet (Bolborhynchus lineola) has a size similar to the of a Sparrow. The tail and wings they are pointed. Slightly different sexes: in males, the eyes they are brown, the eye ring grey, the bill and legs flesh-colored. The head and underparts they are bright green, with a tenuous beaming on the sides and the tail coverts. The wings they have very marked black bars at the shoulder and patch black(not always visible), the upperparts they are green with a beaming widely dispersed black in the nape and back.

The females and juveniles they present a beaming more pardo. A wide black border and dark green bottom; the irises Dark coffee and legs pink (Howell and Webb, 1995).

  • Sound of the Barred Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Barred Parakeet.mp3]

Subspecies description:

  • Bolborhynchus lineola lineola

    (Cassin, 1853) – The nominal

  • Bolborhynchus lineola tigrinus

    (Souance, 1856) – Dark green, Crown and bright green front and the rough black is more intense.

Habitat:

Rare and unpredictable. It is found in humid forests, subandinos and Andean cloud forests, open areas, from 900 at 2900m. They are nomads, with numerous flocks (150 or more individuals) following the fruiting of the "chusque" (This chusquea). In small groups or in pairs during the dry season in Central America.

Reproduced in elevations of 1500 meters or more and, like the majority of parrots, they prefer to raise their chicks in a hollow tree or limb trunk. In the winter after the breeding season, the Barred Parakeet often descends to lowland forests. This season, Many feed on partially cleared areas, areas cultivated and in them sheets.

Registered at altitudes from 900 to 2.400 m. in Mexico; by under 1.500 m. in Honduras, Although below 600 After the playback meters; above 1.500 m especially in the West of Panama, Although there are records there and in Costa Rica below the 600 m; between 900 and 1,500 m. in Venezuela, between 1,600 and 2,600 m. in Colombia, and until 2.900 m. in the South of Ecuador.

Little known about the habits of these small wild parrots. Since they are small, they like to live high in the treetops, and they are very well camouflaged in their environment, still very difficult to observe in nature. In addition, they are not as noisy as other parrots, What makes them difficult to detect. Most frequently observed during the flight, because they often emit a chirp while flying, What can attract the attention of an observer of birds.

Reproduction:

It nests colonies, in tree hollows, Although you can to occur in crevices in Rocky escarpments, probably during the dry season in Costa Rica; during the month of December in Panama; July-August in Colombia.

Food:

Reported foods that make up their diet include Myrtis, Heliocarpus and Miconia, catkins of Cecropia and seeds of bamboo; they occasionally forage in cultivated areas, where has observed them is consuming maize.

Distribution:

Distributed in South of Mexico to western Panama and separated by the Andes, from Venezuela until Peru.

In Mexico they can be observed on the Atlantic slope, in the Highlands of Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas and possibly (There is only a record) in Warrior, also seen in the South of Guatemala (a record from time to time) and in the Highlands of Honduras, with a single bird observed in Nicaragua, specifically in Santa María de Ostuma; also registered in those areas mountain of Costa Rica (not seen in areas of the Northwest, for example in the Cordillera de Guanacaste) and in the West of Panama (apparently absent from Central and Eastern).

Distributed through them Andes, to the Northwest of Venezuela in the Federal District, Táchira and Merida; scattered locations of Colombia, in subtropical areas of the Western Andes, Central and Eastern and in the massif of Santa Marta; Ecuadorian Andes, with records recent in the South; Peruvian Andes, in Huanuco, Ayacucho and Cuzco, with birds, possibly of this species, observed in the North.

Scattered records, e irregular, as well as a strong nomadic tendency (movements, perhaps related to the planting of bamboo) they indicate that their appearances may be continuous.

Apparently, is one local and rare species over much of its range, Although according to reports, is quite common in Honduras and even locally abundant in the Talamanca mountain range in Costa Rica.

Deforestation in parts of its range, Although these birds travel on cleared land and distributed (at least from time to time) in protected areas, which suggests a low risk population at present.

There is a specimens in captivity outside their countries of origin.

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Bolborhynchus lineola lineola

    (Cassin, 1853) – The nominal

  • Bolborhynchus lineola tigrinus

    (Souance, 1856) – Mountains of the Northwest of Venezuela and Colombia to the South of Peru

Conservation:

• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Partners in Flight estimated the total population of Barred Parakeet in a number that ranges between 50,000-499,999 individuals (A. Panjabi in litt., 2008).

The population This species is suspected of being stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

Catita Barrada en cautividad:

It is of a species that is has adapted well to the life in captivity, tough enough, its reproduction is expanding.

They are perfect apartment birds due to its arrangement and you need only basic things of life. Are kind and happy of being with the people, but they can be kept entertained with toys and swings when there is nobody around.

Is an Ave. moderately long-lived and if is of good health, Food and hygiene can live during 12 or 14 years.

Limited ability for speech.

