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Chestnut-fronted Macaw
Ara severus


Guacamayo Severo

Content

Description:

Ilustración Guacamayo Severo

46 cm.. length and a weight between 285 and 387 g..

The Chestnut-fronted Macaw (Ara severus) It is a medium-sized Parrot with a plumage predominantly Green.

The male and female are almost identical and juveniles are hardly different from adults.

In the male adult, the feathers of the crown and the neck they are heavily infiltrated blue. The forecrown, chin and the area of the cheeks bordering with the bare skin of the face are brown. The curvature of the wing, carpal edge and small lower coverts are bright red. The bottom of the flight feather shows a dark red-orange color.

The tail is reddish brown with a blue tip. The bill greyish black. The bare skin of the face it is creamy white with fine lines of small black feathers. The irises is yellow, the legs grey.

The youth they are like the of adults, but have the tail shorter and the irises is grey.

The Chestnut-fronted Macaw may be confused with two species: the Blue-winged Macaw, Although this has a frontal band and stain abdominal Red and the Red-bellied Macaw Although it differs by having the facial skin yellow, and the abdomen red. On the other hand, These parrots are smaller and have a yellow color under the wings.

Habitat:

While they are sometimes in clearings or on the edge of this habitat, the Chestnut-fronted Macaw, in general, avoid the great forests never invaded by water. They prefer areas that are periodically flooded, secondary forests, galleries of trees that border the watercourses, oil palm plantations, meadows and pastures where there are still some scattered stands of trees.

It depends on the region, These birds live in very different elevations of up 1000 metres in Colombia, 1500 meters in the South of Ecuador, and only 350 metres in Venezuela.

The Chestnut-fronted Macaw, usually, they live in pairs or in small groups. However they can form large gatherings when dorms are set or when food resources are abundant.

The Chestnut-fronted Macaw, sometimes, they feed in the company of the Red-bellied Macaw (Ara manilata).

During the day, they are essentially arboreal, preferring to remain at the top of the trees and in the canopy, where they remain well hidden in thick foliage. They are best observed at dawn and dusk, as they follow regular routes between their places of rest and feeding sites.

They fly directly, with fast rhythms revealing red underneath his wings stain.

They are birds sedentary. In some mountain areas, However, undertake altitudinal migrations.

Reproduction:

Given the large size of its distribution area and large variation in latitude, nesting takes place at different times depending on the region, from March to may in Colombia, February-March in Panama, and from September to December in Suriname.

These macaws usually They nest in cavities of dead Palm trees, often just above the water, but they can also lay their eggs in a rock crevice.

The spawning usually includes 2 or 3 eggs. There is little information of this bird in the wild, but it is known that in captivity the period of incubation lasts a few 28 days. The reproductive cycle is particularly long, The chicks remain in the nest for a minimum of 9 weeks.

Food:

The Chestnut-fronted Macaw they are exclusively vegetarian. Its diet includes seeds of Hura crepitans, Sapium aureum, Cedrela odorata and Cupania cinerea, the pulp and the seeds of Inga laterifolia, Micropholis melinoneana, Euterpe precatoria and Gulielma, and fruits of Ficus, Cecropia feulla, Caraniana, as well as fruit of different types of fig trees or palms (especially species with small fruits); also flowers of, for example, Ferrule and Erythrina.

The birds are fed into silence in the canopy where they can be difficult to detect.

Distribution:

The Chestnut-fronted Macaw are distributed to the East of Panama and by South America reaching the center of Bolivia.

In East Panama they are in the tropical zone (records in the West to the North of the Canal area they are probably due to leaks), on the slope of the peaceful from the South of the Andes to the South of Ecuador (of Guayas to Pichincha) and in the Northern lowlands of Colombia, South to the upper area of the Valley of Sinu River, extending into the foothills of the Colombian Andes, in the valleys of the Cauca and Magdalena until Antioquia.

To the East of the Andes they occupy the Amazonian lowlands of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia in Peace, Beni, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, going east of the foothills of the Andes through the West and South of the amazon (Although they are not known in the North of Brazil, for example, in Manaus or along the rivers Negro and Branco).

Propagate through the tropical zone of Venezuela in Zulia and from the West of Apure until Aragua, Northwest of Bolívar and the Amazonas along the Orinoco, reaching the Guianas and Amapá, Brazil.

To the South of the amazon is extended by the Mato Grosso, Brazil. A record to the South of Bahia is not confirmed.

Resident with seasonal movements of altitude in some areas (for example, West of Ecuador and North of Venezuela).

Pretty common throughout much of its range, and while the deterioration of habitat has caused serious decreases in population at the local level (for example, in the Valle del Cauca, Colombia and West of Ecuador), moderate deforestation has resulted in increases in other areas.

Although there are no reports in Guyana Since the beginning of the 19th century, the Chestnut-fronted Macaw they are still common in Suriname, especially in some coastal areas.

The species is kept in captivity, but the demand is not very big.

Conservation:


Status

• Red List category of the UICN current: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The Chestnut-fronted Macaw they are quite common throughout much of its range birds. Apparently, they are able to survive to the selective deforestation and even capitalize.

In Venezuela it is a species with high rates of being traded as a pet due to its beauty and sociable behavior. The Ye'kwana on the Caura forest reserve in the State Bolívar, They include this species in his list of game birds, for its power and ornaments, but it is not the most hunted. In the State Carabobo is marketed as a pet according to data from the Regional Directorate for the Ecosocialism and waters-Carabobo.
On the part of the National Government is protected by the wildlife and its regulations protection law. Several of their populations are found in the national parks: Waraira Repano, Henri Pittier, The Caura forest reserve, San Esteban, Canaima. Currently the National office of biological diversity, Ministry of the Popular power for the environment He is working on defining the criteria to develop the official books of endangered species of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

In Bolivia, international trade in psittacines had caused significant problems for this species in the past, but since the beginning of 1980, their trade is prohibited.

"Chestnut-fronted Macaw" in captivity:

Recently, the Chestnut-fronted Macaw have joined the ranks of other birds kept in captivity. For a time, most of the breeding birds of this species were acquired through the importation of wild specimens. Today this has changed, and most of these macaws today come from generations bred in captivity. Being recent its breeding in captivity, most of These parrots will retain much of their natural behaviors.

These small macaws are popular due to their friendly disposal and most likely will continue to grow in popularity in the future.

