Yellow-faced Parrotlet
Forpus xanthops

Yellow-faced Parrotlet

Content

Yellow-faced Parrotlet

Description:

14 cm.. height.

The Yellow-faced Parrotlet (Forpus xanthops) is plump appearance and a tail short ending in point. Distinguished by the crown, face, chest and belly yellow, with strong blue patch on the wing , in flight blue occupies almost half of wing . Dorsally gray cafesoso, with the rump blue. Its bill It is ocher.

The female has blue patch on the rump and wings pale smaller.

taxonomy:

Closely related Pacific Parrotlet (Forpus coelestis); in the past it has been considered a subspecies of this, but there are clear differences in size and color. Monotypic.

Habitat:

The Yellow-faced Parrotlet It Gregarious, He lives in varied habitats, usually arid, riparian forests in the gallery in the tropics and subtropics, between 1000 - 1600 m, Although it has been reported to 2745 m.

Reproduction:

Nest in communal area, using tree hollows or sand. The breeding season It is from March to April.

In captivity, They are made of 3 - 6 eggs and breed up to three broods per year.

Food:

Their diet includes cactus, besides fruit trees. If you know that feeds on Cercidium praecox, paté flowers Bombax discolor and plum fruit Prunus domestica (Begazo 1996, F. Angulo Prato Longo a slightly. 2012).

Distribution:

Extension of the distribution (breeding / resident): 4,800 km2

The Yellow-faced Parrotlet It endemic North Peru in the Valley of the Marañón River, South of this country and Western Amazon.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : 350-1500 individuals.

In accordance with the categories of the UICN It is considered Vulnerable (VU). Habitat degradation and trade are adversely affecting the population.

Justification of the population

The population It is estimated in 250-999 mature individuals, according to surveys Begazo (1996) and subsequent recovery of the small-scale. This equates to a total of 375-1,499 individuals, rounded here 350-1,500 individuals.

The ban on the capture and trade has improved the status of this species. The rate of decline was very rapid in the Decade of 1980, Although at present has been reduced and even stabilized. However, the population is still very small, with records in very few places.

Conservation Actions Underway

Appendix II of the CITES.

– This protected legally in the Peru, but enforcement is poor.

– Catch rates have declined significantly since the ban, and trappers capture the species apparently only on request (Begazo 1996).

There are no protected areas within its range.

Conservation Actions Proposed

– Examine the population, especially in the less accessible center of its range, and between the distribution areas of the two known species of Forpus.

Monitor the population, working with local people to generate the will to preserve the species in situ (Begazo 1996).

– Study their biology and ecology over an annual cycle.

– controlling trade and enforce laws capture.

– Create at least one protected area within the range of the species (Angulo et al. 2008).

"Yellow-faced Parrotlet" in captivity:

Captured for wild bird trade, It is estimated that 17.000 birds were captured between 1981 and 1994. The rate of mortality during capture is estimated between the 40% and the 100%. Rare and unknown in captivity until 1979-1980.

It´s territorial, temperament quiet, active and initially timid, usually it takes in trust although this depending more on their previous experiences, age, type of farming (Hand or natural breeding).

Notes on captive breeding of Forpus xanthops

Alternative names:

Yellow faced Parrotlet, Yellow-faced Parrotlet (English).
Perruche-moineau à tête jaune, Toui à tête jaune (French).
Gelbmaskenpapagei, Gelbmasken-Sperlingspapagei (German).
Tuim-de-cabeça-amarela (Portuguese).
Catita Enana de Cara Amarilla, Cotorrita Carigualda (Spanish).
Periquito de Cara Amarilla (Peru).


Salvin Osbert
Salvin Osbert

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Forpus
Scientific name: Forpus xanthops
Citation: (Salvin, 1895)
Protonimo: Psittacula xanthops

Yellow-faced Parrotlet images:


Yellow-faced Parrotlet Video

Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Parrots Book, Parrots and macaws Neotropical
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – An adult male Yellow-faced Parrotlet perching on the top of its cage by Ruth Rogers [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – An adult male Yellow-faced Parrotlet photographed at the 2002 AFA convention in Tampa, Florida, USA by Rogers [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – An adult Yellow-faced Parrotlet photographed at the 2002 AFA convention in Tampa, Florida, USA by Rogers [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – An adult male Yellow-faced Parrotlet photographed at the 2002 AFA convention in Tampa, Florida, USA by Ruth Rogers [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Forpus xanthops Marañon near Canyon Ferry, Cajamarca, Peru by Nick AthanasFlickr
(6) – John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain] – Novelty Zoologicae, too.. 2

Large-billed Parrotlet
Forpus crassirostris

Large-billed Parrotlet

Content

Description:

12 - 13 cm.. height.