They have developed many and striking mutations of color in poultry, including blue, olive, cobalt, Slate (or mauve), turquoise, lutino (bright yellow with red eyes), cremino, cinnamon, Silver, purple …

Alternative names:

Barred Parakeet, Catherine Parakeet, Lineolated Parakeet (English).
Toui catherine, Perruche catherine, Perruche rayée (French).
Katharinasittich, Katharina Sittich (German).
Periquito-catarina (Portuguese).
Catita Barrada, Catita Manchada, Chocoyo Listado, Perico Barrado, Perico Listado, Perico rayado, Periquito Barrado, Periquito Listado, Periquito saraviado (Spanish).
Periquito Barrado (Colombia).
Perico Listado, Periquito listado (Costa Rica).
Perico rayado (Honduras).
Perico rayado (Mexico).
Chocoyo Listado (Nicaragua).
Perico Barrado (Peru).
Perico Barreteado (Venezuela).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Bolborhynchus
Scientific name: Bolborhynchus lineola
Citation: (Cassin, 1853)
Protonimo: Psittacula lineola

Barred Parakeet pictures:

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Barred Parakeet (Bolborhynchus lineola)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Barred Parakeet (also known as Lineolated Parakeet) in captivity By Timo Helgert (originally posted to Flickr as greenguy.) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two pet Barred Parakeets (also known as Lineolated Parakeet) perching on a parasol By Lisa Lenscap (originally posted to Flickr as sistas) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Barred Parakeet (Bolborhynchus lineola) also known as Lineolated Parakeet or Catherine Parakeet By Lisa Lenscap [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Perruche Catherine de couleur mauve By Weena (Own work) [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds:

Brown-throated Parakeet
Eupsittula pertinax

Aratinga Pertinaz

Description:

Eupsittula pertinax

Of 17 to 20 cm. length between 76 and 102 g. of weight.

The Brown-throated Parakeet (Eupsittula pertinax) is a polytypic species. Its fourteen subspecies are distinguished by the mix yellow and Brown on his face and throat.

In the case of the Eupsittula pertinax aeruginosa, the lores previous, the frontal area, underside of cheeks, both sides of the neck and ear-coverts, are dark brown; dark stripes visible on the cheeks; the feathers of the ocular region are of color orange-yellow; the crown greenish blue. Upperparts olive green. Lesser and medium coverts green; bluish green the primaries and greater coverts. Primaries and secondaries green up, Blue dark on the tips, Blue them vane outer in the secondaries; by down dark grey. Underwing-coverts brighter yellowish green. The throat and the top chest dark brown; the underparts Matte yellowish green with an orange patch in the central area of the belly. By above, the tail is of color green blue, bluer towards the tip; undertail greyish-yellow.

The bill Brown-grey color; bare periophthalmic yellowish white; irises yellow, legs grey.

Both sexes similar, without sexual dimorphism, where males are larger than females.

The youth they tend to lack intense yellow, that is alive in individuals adults. Its forecrown is dark greenish blue. The throat and the chest are greenish, while the belly is green with a bit of orange or yellow.

Description subspecies Eupsittula pertinax
Subspecies
  • Eupsittula pertinax aeruginosa

    (Linnaeus) 1758 – See description.

  • Eupsittula pertinax arubensis

    (Hartert) 1892 – Face and throat color opaque marron-oliva. Narrow yellow line on the eyes. Crown greenish blue.

  • Eupsittula pertinax chrysogenys

    (Massena & Souance) 1854 – Similar to the aeruginosa subspecies, but darker.

  • Eupsittula pertinax chrysophrys

    (Swainson) 1838 – Similar to the subspecies margaritensis and venezuelae but with the forecrown a pale yellowish brown.

  • Eupsittula pertinax griseipecta

    (Meyer de Schauensee) 1950 – Similar to the aeruginosa subspecies, with the cheeks, the throat and top of the chest, Gray-olive, veins in the cheeks absent. The crown Green with little blue.

  • Eupsittula pertinax lehmanni

    (Dugand) 1943 – Is similar to the aeruginosa subspecies, but with yellowish feathers around the eye more extensive; the Blue head limited with the forecrown and less blue in the flight feather.

  • Eupsittula pertinax margaritensis

    Cory 1918 – Front whitish, the cheeks and ear-coverts color oliva-marron with forecrown greenish blue.

  • Eupsittula pertinax ocularis

    (Sclater,PL & Salvin) 1865 – Patch distinctive yellow below and behind the eyes (absent in the immature). Front and crown green color with tint blue in some birds. Throat, top of the chest, the cheeks and lores warm brown; ear-coverts slightly darker.

  • Eupsittula pertinax paraensis

    (Sick) 1959 – Similar to the aeruginosa subspecies, but with the irises of color red and the vane outer of primaries and secondaries blue.

  • Eupsittula pertinax pertinax

    (Linnaeus) 1758 – The nominal. Extensive but variable amount of yellow color in the forecrown, the cheeks, the throat and lores. It may be more off or more Orange under and behind the eyes. Crown Green with only a few light blue indications.

  • Eupsittula pertinax surinama

    (Zimmer & Phelps,WH) 1951 – Similar to the subspecies margaritensis but with narrow frontal band orange-yellow color, orange-yellow colour around the eyes extending towards the cheeks and yellowish-green (not brown) the throat.

  • Eupsittula pertinax tortugensis

    (Cory) 1909 – Similar to the aeruginosa subspecies but larger, orange-yellow color on both sides of the head and underwing-coverts more yellowish.

  • Eupsittula pertinax venezuelae

    (Zimmer & Phelps,WH) 1951 – Similar to the subspecies margaritensis but more pale and yellow on the underparts.

  • Eupsittula pertinax xanthogenia

    (Bonaparte) 1850 – Clearer (almost sallow) the head the species nominal, with yellow tones ranging from a variable on the front of the crown and nape.

