The Lord Howe Island Parakeet(Cyanoramphus subflavescens) was a medium-sized green parrot with a head bright green, the crown crimson red and a strip on the eyes; the eyes were red and bill grey. The upperparts They were bright green with a dark red spot on each side of the rump (usually they are hidden by the wings when resting) and a blue border in wings; the underparts were yellowish green.
Both sexes appeared similar, but the female It was smaller.
This taxon is considered a subspecies of Cyanoramphus [novaezelandiae or subflavescens] (sensu lato) by some authors.
The Lord Howe Island Parakeet It was occasionally observed in flocks. There is little information on their habitats, probably they lived in forests inhabited and cultivated areas Lord Howe Island. No information on the use of different habitats for different activities.
Nothing is known of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality of this extinct species. However, It has been estimated that the life of Lord Howe Island Parakeet It should be similar to that of Norfolk Island Parakeet(Cyanoramphus cookii), About three years. the age of sexual maturity is also known populations of this species, although a juvenile female was seen mating with a male just a week after achieving independence, and it is said that the captive birds are reproduced when they were under one year old.
Little else is known about breeding Lord Howe Island Parakeet, probably they reproduced in response to climatic conditions and food availability, nesting in tree holes or hollow pipes, in crevices between rocks or cliffs.
Meal Lord Howe Island Parakeet probably it consisted of plant material, as seeds, fruit, buds and leaves of native trees and shrubs. Other existing populations mainly ate seeds, fruits and berries, egg yolks, sprouts and flowers, as well as, occasionally, a small number of invertebrates.
• The last record we have of this species dating 1869. EXTINCT.
The population declines were mainly due to habitat modification, hunting, poisoning, and the introduction of predators (especially cats and rats).
However, the main threat to the Lord Howe Island Parakeet was the hunting and its capture by settlers. Formerly he abounded in the Lord Howe Island and it was said to be a plague, and it is destroying crops and orchards of the inhabitants of the island.
There are only two copies of Lord Howe Island Parakeet. From the collection John Gould, taken by John MacGillivray in September of 1853 on tour HMS Herald, and are in the Museum of Natural History [Schodde, R.; & Mason, I.J. (1997). Birds (Columbidae to Coraciidae). In Houston, W.W.K. & Wells, A. (eds) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 37.2. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne. ISBN 0-643-06456-7 p.147.].
– Lord Howe Island Parakeet, Lord Howe Island red-crowned parakeet, Lord Howe Parakeet, Red-Fronted Parakeet (English).
– Perruche de Lord Howe (French).
– Lord Howe-Laufsittich (German).
– Periquito de Lord Howe (Portuguese).
– Perico de Lord Howe (Spanish).
(1) – Cyanorhamphus subflavescens (Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Volume 20) by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain]
(2) – Hand coloured lithograph (circa 1928) showing (Cyanorhamphus subflavescens) Which is now a synonym of the Lord Howe Island Red-fronted Parakeet (Gray novaezelandiae subflavescens) From The Birds of Australia (1910-28) by Gregory Macalister Mathews (1876-1949) Artwork by Henrik Gronvold (1858–1940) a Danish bird illustrator. by Henrik Grönvold [Public domain]
The Large-billed Parrotlet(Forpus crassirostris) has the crown, back of the neck and ear-coverts, green; the forecrown, cheeks, eye area and lores, emerald green.
Upperparts and wings, green, except the part inferior of the back, rump and greater coverts, are cobalt blue and blue color toward the base of the secondaries. Primary coverts pale grayish violet color which contrasts with the darker coverts They are cobalt blue. Flight feathers Matte metallic blue. The underparts green with yellow hues. Upper, the tail green; undertail, pale green.
Bill and cere Pink with gray base up to the mandible top, laterally compressed in the Center; bare periophthalmic pale grey: irises dark brown: legs Gris-Rosado pale. Female all green with belly yellowish green without blue color wing-coverts visible in the male. Immature like adult respective, but with the blue of young males mixed with green.
some authors (for example, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Forshaw, 1973, Monroe y Sibley, 1993) They have used the name Forpus xanthopterygius, while other authors (Stotz et to the., 1996, Collar 1997) They have followed Pinto (1945) and used the name Forpus crassirostris to define this species.
Sound of the Large-billed Parrotlet.
They inhabit in forest edges, clear, riparian forests, parks and gardens in urban areas.
They build their nests in tree cavities or exploit abandoned nests Rufous Hornero(Furnarius rufus); lining the nesting chamber with grass and the female lays 3 a 7 eggs White. The incubation, lasts approximately 18 days, It is carried by the female and during this period the male is responsible for feeding.