The Large-billed Parrotlet (Forpus crassirostris) has the crown, back of the neck and ear-coverts, green; the forecrown, cheeks, eye area and lores, emerald green.

Upperparts and wings, green, except the part inferior of the back, rump and greater coverts, are cobalt blue and blue color toward the base of the secondaries. Primary coverts pale grayish violet color which contrasts with the darker coverts They are cobalt blue. Flight feathers Matte metallic blue. The underparts green with yellow hues. Upper, the tail green; undertail, pale green.

Bill and cere Pink with gray base up to the mandible top, laterally compressed in the Center; bare periophthalmic pale grey: irises dark brown: legs Gris-Rosado pale.
Female all green with belly yellowish green without blue color wing-coverts visible in the male.
Immature like adult respective, but with the blue of young males mixed with green.

Taxonomic note:

some authors (for example, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Forshaw, 1973, Monroe y Sibley, 1993) They have used the name Forpus xanthopterygius, while other authors (Stotz et to the., 1996, Collar 1997) They have followed Pinto (1945) and used the name Forpus crassirostris to define this species.

  • Sound of the Large-billed Parrotlet.

Habitat:

They inhabit in forest edges, clear, riparian forests, parks and gardens in urban areas.

Reproduction:

They build their nests in tree cavities or exploit abandoned nests Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus); lining the nesting chamber with grass and the female lays 3 - 7 eggs White. The incubation, lasts approximately 18 days, It is carried by the female and during this period the male is responsible for feeding.

Food:

They compose your diet seeds, fruit, plants and flowers herbaceous. They are feeding both the ground and in trees and shrubs. Among the fruits they are highly appreciated by the Large-billed Parrotlet, palm, Trumpet trees (Cecropia spp), as well as seeds and sprouts Paineiras (Ceiba speciosa).

Melo et al, 2009, reported mass consumption flowers of Handroanthus serratifolius (Fam. Bignoniaceae), in particular its nectar, what it appears to be an important power source especially during the dry season, where scarce fruits.

Distribution:

Size of its range (players / residents) 1.312.215 km²

Southeast of Colombia to the East of Ecuador, North of Peru and West Brazil.

Conservation:


Status


• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population of the Blue-winged Parrotlet It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

Suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

"Large-billed Parrotlet" in captivity:

In captivity they are not very frequent. They are birds enable you require a large cage. Quiet and something timid. Not is easy to accommodate them with other parrots.
Can be prone to it Obesity.

Alternative names:

Blue-winged Parrotlet (crassirostris), Large-billed Parrotlet (English).
Toui à gros bec, Toui de Spix (crassirostris) (French).
Large-billed Parrotlet (German).
Tuim, Large-billed Parrotlet (Portuguese).
Catita enana, Lorito Aliazul, Periquito Azulejo, Cotorrita aliazul, Lorito de alas azules (Spanish).

Władysław Taczanowski


Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Forpus
Scientific name: Forpus crassirostris
Citation: (By Taczanowsk, 1883)
Protonimo: Psittacula crassirostris

Images "Large-billed Parrotlet"

————————————————————————————————

“Large-billed Parrotlet” (Forpus crassirostris)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Photos:

(1) – Large-billed Parrotlet (Forpus crassirostris) Male – Photo by Tom Friedel – Puerto Nariño, Amazon, Colombia – birdphotos.com

Sounds: John V. Moore, XC257657. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/257657

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet
Forpus spengeli

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet

Content

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet

Description:

12–13 cm. length and 28 g. of weight.

The male of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (Forpus spengeli) It has shades of blue at the bottom of the back, still it rump of a turquoise hue; turquoise / blue with purple on underwing-coverts and axillary.

The wing coverts are dark green. Primary coverts are violet; wing edge bright green. Supracaudals coverts are bright green; undertail-coverts, bright yellow. Dark brown eyes with iris gray; flesh-colored legs; peak light colored horn.

The female It is green instead of blue; their face is green / yellow, It is his forecrown yellower.

taxonomy:

Until now treated as conspecific the species Forpus xanthopterygius, or sometimes as a subspecies of Forpus passerinus, or a subspecies of Forpus cyanopygius. differs, However, of the Forpus xanthopterygius in pale turquoise against the rich color tone blue rump and of the wing-coverts of the male; in the dark blue, against the rich blue color in underwing-coverts of the male; the forecrown and lores yellow in female.

  • Sound of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet.

Habitat:

they prefer forested habitats drier as open forests and riparian, closed caatinga; Also they found in savannas, palm groves, semiarid scrub and grassland areas.

With feed in open areas and sometimes on the floor. Highly social; found in groups of up 50 individuals.

Reproduction:

Breeding season, May-August. Clutch, 3-7 eggs.

