Golden Parakeet
Guaruba guarouba

Golden Parakeet


Description Golden Parakeet:

34 cm. of length and a weight of 270 g.

Illustration Aratinga Guaruba

The Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba) has all the head, upperparts, lower andtail , a bright yellow. The greater coverts, primaries and secondaries are dark green (one or two feathers yellow in some birds flying). Underwing-coverts yellow, the bottom of the flight feather dark yellow. Feather shafts of the tail are white.

The bill pale pink, more Brown on the basis of the upper mandible; bare periophthalmic naked whitish; Iris Orange to brownish Orange; legs Rosaceae.

Both sexes similar.

Immature colour olive brown opaque dark green streak. In the transition to adulthood, the head, top of the tail and back they are the latest in acquiring the bright yellow color of the adult plumage.


Dwells in the tropical rainforests, avoiding the forests and marshes (seasonally flooded), Although in the immediate breeding period, You can wander through these habitats from the adjacent dry forests.

When is the breeding season, the Golden Parakeet they occupy the forests next to the clear.

Gregarious in all the seasons of the year. Observed in flocks of 3 - 30 birds, Although on a regular basis in groups between 6 and 10.

Forman communal roosts in tree cavities during the non-breeding season, using the holes in the area, alternately in successive nights. The usual and regular use of resting and feeding areas, is suspected to be due to the predictable daily routines. Sometimes seen feeding with other species of parrots.


Nest at the top of the trunk or main branch of a hollow tree, a height between 15 and 30 m. Nesting tree is usually isolated, but near virgin forests. The old nest of other species It can be used by the Golden Parakeet, expanding its cavity as necessary.

The sexual behavior This species is unusual, and this is one of the most interesting aspects of their biology. With reproduce communally, with several females contributing to the work of the clutch, Although there are also reports of individual couples. Young people at different stages of development sometimes share a same nest.

On the other hand, in the places of breeding during the reproductive period, the Golden Parakeet they react defensively to the presence of flocks of the same species, other species of parrots, especially the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao), and before the approach of birds of prey.

The normal clutch female is of 2 - 4 eggs (perhaps up to six); 14 reported in a single nest chicks in captive, where six adults helped in the breeding work. The breeding season, usually, takes place from December to April, and it corresponds to the rainy season


The Golden Parakeet, generally, feed in the forests of height, Although they will too of some cultivated plants; -reported foods (all the fruits or pseudo-fruits), They include the Palm trees of the genus Euterpe, that feels special canevale, Anacardium spruceanum, Anacardium occidentale, Protium and Tetragastris, Visnia quail, Inga, Byrsonima crassifobia, Carapa guianensis, Cecropia and Oenocarpus bacaba; also flowers and buds (for example Symphonia), and crops as the corn and mango in some areas.

Golden Parakeet distribution:

Endemic of the Amazon, to the South of Amazon in Brazil, from the west shore of the Tapajós River, to the East through the basins of the Xingu River and North of Tocantins - 5 ° N, For, and up to the eastern shore of the Turiacu River in West Maranhão.

Are not observed in the Marajó island and prevents the forests and marshes (for example, immediately to the South of the Amazon).

Recent records in Rondônia and Mato Grosso, far from their known range, They suggest a little-known distribution. Apparently, they are distributed in large areas, but it is not known whether the movements are predictable or related with, for example, the seasonal availability of food.

Rare range-wide and no doubt in decline due to the very wide, fast and continuous deforestation and fragmentation of forests, both in the Amazon Western as in the Eastern.

The capture illegal for national and international live bird markets and the hunting for food and sport they pose a serious additional pressures. Protected areas in the range are insufficient and are being violated regularly, for example, with the illegal logging of Mahogany Swietenia macrophylla.

Listed in Appendix 1. In danger of extinction.


• Red list category of the UICN current: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

The threat most obvious for the survival of the Golden Parakeet is deforestation? The construction of the Tucurui dam, which was completed in 1984, displaced 35.000 settlers from their House to adjoining territories and brought rapid deforestation. Prior to the dam construcicón, Wildlife in the lower basin of Tocantins It was considered among the richest and most diverse in the world. It is estimated that you a 117 species of mammals and 294 species of birds were displaced. So what 120 species of amphibians and reptiles were affected.

