Yellow-billed Parrot
Amazona collaria

Yellow-billed Parrot

Description:

28 cm.. length and 260 g. of weight.

Yellow-billed Parrot

The Yellow-billed Parrot (Amazona collaria) It has a distinctive narrow band on forecrown white; lores and upper cheeks, with pale blue feathers; crown blue with black tips, merging on hindcrown; the sides of neck and nape into green feathers with black tips; feathers on the sides of neck sometimes basally pink; ear-coverts greyish-blue with black tips.

Mantle and back, green apple with black tips (the latter become less pronounced below); lower back, the rump and uppertail-coverts, brighter yellowish green. Great coverts, blue; the rest, green apple. Alula and outerweb of the flight feather, blue; innerwebs, dark gray. Under, the wings green, flight feather, bluish green. Throat and lower cheeks, Rosaceae, sometimes with green tips; top of the chest to belly, yellowish green apple; undertail-coverts brighter yellowish green. Upper, the tail It is green with yellow and red points on the basis; undertail, paler and olive. Bill yellowish; irises brown; legs Rosaceae.

In the breeding season, the throat pink male it becomes brighter and plumage acquires green metallic tones. Both sexes are similar. Perhaps males average slightly larger. Immature similar to adult.

  • Sound of the Yellow-billed Parrot.

Habitat:

The Yellow-billed Parrot inhabit, mainly, in the average level of wet limestone forest (annual rainfall between 1.900-4.500 mm) with (for example) Terminalia latifolia emerging and Cedrela odorata, most arid forests and upland areas planted with trees, especially the edge of the forest; from sea level up 1.200 metres in Cockpit Country.

Usually in pairs or flocks of up to about 40 individuals; larger gatherings where food is plentiful (for example, a report of 60 birds feeding on orange). They form large communal shelters outside breeding season and sometimes seen in association with Black-billed Parrot (Amazona agilis) and Olive-throated Parakeet (Eupsittula nana). They forage closer to roost as the day progresses.

Reproduction:

They nest in tree cavities, at higher altitudes the 15 m, frequently Brosimum, with enlarged holes in successive years. Often used initially cavity excavated by the Jamaican Crow (Corvus jamaicensis). Nesting also observed in rock cracks. Courtship registered in January laying of eggs, between 4-5, in March-May.

Food:

Foods reported include catkins of Cecropia, Anacardium occidentale dried fruits, fruits of Pimenta dioica and figs, and seeds of Melia azedarack; feeding birds took only orange seeds, squandering the fleshy part. They forage in middle and high levels.

Distribution and status:

Tamaño de su área de distribución (reproductor/residente): 7.200 km2

The Yellow-billed Parrot It is endemic to Jamaica, this species remains widespread, more than the other species of Jamaican Amazona, the Black-billed Parrot (Amazona agilis), although they have not yet conducted extensive surveys throughout the island. They are observed flocks of 50 to 60 individuals throughout the year, particularly in the non-breeding season, moving from inside the forest to the edge habitat to feed.

This species is particularly Cockpit Country, Mt. Diablo, and John Crow Mountains. A small population (presumably wild) also it sets to Hope Gardens in Kingston.

Recent studies indicate that Amazona collaria it is less abundant than Amazona agilis, possibly as a result of Amazona collaria It is a more colorful and preferred species in trade. while the Amazona agilis It is currently nested in all Cockpit Country, including plantation disturbed along the edges areas, the Amazona collaria now nests almost exclusively in relatively remote hinterlands.

Local reports suggest a significant overall decrease in collaria Amazona in Cockpit Country and a greater degree of threat to other species, the Amazona agilis.

The preliminary population counts suggest 5.000 individuals in Cockpit Country, Mt. Diablo, and John Crow Mountains (C. Levy in lilt, 1999).

Difficult to distinguish from Amazona agilis distance and possible misidentification, They may have affected the validity of some previous reports on their abundance and distribution.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: decreasing.

• Population size : 6000-15000

Justification of the red list category

This species is classified as Vulnerable because it has a small and fragmented range, with suitable habitat decline in extent, area and quality, mainly due to speak and forest clearing for bauxite mining. The numbers are also declining due to trampeo.

Justification of the population

The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall in the band between 10.000 and 19.999 individuals. This is equivalent to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, round here 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Justification of trend

No new data on population trends; However, It suspected that the species is declining at a slow pace, as a result of the loss and degradation of habitat and capture.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II.

protected under the Act Wildlife Protection Jamaica and Endangered Species Act of 2000, which together prohibit keep the species as a pet and local and international trade.

• It has been declared as threatened in Jamaica from 1986 (Juniper and Parr 1998).

• Since 1995 He has worked to delineate its distribution, estimate the size of the population, identify factors limiting reproductive performance and train local people in research methods and techniques for long-term monitoring (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in little 1998, 2000).

• Habitat in the mountains Blue and John Crow It has been declared National Park, but the implementation and management are weak (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in little 1998, 2000).

• There is a campaign public awareness high profile to prevent bauxite mining in Cockpit Country, by declaring the closed mining area to the discretion of the Minister (S. Koenig in some. 2007).

• discussions have been initiated, we wait, will lead to ban the importation of psittacine to Jamaica (S. Koenig in a bit., 2007).

• Exist breeding populations.

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Survey delineate the range and assessing the numbers (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in little 1998, 2000).

• Declare a Cockpit Country closed to mining.

• Ensure facto protection Blue Mountains National Park and John Crow (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in little 1998, 2000).

• Design and implement Educational programs in the occupied area of ​​the species (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in little. , 1998, 2000) and develop breeding populations.

Apply legal protection.

Prohibit the importation of non-native parrots.

In captivity:

CITES Appendix II. protected under the Law on Protection of Wildlife Act Jamaica and Endangered Species 2000, which together prohibit keeping this species as a pet, as well as local and international trade.
Existen breeding populations.

any trade should be avoided with this rare Amazona.
Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a program well managed captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:


- Yellow-billed Parrot, Jamaican Amazon, Jamaican Parrot, Red-throated Parrot, Yellow billed Parrot, Yellow-billed Amazon (inglés).
- Amazone sasabé (francés).
- Jamaicaamazone, Jamaikaamazone, Jamaikamazone (alemán).
- Papagaio-da-jamaica (portugués).
- Amazona de Pico Amarillo, Amazona Jamaicana Piquiclara (español).

Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Amazona
- Nombre científico: Amazona collaria
- Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Protónimo: Psittacus collarius

Images Yellow-billed Parrot:

Yellow-billed Parrot (Amazona collaria)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Yellow-billed Amazon in the St. Andrew, Jamaica By Amazona_collaria_-St.Andrew-Jamaica-8a.jpg: Wayne Sutherland from Kingston, Jamaicaderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Amazona_collaria at Vienna Zoo, Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria By Alois Staudacher (Jamaica Amazone) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Yellow-billed Amazons in the Kingston, St. Andrew, Jamaica By Wayne Sutherland from Kingston, Jamaica (Pair of Yellow Billed Parrots) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Yellow-billed Amazon (Amazona collaria) in Cockpit Country by Ron KnightFlickr
(5) – Yellow-billed amazon parrot (Amazona collaria), Jamaica By Charlesjsharp (Own work, from Sharp Photography) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Parrots in captivity by Biodiversity Heritage LibraryFlickr

Sounds: Nick Komar, XC255118. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/255118.

Black-billed Parrot
Amazona agilis

Black-billed Parrot

Description:

25 cm.. length and 178 g. of weight.

Black-billed Parrot

The Black-billed Parrot (Amazona agilis) It is the smallest of the Amazon parrots, and it is one of only two species Amazona endemics Jamaica.

This species, brightly colored, has a plumage, in its most, of color green with them underparts lighter, green or yellow. The slightly darker edges in feathers of the back of the neck, one dan scalloped effect. Flight feather darker at the tip; feathers of the tail blue in the margins with red bases to outer feathers. Their eyes They are surrounded by a dark brown ring dark grey, and the bill is black.

The adult male they have the coverts red on the outer of the wings, While these feathers They are usually green in females and in the immature.

  • Sound of the Black-billed Parrot.

Habitat:

It is in the wet limestone forests to elevations of 1.600 m. They can be seen in the upper canopy, and they can also be found foraging in cultivated land and plantations near the edge of the forest.