Food:

Diet Turquoise-winged Parrotlet in their natural environment it is composed of fruit of Cecropia, seeds of Mikania and tremble mirantha and flowers of Ambrosia and Marcgravia.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 29.200 km2

Restricted north of Colombia, from the coastal region Caribbean western and southern mountains Santa Marta, Atlantic, south along the Magdalena river in Bolivar and César.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the Red List Category

Although this species may have a small range, It not believed to approach the thresholds for vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20.000 km2 combinan con un tamaño gama disminución o fluctuante, hábitat medida / calidad, o tamaño de la población y un pequeño número de localidades o fragmentación severa). La tendencia de la población no se conoce, pero la población no se cree que esté disminuyendo con la rapidez suficiente como para acercarse a los umbrales del criterio tendencia de la población (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable according to the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or a specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as rare and local (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Justification trend

The population trend is unknown, but according to some reports, the species may be declining. (Juniper and Parr 1998).

"Turquoise-winged Parrotlet" in captivity:

Rare.

Alternative names:

Blue-winged Parrotlet (spengeli), Blue-winged Parrotlet (Turquoise-winged), Green-rumped Parrotlet (spengeli), Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (English).
oui de Spengel, Toui de Spix (spengeli), Toui été (spengeli) (French).
Türkisflügel-Sperlingspapagei (German).
Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (Portuguese).
Cotorrita aliturquesa (Spanish).

Gustav Hartlaub

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Forpus
Scientific name: Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli
Citation: (Hartlaub, 1885)
Protonimo: Psittacula spengeli

Images Turquoise-winged Parrotlet:

————————————————————————————————

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (Forpus spengeli)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli (24-3-15 Loro Parque) by barFlickr
(2) – (above) Psittacula spengleri [sic] = Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli (Hartlaub, 1885), ?♂ (below) Psittacula cyanochlora = Forpus passerinus cyanochlorus (Schlegel, 1864), ♂ by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: ndrew Spencer, XC165598. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/165598

Mexican Parrotlet
Forpus cyanopygius

Mexican Parrotlet

Content

Mexican Parrotlet

Description:

13–14 cm. long and 30-37 grams.

The Mexican Parrotlet (Forpus cyanopygius) has lores, cheeks, forecrown and ear-coverts, brighter yellowish green.

The average area crown to the top of the back, green; lower back, rump and uppertail-coverts, turquoise. Great coverts turquoise, other coverts, green. Primaries green, secondaries dark turquoise blue color with narrow edges outerweb. Under the wings turquoise blue and green, the flight feather dark blue-green. Underparts green tinged with yellow. Upper, the tail is green; undertail, duller. Bill and cere pale grayish; bare periophthalmic grey; irises dark brown; legs pink.

Female all green. Immature as female, with some blue feathers on the rump and in the wing-coverts, in the case of young male.

hybrids:

Forpus [conspicillatus x cyanopygius] (hybrid)
Forpus [heaven x cyanopygius] (hybrid)
Forpus [cyanopygius x passerinus] (hybrid)

  • Sound of the Mexican Parrotlet.

Description 2 subspecies:

Two subspecies. However, some authorities regarded the northern birds range as a third subspecies (Forpus cyanopygius pallidus), doubtfully distinct from the nominees. See also Note on Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius).

Habitat:

The Habitat of the Mexican Parrotlet are the gallery forests and deciduous forests, plantations, scrub, semiarid open field and trees cultivated areas; mainly observed in lowlands and foothills largest number of records in southern Sonora - 360-455 m; at higher altitudes in western Durango and Zacatecas, with higher limit 1.320 m.

Aptitudes breeding birds have been observed above 900 indicating possible breeding meters higher altitudes. Gregarious, forming flocks 4-30 or more, sometimes in company Orange-fronted Parakeet (Eupsittula canicularis).

Reproduction:

Breeding season may July. Clutch three eggs in captivity.

Food:

Little information on diet or breeding: birds observed taking fruits Ficus, berries and grass seed soil.

Distribution y status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 177.000 km2

Endemic West Mexico from Alamos in the South of Sonora to the South by Sinaloa, Nayarit (including the Islands Three Marias) and Jalisco until Colima, with the southernmost record in the Manzanillo Bay (19 ° 03’N).

Its range extends eastward Durango and Zacatecas. irregular population with widely fluctuating local abundance, perhaps in relation to the availability of local foods. There has been a large-scale modification of habitats within range but the species remain common (at least locally). Birds in the Tres Marias Island Perhaps they are in risk of extinction.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened.

• Population trend: In decline.

