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Honey Bears cat
The current RagaMuffin Cat

Content

History

The Honey Bears It was the version of the International Ragdoll Cat Association (IRCA) of the Traditional Persian cat.

The Honey Bears had been raised from a couple of persian cats and could be registered as Persian cat on Cat Fanciers’ Association (CFA).


Ann Baker stated that the genes of the Skunk were infused into the female and that her kittens resembled the young skunks, born silver before turning black with stripes across the head, the back or the bottom. For the rest of the feline world, this sounds like shaded silvers develop their color.

Supposedly, cats had tails flattened on the sides - actually, an illusion caused by the long fur- that they held on their backs like skunks. Baker stated that the Honey Bears looked like a Persian cat, but he didn't have a cat skeleton.

Essentially, the cats were Persians and were even marketed as similar to hairless persians, but the breeding philosophies of Baker and the increasingly outlandish claims, made it impossible to register as Persian cat in conventional registers.

For practical purposes, the Honey Bears they were Persians, although of a less extreme type than those seen on the display bench. A few breeders persevered with them, but otherwise they were absorbed by the RagaMuffin cat.

Observations

The Foundation Cats RagaMuffin include only the lines of the Cherubim cat previously registered in the International Ragdoll Cat Association (IRCA) as:

Miracle Ragdolls

Solid, Tabby, mink, Sepia

“a highly updated Ragdoll Cat”

Honey Bears

All colors

IRCA verison/style de Older Type Persian

Maxamillions

Silver y Silver Tabbies

IRCA Ragdolls

Color Pointed only

Not the first copies of Cat Fancy Ragdolls

Note: Ann continued to develop more lines for a short time until her death in 1997 after the RagaMuffins were established as a separate race. These new fledgling lines were not used in the development of our RagaMuffins.: Ragdoll Tu, Catenoides, Ragdoll HobbyType, Baby Dolls, Angels, Shu Schoo, Symoneese / Symonees, Manxees, Fuzz

The founders were actively breeding the full spectrum of cat lines Cherubim in the International Ragdoll Cat Association (IRCA) until 1992, When, due to deteriorating health and stability of Ann, they decided to leave the IRCA and seek recognition as a race within the formal organizations of Cat Fancy.

His contracts with Ann stipulated that if the breeders continued to breed cats from the International Ragdoll Cat Association (IRCA) off your record, name “Ragdoll” could not be used to describe the cats produced. The name Cherubim had also been recorded by Ann at that time. So, even though the RagaMuffins they were in fact the cats Cherubim original, and that the logical thing would have been to keep Cherubim as breed name, the need arose for “change brand” to remain ethically faithful to their contracts.

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Himalayan cat
Federations: ACFA, TICA, WCF

The Himalayan cat it is an extremely sweet pet, playful and gentle that can be adapted to practically any type of home.

Himalaya

Content

Characteristics "Himalayan cat"

Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a cat of the breed "Himalayan cat" you know certain factors. You must take into account their character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

Joy

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Activity level

Rated 1 out of 5
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to other pets

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to children

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Grooming requirements

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Vocality

Rated 1 out of 5
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Need for attention

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Affection towards its owners

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Docility

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Intelligence

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Independence

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Hardiness

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

History

Also know as Colourpoint Persian, the Himalayan cat It is a breed of cat that combines the colors of the Siamese cat with the Traditional Persian cat. It is a cross between semi-long-haired Siamese twins and blue and black persian cats.
Some feline associations, as the American Cat Fanciers’ Association (ACFA), they consider it a separate breed, while others, as the Cat Fanciers’ Association (CFA), they see it rather as a variety of Persian cat, from which it only differs in the color of the coat. Its name is due to the similarity of its coloration with that of a domestic rabbit also called Himalaya.

Sus orígenes se remontan a hace casi un siglo, when breeders dreamed of combining the colors of the Siamese Cat with the Traditional Persian cat. At the beginning of the year 30, in United States, the Dr. Clyde Keeler, researcher at Harvard University School of Medicine, undertook a hybridization program for this purpose, in collaboration with a breeder, the Mrs. Virginia Cobb. The results were not entirely satisfactory and the experiment was interrupted by the Second World War.. After the war, another passionate breeder, the Mrs. Marguerita Goforth, took the torch and managed to create a “Colourpoint Persian cat” that was recognized in 1957 by the CFA and ACFA as a new breed called “Himalayan“. At that time, el criador debía demostrar la existencia de tres generaciones deColorpointpuro para que esta línea fuera acreditada como nueva raza y pudiera participar en concursos y campeonatos.

In the meantime, in Britain, Brian Sterling-Webb, another enthusiastic breeder, trabajó durante una década en el desarrollo de un híbrido similar que, in 1955, was registered as a separate breed named “Colorpoint longhair cat” by the Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF).

Over the next decade, the popularity of Himalayan cat grew significantly. However, breeders began to interbreed only with himalayan. As a result, las características heredadas del Persian cat they were lost in favor of individuals with a less flattened face. This led some breeders over the years 70 to use occasionally pure persian cats at the crosses, con el fin de aumentar de nuevo las características de esta raza en el Himalayan cat. Esto tuvo tanto éxito que los gatos resultantes de esta selección acabaron teniendo todas las características para competir en los concursos de Persian cat. Inevitably, the question arose: ¿debería el Himalayan cat seguir considerándose una raza en sí misma?

In response to this question, the CFA decided on 1984 consider the Himalayan as a subdivision of the Persian cat, keeping your name. It was followed by World Cat Federation (WCF). But the ACFA, as well as the International Cat Association (TICA), they kept it as a separate race.

Today, the Himalayan cat still a very popular cat in North America, but less in Europe.

Physical characteristics

Himalayan cat
Himalayan cat – Joseph Morris, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
The Himalayan cat, like the persian, it is a solid and round cat, with short legs, short tail and small, rounded ears. Según la American Cat Fanciers Association (ACFA), must have five fingers in front and four behind.

As with the Persian, There are two types of himalayan: the classic “baby face” and the one with the flatter face “how to pekinés”, which gets its name from its similarity to the dog Pekingese.

Most of the cat's coat is white or cream in color, but there are some varieties, según las diferentes tonalidades de las puntas del pelaje y las extremidades del cuerpo.

Size and weight

  • Size: 30 cm.
  • Weight: Of 3 to 6 kg

Varieties of "Himalayan cat"

Distinguished by the color of the extremities of the body and the tips of the coat, the main Himalayan varieties are

Blue Point:
  • the tips of the fur are blue, like feet, the ears, tail and face. The rest of the body is slightly bluish white, and the eyes are bright blue.
Lilac Point:
  • In this variety, the extremities of the body and the tips of the coat are paler and lilac than blue. The rest of the body is whiter and brighter than in the Blue Point.
Seal Point:
  • The extremities of the body and the tips of much of the body are black or dark brown (similar to the color of the seal, that inspired his name). It is the variety whose color is most similar to that of the Siamese.
Chocolate Point:
  • The tips of the body and the tips of the coat of this variety are chocolate brown, a shade lighter than Seal Point. The rest of the fur is also whiter and brighter than that of the Seal Point. El color de las almohadillas de las patas es una característica que distingue fuertemente las dos variedades: those of the Chocolate Point they are pink, while his Seal Point are dark brown.
Red Point o Flame Point:
  • The dominant color of the limbs and points of this cat is red, which can be orange. The rest of the body is white or cream.
Cream Point:
  • This variety of Himalayan is a diluted version of Flame Point. The coloring of the mask and the extremities is reddish or pale orange, while the rest of the body is white or slightly cream.

Character and skills

Himalayan cat
Himalayn cat named ‘Monte.Flickr
The Himalayan cat it is a wonderful indoor cat. They are gentle, calm and sweet temperament, and they also have a playful side. Like him Siamese cat, to the himalayan he loves to play fetch, and a crumpled piece of paper or a cat toy will entertain them for hours, or until your next nap.

The Himalayan cat They are devoted and depend on their humans to accompany and protect them. Ansían el afecto y les encanta que los acaricien y los acicalen, which is lucky, ya que todos los propietarios de esta raza de gato pasan parte del día haciendo precisamente eso.

Like his Persian brethren, they are docile and will not harass you for attention like some breeds do. They have the same level of activity as the Persian cat and they are not noisy like the Siamese cat.

Grooming and caring for the "Himalayan cat"

If you are not willing to spend some time on daily grooming, the Himalayan cat probablemente no sea el gato adecuado para tí. Since they have long, silky hair that tangles and weighs down easily, the fur of the himalayan debe cepillarse con un peine robusto de púas anchas a diario. This will remove and prevent tangles and mats, and will help remove dirt, dust and debris. It is also recommended that the Himalayan cat visit a professional groomer every few months to make sure his coat is healthy and clean. The good news is that himalayan they love to receive the attention of their owners, which makes grooming easy and is an excellent bonding experience for the owner and his feline companion.

You can protect your legs and your furniture by trimming your nails Himalayan regularly. Examine your legs weekly and trim them if necessary to keep them healthy and injury free. Also spend time a week examining your cat's ears. The pointed ears of the Himalayan are susceptible to trapping dirt and debris, lo que puede dar lugar a infecciones y otros problemas de oído en el futuro. Si encuentra restos en los oídos de su gato, utilice un limpiador de oídos para mascotas y un algodón para eliminarlos con cuidado. No utilice nunca un bastoncillo de algodón en los oídos de su gato, ya que puede dañar gravemente las delicadas estructuras del oído interno. If the ears are very red or swollen, very dirty or smell funny, take him to the vet asap.

The himalayan have low exercise needs, but they are extremely playful and will do mischief if they get bored. Puede mantenerlos entretenidos y comprometidos proporcionándoles muchos juguetes para gatos y dedicándoles unos minutos de juego cada día. Like the Himalayan they have such a playful personality, something as simple as a ball of paper will keep you entertained for hours.

How much activity does he need? "Himalayan cat"?

The himalayan you need to exercise to stay in top shape. Likes to play with their owners and will play with interactive toys, chase balls and attack mice with catnip, but you may have to chase him to get him exercising on a daily basis.

Health and nutrition

Himalayan
Himalayan – Aaa803287, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
The Himalayan cat you are prone to certain skin diseases: seborrhea, cheyletiellosis and dermatophytosis (had).

It also, like the persian, may have a tendency to be overweight. Therefore, you need to pay attention to your diet, to avoid any risk of obesity in the cat.

It also, due to his persian heritage, may be a carrier of the gene that causes renal polyquistosis. This inherited disease causes cysts to develop slowly and progressively in the kidneys.. However, the presence of the offending gene can be detected by genetic testing. Therefore, before adopting a kitten of this breed, it is advisable to check with the breeder of himalayan that this genetic test has been performed and has given a negative result. If not done, it is a wise precaution to demand that it be done.

It also, the flattened shape of the face may predispose to himalayan certain health problems. For example, you may be prone to breathing problems due to narrow nostrils. They can also suffer malocclusion (misaligned teeth) or abnormal watering.

The himalayan you can also suffer the síndrome de hiperestesia felina (a little-known disease that causes behavior problems).

Last, the length of their coat can cause hair ingestion problems, what ends up creating hairballs in the stomach of the cat (tricobezoares), causing pain and / or digestive problems.

Food

As the Himalayan cat have a tendency to be overweight, special attention should be paid to your diet.

Some companies have developed a range of foods specially adapted to the needs of the Persian cat (and therefore of himalayan). Available in the form of croquettes or cans, these foods offer a low-fat diet that contributes to the health of the cat, while helping to maintain a silky coat and limit hairball formation. Algunas de las croquetas disponibles en el mercado tienen una forma que se adapta a la mandíbula braquicéfala del Persian and of the himalayan.

La calidad de los productos del mercado varía, así que asegúrate de que los que ofreces a tu perro son fiables. The ingredient list on the packaging can help you, but you can also ask the breeder for advice himalayan or your vet.

For sale "Himalayan cat"

The kitties himalayan (pet quality) cost between 700 and 1400 EUR, dependiendo de los colores del pelaje y de la línea de sangre. La búsqueda del gatito himalayan perfecto comienza con la búsqueda de un criador de renombre. One Himalayan cat known breeding sites, with good color and perfect proportion can cost between 1500 and 3000 EUR,

Videos "Himalayan cat"

Cats 101: Himalayan
TOP 10 HIMALAYAN CATS BREEDS

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Highland fold cat
Federations: TICA, LOOF

The Highland fold He is also known for his amazing poses: can be seen sleeping on his back, sitting on its hindquarters or standing on its hind legs.
Highland fold
Highland fold – hillspet

Content

Characteristics "Highland fold cat"

Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a cat of the breed "Highland fold cat" you know certain factors. You must take into account their character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

Joy

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Activity level

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to other pets

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to children

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Grooming requirements

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Vocality

Rated 1 out of 5
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Need for attention

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Affection towards its owners

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Docility

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Intelligence

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Independence

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Hardiness

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

History

The history of Highland fold cat is inextricably linked to that of your partner, the Scottish fold, what is a Highland shorthair.

Su ancestro común apareció en 1961 in a little Scottish town called Coupar Angus, cerca de las regiones montañosas del norte del país (the Highlands). Call Susie, this white cat with her ears folded forward is the origin of all cats Highland fold cat. Podría haber permanecido en el anonimato en la granja MacRae donde vivía si un pastor llamado William Ross no se hubiera fijado en sus especiales orejas. In 1963 adopted Snooks, one of Susie's daughters, que también tenía el pelaje blanco y las orejas dobladas.

However, folded ears in cats are nothing new. En el pasado ya se había informado de ejemplares de este tipo, and already in 1796 John Hinton escribió en su Revista Universal del Conocimiento sobre gatos salvajes que vivían en China y mostraban tales atributos. In the 19th century, it is said that several sailors brought this type of cats from Asia, and in 1975, in his book The Guide to the Cats of the World, Loxton afirmó que estos gatos con las orejas dobladas hacia delante siempre habían existido en China.

But it was Susie and her daughter Snooks who originated the breed. Highland fold. In their first litter, Snooks gave birth to a male named Snowball - in reference to his white fur- which in turn was crossed with Lady May, a white short haired british. Los cinco gatitos de esta unión tenían las orejas dobladas, y así comenzó la historia de los Scottish fold.

Originally baptized as “Lops” by William Ross and his wife Mary, the breed was named after Scottish fold in 1966, cuando el Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF) granted it official recognition and allowed its exhibition in feline exhibitions, where it had a great success. At the same time, se creó un programa de cría.

However, the work done by various English geneticists, as Peter Dyte and Oliphant Jackson, revealed a relationship between curved ears and arthritis propensity in cats. Ya preocupada por el posible aumento del riesgo de infecciones de oído y sordera causado por esta característica anatómica (fears that were later proven unfounded), the GCCF decided on 1971 revoke your previous decision and, Therefore, stop accepting this breed.