Form groups 6 to 30 individuals.

Reproduction:

The Black-billed Parrot used for nest the tree holes are formed from or related to weathering processes and pathogen attacks insects, at least a 18 meters above the ground. It has reported the use of cavity left by the Jamaican Woodpecker (Melanerpes radiolatus).
Like other species of parrots, the vigorous vocalizations among couples announce nesting territories.

The breeding season It is from March to August. The laying is of 2-4 eggs, with a range of about 48 hours between successive eggs. Eggs are incubated only by the female during 24 days. During this time the male will feed and exchange food with female. The incubation It begins after the first egg is placed, so hatching occurs at intervals, up to seven days between the first and last hatch. Chicks this Amazon They spend up to eight weeks in the nest.

Most failed nests do in the early mating period, as a result of predation by Jamaican Boa (Epicrates subflavus) (Gruber 1980) and to a lesser extent Jamaican Crow (Corvus jamaicensis).

Food:

The Black-billed Parrot It feeds on fruit, seeds, dried fruits, berries and flowers in the forest canopy. The populations of this species will move in response to the location of food sources. This species also feed on crops and can cause considerable damage to fruit ripening.

Distribution and status:

Tamaño de su área de distribución (reproductor/residente): 5.100 km2

Its distribution area It is restricted to the wet limestone forests midlevel, which they have declined dramatically in recent 40 years. Locally common by all the Cockpit Country, particularly in disturbed habitat edge where it is more common than Yellow-billed Parrot (Amazona collaria), with which occasionally is associated.

The populations of the Black-billed Parrot also they found in Mount Diablo, in the center of the island. Historical reports also placed at the eastern end of the island, although recent sightings in that area are rare. However, small flocks have been recently in the John Crow Mountains. Preliminary surveys indicate population estimates much higher than those described above, and possibly more than 10.000 individuals in the region of Cockpit Country (C. Levy in some 1999).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 6000-15000

Justification of the red list category

This species has a range very small within which its habitat is declining in extent, area and quality; and additional reductions of the population are being caused by the trampeo and predation, qualifying the species as Vulnerable. Currently it does not qualify as endangered because the habitat is severely fragmented and is known in more than five places. However, the species can requalify for inclusion in a top list in the future due to population decline likely if the three proposed mining concessions Cockpit Country They are awarded.

Justification of the population

Preliminary population estimates are best placed to world population in the band between 10.000 and 19.999 individuals (S. Koenig in a bit., 2008). This is equivalent to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, round here 6,000-15,000 mature individuals. Further studies are needed to get an accurate figure.

Justification of trend

The data suggest that decrease of at least 50% of the population of this species could occur in the next 40-50 years as a result of habitat destruction due to three proposed mining concessions, two of which have recently been granted (Koenig, 2008). However, It is not sure if the third concession is granted (S. Koenig in some. 2010), and as such it is projected to suffer a decrease of species 30-49% over the next 37 years (three generations).

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. protected under the Protection Act Wildlife Jamaica and Endangered Species Act of 2000, which together prohibit keep the species as a pet and local and international trade.

• Since 1995 He has worked to delineate its distribution, estimate the size of the population, identify long-term factors limiting reproductive performance and train local people in research methods and techniques for monitoring (Davis 1997, BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• Habitat in Blue Mountains National Park and John Crow, but the implementation and management of the park are weak (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• There is a permanent campaign public awareness high profile to prevent bauxite mining in Cockpit Country, by making the area is declared closed to mining by the Minister Discretion (S. Koenig in some. 2007, 2009).

• The proponents remain optimistic that, while losing a large area of ​​habitat, be declared closed a large area of ​​habitat for mining (S. Koenig in some. 2007, 2009).

• they have begun discussions that could lead to the ban the importation of psittacine to Jamaica to reduce the risk of leakage and hybridisation (S. Koenig in some. 2007, 2009).

• Populations of captive breeding.

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Survey to delineate the range and evaluate the numbers (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• Establish a monitoring program long-term.

• Designate Cockpit Country closed to mining.

• Ensure facto protection Blue Mountains National Park and John Crow (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998).

• Design and implement Educational programs in the area occupied by the species and adjacent areas (BirdLife Jamaica in little 1998) and develop a structured breeding program.

• Improve implementation of the legislation against poaching.

In captivity:

CITES Appendix II. protected under the Protection Act Wildlife Jamaica and Endangered Species Act of 2000, which together prohibit keep the species as a pet and local and international trade.

Populations of captive breeding.

Alternative names:


- Black-billed Parrot, Active Amazon, Active Parrot, All-green Amazon, All-green Parrot, Black billed Parrot, Black-billed Amazon (inglés).
- Amazone verte (francés).
- Rotspiegelamazone (alemán).
- Papagaio-de-bico-preto (portugués).
- Amazona de Pico Negro, Amazona Jamaicana Piquioscura (español).

Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Amazona
- Nombre científico: Amazona agilis
- Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Protónimo: Psittacus agilis

Images Black-billed Parrot:

Black-billed Parrot (Amazona agilis)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Black-billed Parrot in Jamaica By Ron Knight from Seaford, East Sussex, United Kingdom (Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Amazona agilis in Wuppertal zoo By Simon J. Tonge [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Black-billed Amazon at Vienna Zoo, Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria By Alois Staudacher (Rotspiegelamazone) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Black-billed Amazon at Vienna Zoo, Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria By Alois Staudacher (Rotspiegelamazone) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A Black-billed Parrot in Jamaica By Ron Knight from Seaford, East Sussex, United Kingdom (Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A Black-billed Amazon at Vienna Zoo, Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria By Alois Staudacher (Rotspiegelamazone) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Black-billed Amazon in the John Crow Mountains, Portland, Jamaica By Brennan Mulrooney (originally posted to Flickr as Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A Black-billed Parrot in Jamaica By Ron Knight from Seaford, East Sussex, United Kingdom (Black-billed Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Psittacus agilis By Barraband, Jacques; Bouquet; Le Vaillant, François [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – [Little green parrot (Black-billed Amazon [Amazona agilis])] From Natural History of Parrots (by Francois Levaillant, 1801-1805) by Jacques Barraband – Wikimedia

Sounds: Ross Gallardy, XC308430. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/308430

Red-spectacled Parrot
Amazona pretrei

Red-spectacled Parrot

Description:

Anatomy-parrots-eng
32 cm.. length and 295 g. of weight.

The Red-spectacled Parrot (Amazona pretrei) has the forecrown, lores, fore crown and upper cheeks up to the ear-coverts, bright red; back of the crown, nape, the mantle, back and rump, green with a narrow terminal band black in most feathers; scapulars green; uppertail-coverts pale green. Leading edge of wing, carpal area, alula and primary coverts, bright red; other coverts, narrow green with black tips.

Flight feather, violet blue green tips. Under wings green. The underparts They are mostly green, slightly tinged with yellowish, with black tips to most feathers giving a scalloped effect; the thighs red; undertail-coverts pale yellowish green. Tail green with broad pale yellowish-green tip and patches of red on base of innerwebs of the three feathers outermost. The bill pale yellow with pale orange based on upper mandible; bare periophthalmic white; iris orange; legs gris pardusco.

Red-spectacled Parrot

The female probably it shows much less red in the wing with the carpal edge and primary coverts, mostly or wholly green. Immature apparently similar to female adult.

Note Taxonomy:

It´s monotypic. Some times it is considered conspecific with Amazona tucumana, but they are best treated as forming a superspecies.

Sound of the Red-spectacled Parrot

Habitat:

Video Red-spectacled Parrot

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

This rider is strongly associated with forests Araucaria angustifolia for use as roosts non-breeding season. It prefers open savanna forests and low riparian forests for reproduction, with trees and conifers of the genus Podocarpus, Scutia and Celtis and where they are absent Araucaria angustifolia. Most records located at altitudes between 300-1.000 m, but they are distributed and raised at lower elevations in southern Rio Grande do Sul.

Are dispersed in pairs during breeding but are highly gregarious outside the breeding season. They form large concentrations community, often in plantations pinus exotic and Eucalyptus. The largest winter meetings coincide with the ripening seeds araucaria. flocks of 30 to 50 birds, composed of young adults and newborns, They may meet before the dispersion, from the breeding grounds to winter quarters.

