Chihuahua
México FCI 263

Chihuahua

This little dog has a personality sassy large.

Content

History

The Chihuahua It is considered the smallest breed in the world; called the largest state of the Mexican Republic (Chihuahua), where it is assumed that lived in the wild and was captured and domesticated by the Indians during the era of civilization “Tolteca”; pigmy figures of a dog called “Techichi”, who lived in Tula, They were included in the decoration of its architecture which were very similar to the current Chihuahua.

There is a belief in some countries that the dog gave the name to the state of Chihuahua since the word "Chihuahua" means "dry and sandy place" in rarámuri, language of the Tarahumara people. Although it is known as Chihuahua, the official name of the race is Chihuahueño, Chihuahua is the name adopted in United States for the race.

Some experts say dogs were among the first native dogs of the Americas, others were brought to the New World after the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Others believe that small dogs may have originated as miniaturized versions of pariah dogs, undefined brown dogs with pointed ears that result when allowed to raise dogs on their own without color selection or other specific characteristics. In any case, race takes its name from the state of Chihuahua, where American tourists at the end of the nineteenth century first found tiny canines.

Chihuahuas were brought to United States by American visitors who visited the North of Mexico and, later, presented at trade fairs Canófilas where they became known to worldwide.

The Chihuahua we know today was developed by American breeders. The first Chihuahua recorded by the American Kennel Club, in 1904, It was called Midget. Chihuahua Club of America was formed in 1923. Today, Chihuahua occupies the 13th place among the breeds registered by the AKC.

Physical characteristics

The AKC (American Kennel Club) It recognizes two varieties of Chihuahua: long hair and short hair. Many short-haired Chihuahua have very fine hair, but others have a very dense and thick hair. Standards of breeding this dog not generally specify a height, only a weight and a description of its overall proportions. As a result, the height varies more than in any other race.

Generally, the height range is between 15 and 25 cm to the cross. However, some dogs grow up the 30 a 38 cm.. AKC show dogs should weigh no more than 2,7 kg; the FCI standards mark dogs must weigh between 1,5 and 3 kg, Although most small dogs are acceptable in the show.

However, the quality pet Chihuahua (that is, those bred or purchased as companions rather than show dogs) can, and they achieve greater weight, until 4,5 kg or more if they have a skeletal structure that allows them to being overweight. This does not mean they are not purebred Chihuahuas, It only means that the requirements do not have to enter a display. Oversize Chihuahuas are seen equally in the best and worst bloodlines.

His teeth is commonly double, This demonstrates the purity of the breed.

Chihuahuas can have many colors, from solid black to white solid, spotted, or in a range of colors including Fawn (coffee), chocolate, blue (grey), Silver, tricolor (chocolate, blue, black or white with Brown and white markings), with lines, and speckled. Each of these colors vary in shades and intensities, coffee may be a term to describe a dog from a cream very pale to dark brown (almost Red), or any key within this range of colours.

Character and skills

The Chihuahua They are prized for their devotion and personality. Its state of alert, intelligence and size make them adaptable to a variety of environments, including the city and small departments, and usually live fifteen years or more. While often it considered the chihuahua as weak and fragile, proper training and socialization can result in an excellent pet.

The Chihuahua also have a reputation for being spoiled and impregnable, but that is often because people no effort to train. Chihuahuas are like any other dog I: They need consistent rules and structure if they will learn effectively.

Many chihuahua focus their devotion on one person, putting too jealous of human relationships of this person, This can be mitigated through proper socialization. The Chihuahua tend to have a nature of clans, preferring the company of other dogs Chihuahua on other.

Also, important to take into account, These toddlers, They seem to have no concept of its size, and they may face other larger animals, What can generate damage and injuries to our mascota…

Health

Many chihuahua are sensitive to the cold due to their small body size. Chihuahua owners generally dress their dogs with coats in cold climates, but for this, There is to get them, because if you do not, do not leave place fabrics above.

This breed requires a veterinary expert in areas such as development and care dental care. Chihuahua tend to have genetic abnormalities, usually neurological, as Epilepsy, strokes. Like other Toy breeds, They also tend to have dislocation of knee.

Another genetic abnormality in chihuahua and other breeds Toy is hydrocephalus, or water on the brain. This condition appears in young puppies and usually results in the death of the puppy, as much, six months of age. It is thought that this disease is diagnosed because the puppy has an abnormally large head during the first months of life, but other symptoms are notable (Since "a large head" is a very vague description). Chihuahua puppies showing hydrocephalus They have patched skulls plates rather than solid bone, they are typically lethargic and do not grow at the same pace as his brothers. A true case of Hydrocephalus can be diagnosed by a veterinarian, Although the prognosis is grim.

