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Yellow-crested cockatoo
Cacatua sulphurea

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Yellow-crested cockatoo



Medium-sized, 35 cm.. long.

Yellow-crested cockatoo

The Yellow-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea) It is distinguished by its long, thin yellow erectile crest, that curves forward, and extending upward, above the nape, when it folded. The front of his crown and main feathers crest, are white. The rest of your plumage It is also white, except in yellow suffusion ear-coverts, under the wings and in the innerwebs of the undertail-coverts. The bases of the hackles and underparts, They are yellowed; some birds show a slight yellow tone, particularly on chest and the belly. The bill It is black; eye ring pale bluish; irises dark brown; legs grey. The female is similar to the male but with the irises reddish and slightly smaller.

The young birds They show both sexes irises dark taupe, although females They begin to acquire the red coloration in the first year. The bill and legs immature are also lighter.

Description 4 subspecies
  • Cacatua sulphurea abbotti

    (Oberholser, 1917) – Similar to the parvula, but largest.

  • Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata
  • Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata

    (Fraser, 1844) – Slightly larger than the nominal, with one crest orange & ear-coverts orange yellow. Additional research may provide a basis for improving this subspecies to a specific status..

  • Cacatua sulphurea parvula

    (Bonaparte, 1850) – Similar to the nominal species, but with the ear-coverts paler and less yellow on yellow feathers underparts. the size of the bill in this subspecies it increases clinically towards the west.

  • Cacatua sulphurea sulphurea

    (Gmelin, 1788) – Nominal.


Video – "Yellow-crested cockatoo" (Cacatua sulphurea)


They inhabit at the edges of the forest, wooded areas, farmland, cocoteros, semi-arid areas and forests until the 800 m (locally 1.200 m).

The Yellow-crested cockatoo usually they found in pairs or small groups of up to ten individuals, although they may meet in larger flocks to feed on fruit trees. They can form flocks with Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus).

They tend to be noisy and visible, but can be difficult to spot when moving silently in the canopy, and they are more often in flight. The groups who leave their resting places in the montane forest areas frequently displace forage at lower altitudes including cultivated fields. Pairs may hover conspicuously above the forest canopy searching for fruitful trees, allowing a reasonably close approach when resting on a branch.

The crest It is generally stands when landing, or when an individual is making calls from a perch. Like most of the Cockatoos They enjoy a bath in the rain.


Specimens of Yellow-crested cockatoo on the island of button in State reproductive during the months of September and October, although Nusa Tenggara the breeding It occurs in the months of April and May. The female It lays two or three white eggs in the hollow of a tree, and incubation lasts around 28 days with both parents participating. Chicks they leave the nest to 10 weeks and are dependent parent for about two months.


They feed in trees and soil. Its diet It includes seeds, corn (Zea mays) of cultivated fields, fruit, berries, egg yolks, flowers and nuts (including large coconuts (cocos nucifera)).

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 1.360.000 km2

The Yellow-crested cockatoo They are confined Indonesian, where they can be seen in the lowlands Isla Celebes (virtually extinct in the north), islands in the Flores sea, in Nusa Tenggara and isolated islands Masalembu in the Java Sea.

introduced in Singapore and Hong Kong. The species is found in both wooded areas and cultivated and is scarce throughout its range. It is estimated that the world population total is less than 40.000 birds and is decreasing. Although populations of the nominal subspecies and of the subspecies parvula may still be close to 10.000 specimens, the citrinocristata subspecies It has an estimated population between 800 and 7.200 only individuals, having declined by 80% between the years 1986 and 1989, while the distinctive subspecies abbotti It is now represented by only nine individuals in nature.

Although habitat loss is clearly a factor in Sumba, where distribution appears to be linked to the extent of primary forest (is only about 15% the original forest), trade is the main threat to the species as a whole. Trade data show that exported almost 100.000 birds in years 1980-1992. The export citrinocristata subspecies It was banned in 1992 by local authorities, and 26 birds were confiscated in September of that year. There are probably at least 50 individuals of each subspecies in public collections and more than 2.000 in private aviculture, although the numbers for the subspecies abbotti They are unknown.