Reproduction:

The Red-spectacled Parrot nest in tree hollows, for example, Casearia, Ouillaja brasiliensis and Ficus. With reproduce at the end of September to January, with young people and fledglings, usually, in early December in the south. Clutch 2-4 eggs.

Food:

Foods reported include seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (especially important in May-August) and Podocarpus lambertii (important in some areas in January-February), fruits of Eugenia, Campomanesia and Melia. The diet is altered with the town and the station. They take a variety of fruit in the spring and summer (October to February), among others: Cupania, Eugenia, Phytolacca, Allophylus, Nectandra, Ocotea, Campomanesia, Cytharexylum, Myrcianthes, Blepharocalyx, Ficus and Symplocos.

The diurnal movements cover up 100 km, perhaps in relation with the availability of food.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding / resident ): 95.400 km2

This species is endemic to South Brazil and distributed only in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (Martínez, 1996). Some individuals have been recorded in the forests Missions, in the northeast of Argentina (Chebez 1994) and they have recently also been reported from Paraguay (sec Lowcn et al., 1997).

It is a kind Nomad; They tend to focus on the remaining forests Araucaria Southeast Santa Catarina between March and June to feed on seeds production Araucaria augustifolia. During August and January, the Red-spectacled Parrot They are dispersed in small flocks ranging from tens to hundreds of individuals in a wide distribution throughout the state Rio Grande do Sul, particularly in habitats Cima da Serra fields, Plateau East, Alto Uruguay, Depression Central and Southeast Saws.

Reductions in seed supply Araucaria They may have been the cause of change in the feeding of Ecological Station Aracuri-Esmeralda in 1991 (Municipality of many Capões) to areas around Southeast Santa Catarina. Here the remaining forest patches Araucaria They can provide enough seed to feed the populations Red-spectacled Parrot. The intensive cattle grazing and agriculture have almost eradicated habitat Araucaria. These impacts on habitat have reduced natural regeneration and also may have reduced the number of nesting sites in old trees.

a census in 1994 It estimated the total population of the Red-spectacled Parrot in 10.000 individuals, Repeated surveys have shown the sizes of the nearby population 12.600 individuals in 1996. and about 16.300 individuals in 1997 (J. Martinez in the proceedings 1997, N. Prestes in the proceedings 1997).

Conservation:

Condition ⓘ


Vulnerable
Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the red list category

The combination of a comparison of population estimates 1971 and 1997 and deforestation rates during the same period suggest that the species has declined rapidly, qualifying the species as Vulnerable. Current threats loss of habitat and capture They suggest that this decline is likely to continue.

Justification of trend

Se sospecha una continued rapid population decline due to destruction, degradation and fragmentation of habitat and illegal trade.

Conservation Actions Underway

• Appendix I and II of CITES.

• This species is considered Vulnerable nationwide (Silveira y Straube 2008, MMA 2014) and protected Brazilian law.

• There are breeding populations in five reserves and two austral winter feeding sites are protected (Wege and Long 1995).

• Nevertheless, less than 1% Annual range, and less than 4% of each seasonal range is within protected areas (Marini et al., 2010).

• they have been provided artificial nests but not occupied (Snyder et to the ., 2000).

• Since 1991 It is conducting a campaign public awareness (Prestes et al . , 1997, Snyder et to the . 2000).

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Conduct surveys to get an estimate of population size updated.

• Conduct periodic surveys to assess the population trends.

• Study the current levels of off-take for the trade.

• Monitor the rates of loss and degradation of habitat.

Protect breeding areas in South Cacapava and Santana da Boa Vista.

• Improve management of protected areas.

• Apply the law to collectors and, especially, dealerships, looking vehicles between December and February (Prestes et al ., 1997).

• Continue Campaign sensitization.

The Red-spectacled Parrot in captivity:

Unknown until years 80, when a few reached Europe; not well known elsewhere.

relatively silent compared to other Amazonian species. Inquisitivas although generally quiet. have a nice nature, but they can occasionally be quite noisy, especially first thing in the morning and evening. They become confident relatively quickly. Outside the breeding season, They can be set in a colony system. chewing hard and excellent flying and stair climbers, so they need ample opportunities for exercise.

Its captive breeding rarely it has succeeded.

It is believed that the main threat to this bird is the illegal domestic trade, particularly in the municipalities of Lagoa Vermelha, Barracao, Esmeralda and many Capões. Approximately 500 chicks are taken annually from nests to be sold in large urban centers Caxias do Sul, Florianópolis, Curitiba and São Paulo (Prestcs et al., 1997).

It is a species that should only be kept in captivity for the purpose of achieving their reproduction and subsequent insertion into wildlife.

Alternative names:


1 - Red-spectacled Parrot, Pretre's Amazon, Pretre's Parrot, Red spectacled Parrot, Red-spectacled Amazon (inglés).
2 - Amazone de Prêtre (francés).
3 - Prachtamazone (alemán).
4 - papagaio-da-serra, charã, Charao, charão, chorão, maragato, Papagaio-charão, papagaio-chorão, serrano (portugués).
5 - Amazona Charao, Amazona de Cabeza Roja, Charao, CharaoChorao (español).

Scientific classification:

Temminck Coenraad Jacob
Temminck Coenraad Jacob

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Amazona
- Nombre científico: Amazona pretrei
- Citation: (Temminck, 1830)
- Protónimo: Psittacus pretrei

Images Red-spectacled Parrot:


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie (originally posted to Flickr as Perroquet familial) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A pet Red-spectacled Amazon in a parrot cage. It is 32 cm land and 295 gm in wt By Amazona_pretrei_-bird_cage-8c.jpg: The Andrea Guimarãesderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Some of its wing feathers are clipped By Amazona_pretrei_-Rio_Grande_do_Sul_-Brazil-8e.jpg: Mariederivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Amazona_pretrei, a native of the southernmost Brasil. Specimen in Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria By Bjoertvedt (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A pet Red-spectacled Amazon in captivity. It has a ring on its right leg By Andrea O Guimarães (originally posted to Flickr as I’m watching you) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie (originally posted to Flickr as Temporaire) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie (originally posted to Flickr as Calins… :)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – A pet Red-spectacled Amazon in a parrot cage. It is 32 cm land and 295 gm in wt By Andrea O Guimarães [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Amazona pretrei = = Parrot Psittacus pretei Priest By Jean-Gabriel Priest (1768–1849) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Vitor Q. Piacentini, XC27028. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/27028.

Vinaceous Parrot
Amazona vinacea

Vinaceous Parrot

Description:

30 cm.. length and an approximate weight of 370 g..

The Vinaceous Parrot (Amazona vinacea) has the lores and forecrown bright red; cheeks and crown green with black tips to some feathers head; elongated feathers on the sides of neck, the nape and the upper mantle, green at the base, subterminally light blue and black tip. The rest of the the mantle, back and scapulars, green with some feathers showing indistinct black tips; uppertail-coverts pale green.

Wing coverts green with red variable and / or yellow in leading edge of wing and the carpal area. Primaries pale bluish-green; Secondary green with blue tips, the base outerweb of the three outer secondaries, red, forming a small looking-glass. Under the wings, green. Throat and chest with shades ranging from brown to pale blue strong wine with strong vinous dissemination; subterminal dark band at the tips of the feathers gives scalloping pattern; Belly green or yellowish green sometimes with vinous dissemination; undertail-coverts brighter yellowish green. Tail green with yellow green tip; the base lateral feathers in red innerwebs, in purple outerweb. The upper mandible It is red at the base with pale tip, horn-colored lower, reddish at the base; irises orange to reddish brown; legs grey.

Both sexes are similar. The immature It has the green suffusion in chest and the less extensive red on the head (confined to the base upper mandible).

  • Sound of the Vinaceous Parrot.

Habitat:

The Vinaceous Parrot inhabit in tropical and subtropical evergreen mixed forests; in the Brazil in coastal rainforests, in the East of Paraguay They can be found in forests Araucaria angustifolia and Euterpe edulis. The extent of the ecological dependence of this species by coniferous trees (Araucaria and Podocorpus) It is not clear, but the Araucaria angustifolia It is clearly important in Missions, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina and possibly it was related to the previous distribution further north in southeast Brazil.