However some chihuahua may have what is called 'Mollera the fontanelle', and it is completely natural and accepted for race, which is a small hole in the head where they do not have bone, only skin and hair. The Chihuahua is the only breed of dog that is born with an incomplete skull. The fontanelle It closes with age, but it requires great care during the first six months until the skull is fully formed.

Chihuahua tend to ocular infections, due to its large, round, protruding eyes and its relative proximity to the ground.

Chihuahuas can also be born with a defect in the liver known as portosystemic shunt, in which blood is diverted from the liver. This can cause a buildup of toxins in the body of the dog, Stunting and can be fatal if not corrected with surgery.

The speckled chihuahua coloring, or parents with such coloration descendants tend to a number of additional complications of health. The mottled coloration is a carrier of other possible and severe ocular conditions and blindness, deafness, Hemophilia, sterility, and other medical conditions. Buyers who own or want to buy a speckled chihuahua should do some research on possible health conditions of this coloration.

The pregnancy of a Chihuahua, hard 2 months and the young grow to between 3 cm to 5 cm..

Chihuahua are omnivores, and you must be careful in providing an adequate and balanced nutrition. At the same time, be careful in not supercharge this small breed. Chihuahua overweight tend to have problems with ligaments, tracheal collapse, chronic bronchitis, and shortening of life expectancy.

Some potential buyers looking for extremely small animals; very small dogs, in any way, are false. You can be sick, or malnourished, or, If you are healthy, they may experience short periods of life and health due to extreme dwarfism problems. They are not normally used for breeding, and may require special care. Some breeders chihuahua, they try to intentionally raise very small animals, and they increase the prices of smaller dogs, or they specifically advertised very small animals. Most reputable breeders disapprove such practices, pointing out that it is difficult to predict the adult size of a puppy, and citing other problems discussed earlier.

In practice there has been an increase in people wanting to have a Chihuahua Pocket rejecting the common size, This has changed the traditional pattern of raising this breed start doing that through the selection of specimens to breed chihuahua focusing on the size and eliminate the problems of a puppy that was born visibly smaller than others, many breeders reject this practice but it is a fact that the popularity of the "Chihuahua Pocket" It is here to stay ...

The tiny mouths often mean that there is no room for proper development of teeth. It is essential that a veterinary chihuahua receive regular dental care, and you may need to draw him some teeth to make room for proper development of the rest of the teeth in the mouth.

The Chihuahueno “Deer head” is the original Mexican Chihuahua, He was abroad where changed his appearance through crossing with other breeds, That's when you start to change your overall appearance now head more prominent and more stocky and abroad is precisely where racial establishing the standard race set this type of Chihuahua modified as “standard” When is the original the type “Deer” and even went beyond the damage to the original race to disqualify the type “Deer” and qualify as one “abnormality”.

This “abnormality” is more popular than any Canófila Federation would like to accept.

“Deer” or “Deer head” These are terms that are used sometimes to describe copies of Chihuahua that does not have the standard appearance of the “Apple head” of the race. These terms are not official.

The Deer heads They are not admitted for competition, they are disqualified, they are not for sale.

The “Nano Chihuahua” term used in the United States are chihuahua that are described with head up, and a very long nose, is not something natural, they are so because they suffered deformation in bone by malnutrition, These terms are not official, and prohibited the sale of the “Nano Chihuahua”. Those that are accepted are Chihuahua “Apple heads”

The life of the chihuahua usually up to 15 years of age. The more small are dogs more life they have. Their life expectancy depends first of all of their food (It is necessary, good quality and which have no obesity). Example: Not offer cookies, fat, chocolates, sweet, bread, pork and, much less, chicken bones to chew it becomes small needles, and they stuck in its body until his death. Not to give anything of great food, simply their respective croquettes or latitas for small breeds.

Reproduction

The sexual cycle of the dog is, in comparison with the rest of the domestic animals, is unique in many aspects, now that the time lag between periods of estrus (5-7 months) It is very long in proportion to the time of gestation (62 days), and ovulation occurs only once (but in several days) by zeal.

The sexual cycle is divided in 4 stages:

PROESTRO: have an average duration of 3-15 days. External manifestations are increasing the volume of the vulva, blood loss vulvar and attraction of male. At this stage the dog does not support mounting of the male.

ESTRO: popularly known as period of ZEAL. It has a duration of 3 a 10 days. The vulva is enlarged, There is a reduction of losses vulvar and attraction of male: It is at this time when ovulation occurs, mounting of the male and gestation.