While they have not had hundreds of years of selection to tame their personalities, These macaws can be a fantastic pets if they are fed by hand and are well socialized from a young age.

They are creatures very curious, so they need a lot of mental stimulation to be healthy and happy. They should have on hand, games, toys, and daily interaction with your caregiver to make sure that you do not bored.

Most of the Chestnut-fronted Macaw they form links monogamous and they need to live with more birds in order to be able to form a family. Won't these birds well if they are isolated from family and some even become neurotic if their mental needs are not met.

A future buyer of a Chestnut-fronted Macaw You should plan on integrating this beautiful bird in his life to ensure the achievement of all the emotional and cognitive needs.

In general, to most of the Chestnut-fronted Macaw do not like being touched in excess, Although all birds are different and have their own personality. Assess your bird to see what what works best. These birds enjoying caresses next to the back of the neck, along their beaks, or around your eyes. They can be happy on the shoulders of its owner. Jewelry or shiny objects amaze quickly to this curious Parrot. For this reason, All chains, earrings, watches, bracelets , etc … they should stay away from our Macaw, since it could break if the bird decides to play with them.

Although these parrots fall into the category of small macaws, they maintain a high level of noise. It is not an ideal pet for apartments. If you decide to buy one and you live in an apartment, It may be a good reason to argue with your neighbors, Since these birds are noisy. Loud high-pitched sounds can easily be heard a few floors below and are to be expected during the early morning hours., at noon, and before the sunset. This is what they do in their natural habitat.

Yes a Chestnut-fronted Macaw It is continuously shouting for the attention of their owner, These calls should be ignored.. The bird is reacting the only way it knows how to get your attention. The best thing is to give attention during moments of tranquility that is account that this works best.

Unfortunately, many times a homeowner will come to the incessant screams of your Macaw in order to calm the neighbors below; But, This attention usually works in opposite way and the bird will continue to making noise because you know it will work.

Under no circumstances, the owner should be snapping the beak of the bird, spray it with water, or shout it when is making excessive noise. Such tactics only make the problem worse and parrots do not understand this type of punishment. On the other hand, owners should focus on something more positive for the bird and reward it in some way when it is quiet. With the time, the bird will recognize that this positive behavior works much better.

Despite these parrots can be noisy, in general, they are those who speak better of all macaws. One Chestnut-fronted Macaw You can speak with clarity and memorize a lot of words and phrases. They are possessors of some sharp voices that are a delight to listen. It must be said that the purchase of a parrot for his ability to speak is not the best idea, Since some parrots can never learn to talk and its owner can feel extremely disappointed. In its place, the best is to opt for a bird by its adorable and nice personality, If she starts to talk, then it will be an added advantage.

REPRODUCTION:

The breeding of Chestnut-fronted Macaw it's not very hard. While it is true there is time for the union of these birds, not much effort is needed to achieve that they reproduce successfully. It is always recommended do not use domestic birds in a breeding program, since once domesticated, they usually do not reproduce successfully.
The best candidates are those who have been exposed to other severe macaws and have lived within a Aviary.

When approaching the season of reproduction in spring and early summer, a bonded pair will be more vocal. During this time a female will look for a nesting site to raise their future pigeon. In most cases, This is usually a vertical wooden nest box or metal placed in a corner of the cage. Inside the box must have a ladder to be sure that the female can be up and down without damaging their eggs. The bottom of the box should also have some kind of soft base such as wood chips that are non-toxic to the parrot.; But, some female birds choose to remove wood chips. If this occurs, the owner must again enter a handful of chips in the nest box until you put the first egg since this keeps the egg and prevents it from moving around and damage to. The box should also be placed so that the owner has easy access to the eggs and chicks. Most boxes are suspended outside the cage with doors that open on the side of the box or the top..

The egg laying it's every other day until your clutch is complete. On average, a typical clutch will consist of between 2 to 4 white eggs. The female incubates eggs during 27 to 28 days. Just before hatching, the chickens will make a small hole from the inside of the egg in order to be able to breathe. This will alert the mother of arrival. Some mothers eat the shell to help recover the calcium that is lost while it incubated, However, others completely ignore it.

Once the chicks are hatching, the mother is left with the chick for several weeks until they can produce their own body heat and increased demand for food of baby birds. Until then, the male work tirelessly to ensure the young, the female, and himself, food. This moment of hard tension until that all babies are weaned; approximately 70 days.

FEEDING:

In the wild these birds feed on all kinds of food and it is important that we try to imitate their natural diet. This makes it a healthier bird. From time to time, We must provide palm nuts their beaks are designed to eat the fleshy external parts of these fruits. These dried fruits contain oils and enzymes you require our birds. A base diet of Pellet and seeds also must provide.

They have to be powered also with fresh fruit and vegetables on a daily basis. fruits like oranges, Kiwis, handles, apples, grapes, peaches and Plums they are great accessories for the bird. Many of these fruits can be cut into squares and presented as a skewer of a our Macaw, Since he likes to play with fruit and the sampling of all flavors.

The vegetables as the pumpkin, corn, Carrot, Kale, Spinach, celery and are generally a joy to most parrots. These vegetables can be cut during the dinner and were placed in the refrigerator during the future feed. In this way you will save time. Other healthy items are beans and legumes; although, beans and vegetables always must be cooked before feeding your bird. If a severe Macaw is cared for properly, and feeds with a variety of different foods that are healthy, It can live up to the 45 or 50 years.

Alternative names:

Chestnut-fronted Macaw, Brazilian Green Macaw, Chestnut fronted Macaw, Severa Macaw, Severe Macaw (English).
Ara vert, Ara à front châtain, Ara sévère (French).
Rotbugara (German).
Maracanã-guacu, anacã, ararica, ararinha, ararinha-de-fronte-castanha, maracanã, maracanã-açu, maracanã-guaçu (Portuguese).
Guacamaya Cariseca, Guacamayo Severo, Maracaná Grande (español).
Guacamaya cariseca, Cheja cariseca (Colombia).
Maracaná (Venezuela).
Loro arara, Guacamayo frenticastaño (Ecuador).
Tereche grande, Parabachi, maracaná grande (Bolivia).
Shivaí (Chimane).
Maracana Guasu (Guarani).
Avensó (Embera).
E-ara (Piaroa).