Justification of the red list category

The species has risen to near threatened because its population has probably been reduced to a rate close to 30% during three generations (12 years), depending on the estimated operating levels and reducing the area of ​​occupancy and extent of occurrence; almost meet the listing requirements as threatened under the criteria A2cd + 3cd + 4cd. If the declinations are found to exceed the 30% then the species would qualify for Vulnerable lift. If there is evidence suggesting that the global population of this species is <10.000 mature individuals, and it is suffering a steady decline in> 10% in three generations (until 100 years in the future), also qualify to lift Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

Partners in Flight estimated that the population number less than 50.000 individuals (A. Punjabi in some. 2008), so it is placed in the band 20.000 - 49.999 copies here.

Justification of trend

It is suspected that the population is declining rapidly due to moderately heavy pressure from his capture by illegal trade (Cantu et al ., 2007, Marín-Togo et al ., 2012). According to reports, the population of the island Three Marias It has decreased (Collar y Bushman 2014).

Threats

The capture for trade in wild birds It poses a serious threat to a 8.000 individuals illegally caught per year (Cantu et al ., 2007). The range of the species is found in one of the main routes for illegal trade in parrots Mexico and it is thought that the heavy exploitation of the species is an important factor in their apparent absence of suitable habitat areas.

Conservation actions and research in progress

CITES Appendix II.

Conservation and research actions proposed

Implement legislation to prevent illegal trade. Raise awareness of the species.

"Mexican Parrotlet" in captivity:

Quite frequently seen in aviculture.

Capture for trade in wild birds represents a serious threat to a 8.000 individuals illegally caught per year.

In captivity is not a very long-lived bird; According to sources a specimen lived 10,5 years in captivity.

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It must be placed in a program well managed captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Blue-rumped Parrotlet, Mexican Parrotlet (English).
Perruche-moineau à croupion bleu, Perruche-moineau turquoise, Toui du Mexique (French).
Blaubürzel-Sperlingspapagei (German).
Tuim-mexicano (Portuguese).
Catita Enana Mejicana, Cotorrita Mexicana, Perico Catarina, Periquito Mexicano (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Forpus
Scientific name: Forpus cyanopygius
Citation: (Souancé, 1856)
Protonimo: Psittacula cyanopygia

Images Mexican Parrotlet:

Video of the "Mexican Parrotlet"

“Mexican Parrotlet” (Forpus cyanopygius)


Yellow-chevroned Parakeet
Brotogeris chiriri

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet

Content

Description:

20-25 cm.. length and 72 g. of weight.

The Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) has a plumage, in general, bright green; the underparts They are of a paler green and lower coverts are yellowish-green.

The wings They are of a slightly darker green, with the yellow border, visible when wings remain bent or when the bird is in flight. Their bill, hook-shaped, is orange-brown and legs and feet, pinkish gray. The eye rings They are creamy white and eyes Brown dark.

It is closely related to the Canary-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus). In fact, it was considered conspécifica (owned or belonging to the same species) until 1997.

The females sexually dimorphic and are not to be sexed, either surgically or by DNA.

The immature are similar to adults but have the tail shorter and the bill It is a darker brown.

Taxonomic note:

      Until 1997, some taxonomists considered the Canary-winged Parakeet and Yellow-chevroned Parakeet belonging to the same species. Although the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet It has the same secondary covert yellow feathers that can be seen in the Canary-winged Parakeet – no white in the primary wing feathers.

Description 2 subspecies:

  • Brotogeris chiriri behni

    (Neumann, 1931) – Similar to the nominal species, except that they are slightly larger; the body green lacks the yellow dye.


  • Brotogeris chiriri chiriri

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Nominal.

Habitat:

They are mainly below 1000 m, locally up 2500 meters in a variety of habitats including rainforests, seasonal and coastal, Pantanal, savannah and city parks. reported to 2500 meters in arid areas.

Usually, traveling in flocks; in such small groups as 2 - 4 birds, but they have been observed to 20. They are described as small parrots assets, entertaining to watch.

Reproduction:

Nest usually in the cavities of trees or in tree termite nests. Tunnels are also nesting in dead palm fronds.

Once a nest It has been located and correctly “prepared” the couple, It is performed the laying, between 4 and 5 eggs. After breeding, the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet They form large communal huts until the next breeding season.

Food:

In their natural habitat, feed of seeds (including outbreaks), fruit as berries and figs and flowers. Also consume nectar, insects and their larvae. Often they are seen visiting barreiros (areas where there is soil rich in minerals) and riverbanks to feed soil.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 5,670,000 km2

Distributed inside East Brazil to the East of Bolivia, Paraguay and North of Argentina, in Formosa, Chaco, Missions and North of Currents. Introduced populations in Miami, Florida and California.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

  • Brotogeris chiriri behni

    (Neumann, 1931) – Center of Bolivia to the Northwest of Argentina, in Salta.