  • Sound of the Brown-throated Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Aratinga pertinaz.mp3]

Habitat:

The Aratinga Pertinaz occupies all kind of fields wooded open of the Savannah, transparent areas of dry scrubland full of cactus and acacias, forests of mangrove, tropical forests (where is the most abundant parrot species often), Gallery and white sand forests, Mangroves of Rhizophora, edges of humid evergreen forests, and areas agricultural with palms and other trees.

Move at altitudes on the 1.200 m or more, Although they tend to stay below the 1.200 m. This parakeet also lives in clear artificial such as parks public or gardens.

In general, observed in flocks or pairs, forming larger groups where food is abundant and in communal roosts.

Reproduction:

The Brown-throated Parakeet It monogamous. With plays After the season of rains, in general from February to April. Birds very social, evaluate to its possible companions in large products community. Also used strong calls in select to your mate / to.

Its breeding season It begins after the rainy season, and varies geographically between the months of February and September. Between February and April in Goal, Colombia; from February to April in Venezuela and any time of the year in Suriname, Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire.

When the conditions are favorable this species You can reproduce several times a year. Are colonial and have been observed up to seven pairs nesting next to each other.

Nest in the cavities of trees, artificial nesting boxes, or in arboreal termite. There are reports of nests made in cracks in rocks. The nests they are very simple, without any vegetable coating and eggs, often, they are placed on the floor of the cavity nude. The number of eggs in a nest varies from two to seven.

The female is the primary incubator, with one incubation that can last from thirty-six to thirty-seven days in the wild. The chicks they leave the nest After 50 days. The offspring is attached to their parents and form small groups family that duran until them parents begin a new season of breeding.

Food:

The Brown-throated Parakeet consuming a wide variety of food, including, for example, in the Northwest of Venezuela seeds of Cassia, Peltophorum, Lagerstroemia and Cedrela, fruits of Muntingia, Swietenia, Psidium and Solanum as well as flowers of Tabebuia, Delonix, Eryihrina and Gliricidia.

Sometimes it causes damage to crops (for example, of millet and handle), corn in Colombia and in fruit plantations of the Netherlands Antilles. Despite being considered pests in some areas, the Brown-throated Parakeet they are not strongly persecuted.

They feed in very vocal groups that often include macaws and Amazon parrots.

Distribution:

The Brown-throated Parakeet are distributed to the North of South America, Panama and the islands of the Southern Caribbean.

In Panama are present in the slope of the Pacific, rarely on the side of the Caribbean, even in the canal area. However, they occupy the lowlands of the Northern Caribbean and northeast of Colombia, from the East of the Sinú River up to the Guajira peninsula, including the Center and low Magdalena valley, and observed at elevations more low in the East of the Andes and the lowlands of the South of the Alto Orinoco, to the North of Vaupés.

Probably can be observed in all Venezuela, extending to the Margarita Islands, Turtle (Venezuela), Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles); introduced in St Thomas, Virgin Islands, in the 19th century.

Its distribution extends through of the Guianas and the North of Brazil, from Roraima until Amapá, as well as intermittently in the upper part of the basin of the Tapajós River, For and in the basin of the Rio Negro, Amazon.

In spite of his uneven distribution, in general it is common to abundant, in many places it is the most common Parrot (for example in localities of Guyana), locally common in Panama and reportedly very common in Black rivers and Branco, Brazil.

Your area of distribution possibly be increasing due to deforestation. In general resident with local seasonal movements (for example, in the region of Santa Maria, Colombia) the availability of food and the dispersion of the areas of reproduction-related.

Distribution subspecies Eupsittula pertinax
Subspecies
  • Eupsittula pertinax aeruginosa

    (Linnaeus) 1758 – North of Colombia, Northwest of Venezuela and the upper part of the basin of the Rio Branco, in the Northwest of Brazil

  • Eupsittula pertinax arubensis

    (Hartert) 1892 – Aruba

  • Eupsittula pertinax chrysogenys

    (Massena & Souance) 1854 – Region of Rio Negro and, possibly, Rio Solimões, North of Brazil; There are no details about its area of distribution

  • Eupsittula pertinax chrysophrys

    (Swainson) 1838 – Southeast of Venezuela, Guyana Interior and North of Roraima, Brazil.

  • Eupsittula pertinax griseipecta

    (Meyer de Schauensee) 1950 – Valley of the Rio Sinu, North of Colombia. Range in relation to the aeruginosa subspecies unclear

  • Eupsittula pertinax lehmanni

    (Dugand) 1943 – East of Colombia and possibly Venezuela.

  • Eupsittula pertinax margaritensis

    Cory 1918 – Islands Margarita and The friars, Venezuela. Birds of the Paria peninsula in the North of Venezuela, they can be of this subspecies; see the subspecies venezuelae

  • Eupsittula pertinax ocularis

    (Sclater,PL & Salvin) 1865 – The Pacific slope of Panama.

  • Eupsittula pertinax paraensis

    (Sick) 1959 – High of the Tapajós River and Cururu River, For, Brazil.

  • Eupsittula pertinax pertinax

    (Linnaeus) 1758 – The nominal. Curacao and introduced in St Thomas

  • Eupsittula pertinax surinama

    (Zimmer & Phelps,WH) 1951 – French Guiana and Suriname through the coast of Guyana to Delta Amacuro, Northeast of Venezuela.

  • Eupsittula pertinax tortugensis

    (Cory) 1909 – Turtle Island, Venezuela.

  • Eupsittula pertinax venezuelae

    (Zimmer & Phelps,WH) 1951 – North and Central Venezuela. Areas of contact with other little-known Venezuelan subspecies: see aeruginosa, surinama and chrysophrys.