Mainly observed in the lowlands, but there are reports of birds seen in hills 1.500-2.000 meters in the southeast of Brazil, where the best forest remnants persist. Usually in pairs or small groups with larger meetings (up to approximately 30) in July-August. In pairs during breeding (usually around September).

Reproduction:

The Vinaceous Parrot nidifica in holes in large trees with obvious preference for the Araucaria angustifolia, including rarely cracks in the cliffs. With reproduce the May in loose colonies. Breeding season during the months of September to January. Clutch 2-4 eggs.

After the breeding season (February to July), the species congregate in large groups and community shelters.

Food:

The specific foods of the Vinaceous Parrot include flowers and fruits of Euterpe edulis (which apparently it is important seasonally in East Paraguay), seeds of Araucaria angustifolia, fruits of cocoons of Achatocarpus and new leaves Eucalyptus and seeds of Pilocarpus. It has been reported damagor cause in crops of oranges, but with the current low density of this species, It is unlikely to produce a serious economic impact.

Distribution and status:

Tamaño de su área de distribución (reproductor / residente ): 1.230.000 km2

The Vinaceous Parrot It is endemic in Southeast South America.

In Brazil It was found in southern Bay, in West Espirito Santo and scattered localities as Minas Gerais, Brazil (a peripheral register from the río Sao Francisco, about Januaria), sporadically en Rio de Janeiro (possibly a seasonal visitor), but widely observed in São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.

Records in East Paraguay come from Amambay, Canindeyú, Caaguazú, Alto Paraná, Itapúa and Guaíra and in the North of Argentina from Missions and possibly the eastern half of Currents.

There are some seasonal movements and subsequent dispersion breeding, possibly in relation to the food supply (for example, seed availability coniferous trees), with invasions scale reported in Paraguay in the past. Declines in the number of birds occur in Rio Grande do Sul January, with all its people disappeared by March and return in April for the rest of the year.

Formerly abundant and widespread but now there has been a contraction dramatic of its range and population, mainly due to the habitat destruction scale, the expansion of agriculture and floods caused by large hydroelectric dams. also trapped for a long time for bird trade.

Are distributed in several protected areas, but none is large enough to maintain a viable population. The former strongholds in eastern Paraguay They are subject to rapid deforestation, with a recent reduction in scope and numbers and now probably confined only in Alto Paraná and Ganindeyú.

Probably extinct (or almost) in Bahia and Espirito Santo, and a few birds are likely to remain in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, Brazil. Confined to the north and northeast of Santa Catarina and locally common only in forested parts of São Paulo and Paraná, where it is thought that the remaining population survives. Persist in the north and northeast of Rio Grande do Sul.

A census 2007 He threw a minimum of 253 copies in Argentina.
It is perhaps the Amazona more common in populations Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná (several populations of more than 100 birds), in the South of Brazil, and the low number persists in Minas Gerais, Brazil and São Paulo, within an estimated total of 1.500-2.000 birds.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size: 600-1700.

Justification of the red list category

This species is classified as endangered due to recent population estimates Brazil They indicate that the world population is very small and has suffered a rapid decline due to loss and fragmentation of habitat, aggravated by the trade. It is necessary to clarify whether Brazilian subpopulations exceed 250 specimens.

Justification of the population

Based on estimates 1.500 to 2.000 individuals in Brazil (G. Bencke in some. 2009), 220-400 in Paraguay and 253 in Argentina (K. Cockle in some. 2009), it is estimated that the total population is within the range of 1.970 -2.650 individuals and is probably positioned within the band 1,000-2,499. This is equivalent to 667-1.666 mature individuals, round here 600-1.700 mature individuals.

Justification of trend

rapid and continuous population decline is suspected because of the Poaching of nests, the habitat destruction and persecution as a pest Crop.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix I and II and protected by the Brazilian legislation.
• Regarded nationally Vulnerable in Brazil (Urben-Filho et al . 2008, MMA 2014), and Critically Endangered in Argentina and Paraguay.
• Small populations are found in many protected areas (Wege and Long 1995, F. Olmos in some ., 1999).
• In the Argentina, two young provincial parks are used by the species, but they offer only partial protection because parrots use habitat outside the park for most of its life cycle, including, critically, the reproduction.
• In Argentina strength of the species between San Pedro and Saint Rose, environmental education is underway to reduce the capture of chicks, and the population has been monitored since 2005 (Selva de Pino Paraná in litt project., 2007).
• It has been achieved successful captive breeding.

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Monitor large populations (in March Argentina).
• To study the reproductive biology and population-wide distribution of the species and develop structured breeding programs to counteract the high level of poaching of wild populations.
• Protect the general Carneiro (Santa Catarina), Itaipú (Alto Paraná), RNP Itabó Rivas (Canindeyú), Estancia Golondrina (Caaguazú) and forests outside reserves Rio de Janeiro (Snyder et to the ., 2000) and between San Pedro and Saint Rose in Missions.
• Invest in permanently trained rangers and solve the problems of land tenure in Brazilian and Paraguayan reserves (F. Olmos in some ., 1999, Cockle et al. 2007).
• Apply laws against trafficking of species on the roads that connect the Monte Pascoal National Park with South Brazil (Snyder et to the ., 2000), in places where the species is captured and at borders and ports Paraguay and Argentina.
• Increasing local public awareness to reduce theft of nests and promote the conservation of nesting sites.
• In Argentina, provide technical support to promote soil conservation, to avoid clearing forests for crops on small farms.

In captivity:

The Vinaceous Parrot noted for its easy to imitate the human voice, better and clearer than the Amazona aestiva. Small easily they learn to speak.

Two decades ago, before placement in the Appendix 1 CITES Convention, this species was available in aviculture. It never was imported to Europe in many, but nevertheless often it offered for sale. Its price was higher than other species of Amazona available at that time, because of its amazing looks and his talent as an imitator. As the trade in wild birds was coming to an end, the captive population decreased markedly. Although this species has been willing to raise for those who provide adequate breeding and have enough individuals to allow natural selection of the couple, captive breeding has been very disappointing, considering the number of birds that were previously available.

In the current avicultura, it seems that there are still a significant number of birds kept in Europe. A survey of Amazon parrots in the European zoos, made in 1993 and published in 1994 by the EAZA, he listed in 59 species Vinaceous Parrot conserved in 11 zoological collections: of this, only three, Loro Parque (Spain), Walsrode Bird Park (Germany) and Beauval (France), there had been breeding successes. It's known, However, a significant number of Vinaceous Parrot They are held by private poultry farmers Europe and if these owners are willing to work in cooperation with EEP plan that can be started for this species, then the known captive population Europe It could be great, enough to be considered as a viable.

The population of this species in captivity is similar to that of other species of the genus Amazona. In Loro Parque a couple is kept in an aviary in the exhibition area of ​​the park, and several more couples are kept in breeding cages suspended in their breeding outside exhibition. Suspended breeding cages are approximately 300 cm long x 95 cm width and height. Each cage has the nest-box placed against the outer rear panel, and there is a cut in the wire hole to allow birds to enter the nest-box. With the nest located outside of the cage, this eliminates the need to enter the service or inspect the nest-box.

The food of these birds is carried out twice a day. To the 7 Morning receive their main dish containing a mixed salad prepared with the following elements: – Apple, pear, tomato, beet, carrot, alfalfa, lettuce, Peppers, papaya and other fruits and vegetables seasonally available; In addition, They are also used, when available, various fruits that are grown in the park, as nopal cactus plants and berries palmera pindó (Syagrus romanzoffiana). A second smaller dish meal in the morning provides birds commercial pellets dietary, and during the breeding season they are also given to each couple segments of their own supplement “pastel” which it is made fresh daily. The evening meal is given to 3:00 pm, with a mixture of nuts, seeds and beans cooked.

The Vinaceous Parrot It was raised for the first time Loro Parque in 1990, when one pigeon was raised hand. The couple proved to be very unreliable when it came to the incubation their eggs, why he has always resorted to artificial incubation or host and breeding. This couple Vinaceous Parrot He received on subsequent occasions eggs more common species to give them the opportunity to prove that they are good parents, but so far they remain unreliable.