They compose your diet seeds, fruit, plants and flowers herbaceous. They are feeding both the ground and in trees and shrubs. Among the fruits they are highly appreciated by the Large-billed Parrotlet, palm, Trumpet trees (Cecropia spp), as well as seeds and sprouts Paineiras (Ceiba speciosa).
Melo et al, 2009, reported mass consumption flowers of Handroanthus serratifolius (Fam. Bignoniaceae), in particular its nectar, what it appears to be an important power source especially during the dry season, where scarce fruits.
Size of its range (players / residents) 1.312.215 km²
Southeast of Colombia to the East of Ecuador, North of Peru and West Brazil.
• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.
• Population trend: Stable.
Justification of the population
The size of the world's population of the Blue-winged Parrotlet It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).
Justification of trend
Suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.
Blue-winged parrot in captivity:
In captivity they are not very frequent. They are birds enable you require a large cage. Quiet and something timid. Not is easy to accommodate them with other parrots.
Can be prone to it Obesity.
– Blue-winged Parrotlet (crassirostris), Large-billed Parrotlet (English).
– Toui à gros bec, Toui de Spix (crassirostris) (French).
– Large-billed Parrotlet (German).
– Tuim, Large-billed Parrotlet (Portuguese).
– Catita enana, Lorito Aliazul, Periquito Azulejo, Cotorrita aliazul, Lorito de alas azules (Spanish).
The Kawall's Parrot(Amazona kawalli) after not having been recorded in the wild for a few 70 years, It was rediscovered in the early 1980.
Wrongly confused with Southern Mealy Parrot(Amazona farinosa) which differs from the remarkable white band at the base of bill.
They have forecrown, the lores, the cheeks and ear-coverts green, although in some birds appear blackish. The crown, sides and back of the neck, as well as the nape, They are green with broad blackish margins to feathers, giving the whole a intricate scaly appearance, with escalation most pronounced in the nape and the the mantle. Upperwing-coverts green, with the coverts smaller and medium dark shades showing weak at tips; some feathers yellowish green in the leading edge of wing
. Primaries green with black towards the tips and some blue in outerweb (a specimen with primary external bright yellow in a wing); red in the three secondaries External form a speculum bright. The underparts They are green with scaling effect derived from the blackish tips to the feathers on the sides of the low chest; some feathers with dark tips in the middle of the chest although little visible; undertail-coverts, more greenish yellow. Upper, the tail It is green with wide band terminal greenish yellow, lateral feathers variably marked dark red (sometimes lined with black-brown and blue) in basal half; undertail, the tail similar but slightly off.
Bill gray bare skin cream in the base and a cream patch on the upper mandible; irises reddish-orange; legs gray.
The male has the lores and perhaps gray bill largest. Immature not described.
Possibly they overlooked in the field due to morphological similarities with some of the best known and there are almost certainly more individuals than congeners the few records suggest. Distribution map based on alleged occurrence among localities known. No details on the population or condition.
Conservation status ⓘ
Near Threatened ⓘ(UICN)ⓘ
• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened.
• Population trend: Stable.
Justification of the red list category
Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin and the susceptibility of the species to habitat fragmentation and hunting , It suspected population decline by 25-30% in the next three generations and, therefore, It has risen to Near Threatened.
Justification of the population
The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “rare” (Stotz et to the., 1996).
Justification of trend
It is suspected that this species has lost 19.1-33.6% of habitat suitable within their distribution during three generations (37 years), based on a model of Amazon deforestation (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006, Bird et to the., 2011). However, it is considered that the species has a wider distribution than indicated on the map used in this analysis (A. Lees in litt 2011), As it suspected to decline by 25-30% during three generations.
Conservation Actions Underway
The species in Appendix II CITES.
Conservation Actions Proposed
First of all, expand the network of protected areas to effectively protect the IBA. Second manage more effectively the resources and existing and new protected areas, using the emerging opportunities for funding the management of protected areas with the overall goal of reducing carbon emissions and maximize the conservation of biodiversity. Especially relevant conservation on private land, through the expansion of market pressures for proper land management and prevention of deforestation on land not suitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to Brazilian Forest Code which would lead to a decrease in the width of coastal areas as forest protected Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), that function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.
Kawall's Parrot in captivity:
The Kawall's Parrot It is a half-noisy parrot, not very active and hard chewing. They can easily tame. They are not common in aviculture. They are hardy once acclimated. Its minimum temperature tolerance is 15 degrees. Any lower temperature than this requires supplemental heat until the Parrot has acclimatized.