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: ARA
Scientific name: Ara severus
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protonimo: Psittacus severus


Images Chestnut-fronted Macaw:

Videos "Chestnut-fronted Macaw"


Species of the genus Ara


“Chestnut-fronted Macaw” (Ara severus)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Birdlife
– Venezuelan of information on biological diversity system – Macaw Maracanã (Ara severus)

Photos:

(1) – Cheatnut-fronted Macaw (Ara severus) at Jungle Island of Miami By DickDaniels (http://carolinabirds.org /) (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Chestnut-fronted Macaw stretching leg and wing By Sandysphotos2009 (20100123_187Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Chestnut-fronted Macaw or Severe Macaw in south Columbia By anthrotect (originally posted to Flickr as [1]) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Chestnut-fronted Macaw at Santa Fe Zoo, Medellín, Colombia By Steven (Quueee?Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A Chestnut-fronted Macaw at World Parrot Refuge, Coombs, British Columbia, Canada By Herb Neufeld (P1120046Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A Chestnut-fronted Macaw at Niabi Zoo, Coal Valley, Illinois, USA By Bill & Vicki Tracey from Rochelle, Illinois, usa (At the ZooUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Chestnut-fronted Macaw (also known as Severe Macaw) at at World Parrot Refuge Center, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada By Darlee Byron (Well.. Hello!Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Chestnut-fronted Macaw | Maracanã (Ara severus) by Fernando Flores – Flickr
(9) – A Chestnut-fronted Macaw in Miami, Florida, USA. It is probably feral By Don Faulkner (Chestnut-fronted MacawUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Ilustración Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

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Red-throated Parakeet
Psittacara rubritorquis

Aratinga gorgirroja

Content

Description:


Anatomy-parrots-eng

28 cm.. length and 130 g. of weight.
The Red-throated Parakeet (Psittacara rubritorquis) they have a plumage, in general, green, with yellow tones in the underparts; orange-red in the throat and on the front of the neck, with yellow-orange feathers scattered; variety of pens of color red orange scattered in the part low of them cheeks and both sides of the neck; blue tint on primary coverts and vane outer of the flight feather; underwing-coverts brighter yellowish green; below, the flight feather yellow color without brightness.

The bill color horn. Bare area of the eye ring grayish brown. The irises orange.

Ilustración Aratinga gorgirroja

The male and female are similar.

The immature with the throat red, absent in the cheeks and both sides of the neck. The irises brown.

Habitat:

Video – "Red-throated Parakeet" (Psittacara rubritorquis)

Aratinga holochlora rubritorquis

The Red-throated Parakeet is located in altitudes that range between the 600 and 1.800 m, in a variety of wooded areas, Save the rainforest.

They can be observed in humid forests, Open with weeds and growing areas areas in Guatemala; forests of Pinus sp in Nicaragua.

Is in flocks outside the breeding season, and couples during courtship and nesting season. Larger congregations are produced when food is abundant.

Reproduction:

The nesting takes place in tree cavities, cracks in rocks, holes from woodpeckers, holes in buildings or in tree termite mounds.
The breeding season is between the months of January and August and the laying tends to be of 3-4 eggs.

Food:

With feeds seed, nuts, berries and fruits. It can also feed on cultivated seeds and corn..
Sometimes, considered a pest to crops.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 139.000 km2

Distributed by the Eastern Highlands of Guatemala and El Salvador (apparently only a record) to the South by Honduras to the North of Nicaragua.

Conservation:

State of conservation ⓘ


Status Minor Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

• Red List category of the UICN current: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The size of the world population It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the. 1996).

The population of Red-throated Parakeet suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

Not threatened globally (least concern). CITES II

"Red-throated Parakeet" in captivity:

Pretty rare in captivity.

Alternative names:

Red-throated Parakeet, Green Parakeet (Red-throated), Red-throated Conure (inglés).
Conure à gorge rouge, Perruche à gorge rouge (francés).
Rotkehlsittich, Guatemalasittich (alemán).
Periquito-de-papo-vermelho (portugués).
Aratinga Gorgirroja, Aratinga gorjirroja, Perico Gorjirrojo, perico garganta roja, Periquito Hondureño (español).
Perico Gorjirrojo (México).


scientific classification:

Philip Sclater
Philip Sclater

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Psittacara
Scientific name: Psittacara rubritorquis
Citation: (Sclater, PL, 1887)
Protonimo: conurus rubritorquis


Parakeet images gorgirroja:


Species of the genus Psittacara

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Red-throated Parakeet (Aratinga rubritorquis) also called Red-throated Conure at Macaw Mountain Bird Park and Nature Reserve, Copan, Honduras By Lauri Väin [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Red-throated Parakeet (also called Red-throated Conure) at Macaw Mountain Bird Park, Copan Ruinas, Honduras By Sarah and Jason (originally posted to Flickr as IMG_6987) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Two Red-throated Parakeets at Kakegawa Kacho-en, Kakegawa, Shizuoka, Japan By Takashi Hososhima from Tokyo, Japan (Green with envyUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Psittacara rubritorquis by Psittaciformes .NL – pinterest
(5) – Psittacara rubritorquis by Bellas Aves de El Salvador
(6) – Conurus rubritorquis by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Mayron McKewy Mejia (Xeno-canto)

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Black-capped Parakeet
Pyrrhura rupicola

Should be noted that until the year 1981, The Blackcap Parakeet was considered a rarity in poultry farming.. From that date began to be imported in quantity although at a very high price.

Black-capped Parakeet

Content

Description:

25 cm. length and 70 g. weight.

The Black-capped Parakeet (Pyrrhura rupicola) has the lores, the forecrown and the Crown, blackish brown; cheeks, ear-coverts and supercilii area, of color olive beige; back of the neck brown with narrow pale edges.

Upperparts green. External primary coverts, alula and leading edge of the wings bright red; other coverts mainly green. The flight feather, mainly bluish green, by top with narrow black tips; grey dark below.

Underwing-coverts green. The throat feathers, sides neck and top of the chest, Black base with wide white margins, becoming yellowish-white at the bottom of the chest and almost no formation of continuous pale band; belly and undertail-coverts green with brown stain in the center of the belly. Upper, the tail mainly green.

Black-capped Parakeet

The bill slaty-grey; Cere pale grey; bare periophthalmic off-white; irises brown; legs blackish.

Both sexes similar.

The immature has primary coverts almost completely green, as well as the leading edge of the wings.