There were no breeding 1991, but the couple tried again in 1992, when he carried out another manually raising and other raised squab. In 1993, when the same pair joined again, the clutch of eggs was transferred to a pair of Red-crowned Parrot (Amazona viridigenalis), which they proved to be excellent foster parents and raised chicks born. The same technique was used in 1994, but only one egg clutch proved to be fertile and the chick was raised successfully by Red-crowned Parrot.

Alternative names:


- Vinaceous Parrot, Vinaceous Amazon, Vinaceous-breasted Amazon, Vinaceous-breasted Parrot (inglés).
- Amazone vineuse (francés).
- Taubenhalsamazone, Taubenhalsamazon (alemán).
- Papagaio-de-peito-roxo, chauá, coraleiro, corraleiro, crau-crau, curraleiro, jurueba, papagaio-caboclo, papagaio-curraleiro, papagaio-peito-roxo, peito-roxo, quero-quero, téu-téu (portugués).
- Amazona de Pecho Vinoso, Amazona Vinosa, Loro vináceo, Loro vinoso (español).

Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Amazona
- Nombre científico: Amazona vinacea
- Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
- Protónimo: Psittacus vinaceus

Images Vinaceous Parrot:

————————————————————————————————

Vinaceous Parrot (Amazona vinacea)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
– THE VINACEOUS AMAZON Amazona vinacea AT LORO PARQUE – First Published in The Avicultural Magazine Vol. 103 Not. 2

Photos:

(1) – Vinaceous-breasted Amazon (Amazona vinacea) – San Francisco Zoo, California By Dick Daniels (http://carolinabirds.org /) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Vinaceous Amazon in captivity at the Rare Species Foundation Programme, Florida, USA By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Amazona_vinacea_-RSFP-8a.jpg: Ruth Rogers [CC BY 2.0 or CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Vinaceous Amazon at the Walsrode Bird Park, Germany By Quartl (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Vinaceous Amazon; two in a cage By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as Copy of DSCN3375) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – flying. Picture taken in Morretes By Leandro Govoni Lacerda (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A Vinaceous-breasted Amazon at Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By Kee Yip from Union City, California, USA (IMG_4509_P1040019) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Pigeons neck Amazone (Amazona vinacea) Shot in Palmitospark Gran Canaria By Martingloor (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Vinaceous-breasted Amazon (Amazona vinacea) – San Francisco Zoo, California By Dick Daniels (http://carolinabirds.org /) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Amazone vineuse, Bioparc Doue-la-Fontaine By Melvin TOULLEC (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Yellow-shouldered Parrot
Amazona barbadensis

Yellow-shouldered Parrot

Description:

33 to 36 cm.. height and an average weight of 270 g.

Yellow-shouldered Parrot

The Yellow-shouldered Parrot (Amazona barbadensis) has a tail short, head yellow, some with forecrown white.

Its body is usually green, with black feathers edge neck, chest and back; greenish yellow in underparts. Chin yellow with bluish tint in lower cheeks and around the chin. Shoulder and the thighs yellow. Speculum red. dark blue tips to the flight feathers. The black edge of their feathers give them a look scaled.

Anatomy-parrots-eng
The irises are red or orange and bill whitish.

The young birds are similar to adults but may distinguish by their irises and the absence darker blue hue in the lower body.

In the most notorious flight apart from the head, is the wing with shoulder yellow, Red patch and blue end.

Habitat:

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

They live in areas xerophytic vegetation, frequenting desert scrub dominated by cactus, cardón and shrubs or small trees; also frcuentan cultivated areas, until the 450 m. They move in pairs or flocks of up 100 individuals, especially at the time of feed.

Reproduction:

The nesting takes place in tree cavities, cactus or cliffs, in general, between March and August (Sanz and Rodriguez-Ferraro 2006). The average size of clutch is of 3,38 eggs per nest, and most eggs survive to hatching. The incubation lasts a few 26 days and they leave the nest about 60 days after hatch.

It tends to rest communally in tall trees, with groups of up 700 birds recorded (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Food:

Their diet is composed of Cactus and other fruits. They have been reported in their diet fruits 22 genders. rich flowers nectar, cardón and the urero, which eats fruits, flowers and trunk, fruits and seeds Stenocereus, seeds and flowers guatacaro (Boarreria Sumnensis) and yaque.

Distribution:

Size of its range (reproduction / resident): 11,000 km2

The Yellow-shouldered Parrot It has a disjoint range with seven genetically isolated populations in northern Venezuela (Lara (Cerro Saroche National Park, which)), Falcon (Dabajuro, Casigua), Anzoátegui (about Píritu and Barcelona) and Sucre (Araya Peninsula), as well as the Margarita Islands, the blanquilla, Curaçao and Bonaire (Rodríguez-Ferraro 2009).

He is currently extinct on Paraguana Peninsula (Briceño-Linares et. To the. 2011). References to the presence of a population of wild parrots in Curaçao They are based on a historical source of the century 18 (AO Debrot in some 1999, 2007.); there have been reports from modern 1988 (The farmer 2008, A. Rodríguez-Ferraro in some. 2012), although it has been suggested that these birds can be released or escaped cages. (Williams 2012).

It became extinct in Aruba towards 1950 (Rojas-Suarez & Rodríguez 2015).

The numbers on the islands seem to fluctuate, but they have increased in Margarita of 750 birds in 1989 (Sanz y Grajal 1998) until around 2000 in 2015 (Rojas-Suarez & Rodríguez 2015).

The population in Bonaire It was estimated in 400 individuals in 2006 (Williams and Martin 2006) and 650-800 individuals in 2012 (Department of Resources and Planning, Bonaire by R. Martin y S. Williams a slightly. 2012).

The continent's population was considered in decline 2003 (Hilty 2003).

Their habitat continues to be lost in the eastern part of the continental mountain range (V. Sanz in some. 2016) and the population of together (East of Venezuela) it is believed that are declining due to poaching and habitat conversion for agriculture (V. Sanz n bit. 2016), so it is likely that the continental population continues to decline.

Conservation:

Condition ⓘ


Vulnerable
Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Unknown.

The population size: 1700-5600 specimens.

It is classified as a endangered specie, It is the main threats capture their young for pet trade, and habitat destruction of nesting and feeding by the extraction of sand for the construction industry.

The recovery of the population of this bird has been the spearhead of work Provita in Macanao, Since its conservation benefits to much of the biodiversity of the peninsula, as their habitat covers large areas, it is also a charismatic species, attracting easily to the public toward conservation efforts.

Source: PROVITA

Yellow-shouldered Parrot in captivity:

Rare but increasing due to the successes of captive breeding.
have a participatory personality, inquisitivas and curious to the point of being "nosy" and his gentle nature only adds to its charm. Mild to moderate its ability to speak.
Always playful, enable They require a cage equipped with toys. They worship a bathroom and displayed chatty while bathing under running warm water.

Alternative names:

Yellow-shouldered Parrot, Yellow shouldered Parrot, Yellow-shouldered Amazon (English).
Amazone à épaulettes jaunes (French).
Gelbflügelamazone, Kleine Gelbkopfamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-cabeça-branca (Portuguese).
Amazona de Cabeza Amarilla, Amazona de hombro gualda, Amazona Hombrogualda, Cotorra margariteña (Spanish).
Cotorra Cabeciamarilla (Venezuela).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona barbadensis
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus barbadensis

Images Yellow-shouldered Parrot:


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Photos:

(1) – Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) also known as Yellow-shouldered Parrot. Pet in Venezuela perching on the top of a wooden frame. By John Bäckstrand (originally posted to Flickr as IMG_2721) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Yellow-shouldered Amazon in the Walsrode Bird Park, Germany By Quartl (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons By Quartl (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Yellow-shouldered Amazon (also known as Yellow-shouldered Parrot). Two in the foreground in a cage By TJ Lin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) also known as Yellow-shouldered Parrot. Pet in Venezuela perching on a hand. Shows crown By John Bäckstrand (originally posted to Flickr as IMG_2469) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) also known as Yellow-shouldered Parrot. Pet in Venezuela By John Bäckstrand (originally posted to Flickr as IMG_2468) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Amazona barbadensis in the Loro Parque zoo of Tenerife, Spain By Bjoertvedt (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Amazona barbadensis in the Loro Parque zoo of Tenerife, Spain By Bjoertvedt (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) also known as Yellow-shouldered Parrot. Pet in Venezuela – side view – a little red and blue seen at edge of wing By John Bäckstrand (originally posted to Flickr as IMG_3117) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) also known as Yellow-shouldered Parrot. Pet in Venezuela on the top of a wooden climbing frame. Mainly showing its upper body By John Bäckstrand (originally posted to Flickr as IMG_2723) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Original illustration of the “Green & Yellow Parrot from Barbados”, currently known as Amazona barbadensis – Wikipedia

  • Sounds: © 2014 Cornell University

Southern Mealy Parrot
Amazona farinosa

Southern Mealy Parrot

Description:

38 to 45 cm.. from head to tail and 535 to 766 weight g.