  • Brotogeris chiriri chiriri

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Nominal.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the red list category

This species has a extremely large range and, therefore, it does not approach the thresholds of vulnerability under the criteria of size range (Extension <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión / calidad de hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número De lugares o fragmentación severa). La demographic trend appears to be stable and, therefore, the species does not approach the thresholds Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un descenso continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as the least concern.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

They suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

"Yellow-chevroned Parakeet" in captivity:

Today is rare.

Since the late sixties to mid-seventies, more than 260.000 these were parakeets imported from South America for the pet trade. At that time, the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet It was the most imported parrot. They settled in California (Los Angeles, San Francisco) self-sustaining populations Yellow-chevroned Parakeet released or escapes; populations also in Florida (Miami), as well as Connecticut and New York City.

The Catita chiriri seems better adapted to their habitat adopted her cousin closely related, the the Canary-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus).

The Canary-winged Parakeet It has declined considerably since the early 80, while the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet It has established itself in different habitats.

In 2002, the population of Yellow-chevroned Parakeet in the area of Los Angeles, California It was estimated at 400 individuals. In the Florida, They have prospered more than any other place in the United States – there have been huge flocks, several hundred of them. The species is also quite established in the city center Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which he was also introduced.

Alternative names:

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet, Chiriri Parakeet, Yellow chevroned Parakeet (English).
Toui à ailes jaunes, Conure à ailes jaunes, Perruche ou, Toui à miroir jaune, Toui chiriri (French).
Gelbflügelsittich, Kanarienflügelsittich (German).
periquito-de-encontro-amarelo, periquio-de-encontro-amarelo, periquito-de-asa-amarela, tuí-chiriri (Portuguese).
Catita chiriri, Catita Chirirí, Catita chíriri (Spanish).
Catita chirirí (Argentina).
Catita chiriri, Catita chíriri (Paraguay).
Tu’î Chyryry (guaraní).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Brotogeris
Scientific name: Brotogeris chiriri
Citation: (Vieillot, 1818)
Protonimo: Psittacus chiriri

Images Yellow-chevroned Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet in Sarutaiá, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A pet Yellow-chevroned Parakeet By Wagner Machado Carlos Lemes from Goiânia, Brazil [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet perching in a tree By Paulo Barradas (Brotogeris chiririUploaded by Sno whom You nradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil By Gonçalves Delcio from Goiânia, Brazil (A corn diferenteUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Parakeet yellow meeting. Photo taken in the backwoods of Rio Sucuriú By Deusdedith de Souza Alves Filho DehAlves (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri)(Left) and Peach-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga aurea)(Right) on Combretum flowers By Bernard DUPONT from FRANCE [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet in Brazil By Alastair Rae (Flickr: Yellow-chevroned Parakeet) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet in Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. It is perching on the stem of a mango, which it has been eating By Alexandre Pereira [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet on Erythrina velutina By Derek Keats from Johannesburg, South Africa (… on Erythrina velutina) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Fernando Igor de Godoy (Xeno-canto)

Plain Parakeet
Brotogeris tirica

Plain Parakeet

Content

Plain Parakeet

Description:

23 cm.. long and about 63 g. of weight.

The Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica) has the forecrown, lores, crown and cheeks, pale green with yellowish tint. Sides of the neck and nape, green, duller than in the head.

The upperparts green, slightly darker than the rest of the plumage. Most of the under wing-coverts, green, some feathers dyed olive brown, especially in lesser and median coverts. Primary coverts, primaries and outer secondaries, violet blue with green margins close to outerweb. Underwing-coverts greenish yellow, flight feather, bluish green. Underparts, pale yellowish green, tinged with bluish color on the sides of chest, the the thighs and undertail-coverts; flanks yellowish. Upper, the tail green with bluish tint to the central feathers; undertail, the tail is grayish blue-green. Bill color pale horn: irises brown: legs Rosaceae.

Both sexes are similar. Immature with little or no blue in primary coverts.

Habitat:

The Plain Parakeet They are experts in the art of adaptation; They can be found in a wider range of habitats than any other endemic parrot Brazilian Atlantic forest: in the lowlands and highlands, in the forest canopy and forest edges, parks and gardens (for example, of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo), farmland with trees, scattered patches of forest and secondary growth. Apparently more numerous in the forest edge habitats. Generally observed in the lowlands, but reported to 1.200 metres in the Itatiaia National Park on the border between the state of River and São Paulo. Gregarious. Generally seen in pairs or small groups, although sometimes you can see several hundred birds together.

It is the most common parrot São Paulo, where you can find even in the slums of the city.

Reproduction:

Observed in arboreal termite nests, in the crowns of Palmas or natural openings of trees; in the city of São Paulo nest in crevices of buildings and roofs, regularly using the balconies to feed.