Subspecies description:

  • Pyrrhura rupicola rupicola

    (Tschudi, 1844) – The nominal


  • Pyrrhura rupicola sandiae

    (Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1944) – It differs from the species nominal much closer to the Gray margins to the feathers of the throat and the front of the neck. These pale fringes measure only 2-2,5 mm. wide (specimens with new plumage) in comparison with the 4-5 mm of the nominal species. Like this, the dark basal portion of these pens is more prominent. It also, the whitish edges to the feathers of the back of the neck they are practically obsolete and the sides of the neck much smaller.

Habitat:

Video – "Black-capped Parakeet" (Pyrrhura rupicola)

PYRRHURA RUPICOLA TAUGHT

It lives in the Amazon rainforest., including formations of várzea and the Mainland, below 300 m. Visits have been recorded in the East of the Andes. Fly in flocks of 30 individuals, or small groups in reproductive age.

Reproduction:

It is believed that it can nest in the months of February-March, although the copulation of observed during the month of September. Sunset until the seven eggs in captivity than hatch during 23 to 24 days.

Food:

Usually feed in the canopy but no specific information on diet or breeding.

Distribution:

Can be seen in the Western basin of the amazon. There has been in the East of Peru from the South of Loreto until Mother of God and Puno, and in the North of Bolivia in Pando.

Also distributed in Peace and the Yungas and in the lowlands of the North of Beni, from the East to the border with Rondà´nia in Brazil, with a record until the date in the extreme west of Brazil (Rio Branco, Acre).

In general common (Perhaps more scarce on the edges of the range), but it can be locally decreasing due to the alteration of its habitat.

Subspecies distribution:

  • Pyrrhura rupicola rupicola

    (Tschudi, 1844) – The nominal


  • Pyrrhura rupicola sandiae

    (Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1944) – Southeast of Peru, West end of Brazil and North of Bolivia.

Conservation:

State of conservation ⓘ


Status Near Threatened (UICN)ⓘ

• Red List category of the UICN current: Near-threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The Parrot Capirotada world population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the. (1996).

This species is suspected that may be losing from the 13,7 to the 15,5% of their habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation of the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006, Bird et to the. 2011). Given the susceptibility of this species to be hunted or trapped, leads to the suspicion of a probable decline in population close to the 30% in three generations.

"Black-capped Parakeet" in captivity:

Should be noted that until the year 1981, the Black-capped Parakeet It was considered a rarity in aviculture. From that date began to be imported in quantity although at a very high price.

Their behavior Active, his sympathetic character, their robustness and ease of reproduction attached to the made of own a voice very little annoying, they make an excellent animal for those poultry producers who are initiated into this wonderful hobby. These qualities allow us to intuit that if raised by hand they could be lovely pets.. It is sad to observe that, too often, the main maxim that justifies poultry farming "play to preserve" becomes "play to sell”.

Alternative names:

Black-capped Parakeet, Black capped Parakeet, Black-capped Conure, Rock Conure, Rock Parakeet (English).
Conure à cape noire, Perriche à cape noire, Perruche à cape noire (French).
Schwarzkappensittich, Schwarzkappen-Sittich (German).
tiriba-rupestre (Portuguese).
Cotorra Capirotada, Perico de Frente Negra (español).
Wewey, Aboro gushóus (Chimane).


scientific classification:

Tschudi-Johann Jakob of
Tschudi-Johann Jakob of

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura rupicola
Citation: (Tschudi, 1844)
Protonimo: Conurus rupicola

Images "Black-capped Parakeet"



Especies del género Pyrrhura

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Pyrrhura rupicola sandiae by pedroduarte
(2) – Maroon-tailed Parakeet ssp. (in front); and Pyrrhura rupicola, Black-capped Parakeet (behind) by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

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Speckle-faced Parrot
Pionus tumultuosus

Speckle-faced Parrot

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description:

28 to 31 cm.. tall and around 250 g. weight.

The Speckle-faced Parrot (Pionus tumultuosus) It is distinguishable by color from whitish crown up to the nape; base bill red rose, with forecrown redder. Cheeks whitish with a red and purple tinge towards the neck; purple chest.

Shoulder with thin strip yellow with reddish tint, inside base tail and crissum, red; the rest of the tail is green with blue on the outer feathers; under belly with red feathers with green edge.

ocula ringr greyish

The youth They have almost all head green and the wings, greenish yellow.

Taxonomic note:

The Speckle-faced Parrot It is probably the rarest and most controversial genre Pionus. It is sometimes divided into two species, in which case, the Pionus tumultuosus South is known as Speckle-faced Parrot, while the North, Pionus seniloides, They are known as White-capped Parrot (which leads to easy confusion with Pionus senilis).

Habitat:

Speckle-faced Parrot

It inhabits in Andean and sub-Andean cloud forests and forest edges, between 1600 and 3200 meters above sea level.
It is highly Nomad with temporal variations in terms of the number of individuals that can be registered in a locality.

Reproduction:

With reproduce In September. In captivity puts 4 eggs which incubated about 26 days. No other aspects of its reproductive biology are known..

Food:

It has been registered consuming fruits of Turpinia paniculata and are sometimes seen in large numbers feeding on maize crops in cultivated areas and banana plantations.

Distribution:

Its population is distributed in the southern Andes, from the center of Peru until Bolivia.

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 329.000 km2

Conservation:


Status


• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the population

The size of the world population It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common, but irregular distribution” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

It is suspected that the population is in decline due to the continuous habitat destruction.

"Speckle-faced Parrot" in captivity:

This species is virtually nonexistent in poultry farming. There is only a small collection, private property in the United States. The Fundación Loro Parque in Tenerife, Spain, It has some copies.
Most of the Speckle-faced Parrot imported to United States they were the victim of aspergillosis – probably caused by the stress suffered during the import process.

In captivity They were observed as the to intelligent species, inquisitive and sometimes shy and nervous. Will get used to their caregiver over time. You can interact with a person and jealously attacking others. Prone to obesity.

Alternative names:

Speckle-faced Parrot, Plum-crowned Parrot, Speckle-faced Parrot (Plum-crowned) (inglés).
Pione pailletée, Pione pourprée (francés).
Purpurstirnpapagei (alemán).
Curica-de-cara-manchada (portugués).
Cotorra Gorriblanca, Loro Rosado, Loro Tumultuoso (español).