– Kawall’s Amazon, Kawall’s Parrot, Kawall’sParrot, White-cheeked Amazon, White-faced Amazon (English).
– Amazone de Kawall (French).
– Kawallamazone, Stromamazone (German).
– papagaio-dos-Garbes (Portuguese).
– Amazona de Kawall, Loro de Kawall, Loro de Kawallí, Amazonas de mejillas blancas, Amazonas de mejillas blancas,
loro de garbes (Spanish).
The Lilac-crowned Parrot(Amazona finschi) has the forecrown and upper lores, red off; the lower lores, the cheeks and ear-coverts, pale lime green; crown, sides neck and nape, lilac or pale blue with some feathers crown showing narrow black margins.
Mantle green with broad black edges giving distinct scalloped effect; back and scapulars weak green with black borders to some feathers; rump and uppertail-coverts, green, slightly brighter than the back. Wing coverts green. Primaries blue toward the tip, green at the base; the base outerweb the first five secondaries, red with subterminal band yellow and blue tips, secondaries, otherwise, green, becoming blue at tips. Under the wings, brighter yellowish green; flight feather dull green.
Throat yellowish green with bluish tint to some feathers; remaining underparts, yellowish-green with black margins to some feathers (especially in the chest), giving scalloped effect. Tail green tip yellowish green, lateral feathers blue margin to the base of the outerweb. Bill color horn; irises orange red; legs grey.
Both sexes are similar. Immature has the irises dark brown (rather than red).
The Lilac-crowned Parrot Living mainly in wooded hills and mountains, from the tropical zone in the lower levels of the deciduous forests, to the forests of oak and pine-oak forest in the highlands, preferably through the valleys with lush vegetation along streams that run on the basis of cannons; often also in areas of arid or semi-arid vegetation, or clear forest edge, coming into cultivated areas and orchards adjacent to the forest.
mainly in altitudes of 600 a 2.000 m, but recorded at sea level Sinaloa and from sea level to the temperate forest Colima. observed between 360-1.700 metres in Sonora and 880-1.480 metres in Oaxaca. Usually in pairs or small groups, although larger groups are formed in the dry season (500 birds reported) and in communal roosts (more than 1,000 birds reported in the same place Nayarit).
They nest in tree hollows (for example, Ficus), including old nests woodpeckers (for example, Phloeoceastes) or arboreal termite mounds.
The breeding season It comprises from February to June, nesting with a cycle consisting of 28 days of incubation eggs, followed by two months of growth of chickens in the nest (Forshaw 1989, Renton 1998, 2002).
It is mostly residents, but outside the breeding season, visit during autumn, lowlands, for example in Oaxaca. Generally common. Described as fairly common locally in southeast Sonora. abundant in Colima. Very rare in the highlands of Oaxaca. Several wild populations reported in several locations in the United States.
Conservation status ⓘ
• Current red list category of the UICN: In danger of extinction.
• Population trend: Decreasing.
• Population size : 4700-6700.
Justification of the red list category
This species has been selected in danger of extinction because it is suspected that is decreasing very quickly as a function of contractions recorded ranges and due to the unsustainable exploitation and loss of habitat.
Justification of the population
Renton and Elias (2003) estimate the world population between 7.000 and 10.000 individuals, based on surveys covering most of the global range of the species. This equates to approximately 4.700-6.700 mature individuals. An estimate that 5.400 individuals each year are caught illegally in Mexico (Cantu et al ., 2007), implies that the estimation of population Renton and Elias (2003) it might be an understatement, but it remains in this evaluation to best data available.
Justification of trend
It is suspected that the population of this species is in decline very fast, based on a study of Marin-Togo et al . (2012), who estimated the current distribution of this species along the Pacific coast of Mexico and he showed a reduction 72.6% its estimated original distribution.
• The Capture for national and international trade It is the greatest threat to wild populations.
• It is highly valued in trade (Cantu et al., 2007) and it was the kind of Amazon parrot most caught in the early eighties (Inigo-Elias y Ramos 1991).
• The Illicit trade is intense and widespread, and Lilac-crowned Parrot It is one of the most frequently confiscated Mexican parrots (K. Renton in litt., 2005).
• During the period 1981-2001, were registered 4.061 individuals in international trade, of which 79% It was exported directly from Mexico and the 64% it took Nature (CITES 2004a).
• Remains one of the five species of Mexican parrots most caught, with an estimated 5.400 individuals / year caught illegally Mexico (Cantu et al ., 2007).