In the news, the GCCF continues to maintain its position of not recognizing the Highland fold (nor its short-haired equivalent, the Scottish fold), arguing that the folded ears are due to a genetic mutation that is linked to potentially disabling bone problems for the animal. In this arbitration he had the support of the British Veterinary Association.

The salvation of the race came from the United States, Where, in 1970 The doctor. Neil Todd había importado tres hijas de Snooks a Newtonville, Massachusetts, to study their genetic mutations. However, he soon left his research project and one of these cats, called Denisla Hester, was hosted by Salle Wolf Peters, a cat breeder Manx.

Everything followed quickly, so that in 1972 the breed was presented at an exhibition organized by the Cat Fanciers’ Association (CFA), una de las principales organizaciones del país. The interest was immediate and several breeders decided to develop the breed. The CFA supported them in their efforts and in 1974 allowed the registration of these cats as an experimental breed.

Aware of the risk of osteoarthritis associated with the genetic mutation that caused the folded ears, American breeders followed the recommendations of Dr.. Oliphant Jackson and brought new blood to the breed, crossing it abundantly with the American shorthair cat and the European shorthair cat (Common european cat), cruces que aún hoy se permiten. This diversification effort paid off: arthritis cases decreased. In 1978, the CFA definitively recognized the Scottish fold. The TICA (International Cat Association) did the same the following year, in 1979.

From the beginning, long hairs have appeared in litters of Scottish fold, and Susie and her daughter Snooks were likely carriers of a recessive gene for long hair, que se transmitía pero sólo podía expresarse si el gatito recibía otro gen recesivo de pelo largo. Probable crosses with the Persian Cat, así como los cruces con el European shorthair cat (Common european cat) which in turn were the result of crosses with Persians, contributed other long-haired genes, so that individuals born with long hair became increasingly common.

From the years 80, began to arouse real interest and recognition from some organizations. However, incluso hoy en día, este reconocimiento varía mucho entre países y organizaciones de gatos.

The CFA considers them as a simple variety of the Scottish fold, while the TICA grants them from 1979 full breed status, under the name of Scottish Fold longhair. On the other hand, some organizations do not recognize them at all, neither as a variety nor as a race. Is the case, for example, of the FIFé (Fédération Internationale Féline) and the British GCCF.

In France, the Livre Officiel des Origines Félines (LOOF) considers it as a separate breed, denominada Highland Fold. It also, the Highland fold without folded ears have also been recognized by the LOOF as a distinct breed since 2009, and they are registered as Highland Straight.

The Highland fold came to France in the decade of 1980, but it took time to become a success. In the early years of the 21st century, for example, todavía no había más de quince inscripciones al año en el LOOF, and about forty at the end of his first decade. Then this figure grew exponentially until it reached about 250 copies a year ten years later. The Highland Straight, recognized only from 2009, experimentó un aumento aún más espectacular, going from a score of individuals registered in the first year to almost 500 at the end of the Decade of 2010, that is to say, twice as much as him Highland fold.

Highland Fold
Highland Fold breed kitten, female, 8 months old – Aqetz, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Physical characteristics

The Highland fold it is a medium-sized cat with strong bones, con un aspecto ágil y flexible a pesar de su cuerpo curvilíneo. The body is supported by legs relatively short and robust and is prolonged with a rather long and tapered tail that ends in a curve.

Its chin and their jaws well defined, as well as their cheekbones prominent, dan a su head a round shape. Their eyes, which are usually coppery in color but can be many other colors, especially blue in the case of white fur cats, they are also wide and round.

But it is the ears, short and rounded, the ones that make the famous Highland fold. Fall forward, plegándose sobre sí mismos, de ahí elFold” of his name. They are also very mobile and expressive, being able to turn or straighten when lurking.

However, all kittens are born with straight ears, and only from 3 weeks start to double, at least some of them. Those who keep their ears straight are Highland Straight and can be crossed again with Highland fold: some of their descendants will have folded ears and, Therefore, will be Highland fold.

It also, the fur is what differentiates the Highland of the Scottish fold. While they both have a dense undercoat, the top layer of Highland fold is medium to long, with a silky texture. The throat, the breeches and the tail are very complete. According to the norm of Livre Officiel des Origines Félines (LOOF), all fur colors and patterns are allowed.

Last, the sexual dimorphism it is well marked, females being smaller than males.

Size and weight

  • Male size: 23 to 28 cm.
  • female size: 20-25 cm.
  • Male weight: 4-6 kg
  • female weight: 2,5-4 kg

Varieties of the "Highland fold cat"

Some feline organizations consider that the Highland fold it is simply a long-haired variety of the Scottish fold, not a breed in its own right.

On the other hand, the straight eared specimens are called Highland Straight and are considered a breed in their own right by various organizations, like the LOOF (Livre Officiel des Origines Félines) and the TICA (The International Cat Association), que lo denomina Scottish Straight longhair. Other associations recognize it as a variety, and others just don't recognize it at all.

Whatever your recognition, these cats are essential to the health of the breed Highland fold, as they can be bred with them to give birth to new cats with folded ears, while minimizing the risk of genetic diseases. Kittens born from such a union are carriers, at most, of a gene that causes this particularity, while those born from a mating between two Highland fold podrían ser portadores de este gen por duplicado, situation leading to osteochondrodysplasia of varying severity.

Character and skills

Highland fold
Highland fold shorthair Sheerfold Jon – Flickr
Loyal and loving, the Highland fold he is close to his family. However, they usually have a favorite human, with whom they spend the most time and show more affection. Despite your great need for attention, they are not demanding companions or require a lot of time. In fact, content with following a master who has no time to play with him, or you sleep peacefully next to someone who has made you understand that you are too heavy to sleep on your lap.

It is also a breed of cat that adapts perfectly to children who know how to behave with animals, and enjoy receiving their attention. Son sociables y disfrutan de la compañía de otros gatos, así como de perros acostumbrados a los gatos, who can be excellent playmates for them. However, it is not advisable to try to live with rodents, reptiles or birds, as he will soon mistake them for prey.

To the Highland fold le gusta la compañía y sufre fácilmente la soledad. La presencia de otros animales es una excelente manera de hacer que pase el día cuando su familia está trabajando, and the extra attention at night helps make up for the fact that it has been neglected for several hours. However, this is not enough if you are absent for a long time. One Highland fold staying alone for a long weekend is likely to suffer from separation anxiety, which can lead to destructive behavior.

The Highland fold He is also known for his amazing poses: can be seen sleeping on his back, sitting on its hindquarters or standing on its hind legs. They also like to drink tap water instead of the fish tank., and some use their legs to eat.

Son increíblemente ágiles, allowing them to pick up objects on the fly or open cupboard doors without difficulty. Los juegos de destreza son una excelente manera de mantener a su gato físicamente estimulado, while the various puzzles for cats help develop their intelligence.

Last, the Highland fold not heard often, and when it does, it is necessary to listen carefully, since his meow is very soft.

Grooming and caring for the "Highland fold cat"

The Highland fold it is a demanding breed of cat to maintain: its dense coat should be brushed two or three times a week to maintain its shine and prevent knots from forming.

It is also advisable to check your eyes and teeth weekly to avoid any risk of infection. You also have to pay special attention to the ears, which should be cleaned with a damp cloth.

Last, if natural wear and tear and the use of a scratching post are not enough for your claws and they become too long, deben recortarse con un cortaúñas.

How much activity does he need? "Highland fold cat"?

Its moderate activity level makes it an ideal flat cat, but his family must not forget to play with him daily.

Health and nutrition

In general, the Highland fold it is a healthy breed of cat, to the point that many specimens have more than 15 years.

However, are more prone to certain diseases:

  • The osteocondrodisplasia, que afecta al desarrollo de los huesos y los cartílagos y puede causar una artrosis incapacitante a una edad temprana. The first symptoms are usually stiffness in the hind legs and/or tail;
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, un agrandamiento anormal del tejido del corazón que provoca problemas cardíacos;
  • The polykinetic kidney disease, a genetic disorder that causes numerous cysts in the kidneys, which can now be detected with a DNA test.

Es importante saber que la cría de dos Highland fold it is prohibited by the different feline organizations. This is because the gene responsible for the folded ear mutation is dominant., that is to say, el gatito sólo necesita recibir este gen de uno de los padres para tener esta característica. However, all individuals carrying two mutated genes are affected by osteochondrodysplasia, to a greater or lesser degree. For this reason, miscegenation should be avoided at all costs Folds, and any breeder of Highland fold that does not respect this rule must be rejected.

Las únicas opciones permitidas son entre un Fold and Straight (an identical cat with straight ears), a Fold and European shorthair cat (Common european cat), or a Fold and American shorthair cat. These crosses give rise to litters with a 50% kittens with folded ears.

Hay que tener en cuenta que el número de gatitos por camada suele ser inferior al de otras razas de gatos.

Life expectancy

Of 12 to 15 years

Food

The Highland fold is not picky and does well with commercial cat food. However, These must be of good quality and adapted to your age and activity level to ensure that you receive the nutrients and vitamins you need.

How they are normally capable of self-regulation, they can have food available in their bowl at all times. However, check your weight at regular intervals to make sure you are not getting too fat, and you have to consult a veterinarian to establish a feeding program adapted to your needs if this is the case.

For sale "Highland fold cat"

The price of a kitten Highland fold it is on average about 1000 EUR.

However, esta media esconde grandes diferencias de precio entre los gatitos con características físicas alejadas del estándar, that can be found around the 500 EUR, y aquellos cuyo prestigioso linaje y características los predestinan a las exposiciones felinas, whose price exceeds 2000 EUR.

In any case, there is no significant price difference between male and female kittens.

Videos "Highland fold cat"

Chat Highland Fold
Midori highland fold

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Highlander cat (Highland Lynx)
Federations: TICA

The Highlander cat is a relatively new breed, the first litter back to the year 2004. This race is a little rare, to remove doubts it is registered with the International Cat Association (TICA) as a new preliminary certification.

Content

Characteristics "Highlander cat (Highland Lynx)"

Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a cat of the breed "Highlander cat (Highland Lynx)" you know certain factors. You must take into account their character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

Joy

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Activity level

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to other pets

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to children

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Grooming requirements

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Vocality

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Need for attention

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Affection towards its owners

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Docility

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Intelligence

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Independence

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Hardiness

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

History

The Highland Lynx, better known today as Highlander cat, it was created in 1993 by crossing two hybrid cat breeds, the Jungle Curl and the Desert lynx. However, despite its exotic name, This breed of cat does not have an iota of blood from its distant wild cousin, the Lynx. The desire to create a Domestic cat with the appearance of a wild cat with curved ears was the main reason for its creation and for the choice of its name.

Since the appearance of the breed, the breeders of Highland Lynx they have continued to select and perfect the physical features of this very special cat to distinguish it from its parent, the Desert lynx cat.

Your efforts are beginning to pay off. Like this, although the highland lynx is still considered by the Rare and Exotic Feline Registry as a subgroup of the Desert lynx cat, as the Alpine Lynx and the Mohave Bobs, is starting to emerge at feline shows as a breed in its own right. The name change in 2005 to Highlander was seen by the breeder community as a strong sign of demarcation.

The 1 in May of 2008, the breed was recognized by the International Cat Association (TICA) to participate in the feline shows organized under his auspices in the preliminary class of new breeds, reserved for new breeds that can enter competitions, but do not participate in them. Eight years later, in 2016, rose to the category of New Advanced Race, which means that he could compete but not win any official prize. The application of the breed to participate in presentations as a competition breed (final status which means official recognition) is being considered in 2019. It should be noted that the TICA divides the Highlander in two varieties: the Highlander Shorthaire for short-haired specimens, and the Highlander Longhair. Other international feline associations, as the Fédération Internationale Féline (Fife), the Cat Fanciers Association wave Word Cat Federation they still don't recognize the breed.

Despite TICA approval and resulting visibility, the Highlander not yet widely distributed outside its country of origin, United States. There are some breeders of Highland Lynx in Canada and Europe (France and UK), but your number remains confidential.

Physical characteristics

Highlander
Highlander CatDigitalDirt, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
The Highland Lynx has a physical look that is sure to attract attention when you walk into a room. With his muscles, his curved ears, its short tail and brindle fur reminiscent of its distant wild cousins, the Highlander He is as imposing as his cousin the Desert lynx cat, if not more.

Bigger than the average cat, the Highlander has a body powerful, with well-defined muscles that show in every movement. Its torso is quite developed and its long hind legs end in large feet with prominent joints.

The polydactyly in cats, that is to say, To have more “fingers” on each leg than normal, It is very common in Highlanders, regardless of kinship. This feature does not pose any risk to the animal's health.. On the other hand, it can even be an advantage, as it provides more stability in your movements.

Another physical feature of Highlander is your tail naturally shortened, to the point of having only between 5 and 15 centimeters in length. It also, it is thick and can be straight or curly. This anomaly does not influence the cat's daily behavior or its health either.. He even tends to wag his tail to express his mood, like a dog.

Last, the head and the face of Highlander are generally longer than wide. Its forecrown long, their nose wide and its chin deep and pronounced form a rather rectangular face. The Greats eyes oval and flattened can vary in color between gold, blue and green, and they are especially expressive. The ears, with wide bases and curved tips, are placed high on the skull, alerts and open. This last characteristic develops in the first months after the birth of the kittens., who initially have straight ears.

Last, a wide variety of coat colors and patterns are accepted. Those with short hair tend to have a softer and denser coat than those with long hair..

Size and weight

  • Size: 25 to 40 cm.
  • Male weight: 5 to 11 kg
  • female weight: 4 to 7 kg

Varieties of "Highlander cat (Highland Lynx)"

The standard of the Highland Lynx accepts all feline coat colors: ebony, blue, Brown, leonado, chocolate, lilac, Red and cream, as well as all silver variants, sepia, snow, mink and cameo.

However, the breeders of Highlander currently prefer three coat patterns to maintain the look “Wild” of the race:

The leopard pattern
  • It consists of a tabby with dark spots on the flanks and belly of the cat. The size of the spots can vary, but they must be evenly distributed. Rosette-shaped spots are preferable (almost full circle, with a center lighter than the edges). A dark dorsal line, ideally made up of small spots, should travel the length of the cat's spine to the tail. The face has brindle markings. Ghost spots (marks that fade as the cat sheds and ages) are preferred for snow colors, cuttlefish and mink.
The leonado pattern
  • The coat is brindle all over the body, with more pronounced brindle markings on the legs, tail and face. Collar markings are usually present on the neck and chest, but they are not essential.
The marbled pattern (the cloudy leopard)
  • It is a variation of the brindle brand, but with horizontal guidelines instead of vertical. Colors must be contrasted, with well-defined shapes and contours. The belly is stained.

Accepted Highlanders smooth or brindle, but they are less desirable, as they are closer to the look of a Domestic cat.