  • Eupsittula pertinax xanthogenia

    (Bonaparte) 1850 – Bonaire

Conservation:

• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern

• Population trend: Growing

The Eupsittula Pertinax (Pit and neck of 2014) was considered, previously, belonging to the genus Aratinga.

The subspecies Griseipecta, endemic of the the Sinú Valley in Colombia, There have been since 1949 and is likely to be extinct (T. Donegan in litt. 2011).

The size of the population world of this kind not has been quantified, but is described as “common” (Stotz et to the. (1996). Is considered as the Parrot more abundant in the land low for the Caribbean, Plain in Colombia, Guyana, North of Suriname and the three islands of the Netherlands Antilles.

A density of five to eighty and nine birds by kilometer square is has estimated in the regions of the Northwest of Venezuela.

It is believed that populations on the continent are increasing their range in response to an increase in the conversion of the forest into farmland.

This species is often captured with commercial purposes, but not has been consequences serious, with the exception of the subspecies Aratinga pertinax margaritensis and Aratinga pertinax tortuguensis.

The Aratinga pertinax tortuguensis It is also vulnerable to severe climate changes. (Juniper and Parr, 1998;. Pit, et to the, 1997)

Aratinga Pertinaz en cautividad:

The Brown-throated Parakeet has a average vinein the nature of about ten years. However, When live in captivity with the proper supervision, they have come to live up to twenty-five years.

Common in the industry of the pet because, mainly, to your behavior affective. Captured for the pet trade and occasionally as food.

Pretty noisy, both in the nature as in captivity. With certain skills for repeated whistles and words short.

Alternative names:

Brown-throated Parakeet, Brown throated Parakeet, Brown-throated Conure, Caribbean Parakeet, Curacao Conure, Curacao Parakeet, St. Thomas’s Conure (English).
Conure cuivrée, Conure de Saint-Thomas, Perriche cuivrée, Perruche cuivrée (French).
Braunwangensittich (German).
Aratinga de-cara-parda, aratinga-de-bochecha-parda, periquito-de-bochecha-parda (Portuguese).
Aratinga Pertinaz, Perico cara sucia, Perico Carisucio, Perico Gorgicafé, Periquito de Cola Corta, Periquito Gorgimoreno (Spanish).
Loro carisucio, Perico Carisucio (Colombia).
Perico Gorgicafé (Costa Rica).
Perico Cara Sucia (Venezuela).

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Eupsittula
Scientific name: Eupsittula pertinax
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protonimo: Psittacus pertinax

Brown-throated Parakeet Images:

————————————————————————————————

Brown-throated Parakeet (Eupsittula pertinax)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Animal Diversity Web

Photos:

(1) – Aratinga pertinax By Genes Luna (Flickr: IMG_0309.jpg) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Aratinga pertinax xanthogenia By gailf548 (originally posted to Flickr as Young Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Eupsittula pertinax arubensis By Alexander Yates (originally posted to Flickr as Aruba Parakeet) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Brown-throated Parakeet (Aratinga pertinax venezuelae) in Cagua, Estado Aragua, Venezuela By Cristóbal Alvarado Minic [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Aratinga pertinax aeruginosa By Aratinga_pertinax_-Colombia-8a.jpg: anthrotectderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Eupsittula pertinax By Leizelt, Balthasar Friedrich; Wilhelm, Gottlieb Tobias [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Peter Boesman (Xeno-canto)

Blue-crowned Conure
Psittacara acuticaudatus


Blue-crowned Conure

Description:

Anatomy-parrots-eng

33-38 cm.. length and a weight between 170 and 176 g..

The Blue-crowned Conure (Psittacara acuticaudatus) It is one of the largest of the genus birds Aratinga. Elongated body, and long tail gradada, equal to all the Aratinga.

You have the front of the crown, the forecrown, the cheeks and lores pale bright blue. The sides of the neck, the nape, the the mantle, scapulars and back are bright green; the rump and uppertail-coverts are green pale. Upperwing-coverts bright green; alula with blue dye.

Primaries and secondaries green above, with pinkish tinge in the vane inner, olive gold below. Underwing-coverts green.

The underparts are pale green with shades of olive green; some feathers of the chest drenched blue. Upper, the tail green color in the vane outer, red brick in the vane inner with fusion of opaque green tips; undertail, the tail Red, distally faded to pale brown brick.

Ilustración Aratinga Cabeciazul

Rosacea the upper mandible, greyish the lower; nude orbital region creamy white; irises yellowish-orange; legs pale pink.

Sexes similar in plumage.

The immature has the blue color of the head restricted to the forecrown and to the crown, no blue tint in the chest. The copies juveniles of the nominal species has bill a paler tone.

Subspecies description
Subspecies

A more thorough research is needed to assess the taxonomic status of this species. The date of the original publication of the subspecies koenigi It is discussed; This and the use of nigrirostris apparently synonymous (by the same author) requires clarification. Five recognized subspecies.

  • Psittacara acuticaudatus acuticaudatus

    (Vieillot, 1818) – The species nominal

  • Psittacara acuticaudatus haemorrhous

    (Spix, 1824) – Both mandibles pale pink, underparts bright green and blue of the head narrower that the of the nominal species.

  • Psittacara acuticaudatus koenigi

    (Arndt, 1995) – Similar to the subspecies “harmorrhous“, but with the vane inner at the bottom of the the tail feathers less reddish brown. Smaller (34 cm.).