• The Adults and young people are easily trapped in large numbers due to its habit of congregating in communal shelter sites late afternoon (Renton 2005, K. Renton in some 2005).
• Chicks are commonly caught sneaking nest (K. Renton in litt., 2005).
• During interviews with local people throughout the range of the species, the 75% reported poaching in your area (K. Renton in litt., 2005).
• Further, it is said that this species requires semi-deciduous forest with tall mature trees for nesting and can not adapt to the changed areas nesting (Marin-worm Togo et al ., 2012).
• Habitat loss and degradation, mainly for conversion to small and large crops and pastures (K. Renton in some . 2007, A. Salinas in some . 2007, Ortega-Rodriguez and Monterrubio-Rico 2008), are serious threats, with semi-deciduous forest along the Pacific coast lost more than any other forest type rhythm Mexico (Masera et al ., 1996, K. Renton in litt., 2005), It is resulting in the destruction of nesting sites and reducing the extent of this crucial critical habitat (Renton 2005).
• In Michoacán, nesting areas potentially more accessible, as plains or hills, they have become livestock farms or agricultural (Ortega-Rodriguez and Monterrubio-Rico 2008).
• The major development projects, such as dams, also they resulted in loss of breeding habitat for the species (K. Renton in some ., 2007).
• The semi-deciduous forest now covers only 5.106 km2 within the range of the species (Renton and Elias 2003, K. Renton in litt., 2005).
• The decrease in rainfall that could result from global climate change would lead to decreased reproductive potential of wild populations in dry tropical forests (K. Renton in some ., 2007).
• Despite the various pressures on habitats, by showing that the species has disappeared from more than 70% of its former range, Marin-Togo et al. (2012), has reinforced the view that the capture pressure is the predominant threat to the species.
Conservation Actions Underway
• In 1999, the Mexican government established a Conservation Plan, Protection and Recovery Psitácinos in Mexico, in which the Lilac-crowned Parrot It is considered a priority species (Macias Caballero et al ., 2000).
• In 2004, the species was updated to Appendix 1 CITES and in 2007 It approved a proposal to change its state species conservation 2008 of “threatened” a “in danger” under the Mexican wildlife law (K. Renton in some.)
• In Mexico, They have made considerable efforts to combat illegal domestic trade, with at least 52 seizures during 1997-2003 (CITES 2004b).
• The inspections in Mexico They resulted in the seizure of 266 living individuals of the species offered illegally pet trade between 1995 and 2003 (CITES 2004b).
• To monitor demographic trends through regular surveys.
• Monitor levels of destruction and degradation of habitat.
• Implement trade regulation strategies in the plan 1999.
• Conduct extension work and environmental education as described in the plan 1999.
• Perform the habitat conservation and recovery of wild populations as it recommended in the Plan 1999.
• Monitor the success of strategies plan 1999.
• Protect remaining tropical forest stands in areas where the slope is greater than 6 °: ideally all areas on steep slopes should be restored to forest, to provide habitat for all native wildlife (including the Lilac-crowned Parrot)
• Avoid soil erosion and promote alternative economic activities in the rugged coastal areas as recreation and tourism (Ortega-Rodriguez and Monterrubio-Rico 2008).
The Lilac-crowned Parrot in captivity:
Very popular as a pet throughout its area of distribution; It has cultural value as a pet or ornamental bird by its feathers; ability to imitate sounds and its tendency to form bonds with people; widespread in captivity internationally.
Currently protected by the Appendix 1 CITES.
Each copy captive of this species which is capable of reproducing, should placed in a well-managed breeding program in captivity and not be sold as a pet, with the objective of ensure their survival long-term.
– Finsch’s Parrot, Lilac crowned Parrot, Lilac-crowned Amazon, Lilac-crowned Parrot, Pacific Amazon, Pacific Parrot (English).
– Amazone à couronne lilas, Amazone de Finsch, Amazone verte de Finsch (French).
– Blaukappenamazone (German).
– Papagaio-de-finsch (Portuguese).
– Amazona de Corona Violeta, Amazona Guayabera, Loro Corona Lila, loro corona-lila, Loro Corona-violeta (Spanish).
The Jandaya Parakeet(Aratinga jandaya) they have both sides of the neck, cheeks, lores, ear-coverts and forecrown orange, deeper in the ear-coverts, around the eyes and in the lores; the crown and nape are yellowish-Orange (Some birds with paler yellow tones in the head).