Character and skills

Highland cat
Highland cat reclined – TAnthony, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Despite his wild looks, the Highlander is far from sharing the temperament of his cousins, starting with his circumspection and shyness. In fact, it's the opposite. In fact, it is one of the most affectionate cat breeds. This character trait, as well as its tendency to follow its owner everywhere, has earned him the nickname of “cat dog”.

A giant with a kind heart, quickly becomes familiar with his new surroundings and soon demands a lot of attention and caresses from everyone who enters his home. This applies even to strangers, those who do not hesitate to touch, if you are encouraged to do so. Sometimes he even goes out to party with his master and follows him around when he comes back from work., without the noise and the drool. In other words, not a suitable breed of cat for a master who is away often, that you would do better to opt for an independent cat.

On the other hand, unlike other affectionate cat breeds, the Highlander not talkative: shows your affection through your movements and attitude, not through your voice.

This personable and patient character makes them ideal for a family with children., provided they are not too agitated in your presence. Moderating the ardor of the youngest is all the more necessary since the mountaineer has an excellent memory and, Therefore, tends to run away from people with whom the first exchanges have been random.

It is possible to have more than one cat at home, since the Highlander is generally sociable with other cats. However, it is important to avoid bringing two unsterilized males together.

Cohabitation of your cat with a dog should not be a problem either, since they also get along very well with dogs, sharing the same devotion to their master. In fact, It is not uncommon to see that they quickly start playing together once they have been introduced..

It also, his intelligence and excellent memory make him a perfect student to teach your cat tricks and games, like the recovery of balls. An indoor cat perfectly adapted to life in an apartment and not to that of a garden cat, however requires distractions and activities between two naps. Playing with your cat on a regular basis will allow him to channel his energy while maintaining his powerful muscles, and it will prevent you from destroying everything in the house to get your attention.

Last, the Highland Lynx he is a water-loving cat, whether it's watching a faucet run for hours or getting sprayed during a gaming session.

Health

The Highland Lynx is a new breed of cat and breeders have not yet identified any specific disease.

However, It's recommended that, before making any purchase, the cat's parental history and vaccination record is checked to ensure that all its vaccinations are up to date.

Grooming

Depending on the hair length of the Highland Lynx, maintaining the cat's coat may require more or less work. The longer the coat, more regularly you will need to brush your cat (about twice a week), to help you groom. In any case, it is best to accustom your cat to being brushed from a young age, since older cats do not appreciate this type of attention if they are not familiar with it.

It is also important to monitor and maintain your cat's ears. Dirt or excess wax can collect in the cartilage folds, causing discomfort and infections. Cleaning your cat's ears regularly will go a long way in preventing this problem..

Food

The Highland Lynx does not have a special sensitivity to food. It also, provided that the food is of good quality and is adapted to the dietary and energy needs of the cat, there is no risk of him becoming overweight.

However, keep in mind that the Highlander tends to drink more than other cats. Therefore, it is even more important that they always have access to fresh water.

For sale "Highlander cat (Highland Lynx)"

The price of a kitten Highland Lynx ranges between 700 and 900 EUR.

Videos "Highlander cat (Highland Lynx)"

Highlander | Cats 101
Meet Gadget the Highlander Cat

Alternative names:

  • Highland Lynx, Highlander Shorthair

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Havana brown cat
Federations: CFA, TICA, AACE, ACFA/CAA, CCA-AFC

The Havana brown he is an affectionate cat, friendly and intelligent. It also, unlike its ancestor the Siamese, it is quite calm and serene.

Habana marrón

Content

Characteristics "Havana brown cat"

Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a cat of the breed "Havana brown cat" you know certain factors. You must take into account their character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

Joy

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Activity level

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to other pets

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to children

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Grooming requirements

Rated 1 out of 5
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Vocality

Rated 1 out of 5
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Need for attention

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Affection towards its owners

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Docility

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Intelligence

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Independence

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Hardiness

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

History

The Havana brown He is a descendant of the famous Siamese. Its origins date back to the fourteenth century in the Kingdom of Siam, current Thailand. The brown cats were described and represented together with the Siamese and the Korat cat in numerous manuscripts of poems and paintings found in the city of Ayutthaya, which was then the capital of the kingdom. They were considered very beautiful, but above all, good luck charms for their owners.

These chocolate-colored felines were among the first to be imported from Siam to the UK, where they arrived at the end of the 19th century. The texts of this time, like the writings of an English breeder named Madame French and passages from Frances Simpson's book of 1903 The Cat Book, describe a Siamese cat with brown fur and blue-green eyes.

It is probable that not all imported cats of this color were of the same breed and that among them there were burmese, Siamese and the Tonkinese cat (a cruce enters Burmese and Siamese). However, it is difficult to differentiate the breeds from the available writings and drawings.

In any case, It was at this time that the term was coined “swiss mountain cats” to designate cats with this particularity. However, historians cannot establish whether it covered all chocolate-colored specimens imported from Thailand in the late 19th century, or only those of one or more specific races.

Brown cats were exhibited in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. At an exhibition held in England in 1888, one of them won the first prize, which tends to show that felines of this type enjoyed a certain visibility and popularity at the time. This is corroborated by the fact that in 1928, in another exhibition held in Great Britain, the British Siamese Cat Club went on to award a special prize to the chocolate-colored specimens.

Just two years later, in 1930, god a ride, promoting only the breeding of cats Siamese blue-eyed. However, a large majority of brown individuals had green eyes and not blue, so they were suddenly excluded from competitions organized under the aegis of the organization. Logically, breeders began to abandon this color, and the number of individuals wearing it drastically decreased.

This decline continued until the years 50, when a group of British breeders, among which were Baroness Miranda Von Ullman and Anne Hargreaves, they set out to give these cats a new life. They studied the inheritance of the chocolate gene and launched a breeding program based on their research.. New crosses were made between Siamese chocolate-colored, domestic cats blacks and the Russian Blue Cat, which resulted in the tan brown as we know it today. The first kitten regarded as a Havana brown was born in the UK in 1952 and it was called Elmtower Bronze Idol. Result of a cross between a Siamese cat seal point carrier of the chocolate gene and a black cat also carrier of the gene, became one of the founders of the breed.

The main British feline organism, the Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF), recognized the new breed in 1958 as Chestnut Brown Foreign. Twelve years later, in 1970, was replaced by the Havana brown. There are two opposing hypotheses to explain the choice of this name: the first is that it refers to its brown color similar to tobacco, while the other claims that it comes from a breed of rabbit of the same color called Havana.

Even before its official recognition in Great Britain, the breed had taken its first steps in the United States. In fact, after coming into contact with Mrs.. From Ullman, an American breeder named Elsie Quinn imported two cats into 1956. A selection process was started somewhat different from that of the United Kingdom, so soon the American and English types were differentiated. This is still the case today, the first being more massive than the second, whose morphology is long and thin, apparently modeled on that of the Siamese.

The Cat Fanciers’ Association (CFA) accepted the breed in 1964, and The International Cat Association (TICA) did the same in 1979. Both took the North American version of the breed as a reference., whose features differed significantly from the British model recognized by the GCCF: the latter had a longer and thinner oriental morphology. Despite this formalization of the existence of two very different types of cats, the name remained the same for all bodies: Havana brown. In 1983, the TICA accepted the lilac color in its standard, whereas until then only the color chocolate was allowed. Quite consistently, decided at the same time to change the name with which he recognizes the breed, in favor of him Havana. In France, the Livre Officiel des Origines Félines (LOOF) did the same and began to accept the lilac color, but kept the denomination Havana brown.

In United States, the beginning of the years 90 was characterized by the loss of interest in breeding this breed, whose number dropped a lot. The breed became especially rare and, at the end of the decade, the CFA only had 12 hatcheries and some 130 representatives of the breed throughout the country.

The situation worried some breeders, who feared that the cats would disappear. They contacted Dr.. Leslie Lyons, who was then working at the California Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, so that with your help they could develop a breeding program. The analyzes of the genome of the Havana brown revealed excessive inbreeding. In other words, a healthy development of the breed was only possible if new individuals were introduced in the breeding programs.

Thus, the breeders asked the CFA to open the breed to new crosses, what was accepted by the organization in 1997. Since that year, it has been possible to cross the brown Havana with siamese cats Seal Point and Chocolate Point, Oriental Longhair cat, as well as with domestic cats blacks and blues not beggars in the United States. If the individuals born from these crosses are brown, are recognized by the CFA as Havana brown. On the other hand, regardless of its color, if they cross paths with the Havana brown, their offspring is considered by the organization as Havana brown.

This show turned out to be a success: expanded the breed's gene pool and kept it healthy, at the same time that it allowed to continue increasing the number of dogs in the country. These authorizations are still valid today., but they are still exclusive to the United States, since organizations from other countries do not allow these crossings.

However, the surge in popularity was short-lived, and the Havana brown is now at the bottom of the CFA's annual enrollment rankings, in the post 42 of 45 in 2018, after falling steadily in previous years. For example, early in the decade 2010, rather occupied the position 30 or 35.

However, the problem of the lack of diversity in the different lines also arose in other places, like the UK. During the decade of the 90, some changes in the selection of Havana brown and the Siamese modified the quality of the fur of the latter and other morphological parameters, what some people did not like.

In 1996, a breeder named Joan Judd expressed concern about the future of the breed, What, in addition to these changes away from its original appearance, suffered from a clear lack of representation. He wrote an article explaining, among other things, that the Havana brown couldn't survive without an influx of foreign blood. Under your direction, a small group of breeders, among which were Mrs.. P. Sharp-Popple, la Sra. S. Miller and Linda and Charlie Spendlove, selected some specimens and developed a joint breeding program called Pure Havana. As such, the Sr. and mrs. Spendlove imported a subject from the French breeding of Claire Rassat. Christened St Evroult Gatsby, was initially registered with the GCCF as a Havana brown.

In view of its traditional pattern, breed enthusiasts Havana brown The modern model did not look favorably on the five litters it produced and complained to the GCCF, requesting that St Evroult Gatsby be removed from the breeding program. However, they came across a number of enthusiasts who had noticed the qualities of the traditional model through this small group of cats, and defended him before the association. The GCCF then proposed that these cats form a new breed, which was baptized as Suffolk and officially recognized by the organization in 2014. Therefore, the Suffolk is considered a separate breed from the Havana brown, although it is very similar to him. It can be chocolate or lilac color. 13 Suffolks were registered with the organization in 2018, and 35 in 2019.

In France, the Havana brown is very underrepresented. The number of people registered each year in the LOOF does not exceed fifteen, for a total of 108 between 2010 and 2019.
Worldwide, its total population is estimated to be no more than a thousand, so it is still a rare feline breed.

Physical characteristics

"Havana brown cat"

Habana brown
Un chat de race Havana Brown – Dave Scelfo from Point Pleasant Beach, NJ, USA, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The Havana brown it is a medium size cat, long-legged, with good muscles and strong bones.

The legs are straight. They are finer and more delicate in females than in males. They also have the most developed muscles, so its slenderness and length are less striking than in the female.

Regardless of gender, the hind legs they are longer than the front ones. The feet they are oval shaped, compact and the pads are pink.

However, keep in mind that there are two versions of the Havana brown: the american and the english. The first is usually more muscular and massive than the second, that preserves the longest and slimmest body of the oriental cats.
In both cases, the tail is fine and of medium length.

The neck It is also medium in size and proportional to the size of the body. View from the top, the head it is longer than it is wide, and ends in a rounded nose with a clear break on either side of it. This is a distinctive trait of the breed, which must be clearly visible. The chin is well developed and square. Ideally, it should form a nearly perpendicular angle to the nose.

The ears they are wide and rounded at the tip. Are leaning forward, which gives the appearance of being always alert.

The eyes they are medium in size and oval in shape, wide apart and bright. They give you an alert and always expressive expression and are necessarily green, accepting all shades of this color.

The fur of the Havana brown it is made up of short hair, smooth and shiny. All shades of brown accepted, but a reddish brown color is generally preferred (Mahogany) to a blackish brown color. Some organizations, like LOOF and TICA, they also accept lilac, But not all. Whatever the color of the cat's coat, should be uniform throughout your body. Kittens can be born with tabby markings, but these normally disappear as they grow.

The whiskers they are also brown.

Last, the sexual dimorphism it is quite marked, being the male heavier than the female, although its size is quite similar.

Size and weight-

  • Male size: Of 25-30 cm.
  • female size: 25-30 cm.
  • Male weight: 3,5-4,5 kg
  • female weight: 2,5-3,5 kg

Varieties of "Havana brown cat"

Havana Brown
Havana Brown – Dave Scelfo from Point Pleasant Beach, NJ, USA, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
The Havana brown cat It was developed mainly in the United Kingdom and the United States. However, the selections made and the breeding programs applied were significantly different between these two countries, so over the years two different models emerged: the Havana brown of English type and the of American type.

The former has a very long morphology and is close to its cousins ​​and ancestors from the East, especially the Siamese. It is a very fine and muscular cat.

As for him Havana brown American, it is more solid and round, deviating from the elongated morphology to sometimes approach the semi-free type. Although more rectangular and strong, it is no less elegant.

Another example is the Suffolk, created in the early 21st century by British enthusiasts of the Havana brown who opposed the evolution that the race was experiencing in their country. The Suffolk it's a kind of Havana brown traditional, as opposed to the modern version that is now in the country. The GCCF recognized his work in 2014, recognizing it as a breed in its own right.

Character and skills

The Havana brown he is an affectionate cat, friendly and intelligent. It also, unlike its ancestor the Siamese, it is quite calm and serene.

He is also more adaptable than most of his peers., since it is not one of those who are scared by a change of environment, for example. This flexibility makes it a good option for someone who wants to take their cat on vacation or is moving frequently., for example.

To be happy and at ease, this constantly seeking attention-loving companion needs a lot of interaction with humans. He likes to follow his master around the house and accompany him in housework. Therefore, needs an owner who is present often and who does not fail to show him that he loves him every day. This makes it a very good cat breed choice for an older person., and a very bad one for an active person who spends most of his time away from home.

Very tactile, does not shy away from contact with its owner. On the other hand, you like to physically interact with him, with a marked tendency to touch him stretching the leg to attract his attention. He also uses his paw a lot to examine things that are interesting to him.

These qualities make it an ideal cat for children., especially since he never tires of playing for hours.

On the other hand, can be exclusive, as close to its owners as it is shy and distant with strangers, at least at the beginning.

Usually, they get along very well with other animals, including dogs, provided they are gradually introduced or, even better, from an early age. However, it is advisable to take some precautions if you are brought to live with rodents, birds or fish, since the Havana brown is a great player and his ability to find in any object -or small animal- an exciting toy is awesome. Be careful to store her socks and other small items that are easy to transport, or you may not see them again. Having said that, the games he likes the most are those that involve interaction with their owner. It is an excellent candidate to teach your cat tricks, and also excels at solving puzzles.