Clasificación científica:

Tschudi Johann Jakob von
Tschudi Johann Jakob von

Orden: Psittaciformes
Familia: Psittacidae
Genus: Pionus
Nombre científico: Pionus tumultuosus
Citation: (von Tschudi, 1844)
Protónimo: Psittacus tumultuosus


Imágenes “Loro tumultuoso”:

Videos del "Loro tumultuoso"

“Loro tumultuoso” (Pionus tumultuosus)

    Fuentes:

    Avibase
    – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Par
    Birdlife
    – Libro Loros, Pericos y Guacamayas Neotropicales

    Fotos:

    (1) – Eduardo Nogueira
    (2) – Speckle-faced Parrot at La Merced Zoo By josecajacuri [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (3) – Speckle-faced Parrot “Pionus tumultuosus” on the grounds of the Pueblo Hotel, Aguas Calientes by Carol FoilFlickr
    (4) – Speckle-faced Parrot “Pionus tumultuosus” on the grounds of the Pueblo Hotel, Aguas Calientes by Carol FoilFlickr
    (5) – Speckle-faced Parrot “Pionus tumultuosus” on the grounds of the Pueblo Hotel, Aguas Calientes by Carol FoilFlickr
    (6) – PIONUS TUMULTUOSUS By Allen, Edgar W.; Erxleben, J.; Hanhart, Michael; Hanhart, N; Keulemans, J. G.; Mintern Bros.; Rowley, George Dawson; Smith, J.; Walther, T. [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    Sonidos: Sebastian K. Herzog

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Vulturine Parrot
Pyrilia vulturina

Vulturine Parrot

Content

Description:

23 cm.. length and a weight between 138-165 g..

The Vulturine Parrot (Pyrilia vulturina) It is a small parrot with bare skin yellow orange and covered bristles pale hairlike, in the area that covers the forecrown and back of the crown, until the eyes; bare skin on lores, the cheeks and center of crown black and covered with bristles black hairlike; feathers on the sides of neck and in the part back from the crown, are yellow, forming a band bright contrasting with the black of the head bare; back of the neck, black; upperparts green.

carpal area and lesser upperwing-coverts, orange-yellow; outer median coverts with some blue; leading edge of wing, red; primary coverts blue; rest of the upper parts of the wings, green.

Primaries bluish-black with narrow bluish-green margins to outerweb. Under, the wings with coverts red; flight feather green with blackish tips. feathers throat and the chest, olive yellow with dark tips, giving a scalloped effect; belly green with bluish tint; undertail-coverts brighter yellowish green. Tail green with tips blue and outer feathers with yellow on base of innerwebs. Bill dark blackish-grey with patch pale yellow at the base of the upper jaw; cere yellowish-horn; irises brownish-orange; legs grey.

Both sexes are similar.

The head of the immature, fully feathered (except in the eye ring); greenish on the cheeks and yellow olive in the rest of the head with no collar yellow. The bend of wing and underwing-coverts, yellowish-orange; irises darker.

  • Sound of the Vulturine Parrot.

Habitat:

It inhabits in the rainforest of lowland formations várzea (seasonally flooded forest), and the Mainland (without flooding). Gregarious.

Reproduction:

No details on the reproductive biology of this species.

Food:

diet includes fruit, seeds and berries taken in the forest canopy. Its bareheaded adaptation may be a high frugivore diet, to prevent the fruit pulp enmarañara their feathers.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 1.030.000 km2

endemic to northeast Brazil, to the South of the amazon, from the eastern state of amazon, on the east bank of Madeira River, passing by For, to the south, up to the Serra do Cachimbo, extending eastward to the areas bordering northwest Maranhão, in the region of the Gurupi River. May be restricted to areas around major rivers within this region, which would mean that the size of the range may be overestimated.

References in relation to its range to include Venezuela (lower basin Caura River) and Guyana, They are apparently wrong.

generally considered Rare, although undoubtedly they not have a lot of data due to the difficulty of observation of this species.

The continuing rapid deforestation throughout its range has had to contribute to a substantial decrease in the population Vulturine Parrot in the last decades.

They can be seen in protected forests in the west of its range, but illegal logging and colonization remain a threat even there.

Conservation:


Vulnerable


• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Rationale for the Red List category

Based on a model of future deforestation in the amazon basin and its dependence on primary forest and sensitivity to fragmentation, It is suspected that population of this species will decrease rapidly during the next three generations and, therefore, It has risen to Vulnerability.

Justification of the population

The population size World has not been quantified, but this species is described as “Rare” (Stotz et to the ., 1996).

Justification of trend

It is suspected that this species has lost 37,1-54,8% of habitat within its distribution over three generations (21 years) starting from a model of deforestation Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the ., 2006, Bird et to the ., 2011). Although the species may have some susceptibility to hunting and / or capture, also it appears to have some degree of tolerance habitat degradation (A. Lees in litt ., 2011). So, you suspect your population decline by 30-49% during three generations.

Conservation Actions Underway

• Is listed as Vulnerable nationally in Brazil (MMA 2014).

• No specific actions known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Expand the network of protected areas to effectively protect the IBA.

• Effectively manage existing and new protected areas and resources, using the emerging opportunities for financing the management of protected areas with the overall goal of reducing carbon emissions and maximize the conservation of biodiversity.

• It is also essential to conservation on private land, through the expansion of market pressures for proper land management and prevention of deforestation on land not suitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006).

• Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riparian forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), that function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

"Vulturine Parrot" in captivity:

It is not found in aviculture; Probably they never stood outside Brazil.

Alternative names:

Vulturine Parrot (English).
Caïque vautourin (French).
Kahlkopfpapagei (German).
curica-urubu, papagaio-urubu, periquito d’anta, periquito-urubu, pirí-pirí, urubu-paraguá (Portuguese).
Lorito Cabeza Zamuro, Lorito Vulturino (español).

scientific classification:


Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrilia
Scientific name: Pyrilia vulturina
Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
Protonimo: Psittacus vulturinus

Images “Vulturine Parrot”:

 Vulturine Parrot

Videos Lorito Vulturino:

Pyrilia vulturina ( Curica Vulture)

“Vulturine Parrot” (Pyrilia vulturina)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Photos:

(1) – Pyrilia vulturina (adult and immature) – Imagen de Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(2) – Pyrilia vulturina ( Curica Vulture) by victor castro

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Yellow-lored Parrot
Amazona xantholora

Yellow-lored Parrot

Content

Description:


Anatomy-parrots-eng

25-28 cm.. length and 200-232 g. of weight.