Mantle and scapulars olive green; back and top of the rump, Green with orange-red horizontal bars; lower rump and uppertail-coverts olive green. Main feathers of the wings blue, the others feathers, green (brightest that in the the mantle). The flight feather blue color above, on the vane outer, Blackish towards the tip and grey below. Underwing-coverts orange-red. The underparts orange-red, slightly paler in the upper part of the chest and in the throat; undertail-coverts green.
Upper, the tail of olive with blue tips; undertail, charcoal grey.
Bill grey-black; bare periophthalmic pale grey; irises brown; legs grey.
Both sexes similar.
The immature has the head yellow and the neck with green markings; Dim Orange below.
The Jandaya Parakeet move between deciduous woodlands, closed, bushes and cleared areas of rainforest. Sporadically at the edge of the rainforest and the caatinga. In palm groves of coconut on the coast of Pernambuco. Also frequent croplands and pastures. (Usually in flocks of approximately 12 birds, but sometimes in pairs or individually.
Nests in tree cavities, at least a 15 metres in height. Observed offspring in the nest of December in Maranhão; eggs hatch between August-December, in the area of Belém. Clutch, probably composed of three eggs.
Locally common, While perhaps decreasing in some areas. It is possible that usually it is to expand its range through colonization of the cleared areas of rainforest high, especially in For and Maranhão.
Their status in the East its area of distribution is unknown.
Maintained in captivity with consequences serious, Perhaps derived from the illegal trade internal in Brazil and, possibly, by smuggling towards Asia South-East.
• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern
• Population trend: Stable
This species has a range very large, and therefore not approaching the thresholds for vulnerable under the criterion of size range
The size of the world population of Jandaya Parakeet It has not been quantified, but this species has been described as “rare” (Stotz et to the., 1996).
Its population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.
Jandaya parakeet in captivity:
Pretty common in captivity and easy to raise.
Like all the Aratinga, This species is not characterized by their ability to speak, Even so, can get to say some words with crystal clarity.
Its food is made up of different fruits, vegetables, Soak vegetables and specific feed for parrots. There are species Meek and intelligent to which are the trains very well and are playful, What makes them good pet to maintain in a House. Being aves gregarias, is convenient to provide them a companion, Since solo can be quite noisy.
Enjoy the baths, and is advisable to keep them in an Aviary or in cage of good proportions; It is also convenient to let the small flights out of its enclosure.
Its longevity often haunt them 20 years in captivity, being able to get to the 30 years, Depending on your care.
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(1) – Jandaya Parakeet (Aratinga jandaya) aka Janday Conure. Photographed in Puerto Rico at the Mayaquez Zoo By Dick Daniels (http://carolinabirds.org /) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Jandaya Parakeet (also known as Jenday Conure) in Beale Park, Reading, Berkshire, England By David Long from London, United Kingdom (IMG_4798Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Jenday Conure or Jandaya Parakeet in a tree. By GIANNIZZZERO at English Wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Jenday Conure or Jandaya Parakeet (Aratinga jandaya) at Iguaçu Bird Park, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. Photographed on 23 April 2003 By Arthur Chapman [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Aratinga jandaya and Aratinga solstitialis at Kobe Kachoen (Kobe Flowers and Birds Garden) in Kobe, Hyogo prefecture, Japan By Chris Gladis from Kyoto, Japan (Jandaya Parakeet) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A Jandaya Parakeet (also known as Jenday Conure) at Beale Park, Lower Basildon, Reading, Berkshire, England By David Long (originally posted to Flickr as IMG_4800) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Jandaya Parakeet (also known as Jenday Conure) in Beale Park, Reading, Berkshire, England By David Long from London, United Kingdom (IMG_4802Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Origin: Borneo, Sumatra, Malaysia, Brunei, India, Indonesia, Thailand
Character: Active, timid
Height: Of 40 a 48 cm..
Of 40 a 48 cm.. length and 168 a 196 g. of weight.
The Long-tailed Parakeet(Psittacula longicauda) has the plumage, in general, green. The throat, the chest and the abdomen are greenish-yellow; and lores (the regions between the eyes and the beak, on both sides of the head) are bluish-black. The crown is a green dark, and the sides of the head and nape are pinkish Red. They have a black stripe in the cheeks.
The upperparts is yellowish wash of blue-grey. The lower part of the back is pale-blue. The upperwing-coverts are yellowish. The supracaudales-coverts and infracaudales, as well as the the thighs are pale green. The central feathers of the tail are blue with pale tips and outer feathers are green.
The bill top is red and the lower beak is brown-black color. The irises they are amarillos-blanquecinos, and legs are grey.