Last, if he is not as talkative as the Siamese, nevertheless likes to chat with its owners through soft meows.

Havana brown
Havana brown – Flickr

Grooming and caring for the "Havana brown cat"

The Havana brown it is an easy-care cat.

Needs weekly brushing but sheds very little, except during the shedding season in spring and fall, when more frequent brushing is necessary - often daily- to prevent hair from accumulating in the house. Finishing brushing with a felt or hand cloth helps remove dead hair that has resisted brushing. Bathing is seldom necessary.

Ears and eyes should also be checked regularly, ideally once a week, to avoid infections, and get cleaned up as soon as needed.

Your weekly maintenance session is also an opportunity to brush your cat's teeth., in order to avoid the formation of tartar and all the risks that it entails. Having said that, the ideal is a more regular brushing.

Last, Since the Havana brown he does not usually go abroad much -if he does-, the natural wear of its claws is usually insufficient. Therefore, they need to be examined regularly to trim them when they get too long, in order to prevent them from being hindered in their movements and / or injuring themselves. It is highly recommended that you provide him with a scratching post so that he can wear them down himself and don't have to do it as often.

If your pet is used to being handled from a young age, will perfectly accept these different treatments.

Indoor or outdoor cat?

He loves to play and run around the house and spends a lot of time, but it is a perfect indoor cat, fully satisfied with a life in a flat, as long as their owners are present and they have enough games to keep busy. Even if I have access to the outside, it's not where you like to spend most of your time. Therefore, you don't need a garden to adopt a cigar, that is something sensitive to cold.

How much activity does he need? "Havana brown cat"?

The Havana brown they are not sleepy. You should offer your roommate some job opportunities. This is important to this intelligent breed when you are away.. This domestic cat loves to play with his human. Learning little tricks is not a problem. This need for activity can be exhausting after a day at work.. An alternative would be a cat companion of the same age and temperament as a balance.

Health and nutrition

"Havana brown cat"

Habana brown
Havana brown – Maewboran, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The Havana brown enjoys, in general, Of good health.

However, may be prone to developing calcium oxylate stones in the urinary tract. If it is not attended on time, can lead to blockage of the cat's urinary tract. Cats prone to this problem should drink plenty of water to avoid stone formation as much as possible.

Some cats can also suffer from upper respiratory tract infections, that is to say, those that affect the nose, sinuses, pharynx and larynx, When you are young. Among them is chlamydia, for which there is a vaccine, which can be a smart investment to maximize the chances of keeping your cat healthy. In general, the general symptoms of a respiratory infection are fever, sneezing, tos, watery eyes or a runny nose.

Last, the Havana brown is sensitive to cold. In any case, it is not an outdoor cat, but it is important to ensure that it does not come out when the temperatures are very low.

Life expectancy

15 years

Food

A quality industrial cat food is perfectly suitable for the Havana brown, that is not a demanding cat. As with any cat, you simply have to adapt the daily ration to your level of physical activity and your age.

In any case, not the type of cat who likes to eat too much: is a teether and very rarely suffers from obesity. Once you've made sure your cat is no exception that proves the rule, food can be left at your disposal at all times without risking health problems, since it is capable of self-regulation.

On the other hand, an individual prone to urinary stone problems should be encouraged to drink heavily. As in the case of any cat, fresh water must be available at all times, but the owner can add some milk, tuna juice or ice cubes to the water bowl to encourage the cat to drink more.

For sale "Havana brown cat"

In Europe, the price of a kitten Havana brown usually oscillates between 900 and 1100 EUR. The price difference between male and female cats is quite small, normally it does not exceed one hundred euros.

In North America, the price range is much wider, oscillating between 600 and 1.500 $.

whatever the country, the main parameters that affect the price are its greater or lesser conformity with the breed standard, the reputation of the cattery and the origins of the kitten. Another important factor is color: a Havana brown reddish, for example, is more prized than a blackish brown specimen and, Therefore, likely to sell at a higher price.

In any case, what is rare is usually expensive, and this cat is no exception. There are few hatcheries of Havana brown in North America, and even less in Europe. Therefore, it can be quite difficult for a future owner to find their rare gem.

Videos "Havana brown cat"

TOP 10 HAVANA BROWN CATS BREEDS
Coco Chanel – Chocolate Cat – Havana Brown

Alternative names:

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German Rex
Federations: FIFé, LOOF, WCF

The German Rex It is one of the rarest and most difficult cat breeds to find..
German Rex

Content

Characteristics "German Rex"

Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a cat of the breed "German Rex" you know certain factors. You must take into account their character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

Joy

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Activity level

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to other pets

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to children

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Grooming requirements

Rated 1 out of 5
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Vocality

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Need for attention

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Affection towards its owners

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Docility

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Intelligence

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Independence

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Hardiness

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

History

The German Rex It, as its name suggests, a breed of German cat. In 1930, en un pueblo de la región prusiana de Königsberg (today Kaliningrad, in Russia), la familia de Ema Schneider tenía un gato de pelo rizado. Named Munk and born from a cross between a Angora cat and Russian Blue Cat, it is said to be the first Rex (name given in reference to Astrex rabbits, who also have curly hair) of the modern era. However, specialists consider that Munk is not the true creator of the breed German Rex, ya que nunca formó parte de un programa de cría y no se ha identificado a sus descendientes.

German Rex
black german rex male – Bebopscrx, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
The first german Rex officially appeared in the summer of 1951, when Dr.. Rose Scheuer-Karpin discovered a curly-haired black cat in the gardens of the hospital where she worked, la Hufelandklinik. Assuming it was a new mutation, he adopted Lämmchen (“little lamb” in German) y se convirtió así en la primera criadora de german Rex.

The first litters of Lämmchen y Blackie, another cat adopted by Mrs Scheuer-Karpin, produced straight-haired kittens. But in 1957 nacieron los dos primeros gatitos de pelo rizado de la unión entre Lämmchen y uno de estos gatitos llamado Fridolin.

When Lämmchen he crossed paths with another farm cat in the neighborhood, gave birth to three straight-haired kittens. Rose Scheuer-Karpin decided to stay with one of them, who he called blackie 2. Lämmchen y Blackie 2 they in turn produced kittens with curly hair, and it was clear that the gene responsible for the mutation was recessive. In other words, to have curly hair and, Therefore, be a Rex, the kitten must receive a mutated gene from each of its parents. On the other hand, an individual who has inherited only one mutated gene keeps his coat smooth, but you can pass on this gene and give birth to curly-furred kittens if crossed with a curly-furred individual, or even with an individual with smooth fur but also a carrier of the recessive gene.

Lämmchen died in 1964, leaving many cats carrying the gene, que fueron la base del desarrollo de la raza y se exportaron a varios países. This was the case in Great Britain, where they met him Cornish Rex, in order to diversify the gene pool of this breed. In France, Marco Polo, A male german Rex property of Professor Letard, fue el primero en ser exhibido en público en 1960 en un concurso organizado por el Club Felino de París.

However, debido a la falta de un programa de cría bien estructurado, and probably also to the almost simultaneous appearance of other breeds of curly-haired cats in Great Britain, the german Rex developed very little and was even on the brink of extinction in the early years 70.

In fact, although it was recognized by the Fédération Internationale Féline (FIFé) and the Livre Officiel des Origines Félines (LOOF) french in 1982, and then for the World Cat Federation (WCF, based in Germany), the german Rex remains confidential. Not recognized by several major organizations, as the British Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF) or The International Cat Association (TICA), y está muy poco presente fuera de su país de origen y de sus vecinos de habla alemana (Switzerland and Austria).

La Cat Fanciers’ Association (CFA) does not recognize the German Rex as a race in its own right, considering that it is actually a Cornish Rex and registering their representatives as such.

En Francia no se ha registrado ningún individuo con el LOOF entre 2003 and 2018, which makes it without a doubt one of the rarest cat breeds. All over the world, el número acumulado de inscripciones en las organizaciones que la reconocen apenas supera unas pocas docenas al año.

Physical characteristics

The German Rex It is a medium-sized cat with a strong, muscular body and slender legs.. With regard to its height, corresponds to a European shorthair cat (Common european cat). The tail, average length, ends in a slightly rounded tip. On head round settle some ears slightly rounded with a wide base.

La característica más llamativa de la raza es el soft fur and regularly wavy. Due to the lack of top coat, the undercoat plush has a velvety appearance like that of a mole.

All the colors are allowed, except for chocolate, cinnamon and all its variations. It can also have any coat pattern: bicolor, tricolor, striped, but there should be no bald spots on the fur. The whiskers they are slightly shorter than in other cats and slightly curved.

Character and skills

German Rex

German Rex
German Rex – I, Bebopscrx, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The Rex alemanes son cariñosos y forman un fuerte vínculo con su familia, often seeking your attention. They do not tolerate arousal and noise very well, but they are just as reluctant to be alone.

Son sociables y disfrutan de la compañía de otros perros e incluso pueden entablar amistad con un perro acostumbrado a los gatos. Therefore, it is usually not a problem when adopted by a family that already has animals, except if these are small rodents or birds, in which case some caution must be exercised.

As a playful and active cat, can be an excellent companion for a child, provided that he has learned to interact with him and respect him. However, if the child is small, you should never be left alone with the animal without adult supervision; this applies to all cats, regardless of race.

It also, although they are active and love to run, the German Rex it is a breed of cat suitable for a flat environment, to which it fits perfectly. They prefer the cozy comfort of a heated home to the sometimes harsh weather conditions of the outside world, but they enjoy napping on a sunny balcony in summer.

Intelligent, he likes to be stimulated with games, whether it's going to find an object thrown by its owner or trying to solve a puzzle for cats. Likes family fun and rarely refuses to chase a fake stuffed mouse or roll a ball of yarn around the house.

Once he's satiated, he likes to cuddle with his owner, que puede así disfrutar de la suavidad de su pelaje dentado y de su ronroneo tranquilizador.

At the end, His character is very similar to that of his cousin the Cornish Rex.

Grooming and caring for the "German Rex"

The German Rex it is an easy cat to care for, since its beautiful coat only needs a weekly brushing to maintain its shine.

During this grooming session, it is also important to check that the teeth are healthy and without cavities, that the eyes are clean and that the ears have not accumulated dirt. If this is the case, la limpieza con un paño húmedo evitará la aparición de la infección.

Last, las uñas de un gato deben cortarse regularmente con un cortaúñas, pero el intervalo de tiempo entre estas manicuras varía de un individuo a otro, depending on your level of activity and whether you use a scratching post to a greater or lesser extent.

Health and nutrition

German Rex
German Rex – I am looking for 4 legs
The German Rex is a healthy cat breed with no known risk of genetic disease. However, keep in mind that, due to its rarity, es difícil recopilar información suficiente y fiable para sacar una conclusión general definitiva.

Due to its fine fur, the German Rex, just like the cat Sphynx, necesita más energía para mantener su calor corporal. For this reason, needs more food than other breeds. However, asegúrate de no alimentarles demasiado y de proporcionarles todos los nutrientes importantes.

La obesidad puede provocar diversos problemas cardíacos y/o articulares. Therefore, it is advisable to weigh your cat regularly to ensure that it maintains a reasonable weight, and consult a vet if you are overweight.

Life expectancy

12 to 14 years

For sale "German Rex"

The price of a kitten German Rex varies between the 800 and 1.000 EUR, without there being a significant difference between males and females.

However, the German Rex is a very rare breed of cat, difícil de encontrar incluso en su país de origen, and there are few kittens available.

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German Rex Katze fängt Fliegen
German Rex. Pros and Cons, Price

Alternative names:

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Sacred Cat of Burma (Birman)
Federations: CFA, FIFé, ACF, LOOF

Birmano de pies blancos
Photo: hizapearls.com

Content

Characteristics "Sacred Cat of Burma (Birman)"

Coexistence is important that you have with your new friend. Before considering the acquisition of a cat of the breed "Sacred Cat of Burma (Birman)" you know certain factors. You must take into account their character, their need for exercise, their interaction with other pets, their care and if you have small children, their level of tolerance towards them.

Joy

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Activity level

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to other pets

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Friendliness to children

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Grooming requirements

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Vocality

Rated 1 out of 5
1 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Need for attention

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Affection towards its owners

Rated 4 out of 5
4 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Docility

Rated 5 out of 5
5 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Intelligence

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Independence

Rated 2 out of 5
2 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

Hardiness

Rated 3 out of 5
3 out of 5 stars (based on 1 review)

History

The Sacred Cat of Burma (Birman) has recently appeared in Europe and its origin remains mysterious. It is said that some Englishmen brought a couple of cats from Burma from the so-called Lao-Tsun temple.

It is said that one such Mrs. Leotardi, In the south of france, was the owner of Madalpour doll, a burmese cat Seal point, exhibited in Paris in 1926, whose parents came from Burma and were given to him by a certain Mrs. Thadde-Haddish.

In fact, the first subjects would be the result of crossing a Siamese cat marked in white at the end of the legs with a longhair cat (angora the persian) practiced in the twenties, in the Nice region.

About 1930, the God of arakan, A male Seal point, became the star of feline shows.

After the Second World War, during which the race was about to disappear, blood infusions were made from a Persian cat colourpoint to limit inbreeding.

In 1950, the breed was renamed as Sacred Cat of Burma (Birman) to avoid confusion with the Burmese cat.

Introduced in the United States in 1959-1960 and in Great Britain in 1965, where it was recognized, this breed is very popular with the public and has great success.

Physical characteristics

Sacred Cat of Burma (Birman)
Sacred Cat of Burma (Birman)

The Sacred Cat of Burma he's a long and powerful guy. He is relatively burly, with one head wide and round with large ears and eyes deep, almost round, light blue.

The face it is not flattened and the nose is rather long and straight. The body is elongated and the legs are long..

The fur is long, silky, more dense in the neck. The belly has slightly curly hair.

A characteristic feature of this breed is the presence of symmetrical white markings on the legs., calls “gloves”.

Colors points: seal, blue, lilac, Red and cream. Tortoise shell of all colors, except red and cream.

Size and weight

  • Size: 30 cm.
  • Weight: Of 4 to 6 kg

Breed standard

The breed standards are documents produced by official bodies that list the conditions that a Burmese must meet to be fully recognized as belonging to the breed.:

Character and skills

"Sacred Cat of Burma (Birman)"

Gato Sagrado de Birmania (Birmano)
A Seal Point Birman Cat called Strofe – Kristin Kokkersvold, Copyrighted free use, via Wikimedia Commons

Halfway between the Persian and the Siamese, this cat is calm, balanced, neither passive nor exuberant.

Less docile than Persian, it is however calmer, quiet and less active than Siamese.

Kind, affectionate (especially the males), often a bit possessive, Can't stand indifference and less loneliness, although it seems a bit individualistic. His voice is soft.

He is sociable with his peers.

Playful, it is a nice companion for children. But he also likes peace and quiet.

Abroad, they are robust, athletic and great hunters.