The Yellow-lored Parrot (Amazona xantholora) has the lores and a close frontal band, bright yellow; most of the forecrown and crown, are white; the back of the crown is blue; band wide around the eyes, including upper cheeks, bright red; ear-coverts dark gray.

Top green grass with prominent black tips on feathers giving a scalloped appearance, although uppertail-coverts are yellowish-green. Primary coverts red; remaining coberteras (especially smaller and medium), green with black tips. Flight feathers mostly blue with a green base at primaries. Under the wings, bluish green. Underparts green with black tips on breast feathers, although undertail-coverts are yellowish-green; at the top, the tail is green; below green with yellowish tip and the outer feathers red.

Yellow-lored Parrot

Bill yellow-horn; irises yellow; legs grey.

In this species sexual dimorphism. The female has the crown blue (nonwhite), little or no red around the eye, and primary coverts green. The immature They are like female but with lores paler yellow and crown pale blue.

  • Sound of the Yellow-lored Parrot.

Habitat:

Video – "Yellow-lored Parrot"

Yellow-lored Parrot (?)

In Yucatan, the Yellow-lored Parrot They live mostly in the tropical deciduous forest, probably avoiding dense rain forests. But, their exact preferences are unknown due to the difficulty of distinguishing the White-fronted Parrot (Amazona albifrons). Observed in pine forests and mixed forests of pines and oaks Quercus in the North of Belice, and pine forests in the highlands in Roatan.
They are distributed at altitudes between 100 and 250 m.
Usually views in flocks, to form communal roosts coming up 1.500 birds from roosting and dispersed in small herds forage.

Reproduction:

They lay their nests in tree cavities on agricultural land and around cornfields where dead trees have been left standing after forests have been cleared and burned. also can nest in cracks of trees, rock walls or termiteros.

It has been observed to Yellow-lored Parrot in breeding condition in March in the yucatan peninsula, and young in the nest in April-May Belice. The laying is of 1 to 3 eggs; the incubation similar in duration to that of White-fronted Parrot (Amazona albifrons), that is to say, of 25 to 28 days.

Food:

Foods reported include guilt of Acacia gaumeri, corn and citrus. The Yellow-lored Parrot They feed mainly in the treetops.

Distribution:

Size of its range (reproduction / resident): 157.000 kilometros2

The Yellow-lored Parrot It is found mainly in the Eastern and Central parts of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, in Yucatan, Campeche and Quintana Roo; in the northern parts of Belice; and in the islands of Cozumel (Mexico) and possibly Roatan (Honduras), where the recent field work could not confirm its current (or previous) existence. Common to quite common in the East of Yucatan and in Cozumel, but considered quite rare in some other parts (especially at the edges) Mexican range. It is thought to be scarcer than the White-fronted Parrot (Amazona albifrons) with which it is closely related, although in some areas, the Yellow-lored Parrot it's more common, especially towards the center of its range.

Live in several areas protected. Situation in Northern Belice unknown.

Conservation:

State of conservation ⓘ


Status Minor Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size: 20,000-49,999.

  • Justification of the Red List of the Category

This species has a range very large, and therefore not approaching the thresholds for vulnerable under the criterion of size range (extent of occurrence <20.000 km2 combinan con un tamaño gama disminución o fluctuante, hábitat medida / calidad, o de la población tamaño y un pequeño número de lugares o fragmentación severa). La population trend appears to be stable, and therefore the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable according to the population trend criteria. (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size It can be moderately small to large, but are not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable based on population size criteria (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specific population structure). For these reasons, the species was evaluated as Least concern.

  • Population justification

Partners in Flight estimates the population at fewer than 50.000 individuals (A. they Panjabi a slightly. 2008), by what is placed in the band 20,000-49,999 individuals here.

  • Justification trend

The population suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

  • Threats

The main threats to this species are the deforestation, the catch eggs and chicks directly from their nests, just like him illegal trade adult individuals. Moreover and, considering the differential distribution of this species within the Peninsula, You may think that areas are susceptible to drastic declines in these species (Beissinger and Snyder 1992).

The Yellow-lored Parrot in captivity:

Very rare in captivity. Convention CITES regulates international trade under the Appendix II (Species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival).

Alternative names:

Yellow Lored Amazon, Yellow lored Parrot, Yellow-faced Amazon, Yellow-lored Amazon, Yellow-lored Parrot, Yucatan Amazon, Yucatan Parrot (English).
Amazone du Yucatan, Amazone xantholore (French).
Goldflügelamazone, Goldzügelamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-iucatã (Portuguese).
Amazona de Yucatán, Amazona Yucateca, Lora de Roatán, Loro Yucateco (español).

scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona xantholora
Citation: (Gray, GR, 1859)
Protonimo: Chrysotis xantholora

Images Yellow-lored Parrot:


Species of the genus Amazona


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Naturalist

Photos:

(1) – Amazon Yucatan, Mexico, Quintana Roo, Xcaret By philippe from FRANCE, You can search by name, by commission or family for birds and insects, using tags [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A female Yellow-lored Amazona also known as the Yucatan Amazona at Xcaret Eco Park, Quintana Roo, Mexico. By philippe from FRANCE, You can search by name, by commission or family for birds and insects, using tags [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Amazona species xantholora. His name is Poll By GuillermoPech (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Yellow-lored Amazon By Andreas Mueller Pfgst (Picture yourself created) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Yellow-Lored Parrot by James DiedrickFlickr
(6) – Chrysotis xantholora = Amazona xantholora by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Oliver Komar, XC182833. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/182833

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Pfrimer's Parakeet
Pyrrhura pfrimeri

Pfrimer's Parakeet

Content

Description:

Pfrimer's Parakeet

22 to 23 cm.. length and an approximate weight of 80 g..

The Pfrimer's Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri) is a small psittacine of tail Long endemic Brazil very similar to Maroon-faced Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis), of which has recently been separated.

Its main color is green with bluish hues in primary rémiges and reddish tones in the back, the belly and retrizes penas. The bend of wing They are reddish.
The neck It has clear blue feathers with lighter edges, giving the whole a scaled aspect. The sides of the face They are red while the crown and nape They are bluish. The bill It is black and tail red-blue color at the tips

It has no sexual dimorphism.