DIESTRO: (of 110 a 140 days): This period includes the gestation, childbirth and lactation if occurred fertilization and the regression to normal tissues if not occurred.

ANESTRO (of 150 a 250 days): now there are no external signs and is the ideal for all kinds of interventions (ovary hysterectomy).

Thus, ovulation takes place during the mating season and it's a spontaneous ovulation. Most frequently it is between the day 10 and 14 the beginning of zeal, Although in less of 1 minute can be confirmed with a vaginal smear performed by a veterinarian.

Pregnancy in the bitch has a duration of 58 a 63 days. The normal delivery period varies between 5 and 24 hours, and alghourscasos, mainly if they are first-time, the time may be extended until 36 hours.

The delivery mechanism is divided into three phases:

  • The first phase corresponds to the openness and relaxation of the neck of the uterus to the exit of the puppies. The female trembles, Pant and may vomit. The vulvar lips will thicken and escapes by the lower corner a blanco-amarillento viscous liquid. You can see uterine contractions, but always of weak intensity. Walk in circles, recuesta in soil, and does not want to eat or drink (Although some females show a voracious appetite).
  • The dog chooses a quiet, dark place, and he prepares his paridera breaking rags and materials; It is desirable to provide elements so that you can make this work, more usual is the role of journal. Nothing should bother to her around.

  • The second phase is the expulsion of the puppies. The female is lying in position on one side, with the face directed towards your abdomen and contractions begin each 2 or 3 minutes, with great effort.

Grooming

Chihuahuas have two types of hair:

  • smooth and long. The Chihuahuas smooth They carry a velvety coat, bright and tight and have a collar – an area hair thicker and longer – around the neck. Coverage have little hair on the head and ears. The tail should be hairy, not naked. Brush them weekly with a rubber glove or soft brush to remove dead hair and maintain healthy skin and coat.
  • The Long haired chihuahua It is the product of a recessive gene, which means that a puppy must have the gene from both parents to express long hair, so it is not seen in litters as often as smooth. The long, soft fur is flat or slightly curly, and the dog has a collar around the neck, fringed ears, feathers on the legs and a tail plumed. Hair from the rest of the body is almost as soft as soft straight hair Chihuahua. The long-haired Chihuahua are beautiful, and they are easy to comb, but the hair falls are seasonal.

Long robe brushing with soft bristle brush once or twice a week. Use a stainless steel comb to remove tangles of hair ears, legs and tail.

If brush to the faithful chihuahua, You should not need frequent bathing. However, If you spend much time on your couch or in bed, there is nothing wrong with bathing as often as twice a week. Use a mild shampoo made for dogs and dry it well so not cool. Never let it sit and dry to the outdoors.

Keep clean your big ears chihuahua with a solution recommended by your veterinarian. Do not use cotton swabs within the ear; They can push dirt deeper. Laa orejaa clean with a cotton ball, I never deeper than the first knuckle of your finger.

Cut off nails regularly, usually every two weeks. They should never be so long that hear smacking on the floor.

Ratings Chihuahua

Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a dog of the breed “Chihuahua” you know certain factors. Not all breeds of dogs are apt to live in an apartment, You must take into account their character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, your care and if you have young children, their level of tolerance towards them.

adaptation ⓘ

5.0 rating
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Dog friendly ⓘ

3.0 rating
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Hair loss ⓘ

1.0 rating
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Affection Level ⓘ

5.0 rating
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Need to exercise ⓘ

1.0 rating
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Social Needs ⓘ

5.0 rating
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Apartment ⓘ

5.0 rating
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Grooming ⓘ

1.0 rating
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Stranger Friendly ⓘ

3.0 rating
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Barking Tendencies ⓘ

5.0 rating
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Health Issues ⓘ

4.0 rating
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Territorial ⓘ

4.0 rating
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Cat Friendly ⓘ

5.0 rating
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

intelligence ⓘ

5.0 rating
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

versatility ⓘ

3.0 rating
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Child Friendly ⓘ

1.0 rating
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Watchdog Ability ⓘ

3.0 rating
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Playfulness ⓘ

4.0 rating
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Images “Chihuahua”

credits:

1. triplet chihuahua by Caterinarufo / Public domain
2. Chihuahua by https://www.pexels.com/es-es/foto/animal-chihuahua-mascota-ojos-50718/
3. Chihuahua by https://pxhere.com/es/photo/60641
4. Blue merle chihuahua by Nuclearblitz12 / CC BY-SA
5. Chihuahua by https://www.pexels.com/photo/photo-of-tan-chihuahua-1048236/
6. A Chihuahua protecting its bone by David Shankbone / CC BY
7. standard chihuahua by Caterinarufo / Public domain
8. Buddy the Chihuahua by Jean G – HTTPS://www.flickr.com/photos/whatjeanlikes/
9. Chihuahua by https://www.pxfuel.com/es/free-photo-xzmeb

Videos “Chihuahua”

Type and recognitions:

  • CLASSIFICATION FCI:Group 9 –> Companion and Toy Dogs. . / Section 6 –> Chihuahueño. Without working trial.
  • FCI 218
  • Federations: FCI , AKC , ANKC , CKC , ​KC , NZKC , UKC
  • Standard FCI breed Chihuahua
  • CHIHUAHUA FCI

Alternative names:

    1. Chi, Chi-chi, Hua-Hua, Chihuahueño (English).
    2. Chihuahueño, aussi chihuahua (French).
    3. Chihuahua (German).
    4. Chihuahueño (Portuguese).
    5. Chihuahua (Spanish).

Xoloitzcuintle
Mésico FCI 234 . Primitive type

The Xoloitzcuintle is a calm dog, affectionate, loving, sensitive and happy.

Content

History

A Xoloitzcuintle Mexican may be an unusual phenomenon, but it is by no means an eccentric invention of modern times. On the other hand, this breed of dog is probably many thousands of years old.

American dog researchers believe that the Xoloitzcuintle came to the west coast of Mexico on Chinese merchant ships. Others believe that it was introduced into Central America by Cortez and its occupying forces.

However, Dogs that resembled the dog we know today existed in Mexico long before the arrival of the Spanish conquerors – this is documented by archaeological finds. Scientists date a statue of about 1700 years before Christ. This proves that the Xoloitzcuintle Mexican is probably the oldest breed of dog in the American continent – and one of the oldest dog breeds in the world. Its exact origin is still unknown today., but it must be more than 4000 years. The fact that this dog can be seen in such art objects indicates that it was already considered valuable in pre-Christian times. Its name indicates that it was considered as the dog of the god Condition, the aztec god of death.

Xoloitzcuintle: historical value

Today it is assumed that the breed of dog found many uses: He was regarded as the companion of the souls of the deceased and therefore often had to lay down his life as a sacrificial animal or accompany his deceased owner to the grave.. At the same time, However, he was also a house and farm keeper and served as a hot water bottle due to his bare skin and high body temperature. The Mexican natives held the meat of the Xoloitzcuintle. A Xoloitzcuintle Naked was considered a delicacy and a diet enrichment.

Today it is kept as a companion and family dog ​​and is considered intelligent, loving, sporty and calm. By nature you are sensitive and temperamental and want to be encouraged and kept busy. In very low temperatures and on sunny and hot days, the owners of the Xoloitzcuintle they should protect their four-legged friend with a dog coat against hypothermia or with a special sunscreen against sunburn.

Physical characteristics Xoloitzcuintle

Height to the cross: 33 a 57 cm for dogs and bitches.

Weight: Weight depends on height.

The color:

The Xoloitzcuintle not furry, but it has a thick pile mop that goes from black to black-gray, Slate gray, dark grey, reddish, liver, bronze to golden yellow; sometimes stained. The skin is wrinkled on the head and neck and is grayish red. At birth, puppies are pink like piggies and don't look standard until they are one year old.

Typical and at the same time particularly striking are the bat ears of approximately 10 cm long, as well as almond eyes, which can be black to yellow.

Average life expectancy: 14 years

Xoloitzcuintle character and skills

The Xoloitzcuintle is a quiet dog, affectionate, loving, sensitive and happy. He clings a lot to his family and wants to follow you everywhere. He seems to follow your voice and is a warm companion, gentle and affectionate. For this reason it is often used as a therapy dog.. He is also an energetic and agile athlete who loves to play and needs a lot of exercise and attention..

He loves his toys and he likes to play in the yard or garden, warm up in the sun and need your long daily walks. When i'm outdoors, should always be kept on a leash, since he likes to hunt small animals. It is not a dog that wants to be left alone in the yard. Can jump or climb over fences. Must participate in family activities and depends on your affections and interests.

Although he is tender and affectionate with his family, is quite reserved and distrustful of strangers and needs a little time to get used to you. It learns fairly quickly and is easy to train, although sometimes it can be quite independent. You have to train it with a lot of determination and discipline.