Distribution 4 subspecies


State of conservation ⓘ

Critically Endangered critically endangered (UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: critically endangered.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Its crashing fall It is almost entirely attributable to the unsustainable exploitation for domestic and international trade. Logging to the conversion of forests for agriculture as well as the use of pesticides for land and large-scale.

Justification of the population

Based on recent surveys in various parts of the range of the species, C. Trainor in some (2007) It has been estimated the world population in less than 7.000 individuals: 3.200-5.000 en Sumba (though perhaps only 562 in 2012, Burung Indonesia en preparación), 500 en Komodo, 200-300 en Timor Leste, 200-300 en Sulawesi, 20-50 in West Timor, 40-70 Flores, 50-100 en Sumbawa, 100 in Rinca and other 700 birds in total. The best data is located in the band 2.500-9.999 individuals, equivalent to 1.667-6.666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1.500-7.000 mature individuals.

Conservation actions and research in progress

CITES Appendix I (2005). It has developed and adopted a recovery plan cooperative and has prepared an update 2012 (D. Mulyawati in some. 2012). The populations are found in various protected areas, It is the most important Rawa Aopa Watumohai (55 copies in 2011 [Waugh 2013]) and National Parks Caraente (en Sulawesi), supporting up 100 individuals (transgressed 2006) , Reserva Natural de Wildlife en Pulau Moyo, Komodo National Park and two national parks in Sumba: Manupeu-Tanadaru y Laiwangi-Wanggameti. Nini Konis Santana National Park declared in Timor has a 100 estimated birds (Trainor et al., Without date) . In Rawa Aopa Watumohai nests they have been protected from predators by removing vegetation pendant necklaces and installation of plastic around the tree trunks nesting (Waugh 2013). Moratoriums on international trade are in effect, although it is likely that a large proportion of trade is a national. Several subpopulations of Sulphur-crested Cockatoo have increased in Sumba between 1992 and 2002, due to conservation efforts (including local education, ecotourism and law enforcement), although densities remained below those typical for other cockatoo species (Cahill et al ., 2006) . Capture for trade has declined dramatically in Sumba through a variety of awareness and protection measures of the community (D. Mulyawati in some. 2012).

Following the surveys of 2008 and 2009, the Indonesia Parrot Project and Konservasi Kakatua Indonesia have started meetings with community leaders and villagers in Masakambing and Masalembu, as well as with the military and local police, to raise awareness and gain support for Sulphur-crested Cockatoo conservation (Metz et al. Al., 2009) . A conservation program-awareness-pride has also begun to involve adults and school Archipelago Masalembu (Metz et al. , 2009, Translating et al., 2009) And in Southeast Sulawesi (Anon., 2012). He wrote a “Regulations village” to make it illegal to catch, possess or transport the species and initiate measures to reduce habitat destruction and employ a former village chief to guard and protect nests and study Sulphur-crested Cockatoos (Translating et al., 2009) . Moronone community in Rawa Aopa Watumohai NP, where four members of the village have been hired as Forest Wardens (Anon., 2012), have established similar community-based regulations. The guards protect the species against poachers and perform monitoring activities (Waugh 2013). The pest status of the species can be addressed by planting crops to compensate for losses and to act as a “culture sacrifice”, for example, sunflower fields are used to attract the species out of other crops (Waugh 2013). Mangrove restoration is also being used to increase nesting habitat available (Waugh 2013). a repeat of the population census is planned abbotti , together with studies on its biological history and ecology (Metz et al., 2009) .

Proposed Research and Conservation Actions

Carry out further studies (including Roti, but also more studies on Alor and Pantar) to identify the most appropriate action for conservation areas and to periodically monitor key population surveys repeating ago 8-10 years. Provide relevant support for protected areas and conservation initiatives within its range and protect nests when possible. Strengthen the protection of forest Poronumbu, Sumba, declaring Nature Reserve (Translating y Agustina 2012). Strengthen control, the enforcement and monitoring of trade and establishing greater management of captive populations. Improve law enforcement in designated protected areas and other key areas for trade, including ports, markets, etc. Promote widespread community conservation initiatives. These may include, en la isla de Pasoso, Sulawesi Central, work to protect the Sulphur-crested Cockatoo should involve all five families living on the island and introduce community involvement programs for children and adults on several other islands where the species occurs (Translating y Agustina 2012). The recommendations formulated specifically for the protection of the species in the Komodo National Park consisted of carrying out an annual monitoring, maintain regular patrols, sensitize local communities and studying human activities and impacts within the park (Imansyah et al ., 2005, Benstead 2006) . Conduct ecological research to clarify options for management and conservation. Other objectives should be to study the abundance and distribution of nest holes and water sources.. The provision of artificial sources of water near the nesting sites, that is to say, water ponds, It is essential for the species on the island of Komodo and may also be necessary to protect the nests of young Komodo dragons in Komodo (Translating y Agustina, 2012).