The breeding season It has been recorded in September; observed immature in January. The clutch common in captivity is four eggs. They stay together for life.

Food:

Its diet it is very varied, It includes pulp of Posoqueria latifolia; seeds of Ficus, Trema micrantha, Xylopia brasiliensis, Vriesea, rhipsalis, Cecropia glazioui, Hyeronima alchorneoides and Merostachis; seeds and flowers of Tibouchina mutabilis and Psitticanthus; flowers of Norantea brasilensis and Eucatyptus and nectar of Pseudobombax. Sometimes they feed of insects and their larvae.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 1.010.000 km2

The Plain Parakeet They found in southeast Brazil, from Alagoas south through the eastern and southern Bay, Espirito Santo, in the South of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, East of São Paulo and Paraná until Santa Catarina.

The only records Rio Grande do Sul and Goiás They are considered doubtful.

Some seasonal movements. Uncommon to fairly common depending on the location, but apparently only reported very common in the city of Sao Paulo. Its population has declined in the Eastern European settlement Brazil, although less than other endemic parrots in the region. Live in several areas protected (for example, Itatiaia National Park).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the red list category

This species has a very large range and therefore it is not close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of size range (Extension Occurrence <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión / calidad de hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número De lugares o fragmentación severa). La demographic trend appears to be stable and, therefore, the species does not approach the thresholds Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un descenso continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as the least concern.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

They suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

"Plain Parakeet" in captivity:

They are not very common in aviculture.

Alternative names:

Plain Parakeet, All-green Parakeet, Tirica Parakeet (English).
Toui tirica, Perruche tirica (French).
Tirikasittich, Tiricasittich (German).
periquito-rico, periquito, periquito-verdadeiro, periquito-verde, tuim (Portuguese).
Catita Tirica, Periquito Amarillento (Spanish).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Brotogeris
Scientific name: Brotogeris tirica
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus Tirica


Images Plain Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Plain Parakeet in Morretes, Paraná, Brazil By Ben Tavener from Curitiba, Brazil [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Plain Parakeet in Brazil By Jonathan Cunha [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Plain Parakeet in captivity By Lucas de Melo [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Independence Park, Ipiranga museum, São Paulo By Dario Sanches from SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL (PERIQUITO-RICO ( Brotogeris tirica)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica) in São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Independence Park, Ipiranga museum, São Paulo By Dario Sanches from SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL (PERIQUITO-RICO ( Brotogeris tirica)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Indepedencia Park, Ipiranga museum, São Paulo Species in phase moulting By Dario Sanches from SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL (PERIQUITO-RICO ( Brotogeris tirica)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Brotogeris tirica, Independence Park, Ipiranga museum, São Paulo By Dario Sanches from SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL (PERIQUITO-RICO ( Brotogeris tirica)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – The Plain Parakeet in the Serra da Cantareira State Park, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches (Flickr: PERIQUITO-RICO (Brotogeris tirica)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Illustration Ricardo Sanches, parakeets rich(Brotogeris tirica) in ABES-SP

Sounds: Jerome Fischer (Xeno-canto)

Golden-tailed Parrotlet
Touit surdus

Golden-tailed Parrotlet

Content

Golden-tailed Parrotlet

Description:

16 cm.. length.

The Golden-tailed Parrotlet (Touit surdus) has a plumage mostly green; the forecrown, lores, supercilii area and cheeks, They are yellowed; crown, rear area of the neck, ear-coverts and sides neck, green with dark narrow margins, giving a scaly appearance.

Mantle and back, green with rump and uppertail-coverts slightly brighter, more emerald. Scapulars and inner tertials, warm brown: primary coverts, dark brown, rest of the coverts green. The the flight feathers They are brown above with narrow green margins to outerweb; brown opaque below. Blue feathers Carpal edge of the wing. Underwing-coverts green. Chin yellowish; chest brighter yellowish green, brighter in the belly and in the undertail-coverts. Tail, centrally green with faint black markings at tips, laterally golden-yellow with narrow black tips on upper surface.. The bill yellow horn; gray irises, legs grey.

The female perhaps duller below, with lateral feathers tail greener and green tips and margins. Immature not described.

Description 2 subspecies:

The subspecies Touit surdus chryseurus it has been proposed to birds of northeastern range on the basis of dubious lateral tail feathers more brownish and smaller.

  • Touit surdus chryseurus

    (Swainson, 1823) – Side tail feathers, brown / yellow; smaller.


  • Touit surdus surdus

    (Kuhl, 1820) – Nominal.

Habitat:

They live mainly in evergreen forests lowland, although occasionally they extend to the adjacent lower mountain slopes. Birds have been observed in the canopy of a secondary forest fragment surrounded by open fields; Other reports suggest that birds visit fruiting trees in deforested areas to feed.