The Southern Mealy Parrot (Amazona farinosa) It is the fifth in size among the Amazon parrots of the Americas, and is the Parrot largest in Mexico. The plumage its body is green with a slight yellow tone. Presents some yellow feathers on the crown, Although may not be very well defined.

Is characterized by its crown light blue color that continues to the side of the nape . Their wings are of round shape, and tail is short and square. The primary feathers and secondaries they have the blue-violet end, with a band red in them 4 – 5 Outer secondaries. The feathers of the tail they have a broad band of yellowish-green tip. The irises the eye is red with eye ring white, and the bill horn.

It has no sexual dimorphism and youth they are similar to adults, but with the irises dark brown .

Two more for South America subspecies have been proposed, Chapmani and Inornata but lack of character distinctive clear.

  • Sound of the Southern Mealy Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Amazona harinosa surena.mp3]
Habitat:

They inhabit in dense, humid rain forests near clear, Although also can inhabit in areas forested of the sheets.
You can see in altitudes of 290 to 1,200 m.

The Southern Mealy Parrot are birds very social, often seen flying in pairs or small flocks of up to 20 individuals. Also form groups more large, hundreds of birds, close the season of breeding. Very enable, is the view often interacting with other species of parrots, such as macaws (ARA).

Is an of the species of parrot more noisy of the Amazon, so they are easier to observe than other species.

Reproduction:

The mating It takes place once a year and usually starts in the spring. Once they mature sexually, the Southern Mealy Parrot they will choose a partner for life.

The breeding varies usually between the months of November to March. The nesting has place in the cavity of a tree. The laying by year tends to be of three eggs. The eggs are hatch for approximately four weeks, After the hatching the males help females in the upbringing of young people, regurgitating food in the crop of the female. The offspring is list to leave the nest after a period of approximately eight weeks.

Food:

It feeds on fruits of various species, some of them are: Euterpe SP.., Brosimum sp., Inga sp., Dussia sp., Eschweilera SP.., Pithecellobium SP.., Tetragastris sp., Dialium guianensis, Peritassa compta, Sloanea grandiflora and It corima macrocarpa. Also consumes flowers, arils of Cassearia sp. and nectar of Tabebuia insignis.

Distribution:

Tamaño del área de distribución (reproducción/residente): 6.790.000 km2

Are in Mexico, Central America and South America, occupying a wide range from the South of Mexico to the North of Bolivia and South of Brazil. They are more common in Costa Rica and Panama, particularly in the costa Caribbean. Observed in the Valley average of the Río Magdalena and to the East of them Andes on Serranía de San Jacinto, Western base of the Serranía de Perijá and the Department of Sucre, in Colombia.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Not are currently identified as a species in crisis. Not comply with the criteria for a decrease of the population, that means a loss of thirty per cent of the population in ten years or three generations, as defined in the Red list of the UICN. Are considered a least concern species. This, However, It does not suggest that the species is completely free from danger. The important trade of trade in live birds of this species, and loss of habitat caused by deforestation have a significant impact on the decrease of the population of the Southern Mealy Parrot in certain areas.

In captivity:

Of special interest to the international trade in exotic birds; common in captivity. In some areas, they are also hunted for food, due to its relatively large size. With regard to its ability to speak, It seems that can be good talkative, but is true that there are birds that do not come to make it never.

Alternative names:


- Southern Mealy Parrot, Mealy Parrot, Mealy Parrot (nominate), Southern Mealy Amazon (inglés).
- Amazone poudrée, Amazone poudrée (nominal), Amazone poudrée (nominale), Amazone poudrée (race nominale) (francés).
- Mülleramazone (alemán).
- papagaio-moleiro (portugués).
- Amazona harinosa sureña, Amazona Burrona (español).
- Lora Real (Colombia).
- Loro verde (Costa Rica).
- Lora coroniazul (Honduras).
- Loro corona-azul (México).
- Loro Harinoso (Perú).
- Loro Burrón (Venezuela).

Pieter Boddaert
Pieter Boddaert

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Amazona
- Nombre científico: Amazona farinosa
- Citation: (Boddaert, 1783)
- Protónimo: Psittacus farinosus

Southern Mealy Parrot images:

————————————————————————————————

Southern Mealy Parrot (Amazona farinosa)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Mealy Amazon at Elmwood Park Zoo. Photograph shows upper body By Art G. from Willow Grove, PA, USA (African Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Mealy Parrot (Amazona farinosa), Tambopata Lodge, Peru By D. Gordon E. Robertson (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Two Mealy Amazons at South Lakes Wild Animal Park, Broughton Road, Dalton in Furness, Cumbria, England By Glen Bowman (originally posted to Flickr as 18:02:2009 14:33:08) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Mealy Amazon at Kobe Oji Zoo, Kobe, Japan By Jun Y (originally posted to Flickr as Poll Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Mealy Parrot or Mealy Amazon (Amazona farinosa) of the blue crowned variety. Note the characteristic flour-like surface texture of the feathers on shoulder area By Eightball38 at English Wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Diego Caiafa (Xeno-canto)

Peach-fronted Parakeet
Eupsittula aurea

Aratinga Frentidorada

Description:

A length between 23-28 cm. and a weight between 74-94 g.

The Peach-fronted Parakeet (Eupsittula aurea) has the forecrown bright orange; the crown a deep blue color.

Each eye It is surrounded by a circle of small orange feathers, delimited in the anterior zone with blue; front part of the lores orange; cheeks Brown olive; ear-coverts green. Nape, the mantle and back dark green; rump and uppertail-coverts green. Scapulars greenish brown; lesser and median coverts dark green; greater primary coverts dark blue. The primaries Blue in the vane inner and tips; the secondaries blue. The flight feather, below, grayish brown; upperwing-coverts colour pale yellowish olive. The throat and the top chest color marron-oliva; the upperparts color olive. Upper, the tail dark green with brown tint in the vane inner and with a bright bluish tinge to an end; by down greyish Brown.

Bill grey-black; close bare periophthalmic bare grey; irises yellowish brown; legs grey.

Both sexes similar.

Immature they have a broad nude patch orbital, frontal band closer, bill pale and the irises grey.

  • Sound of the Peach-fronted Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Peach-fronted Conure.mp3]
Habitat:

The Peach-fronted Parakeet It is present in a wide variety of habitats, specially cleared but a little forested areas, including all kinds of deciduous forest, Gallery forest (especially in the South of its range), swamps with Palms mauritia and sheets, also in cultivated areas, below the 600 m.

In the Brazilian Amazon, they are distributed under conditions of low shrub vegetation in sandy soils, avoiding dense evergreen forests. On the inside of the Brazil can be seen in areas caatinga and formations closed with natural grassland.

In general, they can be views in flocks and in pairs to isolated while the breeding season.

Has been able to observe them is feeding with the Blue-crowned Conure (Psittacara acuticaudatus) in fruit trees and resting on branches with the Blue fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva) and the Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani) in Piauí, Brazil.

Reproduction:

Nest in arboreal termite, trunks hollow or in ravines. Birds observed in nests between June and July in Peru and flocks to divide into breeding pairs during the month of January in Mato Grosso. Clutch 2-3 eggs in (Argentina).

Food:

Feed of seeds (not of pulp) of Ilex, Banisteriopsis, Campomanesia, eucalyptus and Symplocos, fruits and flowers of Erythrina and Terminalia, flowers of Qualea and Garyocar and insects, including the termites and fly larvae, beetles and moths. They produce crop damage in some areas.