"Yellow-crested cockatoo" in captivity:

The male Yellow-crested cockatoo It is especially aggressive with the female, sometimes to kill her. This phenomenon is known in many cockatoo species..

among the white cockatoos, this is somewhat difficult to breed in captivity. As a pet can be a formidable partner provided it has been raised for that purpose and to provide much attention.

It is very difficult for them to disconnect in the presence of their owners and entertain themselves without seeking continuous interaction.
Great ability to imitate human sound within the world of cockatoos.

Note: Because of its status, CRITICALLY ENDANGERED, only controlled captive breeding is recommended in an attempt to recover this species in the wild.

Alternative names:

Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Lesser sulphur-crested cackatoo, Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (ingles).
Cacatoès soufré, Petit Cacatoès à huppe jaune (French).
Gelbwangenkakadu, Orangehaubenkakadu (German).
Cacatua-de-crista-amarela (Portuguese).
Cacatúa de Moño Naranja, Cacatúa Sulfúrea (español).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Cacatuidae
Genus: Cockatoo
Scientific name: Cacatua sulphurea
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus sulphureus

Images Sulphur-crested Cockatoo:

Species of the genus Cacatua
  • Cacatua tenuirostris
  • Cacatua pastinator
  • —- Cacatua pastinator derbyi
  • —- Cacatua pastinator pastinator
  • Cacatua sanguinea
  • —- Cacatua sanguinea gymnopis
  • —- Cacatua sanguinea normantoni
  • —- Cacatua sanguinea sanguinea
  • —- Cacatua sanguinea transfreta
  • —- Cacatua sanguinea westralensis
  • Cacatua goffiniana
  • Cacatua ducorpsii
  • Cacatua haematuropygia
  • Cacatua galerita
  • —- Cacatua galerita eleonora
  • —- Cacatua galerita fitzroyi
  • —- Cacatua galerita galerita
  • —- Cacatua galerita triton
  • Cacatua ophthalmica
  • Cacatua sulphurea
  • —- Cacatua sulphurea abbotti
  • —- Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata
  • —- Cacatua sulphurea parvula
  • —- Cacatua sulphurea sulphurea
  • Cacatua moluccensis
  • Cacatua alba

  • Sources:

    – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
    – Birdlife


    (1) – Cacatua sulphurea by Charles LamFlickr
    (2) – Citron-crested Cockatoo(Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata) in the Walsrode Bird Park, Germany By Quartl (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (3) – A Yellow-crested Cockatoo at Auckland Zoo, New Zealand By Ashleigh Thompson (originally posted to Flickr as Captain) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (4) – Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata, Citron-crested Cockatoo. Photograph of upper body and crest By Ruth Rogers (originally posted to Flickr as Citron Cockatoo) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (5) – Citron-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata). The glass between the camera and this parrot makes the picture just a little bit blurry By Alexander Tundakov (originally posted to Flickr as White Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (6) – Photo of Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (wings clipped) By Snowmanradio, with permission from Tropical Birdland, Leicestershire, England. (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (7) – Yellow-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea) at the KOBE Oji Zoo by opencage.info
    (8) – Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (wings clipped) By Snowmanradio, with permission from Tropical Birdland, Leicestershire, England. (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (9) – Yellow-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea) by Darren – Flickr
    (10) – Yellow-Crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea by Sek Keung LoFlickr
    (11) – Cacatua sulphurea by Charles LamFlickr
    (12) – Cacatua sulphurea by Charles LamFlickr
    (13) – Cacatua sulphurea by Pichon Charles LamFlickr
    (14) – A painting of a Yellow-crested Cockatoo, also known as the Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, (originally captioned “Plyctolophus sulphureus. Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

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