The population of the Golden Parakeet was initially in a range between 1,000-2,499 individuals, based on an assessment of the known records, descriptions of the abundance and range size. However, recent information suggests that the population may be greater. The species has been recorded in several additional places. (Laranjeiras and Cohn-Haft 2009), and a recent survey along of the Tapajós River by Laranjeiras (2011) He said that it was so common in the study area as other Psittacidas, not threatened.
On the basis of this information, the population is placed on the band's 10,000-19,999 individuals, that means include c.6,600-13,400 mature individuals.

According to records of the International Species Information System There is a population of 213 scattered individuals in different zoos.

Conservation Actions Underway:

CITES Appendix I and II, managed under the Association of Zoos and Aquariums Parrot Taxon Advisory Group and protected by the Brazilian legislation (being proposal as the national bird of Brazil).

– A campaign attacking trade of birds in Bolivia It can help to reduce international trade (AB Hennessey in litt., 2009).

– A population is relatively well protected in the Tapajos National Park, and a remnant population can survive in the Gurupi biological reserve.

Floresta Nacional do Jamari It is poorly protected and suffer the constant pressure of illegal occupants, loggers and poachers (F. Olmos in litt., 1999).

– The conservation of this species in the reserves is problematic because of its apparent nomadism.

Conservation Actions Proposed:

– Conduct studies to find the populations so far unknown, especially in the South and West of its range.

– The de facto protection the Gurupi biological reserve.

– Maintain the integrity of the Tapajos National Park.

– Protect and manage the land between the existing protected areas to facilitate the movements of nomadic.

– To enforce the legal restrictions on trade, especially in domestic markets.

– Further develop the programme of captive breeding.

"Golden Parakeet" in captivity:

Date back to the first reproductive outcomes of this kind of 1939 in Sri Lanka.

The Golden Parakeet It is probably the most coveted among all the parrots, being the prices demanded by her extremely high. It is very rare and endangered in its natural habitat, and are therefore protected from import.

Reserved for the breeding birds are happier in the presence of members of their species. This is due to the nature of the Golden Parakeet, sociable and cheerful, with an intense need for interaction with their peers.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a specimen lived 23,2 years in captivity. It has been reported that these animals can live up to the 60,9 years in captivity, but this has not been verified; the same study reported that these animals can reproduced from the 3 years age in captivity.

Alternative names:

Golden Parakeet, Golden Conure, Queen of Bavaria’s Conure (English).
Conure dorée, Conure ou, Garouba jaune, Perriche dorée, Perruche dorée, Perruche guarouba (French).
Goldsittich (German).
Arara-juba, ajurujuba, arajuba, Ararajuba, guarajuba, guaruba, guira-juba, marajuba, papagaio-imperial, tanajuba (Portuguese).
Aratinga Guaruba, Guacamayo Guarouba, Periquito Amarillo (Spanish).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Guaruba
Scientific name: Guaruba guarouba
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus Guarouba

Golden Parakeet images:

Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba)


(1) – Avibase
(2) – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
(3) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(4) – Birdlife
(5) – WAZA

  • Photos:

(1) – Golden Parakeet (also known or Golden Conure) at Gramado Zoo, in south Brazil By Ironman br (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Golden Parakeet or the Queen of Bavaria Conure in Burgers Zoo, Arnhem By frank wouters (originally posted to Flickr as goudparkiet) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Two Golden Parakeets at Gramado Zoo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By diegodobelo (Zoo de GramadoUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Golden Parakeet or the Queen of Bavaria Conure). Two captive By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as Golden Conure) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Photo taken at the National Aviary By Photo by and (C)2007 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) (Self-photographed) [GFDL 1.2 or CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Photo taken at the National Aviary By Photo by and (C)2007 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) (Self-photographed) [GFDL 1.2 or CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Golden Conure at the Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By Bruno Girin from London, United Kingdom (06680018Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Photo taken at the National Aviary By Photo by and (C)2007 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) (Self-photographed) [GFDL 1.2 or CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Golden Conure by Jean – Flickr
(10) – Illustration Guaruba guarouba By Dutton, F. G.; Fawcett, Benjamin; Greene, W. T.; Lydon, A. F.; Lydon, A. F. [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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