  • Psittacara acuticaudatus neoxenus

    (Cory, 1909) – Similar to the subspecies “haemorrhous” but bluish green in the chest and the belly; smaller than other subspecies except the “koenigi” (34cm.).

  • Psittacara acuticaudatus neumanni

    (Blake & Traylor, 1947) – Only the forecrown, the lores and the front of the crown, are blue, Green the rest of the head.

Habitat:

Blue-crowned Conure video

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Psittacara

The Blue-crowned Conure they live in dry deciduous forests and open habitats including habitats semi-desiertos associated. Registered in the caatinga and the closed with vegetation of Palms Mauritia in the northeast of Brazil, in gallery forest in Venezuela and Colombia, deserts in Bolivia, and pampas in Argentina; Also cultivated areas and grassland in dry forest areas.

In general, they live in the lowlands (400 m in Colombia, 600 metres in Venezuela), but ascend to 2650 m in Bolivia, in leguminous forest habitats with columnar cacti.

Usually, in pairs or small flocks, but with larger aggregations outside the breeding season, especially where is food abundant, What gives as a result considerable local movements and consequent fluctuations in the number of local birds.

In some places, birds roost in crevices of the rocky cliffs. Observed in association with the Mitred Parakeet (Psittacara mitratus) and White-eyed Parakeet (Psittacara leucophthalmus).

Reproduction:

Nest in high tree cavities, among the cultivated species are included as the Mango wave guava; in some areas nested in the cavities of the cliffs sandstone.

The egg laying, generally three to four, takes place in December in Paraguay and Argentina; breeding probably between the months of March and July in Venezuela.

The female incubated eggs during 26 days, and chicks they leave the nest a few 52 days after birth.

Food:

The Blue-crowned Conure they feed in the trees in bushes, and also in land.

Reported foods that make up their diet include seeds of sorghum and Bambusa, berries of Condalia lineata, fruit of Cactus and crops as the Mango Mangifera, possibly also feed on of insects.

Distribution:

Its distribution is discontinuous and wide much of South America. Can be observed in several separate populations from Venezuela to Argentina. One of the largest areas of distribution extends from the northeast of Colombia (to the southeast of the Andes to Department of Meta), including the Guajira peninsula and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in the Northwest of Venezuela to the East of Monagas (including the Margarita Island) and South to the North of Bolivar.

A second population of the Blue-crowned Conure resides in the Northwest of Brazil, to the East of Piauí, North of Bay, Pernambuco and Alagoas. A third You can see from the East of Bolivia and West of Mato Grosso, Brazil, even more to the South, through Paraguay and South of Argentina until The Pampa and southwest of Buenos Aires, perhaps also some individuals in the West of Uruguay.

Pretty common in Colombia. Frequent in Venezuela, Although the abundance of birds varies with the season. From just frequent up to quite common in Bolivia. In Northeast Brazil It is most abundant in some locations Parrot. Of common to very common (but possibly in decline) in the North of Argentina.

Possibly extinct or very rare in West Uruguay. In the Margarita Islands very few examples (between 100 and 200 birds released) the loss of habitat due to tourism, his capture as a domestic fowl, and due to their predation by rats.

There are a large numbers of specimens in captivity (more than 94.000 birds were exported from Argentina in the period between 1985-1990).

Distribution of subspecies
Subspecies

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ

Status
Least Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern

• Population trend: Decreasing

The size of the world population It has not been quantified.

The Blue-crowned Conure is common in most of its distribution. But like almost all species of parrots, It is threatened by deforestation and the degradation of the habitat.

Some subspecies, in particular the “Psittacara acuticaudatus neoxenus” they are threatened by the cage bird trade. From 1981 When it was included in the Appendix II, 193,299 individuals were captured in the wild and reported for international trade (UNEP-WCMC trade database CITES, January 2005).

The predation of nests seen as a threat by the rats. However, the Blue-crowned Conure is not considered threatened by now.

Blue-crowned Conure captive:

Birds are very sociable, very attached to their owners. It is also known have to imitate the human voice, able to learn some words and short sentences.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a specimen lived for 31 years in captivity

Its feeding in captivity is varied and omnivorous, will include sunflower and pumpkin seeds, tender maize, Green peanuts, oats, wheat, cañamones, In addition to fruits and vegetables: Apple, pear, banana, lettuce, Escarole, etc. During the breeding and fattening, You will be offered biscuit paste and egg yolk.

Paulie

Until the release of the film “Paulie“, It presented a Blue-crowned Conure, This species was one of the secrets better kept in poultry production.

Alternative names:

Blue-crowned Conure, Blue crowned Parakeet, Blue-crowned Parakeet, Sharp-tailed Conure (English).
Conure à tête bleue, Conure à front bleu, Perriche à tête bleue, Perruche à tête bleue (French).
Spitzschwanzsittich (German).
Periquito-de-cabeça-azul, Aratinga-de-testa-azul, Aratinga-de-testa-azul / Periquitão, jandaia-de-cabeça-azul, maracanã, periquitão, periquito-de-bico-rosa, periquito-de-pé-rosa (Portuguese).
Aratinga Cabeciazul, Calacante común, Calancate, Calancate Común, Loro Cabeza Azul, Maracaná cabeza azulada, Perico Frentiazul, Periquito de Cabeza Azul (Spanish).
Calacante común, Calancate, Calancate Común (Argentina).
Calancate (Bolivia).
Loro frentiazul, Perico Frentiazul (Colombia).
Maracaná cabeza azulada (Paraguay).
Loro Cabeza Azul (Uruguay).
Carapaico, Ñangaro (Venezuela).
Marakana, Ñendai (guaraní).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Psittacara
Scientific name: Psittacara acuticaudatus
Citation: (Vieillot, 1818)
Protonimo: Psittacus acuticaudatus

