White-crowned Parrot
Pionus senilis

White-crowned Parrot

24 cm.. length and a weight between 193-229 g..

The White-crowned Parrot (Pionus senilis) has the forecrown, crown and lores, white. The feathers of the cheeks, sides head, behind eyes, and rear of the neck, basically pale bluish green with green or blue violet and blue subterminal band darker margins, giving the whole a intricate scaly appearance.

Mantle and back, green with copper plating shine; rump and uppertail-coverts, brighter green; scapulars basically colored green with coppery bronze in the points and outerweb. Lesser coverts and median, bronze with paler tips coppery, giving a mottled appearance; primary coverts, violet blue; greater coverts green. Primaries and secondaries outer, violet blue with green tips to outerweb of the primaries and inner secondary.

Under, the wings pale bluish green. Patch in chin and top of the throat, white; feathers of the chest, green at the base (mostly hidden part) tipped dark blue or violet-blue and blue band paler, giving the whole a scalloped effect; undertail-coverts red. Tail green in the center, outer feathers blue with red at base. Bill pale yellow color with light green tint; eye ring Pink; irises dark brown: legs yellowish gray.

Both sexes are similar. The immature has the head, the back of the neck and the chest, green, pale yellow with margins in the cheeks and crown, giving a pale mottling.


The subspecies decoloratus, that was distributed from the Yucatan Peninsula to western Panama, previously recognized on the basis of their throat more purpurea (less blue) and your chest and wings, more blue. However, There is not much geographic variation in the species Pionus senilis and the aforementioned characters are not consistent on the proposed range.

  • Sound of the White-crowned Parrot.


Senile Parrot habitat is mainly the rainforest (including tropical rain forest), but locally it can be found in forests of oak pine, and low mountain forest. Birds have been reported in forest edges, cultivated areas and grassland areas with scattered trees, plantations, secondary forest with emergent trees, woodlands and streams in Costa Rica, on the edge of urban areas.

Lives mainly in lowlands, but they are distributed locally 2.300 meters in Guatemala and near 1.600 meters in Costa Rica 1.800 meters in Panama. Gregarious, mainly in pairs or outside breeding season, in small herds; sometimes in larger meetings of up to several hundred birds.


Build your nests in tree cavities or hollow trunks of palm trees. The reproduction period occurs between February to May; in March in Mexico; in January-April Costa Rica; February to May in Honduras. The incubation comprises of 26-28 days, Followed by 54-68 days growth of pups. It has been difficult to achieve reproduction of the species in captivity and little is known about their reproduction in wildlife.

The size of clutch is of 3 to 5 eggs


It feeds mainly on the tops of the trees seeds mature Inga and Erythrina and fruits Palm; sometimes cultures maize and Sorghum.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 1.290.000 km2

Endemic of Central America, from Mexico until Panama.

The White-crowned Parrot It is in the humid tropics East Mexico on the Caribbean side of Tamaulipas and to the East of San Luis Potosí eastward through Yucatan Peninsula, in Campeche and Quintana Roo, the borders of Belize and the northern lowlands and highlands of eastern Guatemala. It is found throughout the Caribbean slope of Honduras, mainly below 1.100 m (Occasionally highest altitudes) and in Roatan in the Bay islands, and on the Caribbean side of Nicaragua (possibly also on the side of Pacific) until Costa Rica, where it remains mainly in the lowlands and foothills of the Caribbean slope, becoming less and less numerous south of Lemon; also observed in the slope of Pacific in the South of Costa Rica and on both sides West Panama, to the West of Chiriqui and to the West of Bull's mouths.

Some local migrations (also apparently vertical) occur (for example, in parts of Oaxaca, Mexico and parts of Costa Rica). The species is widespread, but the abundance varies from rare to common depending on the location; It is perhaps the largest parrot in Costa Rica.

current distribution: No data where the current distribution of specified White-crowned Parrot. This species of psittacine still has a presence throughout its range, although there are regions where it has been extirpated, as the West's Quintana Roo and Gulf Coast (INE 2000).