The females., adults of about 7 months of age, They are mothers who are very concerned about their pups..

Grooming

The maintenance of the coat is relatively easier than that of the Persian, since knots and tangles are rare.

In normal times, weekly brushing and combing is sufficient to maintain the coat. However, during the move, daily brushing and combing is necessary.

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Domestic cat
Felis silvestris catus

Domestic cat
Nina, domestic cat female 18 months

Content

The “Domestic cat”

The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) It is a carnivorous mammal belonging to the feline family.. It is a domestic animal kept by man for at least a few 9500 years.

It is one of the most popular pets. By breeders and also colloquially, the term “domestic cat” used restrictively for cats with a wide variety of growth types and coat colors, who live in more or less direct contact with humans and, Therefore, are considered domesticated, but they do not belong to a specific feline breed. Next, are contrasted with purebred cats, that have been produced by several years of intentional and documented breeding. However, in the biological sense, both groups are domestic cats and belong to the species Felis silvestris within the genus of cats (Felis).

Distribution

As a companion or domestic animal, the domestic cat found throughout the world in almost all human-populated areas, but as a wild or feral animal it can only live in warm or temperate climates, regardless of subsidiary human influences. It is considered a cultural successor.

Even in the geographically isolated habitats of Australia and New Zealand, in which it was introduced by humans, was able to adapt relatively quickly, but it influences the unique ecosystems there along with a variety of other neozoic animals. Although science does not yet have usable data on the causalities or the quantitative or qualitative scope of the alleged damages, it must be assumed that the spread of domestic cats feral has caused displacement, threats to the population and probably also the extinction of some of the endemic species.

Physical characteristics

external features

The characteristics of domestic cat vary according to distribution area. In the ways raised, depend on breed standards; in the domestic cats who follow the culture, are subject to the respective selection pressure, which depends on natural environmental conditions.

The domestic cats they have an average of about fifty centimeters in length and four kilos of weight, with a wide range of variation that goes from about 2,5 kg up to about 8 kg. In range areas with cooler climates, cats are usually heavier and larger, in warmer areas they are lighter.

The length of the tail is about 25 to 30 centimeters. An exception is the Manx cat of the Isle of Man and the Cymric cat, who are born without a tail.

The height of the shoulders is 30 to 35 centimeters. Males are slightly larger than females. For example, the average head-torso length of male house cats found feral in the Macquarie Island is of 52,2 centimeters, the length of the tail 26,9 centimeters and the weight of 4,5 kg. Females measure an average of 47,8 centimeters in length, they have a tail of 25,2 centimeters and weigh 3,3 kg. The National Geographic Society (1981) indicates that the average head and torso length of several popular cat breeds is 46 centimeters and that of the tail of 30 centimeters.

coat colors “Domestic cat”

The domestic cat wild-type has M-shaped markings on forehead, Dominant dark color markings and dark horizontal stripes on the sides of the body. The legs and tail also have dark bands. Its color varies between grayish black and warm brown tones.. The typical fur markings of the domestic cat are called tabby. In addition to the wild type described above, call “mackerel”, other brands and a variety of coat colors have been developed. In Europe, North America and Australia, predominates tabby pattern, often combined with a partial white coloration. In the Macquarie Island, ninety percent of feral cats are red or spotted, the remaining ten percent are black or tortoiseshell.

The ears of the domestic cat they are erect, broad at the base, triangular in shape and slightly rounded at the tips. Can be rotated in different directions. The eyes are directed forward and thus allow spatial vision.

Support and musculoskeletal system

The skeleton of the domestic cat consists of more than 230 bones. The skull of the cat is short and of robust construction. The eye socket is not completely closed in the bones, the back is closed by a connective tissue ligament. The spine consists of seven cervical vertebrae, 13 thoracic, seven lumbar, three sacras and 20 to 23 flow rates. The clavicle it is simply a bone embedded in the brachiocephalic muscle and is not connected to the rest of the skeleton. At the lower end of the bone of the scapula (spina scapulae), the call “acromion”, cats have a processus hamatus pointing down and a processus suprahamatus pointing back, typical of cats. The humerus has a hole at its lower end (foramen supracondíleo) for the passage of the brachial artery and the median nerve. The strong hind legs they specialize in jumping rather than sprinting. The cat can jump and sprint very well thanks to its strong muscles. However, as a typical hunter, not a durable runner.

Like all little cats, the domestic cat walk on tiptoe. It has five fingers on the Paws, one of which is not in contact with the ground, and four in the rear. The sharp ones claws curved are used, among other things, to catch and hold prey. When they are at rest, are retracted by elastic bands into a leather pouch. May “extend” to catch prey, to fuck, to mark territory with scratch marks or to defend yourself.

Digestive system

The permanent dentition of cats has 30 teeth. It has three incisors and one canine or hooked tooth on each half of the jaw.. Three anterior molars are formed in the upper jaw and only two in the lower one. In each half of the jaw there is a single posterior molar..

Schematic anatomy of the domestic cat (male)


Anatomia-gatos

The milk teeth of cats has 26 teeth. Around six months, tooth change occurs. During this time they may appear “double teeth” if baby teeth don't fall out. Posterior molars have no predecessors to baby teeth.

Typical of carnivorous predators are their powerful jaw muscles and its sharp teeth. The strongly developed fangs (and its pressure sensors located in the base) can crush meat and small bones. Canines are used primarily to catch prey and to hold and transport it. They are also used in territorial fights and for grooming.. The strongly horny mechanical papillae on the tongue point backwards and are used for both drinking and grooming, as liquids and loose hairs get caught in the bristles.

The gastrointestinal tract is typical of mammals. The stomach it's unicorn. The appendix has a length of 2 to 4 cm.. However, the vermiform appendix is ​​undeveloped. As in humans, the colon has a simple U shape, open from behind, but it does not have ligamentous strips. all the digestive tract is short, what is typical of carnivores.

Metabolism

The domestic cat, like most mammals (including humans), need retinol (or vitamin A1), but it occupies a special position because, unlike almost all other animals, cannot convert β-carotene to retinol. Therefore, naturally dependent on adequate liver intake to provide vitamin A[2].

Life expectancy

Domestic cats that live indoors typically reach an age between 12 and 15 years when cared for by humans. However, according to Desmond Morris, a life expectancy of more than 20 years. As an exception, cites the case of a tabby cat named “Puss” who lived since 1903 until 1939, a period of 36 years.

In the populations of cats in the wild without human or medical attention, the life expectancy of a cat ranges from 1,4 and 3,2 years (males) and between 3,3 and 4,2 years (females). These figures come from studies conducted by Liberg (1980) in a rural area of ​​Sweden and Legay / Pontier (1983) in the French city of Lyon.

Sensory performance

It is assumed that the visual sense of cats is specialized mainly in the perception of movements and performance in the perception of sharpness and details is rather medium. On the effective hunt, the fine sense of ear with directional hearing function helps to locate prey. The sense of smell, on the other hand, is comparatively less developed, but still significantly better than humans.

Eyesight

The big eyes of the domestic cat are frontally aligned, allowing spatial vision and accurate distance estimation. The cat is especially good at perceiving rapid movements and, in the dark, it only takes one sixth the amount of light to receive an image compared to humans. This is made possible by the high density of rods in the retina and a reflective layer at the back of the eye.. The rod / cone ratio of the receptors in the retina is approximately 63:1 (20:1 in humans), but it varies a lot between the center of the retina (10:1) and the periphery (200:1).

Another reason is the tapetum lucidum, a layer of cells located directly behind the retina, reflecting light not absorbed by photopigment molecules in rods and cones and radiating it back to sensory cells. This layer is also the reason why cats' eyes seem to glow in the dark when illuminated.. Therefore, cats still see very well at dusk and at night as long as there is residual light.

However, in a completely dark room, cats are blind too. As the cat can only move its eyes a little to the left or right, you have to move your head to look in another direction. Forward-facing eyes result in strong overlap of visual axes, what a good space vision. The vision angle of the jack is 200° to 220°. To better capture residual light, vertical slit pupils open circularly as brightness decreases, which simultaneously decreases visual acuity.

Due to the constriction of the slit-shaped pupils, visual acuity of domestic cats in terms of brightness it is different for structures and horizontal and vertical movements. They see vertical lines more clearly than horizontal lines and, Therefore, can perceive horizontal movements better than vertical ones, which is one of the reasons for the typical tilted position of the head of cats as soon as they notice certain things.

In addition to the domestic cats see horizontal lines blurrier than humans under the same conditions, their ability to perceive differences in color is also less developed. The reason is that the proportion of color-sensitive cones in the cat's retina is much lower than in humans and the cat's eye., like the dog, it only has two different types of cones (dichromatic), that are sensitive to green and blue, but not red. Therefore, red is a color that neither cats nor dogs can see, and is presumably perceived as a shade of yellow.

In return, cats can perceive their surroundings in shades of blue and green of various intensities and combinations, being the favorite color of cats, to which your eyes are also more sensitive, the blue. This was proven in more than 2000 experiments carried out by the Institute of Zoology of the University of Mainz. In different lighting conditions, cats could choose between yellow and blue to reach their food. The 95% chose the blue color.

At birth, all cats have a light blue iris, whereas adult eye color only develops over the next three months.

Hearing

The ear of the domestic cat it is especially well developed and is one of the best among mammals. It is more sensitive than that of dogs and more powerful than that of humans. The frequency range of the cat's ear is 10,5 octaves. In the lower frequency ranges it is comparable to that of humans, but in the middle frequencies it is much higher.

The upper limit of the frequency (100 kHz) is in the range of the sounds emitted by mice as the most important prey. It is also a range of frequencies in which sound sources can be much better located.. The cat remains motionless and points with its ears, normally large, upright and mobile, in the direction the sound is coming from. When eating from ground level, the cat automatically throws its ears back, so that the inherent noise is not noticeable.

Sense of balance

The domestic cat has a very good sense of balance. Cats do not have vertigo even at great heights.

When falling from a height of two to three meters, can reflexively rotate in the prone position from almost any position and land on the ground with their legs extended downward. As such, the cat angles its entire body in the center and then rotates the front and rear around the two now independent longitudinal axes.

Contrary to what was supposed, tail rotation only plays a minor role, since its mass is too small to provide sufficient angular momentum to the rest of the body. When falling from very great heights (but not medium), this position, legs extremely extended, as well as the loose fur that inflates at the transition from the legs to the belly, They act like a parachute and can greatly reduce the speed of impact and, Therefore, the risk of injury.

Sense of smell and taste

The sense of smell of domestic cat is less developed than hearing or sight. It is weaker than that of the dog, but clearly better than humans. As in all mammals, serves for sensory checking of food and the perception and recognition of congeners and other living beings.

Cats can distinguish between flavors salty, agrios, bitter and umami, but they can't perceive the sweets

Cats recognize each other by body odor, what says something about sex, the genes, hormonal status and territorial claims. Both males and females always mark their territories in the same places, regularly inspected, by scent marks formed by secretions from sweat and sebaceous glands and set by rubbing or clawing or urine spray, distinguished from real urine by a stronger smell. Various causes of odor are possible, for example, the amino acids feline and isovalthene are found in the fluid during urine labeling, in a much higher proportion in male cats than in females. Urine is produced by sweat glands.

The sweat glands are mostly found on the pads of the feet, around the mouth, in Chin, around the nipples and around the anus. The sebaceous glands are concentrated in the upper jaw, tail root and, in men, under the foreskin. Male cats have an additional group of scent glands in a kind of canalized bag next to the anus. All sweat and sebaceous glands serve primarily to communicate through smell through rubbing against objects., congeners and people. When it comes to capturing smells, cats are helped by a special organ located between the pharyngeal and nasal cavities called Jacobson's organ.

In moments of strong emotional excitement, the cat's anal glandular sac may empty and release a strong-smelling brown fluid. Cats can get excited by some smells and then “they will beg” with a half-open mouth with a raised upper lip and a wrinkled nose. These odors include those of plants, particularly catnip Nepeta cataria (nepetalactona, actinidina), valerian (valepotriato, ácido isovalérico, actinidina), la Actinidia polygama (matatabilactona, actinidina) and the cat's chamomile Teucrium marum (teucrium lactona C), but also the smells of the human being. It also, new odors are often absorbed and stored through the “flehmen“.

Sense of touch

The domestic cats have a highly developed sense of touch. They have touch receptors distributed throughout the body. The long ones tactile whiskers (vibrisas), located mainly on the upper and lower lips and above the eyes, and whose roots are connected to the widely branched network of nerve endings, signal when an opening is too narrow or there is an obstacle in the way. Whiskers can reach considerable length, are mobile and grow back after falling. With your help, recognize objects and animals that cannot see in the dark. The receptors on the front legs are also especially sensitive and detect ground vibrations caused by prey animals..

The presence of the vibrisas already in newborn cats underlines the importance of the sense of touch for the cat.

Behavior

In the countryside, when cats belong to a home but live in it outside of direct human control, usually meet in small groups of related females, her young and adolescent kittens and one or two males. The numerous cats of different colors are usually all descended from a single cat, who was the founder of this community.

While males tend to disperse and seek new territories when they reach sexual maturity, the females stay in the territory of the mother and thus expand the group. They raise the young and chase away foreign intruders, but they are more tolerant of adult males, since these are bigger and more aggressive. Although they share the food that humans provide, they remain lonely when they hunt. Unlike lions, the domestic cats they do not hunt in community. At dusk, they roam the grasslands and forests alone in search of prey. His hunting method, characterizing them as poachers or on the prowl, it is similar to that of its wild relatives: Sneak up on prey and pounce point-blank. The youngest cats, in particular, react to moving objects almost as if they were live prey, which helps them train their hunting skills (“play instinct”).

In big cities, where authorities no longer care about placing stray animals in animal shelters and a correspondingly abundant food supply is available, many cats often stay in certain areas. Large colonies can form in urban gardens, cemeteries, excavation sites and also in industrial areas. Within the colonies there is a hierarchy of smaller matriarchal groups.

Communication

The domestic cats communicate through body language, the sounds and smells. Smell signals are used for both direct and long-distance communication.. The sebaceous and sweat glands produce the necessary odors for this, that spread by rubbing, scratching and urinating on objects, plants and people.

Body language

When cats come into closer contact, signal their emotional state through posture and movements of the whole body and tail. The position of the ears and the widening or narrowing of the pupils also influence.

Conchi's cat

If there tail tip erect is strongly deviated, It can mean a friendly greeting or also the anticipation of what they expect from humans, especially if the tip of the tail trembles slightly. A raised tail with a slightly curved tip can mean joy., placer, anticipation or excitement. If the cat has the raised tail, usually feel comfortable and safe. In a relaxed posture, the tail is usually carried horizontally with a slight downward slant. If there tail is strongly bent down and fluffy, it is usually a sign of threat and aggression. The tail shaking or rapid back and forth movements of the tail mean the cat is probably aggressive or irritated.