  • Clements, version 2017: Thectocercus acuticaudatus

Images Blue-crowned Conure:


Blue-crowned Conure (Psittacara acuticaudatus)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Photos:

(1) – Blue-crowned Parakeet, Blue-crowned Conure, or sharp-tailed conure (Aratinga acuticaudata) By John Graziano en:user:Gnocchi [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0, GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Blue-crowned Parakeet (also known as Blue-crowned Conure and Sharp-tailed Conure) in the square of the small village of San Isidro, Santa Cruz dept, Bolivia By Håkan Sandin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Feral Blue-crowned Parakeets (also knows as Blue-crowned Conure and Sharp-tailed Conure) in Miami, Florida, USA By Kevin from Rotterdam, The Netherlands (threesomeUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A feral Blue-crowned Parakeet in Pompano Beach, Florida, USA By John Spade from Pompano Beach, USA (Guava ThiefUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Blue-crowned Parakeet, Blue-crowned Conure, or sharp-tailed conure (Aratinga acuticaudata) By Richard (originally posted to Flickr as Looking at you!) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Conurus acuticaudatus = Aratinga acuticaudata (Blue-crowned Parakeet) Marc Athanase Parfait Oeillet Des Murs [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Blue-winged Macaw
Primolius maracana


Guacamayo Maracaná

Maracanã Macaw description:

Of 43 cm.. of length and a weight of 265 g..

The Blue-winged Macaw (Primolius maracana) It is increasingly rare and exotic.

This small Macaw has the forecrown marked with a narrow band of black color that fades into blue in the area of the crown; the ear-coverts and both sides of the neck are blue, becoming green in the area of the nape.

Upperparts olive green with light tint in the rump and in the uppertail-coverts. Small, large and medium-sized inner coverts are green; the large external coverts blue.

The flight feather blue color above, (a bit of green in high schools), of yellow olive color below. The underparts green, slightly more yellow than the upper. Upper, the tail mostly blue, but the green central feathers, Red opaque in the Center, and with blue tips; undertail, the tail opaque yellow olive.

The bill horn, Black base; bare skin of the lores and cheeks top of grey colour with bluish and dye crossed in front lines of small black feathers: the irises yellow; legs grayish pink.

Both sexes similar; female possibly smaller and duller plumage compared to males.

The immature they have a paler plumage and less red coloration in the forecrown. The red spots in the abdomen and back they are stained yellow. Edges of color Horn in its bill. The tail is short and the eyes brown.

  • Sound of the Blue-winged Macaw.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Guacamayo Maracana.mp3]

Habitat:

They inhabit in tropical and subtropical forests of Evergreen and deciduous forests (including the rainforest of the Atlantic and the Savannah of the Closed) with apparent preference for forest edges or forests near water.

At the north end of Bay, Brazil, inhabits wooded galleries of Tabebuia caraiba in the area caatinga next to the Spix's Macaw, where the birds avoid flying over open field, preferring to remain among the trees.

There are reports of these birds to 1.000 meters above sea level. Generally in small flocks, except when playing.

Reproduction:

Evidence of breeding in December (Brazil) and February (Argentina). Nest in the cavity of a tree. The average size of the clutch is three to five eggs and the period of incubation is of 25 days.

Food:

Observed birds take the seeds of Melia azedarach introduced in the northeast of Brazil; no more details about the diet, Although it is known that they also forage in the fields of cereals and maize, which leads to his persecution by farmers.

Distribution:

Distributed by East of South America from south Amazon.

In Brazil stretching from the South of For, South of Maranhão (including a record on the coast) and to the West by Piauí, Pernambuco, Bay, Tocantins, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil, Mato Grosso, with a recent recolonization in the State of Rio de Janeiro and records in Rio Grande do Sul until 1930.

In East Paraguay and time back in the northeast of Argentina, in Missions and North of Currents.

Apparently resident, with a significant decline in recent decades, probably due to the large scale deforestation.

In the news rare and local; the remaining population common only in the Sierra Negra, Pernambuco, and Serra do Cachimbo, For in Brazil.

Scarce in Paraguay, where it seems to persist in small fragmented populations; previously common in Argentina, now apparently extinct. A small number in captivity.

They are distributed in several protected areas, at least in small quantities. Legally protected in all the States of the area.

Conservation:

• Red list category of the UICN current: Near Threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The population of the Blue-winged Macaw It is estimated that it may be in the band of 2,500-9,999 individuals in total, which is equivalent to a strip between 1,667-6,666 mature individuals.

A population decline moderately rapid and permanent is suspected it may be due to the habitat loss, the capture for the cage bird trade and the persecution as a pest Crop.

Its decline It is only partly explained by the deforestation, Since it has disappeared from areas where have apparently disappeared suitable habitats (Juniper and Parr 1998).

They suffer from the capture for the bird trade cage. 183 individuals came to the EE.UU. from Paraguay between 1977 and 1979 (Chebez 1994).

At least in Argentina his downfall may have been caused largely by the persecution of the Blue-winged Macaw consider them a pests for crops (Et Bodrati to the., 2006).

  • Conservation Actions Underway:
    CITES Appendix I and II.