The females they have the nape green. The band to their cheeks is dark green, and cheeks superiors are an orange-red live. Their feathers of the tail they are much shorter, and the bill top and bottom are brown-black color.
The young birds they have the head variable green interspersed with orange-red. The feathers of the tail they are shorter, and both the bill top and bottom are brown.
The young male they have a tint blue in the lower part of the back and some birds can have a reddish tint in the bill top.
Immature birds reach your adult plumage When they are near the 30 months of age.
The lutino and other colorations, It is believed that they are mutations observed both in the wild and in captivity.
(Fraser, 1845) – Of 48 cm.. Plumage as of the species nominal, but the crown It has a reddish-brown core and a green at the end of feather edging, becoming pink on the back of the head and nape, causing so in the crown more Brown than green appears in many birds . The black stripe in the lores is more clearly defined, continuing in some birds to form a narrow band in the forecrown. The upper cheeks they have a deep pinkish-Red, orange-red stripes.
Psittacula longicauda nicobarica
(Gould, 1857) – Of 48 cm.. As the species nominal, but the back of the head, the nape and back are greenish-yellow and slightly washed with pale blue. The ear-coverts and cheeks are deep red. The lower part of the back is green.
Psittacula longicauda tytleri
(Hume, 1874) – Of 44 cm.. length. As the species nominal But back in the head, the nape and back are yellowish green washed with grisaceo-malva. The throat, the chest and the top chest they have a pale bluish tint. The lower part of the back is green.
The Long-tailed Parakeet distributed over all types of lowland (below 300 metres in Sumatra), Evergreen from mangrove forests, swamps, tropical forests, to plantations of oil palm plantations (Elaeis) and coconut trees. It prefers the edges of high forest, especially with large dead trees, including close cultivated areas.
Flocks of thousands of birds reported in the Islands Andaman and Borneo but smaller groups (minor's 20) they are typically, especially during breeding. They form mixed flocks with the Blue-rumped Parrot (Psittinus cyanurus) in Kalimantan.
The Long-tailed Parakeet It is a restless bird that are constantly in motion. They fly quickly around branches, moving quickly from a tree to another. Although they are usually well camouflaged in green foliage, its continuous chirp betrays its position. They tend to eat little after the sunrise and resume the search for food in the evening.
The Long-tailed Parakeet nests in tree cavities, usually dead, often to a considerable height (for example, reported nest in a tree of the species Koompassia in Sumatra a 45 meters above sea level); in the Andaman Islands they commonly nest in trees of the species Pterocarpus marsupium; in the Nicobar Islands sometimes in Pandanus, some 4 meters above ground and in larger trees to 10 metres in height.
Breeds in colonies.
The nest It is full of pieces of bark and chewed wood. In the natural habitat, the average clutch consists of 2 a 3 eggs, each one measures 30,6 x 24,7 mm.
During the courtship, the male bows before the female, by spitting up, circular motions with his head and gently touching its beak.
The breeding It is between the months of December-February, Although pigeons have been observed in July in the Malay Peninsula; Feb-Mar in the Nicobar Islands and Andaman. Reports of eggs in July sunsets in Sumatra.
The nominal species diet includes plants from Borneo camphor (Dryobalanops sumatrensis) and fruit of the Dillenia; the subspecies nicobarica largely feeds on fruits as the papaya (Carica papaya) and Pandanus; occasionally feed on the outer cover of the betel nuts (Areca catechu). On the other hand, They assail orchards and fruit plantations to feed, for example, of the oil palm plantationsElaeis, grains and seeds, and they can have an important impact in the fields of ripening rice (for example in the Islas Andaman) and fruit of the oil palm plantations (for example in the Malay Peninsula).
Insects and their larvae can also be part of your daily diet; If these parrots seek them actively unknown, but they may be ingested ,probably, While they feed on fruits and flowers.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 877.000 km2
The size of the world population Long-tailed Parakeet It has not been quantified, but the species is described as very common and widespread in the South of Borneo, locally common in Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia and common in Brunei, the Andaman Islands and Nicobar Islands (pit et to the. 1997).
The destruction of forests in the lowlands of Sundaland in Indonesia, as well as in Thailand and Malaysia It has been wide (Kalimantan almost lost the 25% its perennial forest during 1985 a 1.997, and Sumatra almost lost the 30% your coverage 1985), Even so, the species is still numerous in a number of areas, due to its ability to forage away from forested areas and nest communally. Therefore, the decrease is estimated to have been of the order of 20 a 30% in the last ten years.
Conservation Actions Underway:
– CITES Appendix II.
Conservation Actions Proposed:
– Monitor the species in trade.
