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Canadian Eskimo Dog
Canadá FCI 211 . Nordic Sledge Dogs

Esquimal Canadiense

The dog Canadian Eskimo Dog it's a sled dog, the North of Canada natural. Possibly this is one of the most cold tolerant dogs.



Similar to the Hotocho (or Mongolian sheepdog), the Canadian Eskimo (or Qimmiq en inuktitut) it is a very old canine breed, perhaps one of the first to accompany man to this part of the globe, almost ago 4.000 years. Faithful companion of the Inuit people of Thule, was bred and trained to become a tough working dog, able to travel long distances at a steady pace. It also, your complexion, their excellent sense of smell and intelligence were used to locate the breathing holes of seals for hunting and to protect families from musk oxen and polar bears..

In the Decade of 1920, the Canadian Eskimo remained closely associated with the Inuit culture, With almost 20.000 Eskimos working alongside men in the northern territories. However, this golden age was not going to last. In effect, the arrival of the snowmobile in the years 60, the massive and systematic killing of Inuit dogs by the Canadian government (officially, for public health reasons – unofficially, say some, to intimidate and forcibly assimilate Inuit peoples, eliminating their main work tool and a symbol of their culture), the introduction of new breeds of sled dogs such as the Siberian Husky, as well as a certain vulnerability to the diseases that these latter bring., are literally decimating purebred Canadian Eskimo populations. In 1963, there was only one Canadian Eskimo Dog registered in the breeding book of the Canadian Kennel Club, which then declared the race extinct.

This statement proved premature. However, it did not count on the tenacity of William Carpenter, Bill Thompson, John McGrath (founders of the Research Foundation of the Canadian Eskimo Dog) and Brian Ladoon (breeder and musher, that is to say, sled driver). With government support to preserve Inuit cultural heritage, the quartet undertook an expedition to the most remote regions of the Canadian Arctic in order to find purebred Canadian Eskimos. Their efforts paid off and, thanks to the specimens unearthed in the Inuit villages, a breeding program was launched. few years later, in 1970, there was nothing less than 200 animals. Today, this figure reaches the 300 individuals around the world.

Although the United Kennel Club American recognized the Canadian Eskimo as a race in its own right in 1996, was not up 2018, year in which the breed was recognized by the International Cynological Federationand (FCI) and Central Canine Society, when the breed really came to the forefront of the canine world and the general public and enlightened fans learned not only about the qualities of this dog, but also the precariousness of its existence.

However, although some specimens have crossed the Atlantic to the United Kingdom, the spread of the breed remains for the time being essentially limited to Canada and the United States, and even there, the breeders of Canadian Eskimo Dog they are still scarce.

Physical characteristics

At first sight, it is clear why the Canadian Eskimo has helped the Inuit people for so long. Strength, power, resistance and vigor are the first adjectives that come to mind when describing this dog capable of constant effort in difficult environmental conditions.

The Canadian Eskimo is of medium build, with a strong neck and chest, but with legs of medium height. With its well defined bones and muscles, his powerful and majestic physique reflects that he is mainly a very resistant dog, not very fast. It should be noted in passing that females are slightly smaller and less muscular than males.

It is also interesting to note that the Canadian Eskimo is quickly big enough to work: although it does not reach full maturity until around the 3 years of age, it is capable of transporting loads from the 7 months. Puppies are often described as miniature adults, with the ears upright and upright on the skull and the tail coiled from the third week.

Like most of the Spitz, the head of the Canadian Eskimo is angular and elevated, with straight, thick ears. The eyes are placed at an angle and give the animal a serious attitude. The bushy tail is carried high or curled on the back.

The coat of the Canadian Eskimo It is thick, with a smooth top layer and a dense and uniform wool bottom layer, providing optimal thermal insulation for adverse weather conditions. This makes them one of the most cold-adapted dog breeds.. Males also have a long mane that covers the neck and shoulders. Females usually have the shortest upper layer, which contributes to give the impression of a finer animal.

The breed standard does not allow smooth fur. Therefore, the Canadian Eskimo must always have a coat with a combination of colors, without the distribution of one color taking precedence over the others:

  • Completely white fur with pigmentation around the eyes, on the nose and lips (is not an albino);
  • white coat with only a very small amount of red, buff (including cinnamon shading), gray or black around the ears and eyes;
  • white coat with red markings, beige, cinnamon, gray or black around the ears and eyes, or the head completely marked with these colors, sometimes with small spots of the same color on the body, usually around the hips or on the flank;
  • Red and white, or buff and white, or cinnamon and white, or black and white, with a distribution to 50% of each of the two colors in the different parts of the body;
  • red or beige or cinnamon, with white on the chest and/or on the legs and lower part of the body;
  • Sabre body or black or dark gray, with white on the chest and/or on the legs, under the body, occasionally extended to the neck like a gola;
  • silvery grey or greyish white fur;

Brown bottom layer and black top layer.