Important signals also come from facial muscles. If the cat fixes its opposite with its eyes, it is often a threat, which is made clear by the narrowing of the pupils until they become slits. At the same time, whiskers point clearly forward, the neck is tucked up and the ears are bent sideways. Yes the pupils are dilated, fear and submission are usually indicated. If the cat is comfortable and relaxed, the eyes are usually kept half closed so that the nictitating membrane is visible. Yes the ears are folded to one side, the cat can be aggressive. If they lie back close to the head, they are usually a sign of fear. Forward-pointing ears can signify curiosity and attention.

Looking at the cat with half-closed eyes is a sign of kindness or affection and can be compared to the human smile. Blink with one eye can also be interpreted similarly. Both are easy for humans to imitate and are often reciprocated by the cat. in addition, a cat may react to a prolonged gaze by yawning and turning its head. This is not a sign of tiredness., but an anti-aggressive gesture.

Before an attack, tends to become larger and more threatening by stooping and positioning itself transversely. Stretch your legs to the end, he lifts his coat and walks slowly towards the adversary. If you discover the teeth, it can be a threatening gesture. However, an insecure cat tends to shrink, bring the legs together under the body and collect the tail. In doing so, often crouches on the ground to immediately drop onto his back if necessary and be able to push back the opponent with his claws and teeth.

Conchi's cat

The generalized dislike of the cat towards the dog and vice versa is also based on body language. That this is based on hereditary enmity is a mistake. Communication difficulties are the reason. For example, if the dog barks and runs towards the cat, he may just want to play, but the cat interprets it as an attack. The subsequent flight of the cat in turn awakens the dog's hunting instinct.

Wagging the tail and giving the paw means a happy expectation or a friendly greeting. On the other hand, wagging and whipping of the cat's tail signal latent disgust or aggressiveness, the paw lift says: Until here and no more! Often, the cat lies on its side to defend itself with its claws, what is understood by the dog as a submission or a play request. If, on the other hand, the cat (exceptionally) approaches a dog with its tail raised in a friendly way, the dog interprets it - as he is used to doing when he meets other dogs- as “don't get too close to me!” and reacts quite aggressively and with barking.

If he dog and cat are ideally used to each other from a young age, difficulties do not usually arise.

Oral language

If the cats have already approached, the acoustic signals are used to reinforce body language affirmations. Grunts are signs of aggression or fear. With a coo similar to that of pigeons, a mother cat calls her young. The whining cries of cats at night serve to prevail over rivals and to woo a female.

The meow It is the most characteristic sound that the cat produces. It can have different meanings and is used in different situations. Domestication has increased the tendency to meow for attention and treats like kittens. Some cats meow when they are afraid. Undomesticated cats largely avoid meowing so as not to attract the attention of other predators (like birds of prey) needlessly.

Another typical sound of cats is the purr, a sound whose origin is still unclear. Already a few days after birth, kittens express their well-being through a constant purr. This sound transmits vibrations during physical contact between the mother or human and the cat.. Timid and insecure animals try to gain or maintain their mate's favor by purring audibly without interruption and at a distance.. It also, cats also purr when they are in pain or sick to show their inferiority and protect themselves from worsening their situation. It also serves to calm down. The purr, the rubbing of the body and the high tail of the cat usually send peaceful and calming signals to reduce aggression. As recent research in the United States has shown, cats produce vibrations in a range of frequencies between 27 and 44 Hz when they purr.

Unlike big cats, the hyoid bone of all other cat species is completely ossified. Due to the special shape of your glottis, only big cats are able to roar.

Surprisingly, domestic cats use differentiated vocalizations to communicate with humans, that adult cats do not use each other.

Sleep behavior

Conchi's cat

Cats usually sleep several times during the day. Sleep develops into the phases of shallow sleep and deep sleep. It also, the cat also rests lying with its eyes closed without sleeping.

Since 1955, numerous experiments have been carried out to study this behavior. In the shallow sleep phase, the cat wakes up at the slightest noise. Next, deep sleep occurs with a phase called paradoxical dream, which corresponds to the sleep phase. The muscles are more relaxed and the wake-up threshold is significantly higher. According to EEG measurements, in this phase there is a brain activity comparable to that of the waking phases. Another sign of the sleep phase is rapid eye movements. (REM) under the closed eyelid. Sometimes, the legs, the tail, skin and whiskers twitch. After six or seven minutes of deep sleep, follows a superficial sleep phase for about 20 or 30 minutes. Rest phases follow sleep phases. Then the cat yawns, rises, changes position and falls asleep again.

If the cat perceives an unfamiliar sound during sleep, open one eye. If you still cannot identify the sound, wakes up quickly and is alert. But when he wakes up on his own, first yawns widely and then begins to stretch. In the process, each muscle is stretched through precise and careful movement.

A free cat integrated into the human family does not usually have problems spending the night in the house predominantly asleep. However, you can also spend the night outside and sleep most of the day inside. Here, individual behavior patterns are widely dispersed and also change according to weather and season.

Reproduction

Conchi's cats

The cats reach the sexual maturity between the fourth and twelfth month of life and, Therefore, they go into heat for the first time. The onset of sexual maturity is influenced by several factors, like the station, the hours of light, body condition and race. The longhair cats usually do not reach sexual maturity until they are between 11 and 21 months of age. During heat, the cat is receptive for about five or six days, follicle jumping usually occurs only when the cat is mated, but sometimes visual or olfactory stimuli (pheromones) are enough to trigger it. A Cat in zeal constantly rubs against objects, often rolls on the ground and holds its rear end in the air temptingly. If she is not mated by a male, will normally come back into heat after nine days, but there can also be a permanent zeal. If the follicle ruptures, but pregnancy does not occur, the new heat occurs after five to six weeks. The female is not in heat again.

Through the urine odors, that signal the willingness to mate, and the insistent calls, free-living cats often attract multiple suitors. When the males get closer, the cat keeps them at a distance in the first phase by hissing and clawing (experienced males know how to avoid it). The cat retreats to a safe distance while the males exchange blows with warning growls., menacing looks and loud screams. They scrutinize each other and slowly crawl around. If neither of the suitors withdraws during this phase, These encounters can turn into a fierce fight from which the males emerge with scratch and bite wounds.. The uncastrated males have a higher mortality rate than castrates. They travel great distances (often several kilometers) in search of a female in heat or unoccupied territory and are often injured due to the described fights with rivals, are more frequently victims of trafficking or contract viral diseases transmitted by bites.

However, as a last resort, it is the female who decides who will be her mating partner. Only when the female indicates that she is ready and adopts a crouched posture on the ground with her rump stretched out and her tail bent to one side., mating can take place. The act lasts only a few seconds and is accompanied by a characteristic mating cry from the female.. It ends abruptly with the female violently shaking the male and, usually, hitting him. In the male penis there are spikes (penis spines), so the sexual act is painful for the cat. After a successful mating, the female rolls on the ground several times in a stretched position. This characteristic coiling is the origin of the term “curl” for the zeal of the cat. A female cat in heat can mate with several males. Consequently, siblings in a litter may have different fathers.

The pregnancy

After mating (intercourse), the ovulation occurs after a few 24 hours. Unlike dogs, the ovum is already capable of being fertilized at that time. The fertilization by sperm takes place in the fallopian tube. After nearly two weeks of migration and repeated cell divisions in the fallopian tube and uterus, a blastocyst develops, a multicellular phase of the fertilized egg, that is implanted in the uterine wall. A belt-shaped placenta quickly forms around the fetus that secures the “substance exchange” with Mother.

Heat does not end immediately after mating, but it starts again after a few hours and sometimes lasts for several days, although the zeal weakens.

If the cat meets a male again during the first three weeks of pregnancy (pregnancy, gestation period), a new fertilization is possible through a new mating. Kittens born in these cases tend to have uneven development. Unequal offspring within a litter can also be expected if cohabitation with a male continued for more than a week or continued after a break of several days..

Once the zeal has subsided, the cat becomes visibly lethargic and not infrequently tends to vomit during the second and third weeks. In this first phase, hardly noticeable external changes. But after about three weeks, the bottom (rear) of her four pairs of tits starts to turn pink, and there are already centimeter-long embryos in the amniotic chambers of the uterus, that can be felt by the vet.

As they grow, the initial constrictions between the amniotic sacs, transparent and filled with liquid, that are the size of a chicken egg, they flatten. They can be touched gradually towards the end of gestation.

From the sixth week, approximately, fetus movements can be clearly perceived through the cat's abdominal wall and, sometimes, can also be seen with the naked eye.

It is not until the last three weeks of gestation when the kittens are large enough to make the change in the cat's perimeter visible.. During this time, the mammary glands they also swell and the cat leans to one side when sleeping. On average, the gestation period is 63 to 65 days. In the last days the cat is nervous and constantly looks for a safe place like “nest” for delivery. Now he also licks his nipples and anal region more often. The domestic cats they prefer the room of the person in the house with whom they have the most relationship. The nest it can be a half open closet, a box or even the bed. Breeders provide their cats with specially constructed litter boxes for their nest, but these are not always accepted by the cat. The part can last up to a few hours, and the intervals at which kittens are born can vary greatly.

A cat giving birth for the first time usually gives birth to two to three kittens.. With subsequent births, the number of kittens usually increases to seven. However, on rare occasions there may be ten or even more, but in this case often not all kittens survive without human help. Some cats do not want to be disturbed even a few days after birth, others seek the company of humans and feel more comfortable with them. If the litter's camp is not scrupulously cleaned by humans, the mother cat will move with her litter to another camp, because the smell could attract predators. It also, if the cat thinks her kittens are in danger for any reason, lifts each kitten by the crease of the neck and carries it to another location. With this bite, the mother triggers the so-called stiffness in the kitten, which is supposed to keep you from moving too much.

Increase

Immediately after birth, kittens' eyes and ears are still closed. They weigh about 100 g., although the weight can vary between 60 and 140 g.. During the lactation phase, kittens earn a few 100 grams of body weight each week. They use their sense of touch and smell to find their mother's nipples. It gives them immunity through colostrum, the first very fine milk, through the antibodies you have formed due to previous vaccinations and infections. After some days, colostrum production stops and real milk is produced. Massaging the nipples and purring, kittens stimulate milk production. This call “milk kick” continues to occur later in life in cats and is an expression of well-being. at two months, cats hardly drink from their mother's teats, but they already eat solid food. Cats that are very familiar with humans show up when they think their children need food.

Each kitten develops a preference for a particular nipple. Kittens suckle several times a day.. during the first days, the cat rarely leaves her litter. The kittens are mainly busy sleeping and drinking during this time.. But before long they hiss shyly when touched or detect a certain scent., and purr when snuggled against their mother's body. Kittens develop their senses by being stimulated and excited from the first day of life. So they get used to people, you have to take them and caress them. In the first weeks, the mother licks the anal-genital region of the kittens to stimulate the excretion of urine and feces. At the same time, keeps the litter clean this way.

after ten days, kittens open their eyes, straighten their ears and experience new sensory perceptions. Now they weigh a few good ones 200 g.. From the second week, the kittens are dedicated to discovering their own body, that of his siblings and the immediate environment of the nest. They learn to move faster and faster and to handle their siblings, their paws and their mouths in playful fights. They also learn what their peers react to by biting, maullando, running away and whistling.

From the third week, they are already quite good on their feet and also try to sit and climb. However, up to the age of three weeks, the kittens pass the 90% of his time sleeping. Then, the rhythm of the adult animal becomes more and more evident, sleeping some 16 hours a day. With the time, kittens become more active, curious and playful. Their motor skills develop and they become more independent. The mother supports them by moving them to another nest after three or four weeks, where they have more freedom of movement, but they can't stray too far out of the mother's zone of control. This place is usually near the human house or even in the living room.

With a month old, the kittens already weigh about 500 grams and begin to groom and play with objects. Now they learn to eat solid foods. If you have the chance, the mother cat brings her children live prey, then let it run. In this way, gives their children their first instructions for catching prey. With the start of solid food intake, the mother no longer collects feces. Next, kittens leave immediate nest area to relieve themselves. This is the time to accustom the kittens in captivity to the use of the sandbox. At this age the first character traits begin to emerge, as the value, the shyness, containment or adventurism. During this time, the kitten learns to clean itself, following his mother's example.

The most important part of the socialization phase is completed at 7 weeks. Kittens that up to this age have not had any contact with humans, or they have had too little or unpleasant contact, they are usually shy and distrustful.

at two months adulthood begins; in the case of cats that live in the wild, it is usually not until four months. The young follow their mother, who watches them closely and prevents them from straying too far, on all roads. If you have a garden, they are also taught the art of hunting. Now the game becomes the main activity of the kittens.

After two or three months, the kittens climb the curtains and the trees, claws sharpen on objects and jump eagerly. In this way, nerve connections are strengthened, the muscles develop and the movements are more and more precise. Play also encourages and shapes social behavior.

After ten weeks, all kittens become more cautious and prejudiced towards new things.

After three months, the mother cat usually stops nursing the kittens. However, free-living cats continue to bring prey to their kittens at this age. Kittens now feed largely on their own.

In the fifth month lose their baby teeth and begin to mark their territory.

At six months are completely independent of the mother, What, However, tends to continue attacking the bullies of their puppies afterwards.

Puberty

Conchi's cat

Males and females reach the sexual maturity on average between the sixth and eighth month of life, but physical development is not complete until several months later. In many purebred cats, this stage of life lasts a few more months. With sexual maturity, physical differences between females and males become apparent. Secondary sexual characteristics develop. In males, this maturation period lasts until 3 years. Males are larger and stronger than female cats and have a stronger neck.. Their head appears larger and rounder due to the so-called cheeks of tomcats., fat pads distributed there. Females tend to be thinner and have a narrow, triangular head..

The behavioral differences between males and females are even more pronounced. The males they are more territorial and mark their territory by spraying urine and rubbing in frequented areas. React to intruders with threatening gestures. Unlike females, they tend to roam more and sometimes stay away from home for several days while hunting or searching for a female ready to mate. When they come back from time to time, they seek consolation, food or a quiet place to sleep.

after a few months, fighting games turn into real fights, as males demonstrate that they are capable of competing with other males. Between the 10th and 14th month of life, young males leave the group. Only castrated males they stay with their sisters and join the group.

The territory of an adult male is approximately three times that of a female cat. For them, the size of the territory depends on the food available to them and their young, but for him it is crucial that there are enough females available for mating. As the cat matures, its territory increases. Therefore, the female is, by its nature, more suitable as a pet than the male, as she does not leave her mother's territory even when she is sexually mature and needs less space. However, the cat tends to tolerate changes of location worse than the male and often does not like to travel. On the other hand, not usually as aggressive as the male when playing.