– Monitor habitat trends and rates of deforestation in the lowlands of Sundaland using satellite imagery and remote sensing.
– The ecology of the species research to improve the understanding of movements performed.
– Effectively protect significant areas of habitat at key sites, both strictly protected areas and areas of multiple use.
Cotorra colilarga in captivity:
Rare in captivity, its mortality rate is high and breeding successes are rare.
It is a bird very noisy. It is a principle very timid and slow to get your confidence. They don't bathe often, Although they occasionally sit in the rain. They enjoy gnawing fresh branches. The main problems for its captive breeding are the difficulty of matching compatible couples; the Long-tailed Parakeet they tend not to accept a partner that they have not chosen and even if you are breeding pairs, It is very difficult to keep alive the chicks. Sudden deaths no apparent cause they have been reported – possibly as a result of stress.
Some birds may refuse to eat. Have been observed Occasional attacks of females to males, coming to Peck them on the penis, causing them serious injury. In addition, These delicate parrots are hard to acclimatize. Newly imported birds are susceptible to the cold and wet conditions. During the period of acclimatization, should not be exposed to temperatures below to 24 ° C at any time below 10 ° C.
Given that these parrots are so rare, experts prefer well managed breeding programs the possibility of keeping them captive in private hands.
The size of the clutch average consists of 2 – 4 eggs laid at daily intervals, with an incubation which lasts approximately 23 days. The young leave the nest 7 weeks after hatching and are independent 2 weeks later.
The Long-tailed Parakeet, in any case, you will need a large aviary which is a very active bird and will need plenty of room to move.
It is important to place the bird in a quiet and protected, as well as providing a rest box (22 x 22 x 60 cm.) at all times.
– Long-tailed Parakeet, Long tailed Parakeet, Malaccan Red-cheeked Parakeet, Malayan Red-cheeked Parakeet, Pink-cheeked Parakeet, Red-cheeked Parakeet (English).
– Perruche à longs brins, Perruche de Malacca (French).
– Langschwanzsittich (German).
– Periquito-mustache-cauda-longa (Portuguese).
– Cotorra Colilarga, Cotorra de Cola Larga (Spanish).
29 cm., including its tail up 13 cm.. and 100 g. of weight.
The adult male of the Layard's Parakeet(Psittacula calthrapae) has the head and back bluish grey, separated by a neck green. There is a wide swath in the chin of black color and tail It is blue with a yellow tip. Upper bill the male is red, and the bill bottom is brown.
The female es similar, but has the bill top in black, and dark green stripe on the cheek. Lack the band pink in nape and the neck is greenish yellow. They have the blue tint in the rear of the head if you can see in males. Feathers middle of the tail You are washed with blue.
The immature they are like the females, but with feathers tail shorter, with a plumage mainly green and bill dark red.
Sound of the Layard's Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Cotorra of Ceilan.mp3]
Their preferred habitats are forested areas 1.600 meters above sea level, although registered at altitudes 2.000 m, taking advantage of a variety of vegetation types including rainforests natural and semi-natural, tea plantation and botanical gardens; often at the edge of the woods, generally in small groups or couples.
Sedentary, especially in mountain areas, but extending over the lowlands, especially in humid forests near sea level.
After feeding, the Layard's Parakeet congregate in trees chattering loud and persistent. Before break, roam issuing strong calls.
The time of reproduction It is around January to May, with a high season from July to September.
The eggs They are deposited in a natural cavity or disused nest Woody Woodpecker or a bearded, usually at the top of a tree. Competition for nest sites is often intense, especially with Plum-headed Parakeet. The cavity is lined with rotting wood and dust. Two to four white eggs make commissioning. Both sexes share duties incubation and feed on young.
According to sources, abundant in the nineteenth century and apparently still numerous in some areas, but declining due to habitat loss arising, for example, conversion of natural and semi-natural forests and plantations capture for trade.
The colorful plumage of Nyasa small Inseparable (Agapornis lilianae) may cause their extinction, as it faces the constant threat of capture for the cage bird trade.
They have forecrown, fore crown, lores and cheeks brick red, merging with an orange and yellow-green wash on the back of the crown, ear-coverts, sides neck and nape, but occasionally (including samples taken in Malawi and unlikely to be hybrid with the Black-cheeked Lovebird (Agapornis nigrigenis)) brick red color is replaced by the dark crimson and orange dark brown.