    – Has been recorded in numerous protected areas in Brazil, but Serra do Cachimbo is unprotected and the Serra Negra biological reserve is to only 10 km (Wege and Long 1995, Clay et to the., 1998).

    – Twenty birds have been released in Bahia, Brazil, with the intention of correlate differences in the ability to survive in nature with differences of history in captivity (Waugh, 1997).

  • Conservation Actions Proposed:
    – Collate data from past records of specimens to provide an improved assessment of the distribution and status of the Blue-winged Macaw.

    Monitor known populations to assess trends.

    – Investigate the impact of the trade.

    Protect habitat in areas known to hold high concentrations of the species and develop breeding programs in captivity to extend even more this.

Guacamayo Maracaná en cautividad:

During the decades of the seventies and eighties, the Blue-winged Macaw It was considered quite uncommon in captivity in United States and in other countries. The Busch Gardens of Florida they were one of the first installations of breeding successfully and is probably responsible for that this species is so common in aviaries around the country today. The fact is that the Blue-winged Macaw It has become very common and is currently also in the pet market while it is considered vulnerable in the wild.

Evidence shows that the Blue-winged Macaw It adapts well to captivity. Despite the apparent inbreeding, This species is still prolific in captivity, and we have obtained a minimum of three (or possibly more) generations in Aviary everything United States.

Today several generations are produced in captivity this species. As this species is very rare in nature, they are increasing the quantities in captivity. This species would be a perfect candidate for future release programmes.

They have reports an exemplary live after 31 years in captivity. In captivity, these animals can be raised from the 6 years of age

Mutations in captivity:

There are rumors in Europe the existence of a variety of Lutino. Although there is no evidence of the fact through any photography of the same or other forms of documentation. No other mutation has not been documented.

Alternative names:

Blue-winged Macaw, Blue winged Macaw, Illiger’s Macaw (English).
Ara d’Illiger, Ara maracana (French).
Blauflügelara, Maracana, Marakana, Rotrückenara (German).
Maracanã-verdadeira, ararinha, Maracanã, maracanã-do-buriti (Portuguese).
Guacamayo Maracaná, Maracaná afeitado, Maracaná de Dorso Rojo, Maracaná lomo rojo (Spanish).
Maracaná de dorso rojo, Maracaná lomo rojo (Argentina).
Maracaná afeitado (Paraguay).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Primolius
Scientific name: Primolius maracana
Citation: (Vieillot, 1816)
Protonimo: Macrocercus maracana

Blue-winged Macaw images:

————————————————————————————————

Blue-winged Macaw (Primolius maracana)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
– Macaws. A comprehensive guide by Rick Jordan

Photos:

(1) – Blue-winged Macaw (also known as Illiger’s Macaw) at Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria, Spain By Teijo Hakala from Jyväskylä, Finland (PapukaijaUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Blue-winged Macaw (also known as Illiger’s Macaw). Two captive By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as illiger’s macaw) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Blue-winged Macaw (also known as Illiger’s Macaw). Two captive By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as illiger’s macaw) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Illiger’s Macaw also called Blue-winged Macaw (Primolius maracana) at Iguaçu Bird Park, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By Arthur Chapman [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Blue-winged Macaw (also known as Illiger’s Macaw Monte), Two in a tree hole in Alegre, For, Brazil By Sidnei Dantas (originally posted to Flickr as Primolius maracana) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Eduardo D. Schultz (Xeno-canto)

Blue-headed Macaw
Primolius couloni


Guacamayo Cabeciazul

Description:

Of 41 cm.. length and a weight which varies between 207 and 294 g..

The rare and beautiful Blue-headed Macaw (Primolius couloni), with its striking and vivid plumage Green and blue, Unfortunately, now hardly seen in nature.

As its common name suggests, the head is blue, the forecrown with a narrow band of black color that will fade in blue on the area of the crown; the ear-coverts and both sides of the neck are blue, fading to green in the area of the nape. Upperparts olive green with light tint in the tail and in the uppertail-coverts. Small, large and medium-sized coverts green interiors; the large coverts Blue exterior. The flight feather are blue top (with a bit of green in high schools), by below, Yellow olive. Underparts green, slightly more yellow than the upper. The upper part of the tail is an intense Brown, while the underparts is yellowish-green.

The bill is black, Ivory at the end; the bare skin of the lores and the top of the cheeks is gray with bluish and dye crossed ahead by very small lines of black feathers: the irises yellow; legs grayish pink.

Both sexes are similar, the male, possibly, largest average.

The immature with the irises dark. The bill is completely black and the legs more grey. The skin of the face and lores (area between the beak and eyes) is white. Depending on your age, have queues shorter.

NOTE:

    In close relationship with the Yellow-collared Macaw (Primolius auricollis) and the Blue-winged Macaw (Primolius maracana); It was sometimes considered congener with the latter. Monotypic.
  • Sound of the Blue-headed Macaw.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Blueheadedmacaw.mp3]

Habitat:

The Blue-headed Macaw distributed by tropical rainforests, at altitudes between 150 and 1,550 m. They prefer habitats altered or partially open, mainly on the edges of forest along the rivers, in the clearings and in partially wooded areas surrounding; There are also records of these macaws in marshy areas of forest with Mauritia Palms.

This species prefers possibly the wooded foothills of lowlands.

He is not very sociable: The flocks with larger number of individuals occur between June and October, usually traveling in pairs or groups of three individuals; apparently, not associated with the Chestnut-fronted Macaw.