At one and a half years old, most cats are less playful and less active, although there are considerable individual and racial differences. Indoor adult males tend to be more cuddly and calm than more independent and reserved cats with strangers.. The more balanced disposition of male cats has given rise to the term “cute cat”. Hormonal fluctuations due to oestrus in unneutered females are believed to be responsible for this gender-specific difference., while in male cats the hormonal state is constant. This difference evens out in the castrated females, which makes living together much more enjoyable for humans and animals.

Intelligence

Cats have a great capacity for learning and memory. Among them, your favorite food, the location of the drinking fountain and litter tray, opening doors with handles, the most comfortable place to sleep and the location of your favorite toy. They also remember what sounds they can use so that their owner responds to their different needs.. They hear his name especially at lunchtime. The animals in freedom remember the journey of their territory, known cats in the territory and dangerous dogs. The associative memory allows cats to compare a problem with what they have already experienced. In this way, can effortlessly establish relationships between various elements and make them work for them.

Although cats have certain abilities at birth, they have to acquire some behaviors with patience. Between them, for example, hunting or litter box use. To accustom their young to hunting, mother cats with access to the outdoors provide them with prey from the third week. At first eat dead animals in front of them, later bring live prey, that kills and feeds them. Finally, leaves live prey to their young. Since cats have hunting instinct, but first they must learn to hunt successfully, kittens without a mother or with a non-hunting mother often fail to hunt prey. To practice, need stuffed mice, spools of thread or crumpled paper, those who stalk, they stalk and finally kill. Bury excrement (urine, feces) also common in free herds, only the highest ranking animal does not and “Mark” the terrain with it, so to speak. Given the in domestic cats the owner is generally considered the leader, cats are relatively willing to bury (and, Therefore, to use) a litter tray.

The cats, like all animals, are conditioned by behaviors. They can also be trained to respond to certain signals that disrupt behaviors. In this way, can be deprived of certain activities that humans perceive as naughty. Cats are also capable of hear your name, as long as it's short and concise. To familiarize a cat with its name, it is advantageous to use it as soon as possible and call before each meal; cats respond much better to name calls when hungry.

History of domestication

Ancestry

The first ancestors of the cat, among which is the European wildcat (Felis silvestris), they appeared about nine million years ago.. The European wildcat is of Asian origin and first appeared in the Lower Pleistocene with the species Felis lunensis. Later, various subspecies spread through the Old World.

Due to morphological similarity and close genetic kinship, the origin of domestic cat (Felis catus) it wasn't entirely clear until recently. Science has denied the descent of the manul (Otocolobus manul) or jungle cat (Felis chaus). The view that the domestic cat is a cross between the jungle cat (Felis chaus) and the European wildcat (Felis silvestris) also obsolete today, although there may have been occasional matings of the two species Domestication research was based on the fact that the domestic cat descended from a single wild species, the European wildcat (Felis silvestris), whose habitat stretched from Scotland to Asia, going through africa.

It was considered likely that representatives of the three main groups of the species were involved in the domestication process (european wildcat, African wildcat and the Asiatic wildcat). In this context, the european wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) has its natural habitat in Europe, Asia Minor and Iran. It is relatively strong, has short ears and a thick, bushy tail. The African wildcat (Felis silvestris libyca) lives in the bushes and steppes of Africa and Arabia. Has big ears, he is slim and long-legged. The Asiatic wildcat (Felis silvestris ornata) found in the Middle East and Central Asia. He has a more powerful build and is larger than the African wildcat. The genetic characteristics of European wildcat are dominant over those of the domestic cat. The main ancestral form was considered to be the African wildcat; the second strongest influence was attributed to Asiatic wildcat. The european wildcat is a pronounced fugitive from culture and was the least likely ancestor.

In fact, among the different subspecies of Felis silvestris, the ancestor of domestic cat is the African wildcat Felis silvestris libyca, also known as hawk cat. This subspecies is the least aggressive and, Therefore, the most suitable for living with human beings, so it was kept as a pet in ancient Egypt.

A team from the University of Oxford led by geneticist Carlos Driscoll, who examined the genes of almost 1.000 domestic cats from the five continents, showed that the five main genetic lineages found descend only from the Felis silvestris libyca and that domestication probably occurred five times and independently in the so-called Fertile Crescent.

First days

When humans began to settle, the cat joined them, initially living on the outskirts of settlements as scavenger. Presumably, as a result of the resulting mutual advantages, the animals were self-domesticated. Smaller cat bones have been found alongside human bones since ago 9000 years in Mesopotamia, southeastern Anatolia and Jordan. In jericho, Cat skeletons dating from the 6th millennium BC were discovered during excavations. There, the cat was probably considered a prey animal rather than a pet.

In the eighth millennium BC, cats were also domesticated in Cyprus. In 2004, cat specimens were discovered in a local burial that resembled the wild cats, but they had not yet been domesticated. The wild cats they only know the hiss and the growls. According to some researchers, the classic sounds “meow” are a kind of language used by domestic cats to be able to communicate verbally with humans; others, However, think that it is simply a continuation of the language of babies who, for the rest, they only use kittens towards their mothers.

Antiquity

The cat domestication did not start in egypt, how was it supposed to, but in the fertile crescent. From the third millennium B.C., evidence of peaceful coexistence between humans and animals can be found in paintings and drawings. Depiction of a collared cat in a Fifth Dynasty tomb (c. 2600 a.C.) it is proof of the domestication of the wild species. The domesticated cats served their owners both to catch mice and - as has been shown from the beginning Middle Kingdom of Egypt– to hunt waterfowl in the papyrus thickets.

Ancient egyptian culture, dominated by agriculture, attached great importance to the cat, which soon became a cultic veneration of animals. One expression of this is the cat goddess Bastet, which was believed to influence happiness and love, the beauty, femininity, grace and fertility. She was often depicted as a small lion-headed cat or a cat-headed female figure.. in the late period, the cult of cats assumed the greatest proportions; in Bubastis (sometimes also the capital of the empire, often divided), many pilgrims flocked to the cult center and sacrificed thousands of mummified cats (can be read in Herodotus). As research has shown, most of the mummified cats were very young. They were probably bred specifically for mummification. In most cases, their necks were wrung to kill them.

In this age, greeks and romans considered the cat to be a strange pet and preferred to let the ferrets keep their houses free of mice. Later, the divine female figures Artemis in Greece and Diana in Ancient Rome, as well as Freya in Scandinavia, were somehow associated with the cat form. It was associated with the cult of the mother, which in many cultures represents fertility, the phases of the moon, abundance and birth, because the mother cat, who loves to give birth, lovingly cares for and protects your children. She was also considered tolerant and independent. The ability of your pupils to contract or dilate into slits was thought to be related to the phases of the moon.

The export of cats from Egypt was prohibited. The Phoenicians smuggled cats on their boats to Italy, Gaul and Great Britain. Archaeologists have found cat bones in settlements near Amsterdam (that. 2000 a.C.) and in Tofting, in the Eider estuary (that. 100 d.C.). Of greater importance for the dissemination of domestic cats in Europe were the animals brought on trade routes from the Middle East, especially to Greece. Animals first appear in vase paintings from the 5th and 4th centuries BC.. The Phoenicians they were also responsible for its greater diffusion.

In the India, the domestic cat was often an important part of religious ceremonies. From there, came first to China and then to Japan, where he took on similar tasks. In China, Towards the year 1500 a.C., cats protected cocoons from silkworms and in temples ancient manuscripts from rats and mice. This is documented in numerous drawings. The Chinese of the time believed that only man and cat possessed a soul.. The cat represented good luck and a long life. It was a status symbol for the lucky rich. The first evidence of a loving bond between man and cat dates back to the Tang period.: a wanted ad said: “A kitten has escaped from Yü Ta-Po's house. Its color is white. Your calling name: Snow Girl”. Hsü Hsüan, other contemporary, described a man's love for his cat, that he loved the animal so much that he did not dare to bury his velvet paw after his death. For days he sat next to the dead animal until the cat's body decomposed.

Middle Ages

The cat had little importance in the High Middle Ages. With the increasing spread of Norwegian rat pests, the house rat and the house mouse -also introduced through maritime trade routes-, it was necessary to fight them, which led to a sharp increase in domestic cats at the end of the Middle Ages.

Despite its undeniable usefulness, were stigmatized by medieval superstition as demonic and unlucky creatures, and they were considered companions of witches and disciples of the devil. According to popular belief, the witches rode huge cats to the coven. For this reason, the black cats in particular they were mercilessly persecuted, sometimes even burned at the stake, locked in baskets. A friendly relationship with an animal, especially this one, it was considered blasphemy. However, cat lovers are found in the poorer social classes as well as in the nobility and clergy. Thanks to the magical properties attributed to it, the cat acquired a high status in folk medicine, since almost everything that came from it was used for healing purposes.

In the X century, cats lived in England as distinguished playmates for the noble ladies of the court. Cats were rare and, Therefore, very valuable. According to the law of the Prince of South Wales of the year 940 d.C., a settlement could only be called a town or village if it had nine buildings, a plow, an oven, a churn, a rooster, a bull, a shepherd and a cat. The price of a cat varied. En el Sachsenspiegel, the code of laws drawn up in 1220-1230, three pence compensation for a cat. It was not little, for a lamb or a cow then cost four pfennigs.

Some findings from siglo XI show that cat fur was used by the Vikings and preferentially marketed in Europe in the Middle Ages. At that time, and even about 100 years, cat fur was used to make gloves, especially in France and England, since it was a particularly flexible material.

In the middle of XV century, Girolamo Visconti wrote about witches who allegedly entered the houses where children slept at night in the form of a cat. At that time, it was a French custom to build a cat on the foundations of a church. The church buried Satan and his evil powers under its great mass, so to speak. This is supposed to symbolize the victory of good over evil. Proverbs, Superstitious sayings and rituals keep reminding these dark times, so that the cat still has ambivalent connotations today.

While the people of the East used to be kinder to cats, in the 13th century Japan they were associated with a demon, as the human-eating witch Neko-Baké, who entered houses disguised as a cat and ate disobedient children.

In the 10th century, the cat was common throughout the European continent and in almost all of Asia. Of the 15th to 18th century, arrives in North America, Australia and New Zealand on the ships of European explorers.

16th century until today

As cities grew in the 16th and 17th centuries and the number of domestic cats increased as a consequence, cat fur lost value. However, spotted wild cat fur remained a sought-after and precious commodity, so the wild relatives of the domestic cat were hunted mercilessly on all continents.

Just with the start of the Industrial Revolution cats gradually went from being purely farm animals to their current position as “pets“. This was associated with the beginning of cat breeding. Today more than 30 breeds of cats, standardized by international breeding associations. In the 20th century, the cat became one of the most studied domestic animals in terms of medicine, genetics and physiology. In the decade of 1960, early study programs explored the behavior of wild and domestic cats. In the Decade of 1990, the cat had finally become the most economically extended non-utilitarian pet in the world, beating the dog for the first time in its history. However, as the cat continues to be characterized with falsehood and mischief in the western world, an ambivalent attitude has persisted. For example, many people still believe that it is bad luck that a black cat crosses your path.

In modern times, the cat is highly regarded in Japan. Entirely dedicated to cats is the Go-To-Ku-Ji temple in Tokyo, built in honor of the cat Maneki Neko, raising its right front leg to greet visitors, what is said to bring good luck and wealth. Inside, what is a cat grave, there are numerous paintings and sculptures depicting cats. Cats are also worshiped as deities in China and Thailand to this day..

Despite the long history of domestication, the domestic cats have retained a high degree of independence and are not necessarily tied to humans. In many areas outside of Europe, especially in Australia, New Zealand and on many islands, cats have become so feral that they no longer have any relationship with humans. The wild australian domestic cats show considerable adaptation to their new environment. They have grown larger and more muscular and develop fur colorations that favor camouflage in their particular habitat.. These cats live mainly on introduced rabbits in Australia, but also of native animals.

Attitude

Food

The cats, including the domestic and those of race, are strictly carnivores. In their natural habitats, They feed exclusively on small mammals and, depending on the natural prey available, also to a lesser extent birds, amphibians, reptiles and spiders. Therefore, a purely vegetarian diet is not appropriate for cats and does not meet their needs. Studies have shown that cats don't need plant nutrients, especially carbohydrates and sugar, to meet your nutritional needs. However, there is also no scientific evidence that carbohydrates and sugars in small amounts in cat food are harmful. The assumption, often expressed, that the carbohydrates and the sugar of the commercial foods for cats are the cause of Obesity, feline diabetes and dental disease is refuted by previous studies. However, high carbohydrate content should be rejected in cat food, since with such a food composition the proportion of vital amino acids of animal origin cannot be covered by the meat content in the food and must then be added artificially.

The commercial and industrial food for cats usually contains carbohydrates in the form of cereals to satisfy the cat's need for fiber (wet food), but also to shape food and as cheap stuffing (especially in dry food). A proportion of up to a maximum of 10 %. However, in most dry feed, is significantly higher for production and shelf life reasons.

However, the increasingly widespread feeding of finished products has contributed significantly to increase life expectancy average of animals in recent years, as they are artificially added to certain finished feed essential dietary components (taurine, arginine, lysine, methionine, cysteine, nicotinic acid), that are normally supplied improperly when fed human food scraps. However, Feeding exclusively with ready-made products also carries risks. Studies show that cats fed commercially prepared food have a risk between 2,5 and 5 times greater to develop hyperthyroidism, what is attributed to certain additives such as soy isoflavones or phthalates. It also, the call barf is gaining in popularity.

The so-called Barefoot (“organic raw food adapted to the species”), that is to say, raw meat feeding (beef, poultry), becomes more and more important. Unlike prepared food, this diet also meets the psychological needs of the cat and allows proper use of its teething. However, with this diet, largely species appropriate, also pay attention to a balanced ratio of nutrients. These basic knowledge, as well as the additional effort for the acquisition and preparation of food, make this type of feeding not practicable for all cat owners. An appropriate daily compromise for most cat owners is to supplement the diet with individual meals of raw meat, which can also consist of a single type of meat and do not require any additives.

According to his ancestry african cat as an inhabitant of the steppe and the savannah, the domestic cat it is also able to meet its water needs to a large extent from prey animals when food is available naturally. Therefore, your drinking needs are low. For this reason, the moisture requirement of the feed must correspond to that of the natural prey, what happens to most commercial wet foods. However, there should always be clean drinking water. When fed dry food, cats naturally absorb more water, but often not enough to reach the physiologically necessary amount. The result can be kidney and Urinary tract, which is why it is not advisable to feed only dry food.

The wild cats don't drink where they eat, because in the wild it is unlikely that there is a waterhole right next to the prey they have captured. The domestic cats have retained this behavior and they will only drink from a bowl of water placed next to the one with the food if there is no other option. For this reason, should be placed separately from the food bowl.