You can visit, occasionally, cocoa plantations where trees shade the crop plants, but this has not been tested. They are - 700 m in Alagoas and - 800 m in Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The Brown-backed Parrotlet They seem to live in flocks (mainly 6-12), perhaps you composed of family groups.

Recent observations suggest that this species is resistant habitat alteration.

Reproduction:

The reproduction of this species practically is not registered. A female observed in September Alagoas, He was not in breeding condition.

Food:

Foods reported in feed Brown-backed Parrotlet are fruits Spondias lutea and Rapanea schwackeana

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 1.680.000 km2

The distribution of the Brown-backed Parrotlet It extends through Atlantic forests of eastern Brazil, including coastal areas of the northeastern states of Paraíba, Pernambuco and Alagoas with a record Camocim in the North of Ceará, where there are fragments of rainforest in coastal areas.

Exist sporadic records but widespread (mainly) on the shores of Bay and Espirito Santo, and in Rio de Janeiro, for example in Teresopolis, around the Itatiaia National Park, new Freiburg and Cabo Frio, with some reports São Paulo southwest to Cardoso Island, near the border with Paraná. The reports of For and Goiás They are not substantiated and they are probably wrong. The apparent seasonal distribution of the species in some areas suggests migration trends.

They seem to be distributed at low densities and (except a report in the lower basin Tiete river in Sao Paulo) It was considered a rare species in the nineteenth century. Like other members of the genus is, without a doubt, ave a difficult to observe, and often overlooked. However, many ancient villages are no longer inhabited, with forests completely eliminated or severely degraded lowland, especially in the north of the mountain range, where you can be almost extinct. In the news They are distributed in several protected areas.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Population size: 2500-9999 specimens.

Justification of the red list category

This species is classified as Vulnerable because its population is small and declining rapidly due to continuous deforestation. It has been found that it is more resistant to forest fragmentation of what was thought first, and may be sub-registered instead of actually little, especially in the southern part of its range.

Justification of the population

The species is generally rare; Its population is in the band 2.500-9.999 mature individuals, equivalent to 3.750-14.999 individuals, round here 3.500-15.000 individuals.

Justification of trend

rapid and continuous population decline is suspected on the basis of continuous destruction and fragmentation of habitat.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. It is considered Vulnerable nationally in Brazil (MMA 2014). And protected by Brazilian law. There have been numerous protected areas: Hewn Stone Biological Reserve (Alagoas), Monte Pascoal National Park and Serra das Lontras, Biological Reserve and Private Reserve Serra Nice (Bahia), Great stream, Sooretama and Augusto Ruschi), Desengano State Park and Itatiaia National Park (Rio de Janeiro)

Conservation Actions Proposed

Examine the historical towns and proper habitat to clarify the distribution. Ecology Research and seasonal movements. designate murici in Alagoas biological reserve and ensure their protection de facto. Consolidate protected areas distributed.

"Golden-tailed Parrotlet" in captivity:

Rare and unknown in captivity. Any captive individual (it can not be released) It should be part of a conservation program well managed to ensure continuity of this species.

Alternative names:

Golden-tailed Parrotlet, Golden tailed Parrotlet (English).
Toui à queue d’or (French).
Gelbschwanzpapagei, Gelbschwanz-Papagei (German).
Apuim-de-cauda-amarela, papagainho, periquitinho, periquitinho-surdo (Portuguese).
Cotorrita Sorda, Lorito de Cola Dorada (Spanish).

Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Touit
Scientific name: Touit surdus
Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
Protonimo: parrot deaf


Images Golden-tailed Parrotlet:

Videos of the "Golden-tailed Parrotlet"

Golden-tailed Parrotlet (Touit surdus)


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife
  • parrots.org

  • Photos:

(1) – Golden-tailed Parrotlet – Touit surdus – Golden-tailed parrotlet by Ciro Albano

httpv://www.YouTube.com/watch?v = ZaWxtXYx6U

(2) – Urochroma deaf By Blanchard, Emile; Bonaparte, Charles Lucian; Bourjot Saint-Hilaire, Alexandre; Le Vaillant, François; Souancé, Charles de. [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Brown-backed Parrotlet
Touit melanonotus

Brown-backed Parrotlet

Content

Description:

15 cm.. length.

The Brown-backed Parrotlet (Touit melanonotus) has the forecrown, the lower cheeks, the sides of neck, the crown and the rear of the neck, grass-green; lores and upper cheeks paler and more yellowish green; ear-coverts brown. Mantle, back and center rump dull blackish-brown color; scapulars, sides rump and uppertail-coverts green.