When feeding in soil (for example of the grain after harvest), its plumage tends to get dirty.

Distribution:

Tamaño del área de distribución (reproducción/residente): 5.730.000 km2

Distributed by the Centre and East of South America. To the North of the Amazon The species is found in For and Amapá and the island Caviana island (mouth of the Amazon), Brazil, as well as possibly in the South of Suriname. To the South of the Amazon the Peach-fronted Parakeet extends through of For, Eastern Amazonas, Rondônia and Mato Grosso, Brazil, to northeast Bolivia and East of Peru, in where were observed in the Santuario Nacional Pampas del Heath, and eastward through most of the inside of Brazil until Bay, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Mato Grosso from the South and the Northwest of the Alto Paraná Department in Paraguay (in the West and Northeast) and North of Argentina (North of Salta, East of Formosa, Currents and possibly Chaco). The reports of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, They seem to be confused.

Common in the central area of its distribution area, still it most common parakeet in much of the interior of Brazil. Obviously more local and scarce toward the North and South ends of their range, with very few recent reports in Argentinto (Formosa in 1987 and Currents in 1983), where the abundance historical suggests a descent on a large scale during the century 20.

Conservation:

• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Place previously within the genus Aratinga.

Its global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996). Its population suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

The species has undergone intense trade: from 1981, date on which was included in Appendix II, 61,311 individuals have been captured in the wild for resale in international trade (UNEP-WCMC trade database CITES, January 2005).

In captivity:

It´s common in captivity and widely marketed.
Robust, playful, friendly and not so noisy as other species of parrots.
Regularly provide fresh branches to satisfy their need to crack.

It is not a kind of complicated for reproduction in captivity.

Alternative names:


- Peach-fronted Parakeet, Brown-chested Parakeet, Golden-crowned Parakeet, Peach fronted Parakeet, Peach-fronted Conure (inglés).
- Conure couronnée, Conure à front d'or, Perriche couronnée, Perruche couronnée, Perruche ou (francés).
- Goldstirnsittich (alemán).
- Aratinga-estrela, ararinha, jandaia, jandaia-estrela, maracanã-de-testa-amarela, Periquito-estrela, periquito-rei (portugués).
- Aratinga Frentidorada, Aratinga frente durazno, Calacante frente dorada, Calancate Frente Dorada, Cotorra de frente naranja, Maracaná frente naranja, Periquito de Frente Dorada (español).
- Calacante frente dorada, Calancate Frente Dorada (Argentina).
- Cotorra de Frente Dorada (Perú).
- Maracaná frente naranja (Paraguay).
- Tuíiapyteju, Ajuru-juvakang (Guaraní).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Eupsittula
- Nombre científico: Eupsittula aurea
- Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
- Protónimo: Psittacus aureus

Peach-fronted Parakeet images:

————————————————————————————————

Peach-fronted Parakeet (Eupsittula aurea)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Peach-fronted Parakeet (also known as the Peach-fronted Conure) in Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil By Otávio Nogueira [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Peach-fronted Parakeet in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Peach-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga aurea) perching on a termite mound in Minas Gerais, Brazil By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Aratinga_aurea_-Brazil-8.jpg: Glauco Umbelino [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Eupsittula aurea By Petyson Antonio (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Eupsittula aurea By Petyson Antonio (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Brown-throated Parakeet
Eupsittula pertinax

Aratinga Pertinaz

Description:

Eupsittula pertinax

Of 17 to 20 cm. length between 76 and 102 g. of weight.

The Brown-throated Parakeet (Eupsittula pertinax) is a polytypic species. Its fourteen subspecies are distinguished by the mix yellow and Brown on his face and throat.

In the case of the Eupsittula pertinax aeruginosa, the lores previous, the frontal area, underside of cheeks, both sides of the neck and ear-coverts, are dark brown; dark stripes visible on the cheeks; the feathers of the ocular region are of color orange-yellow; the crown greenish blue. Upperparts olive green. Lesser and medium coverts green; bluish green the primaries and greater coverts. Primaries and secondaries green up, Blue dark on the tips, Blue them vane outer in the secondaries; by down dark grey. Underwing-coverts brighter yellowish green. The throat and the top chest dark brown; the underparts Matte yellowish green with an orange patch in the central area of the belly. By above, the tail is of color green blue, bluer towards the tip; undertail greyish-yellow.

The bill Brown-grey color; bare periophthalmic yellowish white; irises yellow, legs grey.

Both sexes similar, without sexual dimorphism, where males are larger than females.

The youth they tend to lack intense yellow, that is alive in individuals adults. Its forecrown is dark greenish blue. The throat and the chest are greenish, while the belly is green with a bit of orange or yellow.

Description subspecies Eupsittula pertinax
Subspecies
  • Eupsittula pertinax aeruginosa

    (Linnaeus) 1758 – See description.

  • Eupsittula pertinax arubensis

    (Hartert) 1892 – Face and throat color opaque marron-oliva. Narrow yellow line on the eyes. Crown greenish blue.

  • Eupsittula pertinax chrysogenys

    (Massena & Souance) 1854 – Similar to the aeruginosa subspecies, but darker.

  • Eupsittula pertinax chrysophrys

    (Swainson) 1838 – Similar to the subspecies margaritensis and venezuelae but with the forecrown a pale yellowish brown.

  • Eupsittula pertinax griseipecta

    (Meyer de Schauensee) 1950 – Similar to the aeruginosa subspecies, with the cheeks, the throat and top of the chest, Gray-olive, veins in the cheeks absent. The crown Green with little blue.

  • Eupsittula pertinax lehmanni

    (Dugand) 1943 – Is similar to the aeruginosa subspecies, but with yellowish feathers around the eye more extensive; the Blue head limited with the forecrown and less blue in the flight feather.

  • Eupsittula pertinax margaritensis

    Cory 1918 – Front whitish, the cheeks and ear-coverts color oliva-marron with forecrown greenish blue.

  • Eupsittula pertinax ocularis

    (Sclater,PL & Salvin) 1865 – Patch distinctive yellow below and behind the eyes (absent in the immature). Front and crown green color with tint blue in some birds. Throat, top of the chest, the cheeks and lores warm brown; ear-coverts slightly darker.

  • Eupsittula pertinax paraensis

    (Sick) 1959 – Similar to the aeruginosa subspecies, but with the irises of color red and the vane outer of primaries and secondaries blue.

  • Eupsittula pertinax pertinax

    (Linnaeus) 1758 – The nominal. Extensive but variable amount of yellow color in the forecrown, the cheeks, the throat and lores. It may be more off or more Orange under and behind the eyes. Crown Green with only a few light blue indications.

  • Eupsittula pertinax surinama

    (Zimmer & Phelps,WH) 1951 – Similar to the subspecies margaritensis but with narrow frontal band orange-yellow color, orange-yellow colour around the eyes extending towards the cheeks and yellowish-green (not brown) the throat.

  • Eupsittula pertinax tortugensis

    (Cory) 1909 – Similar to the aeruginosa subspecies but larger, orange-yellow color on both sides of the head and underwing-coverts more yellowish.

  • Eupsittula pertinax venezuelae

    (Zimmer & Phelps,WH) 1951 – Similar to the subspecies margaritensis but more pale and yellow on the underparts.

  • Eupsittula pertinax xanthogenia

    (Bonaparte) 1850 – Clearer (almost sallow) the head the species nominal, with yellow tones ranging from a variable on the front of the crown and nape.

  • Sound of the Brown-throated Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Aratinga pertinaz.mp3]
Habitat:

The Aratinga Pertinaz occupies all kind of fields wooded open of the Savannah, transparent areas of dry scrubland full of cactus and acacias, forests of mangrove, tropical forests (where is the most abundant parrot species often), Gallery and white sand forests, Mangroves of Rhizophora, edges of humid evergreen forests, and areas agricultural with palms and other trees.

Move at altitudes on the 1.200 m or more, Although they tend to stay below the 1.200 m. This parakeet also lives in clear artificial such as parks public or gardens.

In general, observed in flocks or pairs, forming larger groups where food is abundant and in communal roosts.

Reproduction:

The Brown-throated Parakeet It monogamous. With plays After the season of rains, in general from February to April. Birds very social, evaluate to its possible companions in large products community. Also used strong calls in select to your mate / to.