The white mask shaded around the eyes and/or around the nose, with or without dots above the eyes, it is a common physical characteristic in dogs with a well-defined color on the head. Very rarely, the dots above the eyes, as well as the cheek marks, can be buff-colored, adding a third color to a normally bicolored dog.

Size and weight

▷ Male size: 58 to 70 cm.
▷ female size: 50 to 60 cm.
▷ Male weight: 30-40 kg
▷ female weight: 18-30 kg

Character and skills

The character of Canadian Eskimo reflects the harsh environmental conditions in which he lives and the work that dots his daily life. Therefore, it is closer to the wild animal domesticated by the tribal peoples in a logic of labor collaboration than to a real pet overflowing with affection for its master. Intelligent, brave, but always on guard, so sometimes it may seem distant.

This does not prevent this dog from being gentle and affectionate with his family, or express a friendly curiosity towards strangers your family welcomes. But moderation remains the key word for him.. The Canadian Eskimo rarely celebrates his master, although he does not hesitate to ask for a caress as a sign of recognition. As a pack dog, is fiercely loyal to his master, whom he considers the leader of the clan, and is less distant with it. Beware who shows signs of animosity towards this leader: the Canadian Eskimo it will quickly remind you of the meaning of the word respect, with many grunts.

The herds of Canadian Eskimo have a reputation for being very organized. From time to time some fights and scratches may occur, but it is not a sign of serious struggle or rebellion against the established leader.

It also, unlike many recent dog breeds, the Canadian Eskimo has retained a very sharp hunting instinct. The slightest encouragement, either the food, the start of a game or a fight, gives rise to a quick and very enthusiastic response by this dog. In fact, this dog is more suitable for a family of adults and should never be left with children, as this could lead to unintentional injury. You can live with dogs that do not belong to your herd, but with some reservations, since he tends to regard any animal smaller than him as a prey to devour rather than as a companion with whom to live. The cats, rodents and small dogs will be tested if they have to cohabit with it.

Last, as an outdoor dog par excellence, who appreciates cold temperatures and prefers to sleep outdoors if given the opportunity, the Canadian Eskimo is not at all a breed of dog adapted to a floor. They need to spend many hours outside each day to maintain their physical and mental fitness.. Sporty and hyperactive dog, used to pulling sleds, the ideal for him is to have a master as tough as him. In other words, it is a perfect companion for those who want to practice cani-rando, cani-mountain biking, ski joering, canikart… Without physical activity up to their capabilities, becomes a destructive and/or aggressive dog.

Last, being a very intelligent dog, is the king of escapes and mischief. There is no delicate plant or reinforced fence that resists it. If you have decided to be a runaway dog, it will be very difficult to stop.


The Canadian Eskimo has excellent physical dispositions that make it resistant to many of the genetic diseases that are common in dogs of similar breeds.

However, although they are a force of nature in their natural environment, are more susceptible to parasites and skin diseases that develop in warmer temperatures. Thus, it's important not to forget dog vaccine reminders, and give regular preventive treatment against ticks and fleas.

It also, like many Nordic dogs, has predisposition to the following diseases:

– Hip Dysplasia
– waterfalls
– Arthritis;
– gastric torsion;
– entropion.

Life expectancy

10 – 15 years

Characteristics "Canadian Eskimo Dog"

Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a dog of the breed "Canadian Eskimo Dog" you know certain factors. Not all breeds of dogs are apt to live in an apartment, you must take into account his character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

Adaptation ⓘ

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

friendly dog ​​ⓘ

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

hair loss ⓘ

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Affection level ⓘ

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Need for exercise ⓘ

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Social need ⓘ

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Home ⓘ

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Toilet ⓘ

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendly with strangers ⓘ

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

barking ⓘ

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Health ⓘ

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Territorial ⓘ

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Cat friendly ⓘ

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Intelligence ⓘ

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Versatility ⓘ

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Child friendly ⓘ

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Surveillance ⓘ

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

joy ⓘ

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Type and recognitions:

  • Group :
  • Section : . .


  • FCI – Group 5 – Section 1 Nordic Sledge Dogs.
  • CKC – Nordic Sledge Dogs

FCI breed standard "Canadian Eskimo Dog"

FCIFCI - Canadian Eskimo Dog

Alternative names:

    1. Canadian Inuit Dog, Qimmiq, Canadian Husky (English).
    2. Inuit canadien, Qimmiq (French).
    3. Canadian Eskimo Dog (German).
    4. (em inglês: Canadian Eskimo Dog), Qimmiq (Portuguese).
    5. (español).