You are protective by nature and have a strong drive to protect your home and loved ones. The Xoloitzcuintle is usually a quiet dog that only barks when there is a good reason for it. He's also fearless and won't shy away from a fight. Can get along well with other dogs and pets, if you have lived with other animals from a young age. He also gets along very well with children if they treat him with respect.

He is an exceptionally robust and healthy dog ​​who needs a sweater in the cold and extremely hot seasons to protect his bare house. It is an odorless dog that does not lose its hair.

Xoloitzcuintle Care

The Xoloitzcuintle he is an unusual dog, why don't you pant, but sweats through your skin, like us. But your skin is sensitive to the sun, it even burns in the sun. That is why you should always have a sunscreen with a medium sun protection factor with you at sea., in the city, in the field and in the mountains. The advantage of this breed is that the Xoloitzcuintle cannot hide ticks or fleas under its fur.

Can be stored on a floor, but a house with a garden is more suitable. Oddly enough, to the Xoloitzcuintle loves to roll in the snow in winter and bathe in icy water. But before I'm ready, you should get used to it little by little. A warm coat is advisable for walks in winter. However, it should be a felt coat lined with cotton, because your naked and sensitive skin can react allergic to wool.

Nutrition of the Xoloitzcuintle

The Xoloitzcuintle needs a lot of water, especially in summer, since a lot of liquid evaporates through your skin. In extremely hot weather, water with a high mineral content should be given to avoid a lack of salt. In addition, the Xoloitzcuintle you need a balanced diet with a high proportion of protein. Unfortunately, thickens quickly, so you should avoid fat and sugar. With less exercise, it is better to feed it with green beans and rice.

The breeding of the Xoloitzcuintle

Breeding this ancient breed of dog is troublesome. Animal welfare experts even recommend a ban on breeding. Hairlessness is inherited in a dominant way. A dog with mixed genetic makeup is naked, a hairless quadruped does not carry the hairless gene. However, a Xoloitzcuintle homozygous and hairless is not viable and dies shortly after birth.

To ensure healthy offspring, a Xoloitzcuintle heterozygous and naked would have to mate with a furry representative. The offspring would be viable, but only half would have no hair. Since the hairy variant is not recognized as a breed in many countries, the mating of two hairless animals is often practiced and the death of non-viable animals is accepted. This circumstance makes the breed controversial and appears again and again in the context of torture breeding.. In addition, the hairless gene also increases the predisposition to jaw malformations and toothlessness, and Xoloitzcuintle Mexicans also have a stronger tendency to various skin diseases and immune deficiencies.

Salud Xoloitzcuintle

In addition to the concern about the difficulty of breeding, some health problems are particularly common in theXoloitzcuintle. The first and most important thing is dental defects, so that dogs lack some or all teeth and / or jaw malformations are inherited. In addition, immunological deficiencies are frequently found and the breed is predisposed to skin diseases such as purulent inflammations. Therefore, if you decide to choose this breed, it is important that you choose a breeder carefully and that you are willing to invest a lot of time and money in caring for your dog.

Images of the Xoloitzcuintle

Photos:

1 – A Xoloitzcuintle (Mexican Hairless Dog). by Micyaotl G.T., CC BY 2.0 , via Wikimedia Commons
2 – Xoloitzcuintli or Xoloitzcuintle by Alfredo&Sara aguirre, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
3 – Hairless Dog, preHispanic. by Rod Waddington, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
4 – Xoloitzcuintle by https://flic.kr/p/agfgec
5 – Xoloitzcuintle by https://pixabay.com/es/photos/imagen-perro-mascota-canino-2628918/
6 – Xoloitzcuintle or Mexican hairless dog in Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico by Emőke Dénes, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Xoloitzcuintle Videos

Xoloitzcuintle, the breed with historical value
ALL ABOUT XOLOITZCUINTLI: THE MEXICAN HAIRLESS DOG

Type and recognitions:

  • CLASSIFICATION FCI: 234
  • Group 5: Spitz and primitive types.
  • Section 6: Primitive type. Without working trial.

Federations:

  • FCI – Group 5: Dogs type Spitz and primitive type – Section 6: Primitive type.

FCI standard of the Xoloitzcuintle breed

Xoloitzcuintle FCI Xoloitzcuintle FCI

Alternative names:

    1. Mexican hairless dog, xolo (English).
    2. xolo, chien nu mexicain, chien nu du Mexique (French).
    3. Xoloitzcuintle, Tepeizeuintli, xolo (German).
    4. Xoloitzcuintle, xolo (Portuguese).
    5. Xolo, Perro azteca, Perro mexica. Perro con y sin pelo mexicano, Bogar, xoloitzcuintli (Spanish).

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