Its breeding season It begins after the rainy season, and varies geographically between the months of February and September. Between February and April in Goal, Colombia; from February to April in Venezuela and any time of the year in Suriname, Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire.

When the conditions are favorable this species You can reproduce several times a year. Are colonial and have been observed up to seven pairs nesting next to each other.

Nest in the cavities of trees, artificial nesting boxes, or in arboreal termite. There are reports of nests made in cracks in rocks. The nests they are very simple, without any vegetable coating and eggs, often, they are placed on the floor of the cavity nude. The number of eggs in a nest varies from two to seven.

The female is the primary incubator, with one incubation that can last from thirty-six to thirty-seven days in the wild. The chicks they leave the nest After 50 days. The offspring is attached to their parents and form small groups family that duran until them parents begin a new season of breeding.

Food:

The Brown-throated Parakeet consuming a wide variety of food, including, for example, in the Northwest of Venezuela seeds of Cassia, Peltophorum, Lagerstroemia and Cedrela, fruits of Muntingia, Swietenia, Psidium and Solanum as well as flowers of Tabebuia, Delonix, Eryihrina and Gliricidia.

Sometimes it causes damage to crops (for example, of millet and handle), corn in Colombia and in fruit plantations of the Netherlands Antilles. Despite being considered pests in some areas, the Brown-throated Parakeet they are not strongly persecuted.

They feed in very vocal groups that often include macaws and Amazon parrots.

Distribution:

The Brown-throated Parakeet are distributed to the North of South America, Panama and the islands of the Southern Caribbean.

In Panama are present in the slope of the Pacific, rarely on the side of the Caribbean, even in the canal area. However, they occupy the lowlands of the Northern Caribbean and northeast of Colombia, from the East of the Sinú River up to the Guajira peninsula, including the Center and low Magdalena valley, and observed at elevations more low in the East of the Andes and the lowlands of the South of the Alto Orinoco, to the North of Vaupés.

Probably can be observed in all Venezuela, extending to the Margarita Islands, Turtle (Venezuela), Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles); introduced in St Thomas, Virgin Islands, in the 19th century.

Its distribution extends through of the Guianas and the North of Brazil, from Roraima until Amapá, as well as intermittently in the upper part of the basin of the Tapajós River, For and in the basin of the Rio Negro, Amazon.

In spite of his uneven distribution, in general it is common to abundant, in many places it is the most common Parrot (for example in localities of Guyana), locally common in Panama and reportedly very common in Black rivers and Branco, Brazil.

Your area of distribution possibly be increasing due to deforestation. In general resident with local seasonal movements (for example, in the region of Santa Maria, Colombia) the availability of food and the dispersion of the areas of reproduction-related.

Distribution subspecies Eupsittula pertinax
Subspecies
  • Eupsittula pertinax aeruginosa

    (Linnaeus) 1758 – North of Colombia, Northwest of Venezuela and the upper part of the basin of the Rio Branco, in the Northwest of Brazil

  • Eupsittula pertinax arubensis

    (Hartert) 1892 – Aruba

  • Eupsittula pertinax chrysogenys

    (Massena & Souance) 1854 – Region of Rio Negro and, possibly, Rio Solimões, North of Brazil; There are no details about its area of distribution

  • Eupsittula pertinax chrysophrys

    (Swainson) 1838 – Southeast of Venezuela, Guyana Interior and North of Roraima, Brazil.

  • Eupsittula pertinax griseipecta

    (Meyer de Schauensee) 1950 – Valley of the Rio Sinu, North of Colombia. Range in relation to the aeruginosa subspecies unclear

  • Eupsittula pertinax lehmanni

    (Dugand) 1943 – East of Colombia and possibly Venezuela.

  • Eupsittula pertinax margaritensis

    Cory 1918 – Islands Margarita and The friars, Venezuela. Birds of the Paria peninsula in the North of Venezuela, they can be of this subspecies; see the subspecies venezuelae

  • Eupsittula pertinax ocularis

    (Sclater,PL & Salvin) 1865 – The Pacific slope of Panama.

  • Eupsittula pertinax paraensis

    (Sick) 1959 – High of the Tapajós River and Cururu River, For, Brazil.

  • Eupsittula pertinax pertinax

    (Linnaeus) 1758 – The nominal. Curacao and introduced in St Thomas

  • Eupsittula pertinax surinama

    (Zimmer & Phelps,WH) 1951 – French Guiana and Suriname through the coast of Guyana to Delta Amacuro, Northeast of Venezuela.

  • Eupsittula pertinax tortugensis

    (Cory) 1909 – Turtle Island, Venezuela.

  • Eupsittula pertinax venezuelae

    (Zimmer & Phelps,WH) 1951 – North and Central Venezuela. Areas of contact with other little-known Venezuelan subspecies: see aeruginosa, surinama and chrysophrys.

  • Eupsittula pertinax xanthogenia

    (Bonaparte) 1850 – Bonaire

Conservation:

• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern

• Population trend: Growing

The Eupsittula Pertinax (Pit and neck of 2014) was considered, previously, belonging to the genus Aratinga.

The subspecies Griseipecta, endemic of the the Sinú Valley in Colombia, There have been since 1949 and is likely to be extinct (T. Donegan in litt. 2011).

The size of the population world of this kind not has been quantified, but is described as “common” (Stotz et to the. (1996). Is considered as the Parrot more abundant in the land low for the Caribbean, Plain in Colombia, Guyana, North of Suriname and the three islands of the Netherlands Antilles.

A density of five to eighty and nine birds by kilometer square is has estimated in the regions of the Northwest of Venezuela.

It is believed that populations on the continent are increasing their range in response to an increase in the conversion of the forest into farmland.

This species is often captured with commercial purposes, but not has been consequences serious, with the exception of the subspecies Aratinga pertinax margaritensis and Aratinga pertinax tortuguensis.

The Aratinga pertinax tortuguensis It is also vulnerable to severe climate changes. (Juniper and Parr, 1998;. Pit, et to the, 1997)

In captivity:

The Brown-throated Parakeet has a average vinein the nature of about ten years. However, When live in captivity with the proper supervision, they have come to live up to twenty-five years.

Common in the industry of the pet because, mainly, to your behavior affective. Captured for the pet trade and occasionally as food.

Pretty noisy, both in the nature as in captivity. With certain skills for repeated whistles and words short.

Alternative names:


- Brown-throated Parakeet, Brown throated Parakeet, Brown-throated Conure, Caribbean Parakeet, Curacao Conure, Curacao Parakeet, St. Thomas's Conure (inglés).
- Conure cuivrée, Conure de Saint-Thomas, Perriche cuivrée, Perruche cuivrée (francés).
- Braunwangensittich (alemán).
- Aratinga de-cara-parda, aratinga-de-bochecha-parda, periquito-de-bochecha-parda (portugués).
- Aratinga Pertinaz, Perico cara sucia, Perico Carisucio, Perico Gorgicafé, Periquito de Cola Corta, Periquito Gorgimoreno (español).
- Loro carisucio, Perico Carisucio (Colombia).
- Perico Gorgicafé (Costa Rica).
- Perico Cara Sucia (Venezuela).

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

Orden: Psittaciformes
Familia: Psittacidae
Genus: Eupsittula
Nombre científico: Eupsittula pertinax
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protónimo: Psittacus pertinax

Brown-throated Parakeet Images:

————————————————————————————————

Brown-throated Parakeet (Eupsittula pertinax)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Animal Diversity Web

Photos:

(1) – Aratinga pertinax By Genes Luna (Flickr: IMG_0309.jpg) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Aratinga pertinax xanthogenia By gailf548 (originally posted to Flickr as Young Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Eupsittula pertinax arubensis By Alexander Yates (originally posted to Flickr as Aruba Parakeet) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Brown-throated Parakeet (Aratinga pertinax venezuelae) in Cagua, Estado Aragua, Venezuela By Cristóbal Alvarado Minic [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Aratinga pertinax aeruginosa By Aratinga_pertinax_-Colombia-8a.jpg: anthrotectderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Eupsittula pertinax By Leizelt, Balthasar Friedrich; Wilhelm, Gottlieb Tobias [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Peter Boesman (Xeno-canto)

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