Inner coverts and median, alula and primary coverts, blackish brown (latter with narrow green margins to outerweb); other coverts greenish brown grass. Tertiary brown. Flight feather green on the outerweb with black opaque brown at the tips and innerwebs. Underwing, with coverts dull green, flight feather, pale grayish green. Chin yellowish; underparts pale grayish green, blur on the sides of chest. Upper, the tail centrally green with black spot on the tips of the outerweb. Outer feathers bright red at the base with broad black subterminal bands and a small green patch tips; undertail, the tail pale green tones and duller with greyish stain on the tip, pale red in outer featherss. Bill yellow distally, greyer towards base; irises grey; legs grey.

The females may show duller bluish-grey on underparts. Immature not described.

Habitat:

Mainly reported in moist forests on the lower mountain slopes. Most records are in altitudes between 500-1.000 m (1.400 metres in the Itatiaia National Park), but some are lowlands to near sea level (for example, Cardoso Island). Gregarious and generally in small groups 5-20 birds.

Reproduction:

Virtually no information on the breeding. Presumably it occurs in September-October, but this is unconfirmed (Collar 1997a, Necklace et to the ., 2013). A juvenile was photographed in the National Park Organ Mountains in December of 2008 (Young y Pimentel 2009).

Food:

Known foods include seeds large tree legumes and fruits Rapanea acuminata, Clusia sp. and mistletoe.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding / resident): 400.000 km2

The Cotorrita Dorsinegra has a limited distribution in southeast Brazil, from Bay (three records in the nineteenth century) to the South of São Paulo, leaping Espirito Santo (though presumably be extinct there).

sporadically, albeit broad, reported in State of Rio de Janeiro, including Sierra Cantagalo, National Park Organ Mountains and the surrounding areas of Teresopolis, including near the The Desengano State Park. They were also observed in the Itatiaia massif (including the Itatiaia National Park) where distribution may include adjacent parts of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Also observed in other locations of unspecified Serra do Mar in the State of Rio de Janeiro and in the city of Rio de Janeiro (for example, in the National Park of Tijuca and forest Corvocado).

Reported in several locations in the Sao Paulo State, to the South of the Cardoso Island, near the border with Paraná. There may be seasonal movements or dispersions (perhaps mainly altitudinal and relatively short distances). Registered in several protected areas such as State Park Serra do Mar and the Itatiaia National Park.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Population size : 2500-9999 specimens.

JUSTIFICATION category Red List

It is likely that the population of this species is small and decreases, with small subpopulations. For these reasons, the species is classified as Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The evaluation of the Brazilian Red List poultry (MMA 2014) It is estimated that there <10.000 individuos maduros con <1,000 individuos maduros en cada subpoblación. Justification of trend

Se sospecha una decrease moderate and continuous of the population because rates of habitat destruction and degradation.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. In Brazil, this species is considered Vulnerable nationally (Silveira & Straube 2008, MMA 2014), and it is protected by Brazilian law. It is distributed in many protected areas, with recent records: Desengano State Parks and Pedra Branca, Itatiaia, Organ Mountains y Tijuca Parques Nacionales (Rio de Janeiro); Experimental Station Ubatuba, Area Environmental Protection Iguape, Serra do Mar, Ilha do Cardoso and State Parks Intervales (São Paulo); Salto Morato Natural Reserve y Marsh Antwren (Paraná) (Wege and Long 1995, Aleixo y Galetti 1997, Necklace et to the ., 2013)

Conservation Actions Proposed

Examine the suitable habitat in Bahia and Espirito Santo to clarify their distribution and status. To determine the seasonal abundance at different elevations. You consolidate the protected areas where distributed.

"Brown-backed Parrotlet" in captivity:

It is not known in captivity.

Alternative names:

Brown-backed Parrotlet, Black-backed Parrotlet, Black-eared Parrotlet, Brown backed Parrotlet, Wied’s Parrotlet (English).
Toui à dos noir (French).
Braunrückenpapagei, Braunrücken-Papagei (German).
Apuim-de-costas-pretas, apuim-de-cauda-vermelha, apuim-de-costa-preta, apuim-de-costas-escuras, papagainho, periquitinho (Portuguese).
Cotorrita Dorsinegra, Lorito de Lomo Negro (Spanish).

Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied
Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Touit
Scientific name: Touit melanonotus
Citation: (Wied-Neuwied, 1820)
Protonimo: Psittacus melanonotus


Images Brown-backed Parrotlet:

Video of the "Brown-backed Parrotlet"

————————————————————————————————

Brown-backed Parrotlet (Touit melanonotus)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Brown-backed Parrotlet in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Brown-backed Parrotlet in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Brown-backed Parrotlet in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Guilherme de Melo Becher (Xeno-canto)