Taxonomic status:

It has often been considered a subspecies of the Maroon-faced Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis)Pyrrhura leucotis pfrimeri. The separation was made based on their distribution and the differences in habitat and plumage, I was the only member of the complex P. leucotis in which the light spot on ear-coverts It was very small. Recent mitochondrial DNA studies have confirmed this separate species status.

  • Sound of the Pfrimer's Parakeet.

Habitat:

Its distribution is restricted to the forests dry deciduous or semi-evergreen growing on limestone outcrops in the calcareous. This habitat type caatinga is an isolated island within the surrounding savannah closed. The forest caatinga typically has a closed canopy and dense understory with lianas and some cacti, particularly in disturbed areas. The species has been seen recently fragmented woodlots (Olmos et al., 1998), but according to reports they do not live far from the edge of the forest.

Social, usually they are seen in flocks of up 10 birds. Noisy and conspicuous when they fly above the canopy. Difficult to see while feeding or resting in foliage.

Reproduction:

We know very little about their reproductive habits.


Food:

They fly in flocks in search of fruits, seeds, flowers and larvae insects (wasps Family Agaonidae).


Distribution and status:

Size of its range (Widgets / Resident): 20.300 km2

It is located in the Brazilian states of Goiás, Tocantins and the northwestern tip of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Conservation:

State of conservation ⓘ


Endangered Endangered (UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population: 20,000-50,000.

Justification of the Red List of the Category

This species has a range very small highly fragmented and where habitat loss and degradation continue. For these reasons, It is classified as endangered.

Justification of the population

The total population is estimated to lie within the band 20,000-49,999 individuals (CA Bianchi in a little. 2006, 2007). The population density of the species has been estimated 11,7 individuals / km2 .

Justification trend

Given the rapid pace of deforestation within restricted range species, and its strong dependence on forest habitats suspected its population is declining rapidly (F. Olmos in some ., 2004).

Threats:

The main threat to this species is the deforestation driven selective logging, fires and conversion of habitat to pasture (Olmos et al . 1998). Dry wood Goiás He declined to be covering 15,8% of the region 1990 only the 5,8% in 1999, and less than 1% of the remaining fragments they were larger than 100 has (F. Olmos a slightly. 2007). There has been a reduction 66% habitat available in the last 31 years, with a current annual deforestation rate 2,1% (Bianchi 2010). Rapid deforestation is occurring within the range of the species to create pastures with widespread burning to improve poor pastures destroying the habitat of dry forest. It is mainly directed to logging forests durable normally used to make fence posts, and cement are starting to target areas of limestone outcroppings (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007). The species is rare while they recorded in the trade waves collections of exotic birds; This poses a potential threat (Olmos et al ., 1998). Population pressures increase as their range is close to the capital, Brasilia (Olmos et al ., 1998).

Conservation Actions Underway

In Brazil, previously considered vulnerable (Silveira y Straube 2008), but now legally designated as endangered national (MMA 2014) and protected by the Brazilian legislation. They are distributed within the proposal Terra Ronca State Park, but this has not yet been fully implemented. (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007). Downs Terra Ronca State Park now they appear to have been deforested, leaving only forest fragments outcrops of limestone karst (Willis in a little .). Other parts of the range are not protected. The species appears in the Brazil Red List as vulnerable and the IBAMA (Federal Environment Agency Brazil) is about to create a conservation group Small parrots understand all the Pyrrhura spp, and establishes conservation efforts. Brasilia zoological garden started a program of captive breeding in 2001 with 10 individuals, but none survived after six years (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007). There are very few known private poultry farmers who maintain the species in captivity (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Determine the extent of habitat and current rates of deforestation remaining. Closely monitor the species in trade if demand increases.

"Pfrimer's Parakeet" in captivity:

Very rare.

It's a bird in danger of extinction; each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, must be placed in a well-managed captive breeding program and not sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Goias Parakeet, Pfrimer’s Conure, Pfrimer’s Parakeet (English).
Conure de Pfrimer (French).
Goiasittich, Pfrimers Sittich (German).
tiriba de Pfrimer, Tiriba-de-pfrimer, Tiriba-do-paranã , ciganinha, barreirinha, chiriri e periquito-do-morro (Portuguese).
Cotorra de Goiás (español).


scientific classification:

Alipio Ribeiro de Miranda, brazilian natural scientist

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura pfrimeri
Citation: Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920
Protonimo: Pyrrhura pfrimeri


Images Pfrimer's Parakeet:

Videos Cotorra de Goiás:

Pyrrhura pfrimeri by pyaf.net

Pfrimer's Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri)



Especies del género Pyrrhura

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by Lander Van NieuwenhuyseFlickr
(2) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by Lander Van NieuwenhuyseFlickr
(3) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by Lander Van NieuwenhuyseFlickr
(4) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by pyaf.net
(5) – Tiriba-de-Pfrimer, “Pyrrhura pfrimeri” – Pfrimer's Parakeet by Cláudia Brasileiro Martins
Brazilian Claudia Martins
(6) – Photo of Alipio de Miranda Ribeiro, brazilian natural scientist By File created by Flávio de Miranda Ribeiro (Picture taken by family) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

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Seychelles Black Parrot
Coracopsis barklyi

Seychelles Black Parrot

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description:

35-40 cm. length and 132-153 g. of weight.

The Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi) They have a pale brown, less black than the plumage Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra), but gray / blue reflections in the outer layers of the primary feathers; pale brown patches with slight pale streaks on the crown.

The tone becomes slightly paler in uppertail-coverts.

The underparts They are pale grayish brown. We can see some short lines in throat, while the chest and the belly show a diffuse pale obstruction. The tail is pale-grey.
The bill dark gray becomes paler during the breeding season. The eyes are dark brown, surrounded by a naked orbital gray area. Legs and feet are dark gray to bluish gray.

Both sexes are very similar.

Youth colorization:

Immature paler than adults with a yellowish tinge bill and tips of the feathers tail with pale gray.

Taxonomic status:

Formerly a subspecies of Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra), originating from Madagascar. Parrots Gender Coracopsis only found in the Western Indian Ocean.

Habitat:

Seychelles Black Parrot

The Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi) inhabits native and mixed woodland in Praslin, (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). It is also found in cultivated areas and residential areas with gardens, habitats that are suitable feed (A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). They are usually seen alone or in pairs.