Mantle and scapulars bright green, rump and uppertail-coverts, Also bright green, but lighter. Upper, wing-coverts bright green; sometimes in yellow alula; vane outside of primaries and secondaries green; vane Blackish internal. Under, the wing-coverts green with some blue feathers; bottoms of the flight feather blackish. Throat and top of the chest orange-red to pink salmon; bottom of the chest up to the undertail- coverts light green. The tail green, except central feathers with orange-red base and subterminal band Dark.
Bill coral red; cere white; irises brown; eye ring white (2mm wide); legs pale grey.
Both sexes similar.
Immature and adults, but in black suffusion ear-coverts and black marks on the basis of upper mandible.
The Lilian's Lovebird It is in groves mopane (Colophospermum mopane) and Acacias in alluvial deposits and banks of river valleys, in general, below the 1.000 m, preferring areas with figs. Avoid trees miombo.
Very sociable and usually observed in noisy flocks of 20 a 100 birds, sometimes many more, especially when food is plentiful. The birds are not breeding, forman communal roosts in hollow trees, where between 4 and 20 sleeping birds clinging to the walls of the chamber.
Before settling in the place of descando, the Lilian's Lovebird They engaged, to a great extent, to engage in fights and chases.
Inseparable reproduction of the Nyasa:
The nest It is a bulky structure in the form of a dome-shaped inlet tube constructed from strips of bark, branches and stems brought to the nest by females at the peak.
Wild birds Lundazi nest in the eaves of buildings. Breeding, According to sources, It takes place in the months of January and February (birds possibly introduced), September in Zimbabwe and between January and July Zambia.
The laying you can have between 3 and 8 eggs in captivity.
The food is collected directly from plants and soil. Often they need to drink, so usually they live near water sources.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 129.000 km2
Several populations Lilian's Lovebird separated on a restricted area in the southeast Africa.
They are distributed in the middle of the valley Zambezi, from the top of Lake Kariba around East of Binga to province Head in Mozambique, in northern and southern belt Zambezi, below the 1.000 m, including valleys Angwa and Hunyani in Zimbabwe and valleys Lunsemfwa and Sash in Zambia.
In Northeast Zambia, It is also located north of valle de Luangwa, seemingly isolated from the valley Zambezi, where possibly they were imported.
In Malawi, There is an isolated population of Inseparable the Nyasa located in forests Mopane in the region of the Lake Malombe, to the South of the Lake Malawi. There is also dispersed populations in southern Tanzania.
Wild birds are believed to exist (at least in the past) in the District of Choma and Mazabuka, to the South of Zambia. Aves on al Namibia are escapes from.
Generally common, in some places abundant, but probably overall decline due to habitat loss, for example, in the basin of the Lake Kariba.
Apparently they are sedentary, but you can make local movements in response to the food supply.
The population of the Lilian's Lovebird It is suspected of being in decline due to predation by invasive species and unsustainable levels of exploitation.
Its population has been greatly reduced by the flooding of much of the valley Zambezi by the Lake Kariba, and probably also by the dam Cahorra Low in Mozambique.
They considered a pest, small-scale, by farmers (Harrison et al. 1997). Besides the captura legal large quantities for the international trade in cage birds (more than 10.000 from 1981 when it began to be mentioned in the CITES Appendix II), many are caught and sold locally Mozambique, and the species is also caught and sold in Zimbabwe and Zambia (V. Parker in little . 2003, UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, January 2005).
Conservation Actions Underway:
– Conduct surveys to obtain an overall estimate of the population.
– Monitor population trends through regular surveys.
– Control or stop the capture and trade in order to prevent overfishing.
This species is well studied in South Africa “Research Project” driven by “Research Centre for Parrot Conservation” University of KwaZulu-Natal. Studies to better understand their ecology and conservation.
The Lilian's Lovebird son aves gregarias, that coexist very well in Cologne. They have a character quite scary because not very frequent, still they have not been very familiar with humans, but once caught enough confidence spend the day making a racket.
They are birds something else complicated to create than other varieties Lovebird, are birds more timid and therefore need more peace of mind, plus the percentage of egg fertility in this species is a 40 % a 60 %.
Apparently they have problems to survive the first moult, so in this case it is recommended to acquire and adults.
With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a specimen lived 19,2 years in captivity.
– Nyasa Lovebird, Black-cheeked Lovebird, Nyassa Lovebird (English).
– Inséparable de Lilian, Inséparable de Liliane, Inséparable liliane, Inséparable nyasa (French).
– Erdbeerköpfchen (German).
– Inseparável do Niassa, Inseparável-de-niassa (Portuguese).
– Inseparable del Nyasa, Inseparable Liliana, Agapornis Lilianae (Spanish).