The adult cats do not usually tolerate cow's milk. They cannot break down lactose (milk sugar) contained in cow's milk because the production of the enzyme lactase, that is no longer necessary, decreases at the end of the lactation period. This causes digestive disorders and diarrhea.. If the milk is fed without interruption beyond the lactation period, enzyme production is usually maintained. This is why farm cats, where milk feeding is common, tend to tolerate milk better than cats that are not fed it regularly.

Cats without access to the outside

One indoor cat that remains can only suffer from boredom after some time, especially if you don't have enough Human contact, which can lead to undesirable behavior. If you have a partner, can play with it and perform other species-specific behaviors. Unlike in the outdoor cat, the indoor cat does not usually have a varied environment. Live animals to catch are often missing, trees to climb and discovery opportunities. If the cat is kept only indoors, always you have to choose at least two animals. Only in exceptional cases is individual accommodation recommended for older and incompatible cats that have grown up in an apartment-only environment.. A cat that used to have freedom and now (for example, due to a move) you just have to stay in the flat or the house, will hardly get used to reduced living conditions.

The advantages of keeping cats indoors are that they cannot be run over, poisoned by agricultural pesticides, shot by hunters or injured by other animals (like-minded people, dogs, marten). The risk of contagion of one of the diseases of cats, often deadly, It is lower, but it can also occur when cats are only kept indoors, since humans can carry pathogens to the ground through their street shoes. The risk of parasite infestation it is also much lower when cats are kept indoors. For these reasons, an indoor cat has a longer life expectancy than an outdoor cat. The best compromise between outdoor and indoor life is a safe garden.

One Indoor cat swallows more hair during grooming than an outdoor cat, as it has less ability to scrape it off bushes and bushes. Therefore, an indoor cat depends on cat grass supply to be able to regurgitate the swallowed hairs (what triggers the stimulus to vomit). An alternative to oral hairball excretion and removal, which is usually unpleasant for the cat owner, is feeding with food supplements containing malt, that allow hair to clump together in the digestive system and, Therefore, to be expelled rectally.

It is advisable to have several litter boxes, one per cat. If the litter box is not cleaned regularly, there is a risk that the cat will not use it. Pay special attention if there is a change in the stool, for example, diarrhea or the discovery of blood.

One stable scratching post, preferably from floor to ceiling, it is important if you want to prevent the cat from sharpening its claws on the upholstery, wallpaper and furniture. It also, cats love high places because they feel safe in them and they like to climb. A variety of toys, like balls and some cardboard box to hide, offers indoor cats variety and the opportunity to put their play and hunting instincts into practice.

In certain circumstances, indoor cats may be deficient in vitamin D, that must be compensated with food. The reason lies in the production of the vitamin: cholesterol in hair oil that is spread throughout the coat during grooming is converted into vitamin D in sunlight, which is then absorbed by licking. Therefore, in absence of sunlight, little or no vitamin D is produced or absorbed.

Dangers for cats

Many substances whose ingestion is relatively harmless to humans are toxic or at least intolerable to cats, depending on the amount. These include, for example, the acids (vinegar, citric acid), the chocolate, the coffee, the onions, the grapes, the apples, the albaricoques or the paracetamol. Since cats also ingest plant parts to get rid of hair swallowed during grooming, but many common plants are very toxic to cats, it is necessary to keep them out of the house. Among them are the dieffenbachia, ivy, Christmas hawthorn, la poinsettia, amaryllis, cyclamen, begonia and various types of cacti, but also boxwood or oleander. Even offering bowls with cat grass or Cyprus grass often cannot prevent the cat from, curious by nature, feeds on other plants in the house.

The glass containers misplaced can become a special hazard, as a cat can cause the container to fall to the ground and subsequently suffer serious cuts. The plastic bags they also pose a great risk, since the cat gets inside and sometimes does not find the way out; suffocates. Last, do not underestimate the danger posed by open toilet lids, especially for young cats. If they fall into it, often unable to break free from this trap and may drown in it.

When trying to sneak through the crack of a slanted window, cats often get stuck. Attempts to free them cause them to slide lower and lower. The result is severe neurological damage to the hind limbs if the cat remains stuck for a long time. As a late consequence, embolisms may occur. If the animals are not released, they die in agony after hours of trying to free themselves.

Cat toy

All cats have innate hunting instincts. However, the efficient hunting behavior that is vital in nature is only partly instinctive, partly has to be learned. Play instinct serves this purpose in young house cats.. Playing with various objects around the home encourages learning and training of hunting skills. However, gambling can also help reduce “hunting stress” and to satisfy the hunting instinct. Young cats, in particular, they are known to play with balls of wool, some can't resist a piece of string or string.

Neutering and spaying

Usually, except for breeding cats, both males and females are neutered. During the castration, testicles or ovaries are removed. According to the general opinion, castration of free-living cats is an important basis for animal welfare and, especially, for the protection of cats, as it is the only way to avoid the unnecessary suffering caused by a large number of cats without care. It also, sterilization avoids the need to mark males at approximately the 90 % of the cases. In females, prevent them from going into heat. Times, a cat can go into heat after spaying. If she keeps letting the males ride her, then the ectopic ovarian tissue has remained in the abdominal cavity; if the cat does not allow the male to mount her, so there is no hormonal basis for heat.

An alternative to castration, although it is rarely practiced, is the sterilization, in which only the seminal ducts or oviducts are divided. This procedure does not influence the nature of the animal, but it prevents unwanted playback and would be really desirable from a behavioral point of view. However, a cat that has only been spayed requires a maximum degree of species-appropriate husbandry, which can hardly be met with a purely indoor cat. This includes outdoor exercise., tolerant neighbors, little car traffic for several miles around and at least one sterilized partner nearby to avoid dangerous territorial fights in the distance. It also, behaviors associated with sexual activity are still present and hinder harmonious coexistence with humans. For cats that do not have access to the outside, spaying is not an alternative to neutering. When ovulation does not occur due to lack of mating, there is a rubefacción permanent and a cystic degeneration of the ovaries.

Reproductive control with hormones

The progestágenos can be administered parenterally or orally to cats. At the same time, are intended to prevent undesirable behaviors such as urine marking. In the case of oral administration, treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate is in the foreground, along with the megestrol acetate. The restoration of fertility is also possible after several years of administration..

Diseases

The most common diseases of cats are infectious. Young animals are very susceptible to herpetic infections of the respiratory tract (cat catarrh) and infections by parvovirus (feline epidemic diarrhea). In adult animals, FeLV virus infections, IVF and FIP are a serious problem. The cat has largely lost its role as a carrier of rabies thanks to vaccination.

It also, cats are very susceptible to parasites. Infections are most frequently seen here. endoparásitos like roundworms and tapeworms (→ Worm infections in cats) and ectoparasites like fleas and mites.

Chronic renal failure (IRC): CRF is an irreversible failure of kidney function. Most cats that develop CNI do so due to the aging process (around the 30% of all cats older than 15 years develop CNI). However, CNI also occurs in younger cats, although they are usually affected by this disease for genetic reasons. Infections, as the dental inflammation chronicle, they can also lead to the CNI. The endocrine diseasess that may appear are mainly diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism.

The most common tumor disease is malignant lymphoma. The fibrosarcoma can occur primarily as a reaction to vaccination.

The spectrum of feline diseases described is extremely rich and comparable to human diseases in its diversity. The most common feline diseases, in addition to those already mentioned, they are the FORL (“neck injuries”), hyperthyroidism, the FLUTD (feline lower urinary tract disease), hypertrophic/restrictive/dilated cardiomyopathy, asthma and eosinophilic granuloma.

Cats and other feline species have long been known (like tigers) can get the avian flu. Cat-to-cat contagion has also been documented. However, infection of humans by cats has not yet been observed.

The normal body temperature of cats is of 38 °C a 39 °C. From 39,3 °C is referred to as a rise in temperature. The pulse of a cat at rest is 110 to 140 beats per minute, the Breathing frequency is of 20-30 breaths per minute.

Cats as transmitters of disease

Like all domestic animals, cats can transmit a number of diseases (zoonosis) to the humans. The most dangerous diseases are toxoplasmosis and rabies. The latter currently plays no role in Europe.

In addition to other routes of infection, humans can be infected with toxoplasmosis through cat feces if they contain the pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. The pregnant women are at special risk; if the initial infection occurs in the second trimester of pregnancy, the embryo in the uterus may be damaged or die. This pathogen is also suspected of being, at least in part, responsible for the schizophrenia in humans. After infection, immunity is for life; therefore, only an infection that occurs for the first time during pregnancy is dangerous.

The rabies is transmitted to humans through bites, scratches or contact with uninjured mucous membranes. Transmission by bites and scratches occurs with particular ease, since animals that suffer from rabies tend to show very aggressive behavior. Rabies is always deadly in unvaccinated humans and poses a serious danger to cat owners and their environment. In the news, Europe considers itself free of rabies, so the authorities no longer recommend vaccinating cats while they are not traveling abroad. In the case of pure domestic cats, the rabies vaccination has long been discouraged, as infection of the animal is not possible and vaccination can lead to tumor formation in rare cases (the so-called vaccine-induced fibrosarcoma).

Through cat bites and smear infections from open wounds on the skin of infected animals, there is also the possibility of transmission of the so-called “cat pox virus” to human beings. However, it is cowpox virus, that are only dangerous for people with a weakened immune system. Scratches can also transmit cat scratch disease, which is usually harmless.

Some skin diseases (fungal zoonoses) can also be transmitted from cats to humans. Humans become infected through direct contact with an infested animal or its dander. The shear mycosis affects hair, skin and nails.

As with all pets, there is also the risk of parasite transmission, like ankylostomas, roundworms or tapeworms. They are usually transmitted by direct or indirect contact with infected feces.

The cats (just like foxes and dogs) They are the final guest of the fox tapeworm, a parasite that is also dangerous to humans. In areas where the fox tapeworm is widespread, cats that feed on mice as intermediate hosts are often also infected with fox tapeworm and can spread it with their feces. The regular deworming of domestic cats is advisable not only for this reason.

Genetics of coat colors

All the colors of the cat's coat are based on two pigments: Eumelanina (black) and Feomelanina (red). Both pigments are present in the stripe pattern of wild ancestors.

The fur pattern of cats is determined by the gene tabby. All cats are predisposed to one of the typical coat patterns: mackerel, striped, spotted the ticked. Even the solid color cat, as the Chartreux cat (Carthusian), has that predisposition, but it is masked by the non-agouti gene (abbreviation aa).

The black cats have a mutation of locus agouti, whereby pheomelanin is completely displaced by eumelanin, so that the coat pattern is no longer visible. The red cats lack eumelanin. Since the non-agouti gene causes eumelanin to displace pheomelanin throughout the body, has no effect on the coat pattern of red cats, in which the brindle pattern is always visible.

Both colors can be lightened by other genes. For example, the black color is lightened to chocolate or cinnamon due to a mutation of the brown locus. The Maltese dilution gene (abbreviation dd) turn black to blue (the color of the Carthusian cat), chocolate in lilac (or lavender or frost), the cinnamon in fawn and the red (orange) cream. In 1974 another dilution gene was discovered, the dilution modifier (Dm). Change the colors blue, purple and fawn to caramel and cream to apricot.

The white cats or white in color are due to a lack of pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) on the skin, so they are wholly or partially leucistic. Completely white cats are often deaf, the stained ones no.

One tricolor cat can be recognized at first glance as a cat, since the gene for coat color is located on the X chromosome. The distinction between male and female is based, as in all mammals, in the karyotype of the sex chromosomes, according to which XX is feminine and XY is masculine. Therefore, some female cats may have the gene for black coat color on one X chromosome and the gene for red coat color on the other and, therefore, develop a tricolor coat (codominant inheritance). The white part of the coat color is not controlled by the X chromosome, the series of alleles responsible is inherited autosomal.

Exhibitions

In the 18th century, the social recognition of the cat increased, so the number of cat owners of the nobility and the bourgeoisie could register a strong increase. The breeding and selection of special breeds experienced its first heyday. At the beginning of the 19th century, there were enough cat lovers to hold public meetings and have professional breeders and hobbyists award the most beautiful animals. Harrison Weir, Writer, poet, passionate about cats and member of the Horticultural Society, organized the first public cat show at London's Crystal Palace on 13 in July of 1871. This great feline show marked the beginning of the official history of regular shows. In victorian times, these gatherings became occasions for social gathering for the English upper classes.

With the time, breeders began to use these exhibits to present their new breeds and work on their propagation. In 1887 was founded the National Cat Club (NCC), the first association of cat breeders that registered and cataloged the pedigrees of the breeds. The association was replaced by the Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF) in 1910. In 1938 was founded the Cat Association of Great Britain (CAGB) as an alternative organization.

In the meantime, interest in purebred cats spread rapidly in Europe and the United States. In March of 1881 the first exhibition of cats in the United States was organized at the Bunnel Museum in Boston. But it was above all the great feline exhibition organized on the English model by James T. Hyde at Madison Square Garden in New York on 5 in May of 1895 the one that increased the popularity of purebred cats. With the time, various organizations were formed in this vast country, among which the Cat Fanciers’ Association (CFA) it was the most important. In each of the countries of Europe national associations were formed and, sometimes, various alternative organizations, generally grouped in the Féderation Internationale Féline (FIFe) as an umbrella organization.

prizes

Cats are divided into classes based on breed, the color, sex and past successes at exhibitions, and the judges judge them according to the rules established for each breed through a specific point system. The total number of points determines if the animal receives the qualification of “well”, “very good” or “great”. Cats rated as “excellent” are suitable for breeding without any restriction and can apply for the title Certificat d’Aptitude au Championnat (CAC), the candidacy for Champion. If they obtain the CAC in three exposures, they are considered champions.

To go from Champion to International Champion, the cat must win the Certificat d’Aptitude au Championnat International de Beauté (CACIB) in three more exhibitions. As champion, she is now judged by international judges. As a rule, will have to participate in shows abroad. If the title of Certificate of Aptitude is then awarded to the Grand International Beauty Champion (CAGCIB or CAGCI) three times, se considers Grand International Champion.

The International Grand Champion can climb even higher. Next, the candidacy for the title of Certificate of Aptitude at the European Championships (THAT'S). If she becomes European Champion, can become Grand Champion of Europe through the title Certificat d’Aptitude au Grand Championnat d’Europe (SHIT).

House cat screening guidelines

The domestic cats they are in no way inferior to their racial counterparts in beauty pageants. Some of the big umbrella organizations award additional prizes and titles to them. The American organization TICA awards year after year at the end of each show season not only the most beautiful breed cats, but also your best domestic cats (HHP). The GCCF has published an additional standard for domestic cats, and for ACFA and CFA judges there is a guide on how to judge a domestic cat. European associations and clubs even award titles to domestic cats.

GCCF Standard Dot Scale: Domestic pet (HHP)

  • Beauty 25 points
  • Character 15 points
  • Condition + fur 30 points
  • Face and ears 15 points
  • Balance + Proportion 15 points

  • Total 100 points