Despite being frequently eaten by native peoples (at least once), persecuted as a pest of crops, captured in low numbers for trade in live birds and severely deforested parts of its range, It has not detected a serious overall decline in population.


• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: decreasing.

sheltered Mexico by the Official Mexican Standard (NOM–059–SEMARNAT–2001–2010) under the category of Threatened.

Justification of the red list category

This species has a very large range and therefore it is not close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of size range (Extension Occurrence <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión / calidad de hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número De lugares o fragmentación severa). A pesar de que la tendencia de la población parece estar disminuyendo, no se cree que la disminución sea suficientemente rápida para acercarse a los umbrales de Vulnerables bajo el criterio de tendencia poblacional (> 30% decline in ten years or three generations). The population size is very large and, therefore, not approaching the thresholds for vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estimada en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specific population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as the least concern.

Justification of the population

Partners in Flight estimates the total population of 50.000-499.999 individuals (A. Panjabi in a bit., 2008).

Justification of trend

It is suspected that the population is declining due to continuous habitat destruction.

Senile parrot in captivity:

(CITES) It included in the Appendix II (It includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival.)

The species ranked first in the early 80's in psittacine species most commercialized in Mexico (Iñigo Elias and Ramos 1992). Currently, there marketing of the species in the national and international market.

Valued as a pet or ornamental bird by its feathers, ability to imitate sounds and its tendency to form bonds with people.

Alternative names:

White-crowned Parrot, White crowned Parrot, White-capped Parrot (English).
Pione à couronne blanche, Pione givrée, Pionus à front blanc, Pionus à front blanche (French).
Glatzenkopfpapagei, Glatzenkopf, Glatzenkopf-Papagei, Weißkappenpapagei (German).
Curica-de-testa-branca (Portuguese).
Lora coroniblanca, Loro Corona Blanca, loro corona-blanca, Loro Coroniblanco, Loro de Corona Blanca, Loro Gorgiblanco, Loro Senil (Spanish).
Loro coroniblanco (Costa Rica).
Lora coroniblanca (Honduras).
loro corona blanca, loro corona-blanca, Loro Coroniblanco (Mexico).
Loro Gorgiblanco (Nicaragua).

Johann Baptist von Spix

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pionus
Scientific name: Pionus senilis
Citation: (von Spix, 1824)
Protonimo: Psittacus senilis

Images White-crowned Parrot:


White-crowned Parrot (Pionus senilis)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – A White-crowned Parrot (also known as White-crowned Pionus) at Macaw Mountain Bird Park, Honduras By Pionus_senilis_-Macaw_Mountain_Bird_Park,_Honduras-8a.jpg: Sarah and Jasonderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A White-crowned Parrot (also known as White-crowned Pionus) at Macaw Mountain Bird Park, Honduras By nakashi (Flickr: P1100396) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A White-crowned Parrot (also known as White-crowned Pionus) at Macaw Mountain Bird Park, Honduras By nakashi (Flickr: P1100397) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – (Pionus Senilis). White-crowned Parrot , Guatemala By Virgilrm at English Wikipedia (Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons.) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A White-crowned Parrot (also known as White-crowned Pionus) at Macaw Mountain Bird Park, Honduras By nakashi (Flickr: P1100398) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – White-crowned Parrot (also known as the White-crowned Pionus); close up of upper body By Brian Gratwicke [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A White-crowned Parrot at Cape May Zoo, New Jersey, USA By Jim Capaldi (Flickr: Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – (Pionus Senilis) White-crowned Parrot in a tree By Virgilrm at English Wikipedia (Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons.) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – White-crowned Parrot (Pionus senilis), also known as White-crowned Pionus, at the aviary Birds of Eden in South Africa By SandyCole (mailto:[email protected]) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons


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