Reproduction:

Known that the reproduction of these birds is correlated with the period of greatest abundance of food due to the breeding of pigeons (before and after leaving the nest) It requires a lot of energy expenditure.
Records of their reproductive period are not, However there has been during the months of April to June shown to the parents with their chicks and that in Peru, species Mauritia flexuosa “Guaje” and Dipterix odorata “odorata” they are key to your reproduction.

In captivity they reproduce couples chosen by them and have of two to three eggs, two chicks being generally viable.

Food:

The Blue-headed Macaw they feed mainly on seeds, mature and immature fruit, and flowers, occasionally supplemented with bark and other inputs.

Unlike many other birds, the parrots of the New world They seem to not be able to modify your diet to predominately insectivora, reason why are intimately linked to the patterns of flowering and fruiting (Brightsmith et to the, 2008). They have a strong dependency of the colpas clay.

Distribution:

Distributed by the Western basin of the Amazon at the West end of Brazil (in Acre, from time to time), Peru Eastern and in the Northwest corner of Bolivia.

In Peru are known from the top of the Valley of the Huallaga River in Loreto, San Martin and Huanuco (including the outskirts of Tingo Maria), in a town on the eastern slope of the National Park of the Sierra of the Divisor in the basin Ucayali, in the basins of the Curanja River and Purus River, in the Apurímac River in the Cuzco and Mother of God to the West of Puerto Maldonado, around Puerto Maldonado and the Tambopata River to 50 km of the border with Bolivia; You can see in the Manu National Park.

In Bolivia have been found in Peace and perhaps in the South of Beni with indications that the birds are distributed regularly to the South, in the Eastern foothills of the Andes to the South of Bolivia.

Local and erratic in its distribution, but apparently quite common in some places. Perhaps the enlargement of its range is fairly limited in the southwest of the Amazon due to the degradation of forests.

Rare in captivity.

Conservation:

• Red list category of the UICN current: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

Until recently it was considered fairly common, but a review in 2006 by BirdLife International suggested that it was rare, with a decrease in the total population to the 1.000-2.500 individuals. For this reason, It has been put into the category in danger of extinction in the 2007 (Red list of the UICN).

Parts of the distribution of this species are still little known, but Tobias and Brightsmith (2007) It has been suggested that the previous estimates were too low, with the likely real number of 9.200 to 46.000 mature individuals. It is suggested that vulnerable It could be a category more appropriate for this species.

The Blue-headed Macaw commonly found in the markets of Brazil, still valuable, prices above the 12.000 $, and in high demand due to their rarity.

OBJECTIVES:

Information about the actual state of conservation of the species. In addition, This project, that is being conducted under a partnership with the Government of Peru, includes other project, in this case for the conservation of the Grey-cheeked Parakeet, catalogued as “in danger”.

STRATEGIES:

The two projects include the definition of methods for determining the density of populations in key places, the evaluation of the level of the illegal trade in birds, and the promotion of the local social consciousness in relation to the illicit trade of these species.

ACTIONS:

The field team is carrying out assessments of populations and habitat analysis, and at the same time they updated the assessment of the threats weighing on the two species. The general population trend of the Blue-headed Macaw is one very gradual decrease, but it seems that the species can withstand certain levels of their forest habitat change. By censuses in consecutive years, the population of the Grey-cheeked Parakeet It has not undergone further decline despite the severe fragmentation of the preferred dry forest.

Guacamayo Cabeciazul en cautividad:

Very rare in captivity.

Couples are formed according to the preferences of the copies, couples chosen by the breeder will not work. The diet is based on the seasonal fruits and vitamin supplements.

The Parque de las Leyendas Zoo in Peru, captive breeding, It has no objective reproduction but the exhibition of animals that are twelve in total. Births have been but manualâ studies have not been performed. In the month of March to April of the 2010, This project through the SERNANP quoted Zoo scientific staff conducted the studies of biometrics of this species and are establishing the protocols for the reproduction studies.

Are no data about your longevity, Although similar species such as the Blue-winged Macaw have records having lived 31 years in captivity and having raised from the 6 years of age.

The illegal traffic This species is a serious problem that affects their conservation.

Alternative names:

Blue-headed Macaw, Blue headed Macaw, Coulon’s Macaw (English).
Ara de Coulon (French).
Blaukopfara (German).
maracanã-de-cabeça-azul (Portuguese).
Guacamayo Cabeciazul, Maracaná de Cabeza Azul, Guacamaya cabeza azul (Spanish).
Parabachi cabeza azul (Colombia).
Guacamayo de Cabeza Azúl (Peru).

Philip Sclater
Philip Sclater

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Primolius
Scientific name: Primolius couloni
Citation: (Sclater, PL, 1876)
Protonimo: Ara couloni

Blue-headed Macaw images:

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Blue-headed Macaw (Primolius couloni)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Blue-headed Macaw in the Walsrode Bird Park, Germany By Quartl (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Blue-headed Macaw (also known as Coulon’s Macaw) in captivity at Walsrode Bird Park, Germany By Robert01 (Self-photographed) [CC BY-SA 3.0 of], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Blue-headed Macaw (Primolius couloni) at Jungle Island of Miami By DickDaniels (http://carolinabirds.org /) (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Moscow Zoo. Blue-headed Macaw (Ara couloni, syn. Primolius couloni) By Корзун Андрей (Kor!An) (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Ara couloni – Wikipedia

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

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