Reproduction:

Their main breeding areas They are in a forest dominated by endemic palms coco de mer (Lodoicea maldivica). The tree species nests in cavities primarily in mer coconut dead, but also registered that nests in cavities and other palms living trees broadleaf (Reuleaux et al. 2014to), with reproductive activity October to March (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, Reuleaux et al. 2014to). Preferred deep cavities of hollow logs of L. maldivica with a dense cover canopy over the entrance (Reuleaux et al. 2014to). The reproductive activity fluctuates widely between years (A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). In a study, the 53% of nests they were successful in 36 nesting attempts, with a 57% incipient year survival (Reuleaux et al. 2014to).

Food:

The Seychelles Black Parrot It feeds on a variety of plant species, most of which are endemic and native (Reuleaux et al. 2014b), mainly from the fruit pulp, seeds and buds, with occasional observations feeding on leaves, flowers, crusts and scale insects (Reuleaux et al. 2014b).

Distribution:

Extending its range (breeding/resident): 70 km2

The Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi) reside in Praslin, with occasional records in Curieuse (to 1 km to the North of Praslin), Seychelles (Reuleaux et al. 2013).

No individual was detected in curious during spot counts over four days and during supplementary fieldwork, so it is assumed that there is no resident population there (Reuleaux et al. 2013).

Conservation:


Vulnerable


• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : 340-600 individuals.

Rationale for the Red List category

This newly divided species is listed as Vulnerable because, but it appears to be stable or possibly increasing, their population is still very small, and therefore it is at risk of stochastic events and human impacts.

Justification of the population

Count surveys conducted in Praslin points in 2010 and 2011 They found a density of 0.14-0.24 individuals / ha, as resultadi giving an estimate of the Total population 520-900 individuals (confidence intervals 95%) obtained through the distance sampling methodology (Reuleaux et al. 2013). After reviewing recent survey results, Rocamora and Laboudallon (2013) estimated total breeding population less than 200 couples, suggesting that there might be less than 400 mature individuals. Based on these data, it is assumed that there 340-600 mature individuals in the population.

Justification trend

They suspected that the population is stable the absence of evidence of any reduction or immediate threat. It is believed that the species has increased at least until the beginning of the century, but it is not clear if it is still increasing (Reuleaux et al. 2013, Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013).

Threats

It is believed that the decline of Seychelles Black Parrot before age 60 It was mainly due to predation by introduced rats and hunting conducted by settlers and farmers (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Other causes of increased mortality include capture as pets and trade, and bycatch when targeting other species.

The most serious current threats for the species include diseases such as disease Beak and feather, continuous nest predation by rats and cats, competition from introduced species of birds for food and nesting sites, poaching of their main nesting tree (coco de mer), and habitat destruction caused by fires, with potential threats including persecution, pesticides, bats and kinship networks (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

The forest fires They may represent the most serious threat to the species, with records since the beginning of the decade 1980 showing that approximately every 10 years a major fire occurs (The Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014). The availability of nesting cavities can be a limiting factor in years of very active reproduction, some females occupying suboptimal cavities.

Collection sea ​​coconuts probably reduce the area of ​​palm forest long term.

The presence of the Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) in Mahe, one of which is registered Praslin, increases the risk of disease.

The impacts of introduced species causing nest predation and competition for nesting sites can not be serious enough to limit the population; However, mice are increasing in Praslin.

The crazy ants or zanconas ants (anoplolepis gracilipes) not appear to have impacted the species so far, probably because they use dead palms, where the appropriate cavities Seychelles Black Parrot.

Chicks predation by cats and dogs is probably limited, and post-harvest mortality is not currently a major concern. The persecution of the species by farmers is considered a minor threat.

Other risk factors for the species include their low genetic diversity and unexplained large fluctuations in reproductive activity of one station to another (Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

conservation actions

Conservation actions underway

The species is protected by law from 1966 (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Endemic palms have been protected from 1991, and the restoration of native palm forest on Praslin and Curieuse is underway. The species is found in the Praslin National Park, created in 1979, and Vallée de Mai It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1983. The Background islas Ferdinand curious y They are administered as nature reserves, but no official protection. Among 1983 and 2005 boxes were provided artificial nesting (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016).

In Vallée de Mai there is a firebreak around the brood nucleus, but it is not guaranteed to work in the event of a large fire that can not be contained quickly (The Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014), However, It has only proved partially effective when a fire destroyed several hectares of breeding habitat high quality 2010 (A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). Poaching coco de mer nuts it being countered with increased security and a program regeneration, and they have carried out awareness activities to reduce the persecution by farmers. Measures are being taken to eradicate the presence of the Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and also they are conducting tests for the virus Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease Virus (The Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

In 2009 a national plan of action was drawn up for the species, It is including plans to introduce the species Silhouette, along with captive breeding in Frigate y North Island, if you can carry out a proper restoration and habitat management (reviewed by Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Other conservation identified for this species include control of introduced, the renovation and improvement of nests, population monitoring and public awareness campaigns (reviewed by Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Analysis using statistical models is intended to 2014, after annual counts have been made for three years without interruption, and conclusions on the trend of the species will be published from 1982 (G. Rocamora in litt. 2014). Repeating the remote sampling survey is scheduled at intervals 5-10 years (A. REuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Carry out further surveys to get a more accurate estimate population size and to monitor the demographic trend. Conduct research on the impacts of potential threats. Protect additional areas of native forest of palms. Suitable restore native habitats. Continue awareness activities to eliminate any residual persecution.

"Seychelles Black Parrot" in captivity:

This species is protected by law from 1966. No copy of Seychelles Black Parrot should be kept in captivity, unless it was under a controlled breeding program in order to reintroduce birds of this species to their habitat.

Alternative names:

Seychelles Black Parrot, Seychelles Lesser Vasa Parrot, Seychelles Parrot (English).
Vasa des Seychelles, Vaza des Seychelles (French).
Seychellenpapagei (German).
Seychelles Black Parrot (Portuguese).
Loro de Seychelles (español).


scientific classification:

Newton Edward
Newton Edward

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Coracopsis
Scientific name: Coracopsis barklyi
Citation: Newton, E, 1867
Protonimo: Coracopsis barklyi

Images “Seychelles Black Parrot”:

Videos "Seychelles Black Parrot"

Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Coracopsis barklyi (=Coracopsis nigra barklyi) by Joseph Wolf [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Coracopsis barklyi By Post of Seychelles ([1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons