Todd’s Parakeet (sub)
Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps

Cotorrita de Perijá

Perija Parakeet. Copyright ProAves Colombia.


21-23 cm.. height.

The Todd’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps) green is generally the forecrown and areas around eyes, dark red.

In flight the dark red stain is very evident abdomen. Wings below greyish. The crown and nape they are blue; the front and sides of the strip head, red and scaly appearance of the chest with wider margins. This subspecies is included within the species Pyrrhura picta.

Cotorrita de Perijá


    Historically, classification of Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps (Todd 1947) He has been subject to opinions found. While some authors recognize this taxon at the species level, others consider it a subspecies of Pyrrhura subandina (Todd 1947) or Pyrrhura picta (Meyer de Schauensee 1949), the latter being the most widely followed ranking (Hilty & Brown 1986, pit et to the. 1997, Rodríguez & Hernandez-Camacho 2002). Based on analysis of morphological characters, Joseph (2000) and Joseph & Stockwell (2002) suggested that P. caeruleiceps should be considered as a distinct phylogenetic species and taxon Pyrrhura pantchenkoi (Phelps 1977), described from two specimens with worn plumage, is its synonym. Hilty (2003) He continued this treatment, but the classification committee Bird South America of the American Ornithologists’ Union recently it considered that existing information was insufficient to support this taxonomic change according to the biological species concept and kept provisionally caeruleiceps like a subspecies of painted parakeet (Remsen et al. 2010).
    Source: Rediscovery and notes on the ecology and vocalizations of Todd’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps) in northeastern Colombia


They inhabit in rainforest, semi-húmeda and low cloud forests.
Nest sizable trees in abandoned nests of other species.


The enigmatic and little known Todd’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps) It has a very restricted range in the rainforest, mainly between 500 and 900 Attitude meters along the border between Colombia and Venezuela, as well as patches of tropical forest in the foothills of the Serranía del Perijá.

Its Freedom population It is believed to be about 30 a 50 individuals.


The forest loss and fragmentation are the main threats facing this bird, but the species is also trapped and kept in cages as a pet. In accordance with the categories of the UICN It is considered In danger (IN), mainly due to the habitat destruction.


Todd’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps)

– Book parrots, Parrots and macaws Neotropical

Sinu Parakeet (sub)
Pyrrhura subandina

Cotorrita del Sinú

21 a 23 cm.. height.

The Sinu Parakeet (Pyrrhura subandina) It, in general, green, with the forecrown and areas around eyes dark red.

In flight It is very evident dark red stain abdomen, the wings below greyish. The cheeks They have a greenish blue tone, the area surrounding the ear It is yellowish-brown and the breast feathers with design marginalized gray escamado.

Lives or lived in rainforest, semi-húmeda, deciduous forests of Gallery,low. It nests on trees of considerable size in hollow nests woodpeckers.

Endemic of Colombia, in the lower valley of Sinu river, Jaraquiel, Cerro Murrucucú, Córdoba.

Expeditions in recent years have failed to see her.

Estimated population: 0-100; The population trend: possibly extinct

We recommend that you devote to Sinu Parakeet immediate attention to the conservation of this unique endemic species of the plain Sinú River.

Habitats in the forest and close to the Valley of the Sinú River have been extensively altered and lost.


The Sinu Parakeet It was described by Todd 1917 as a distinctive bird endemic Valley Sinú River, Córdoba Department, Northwest of Colombia. Peters (1937), without evidence or any basis placed the Pyrrhura subandina within the species Pyrrhura picta, and the species immediately fell into obscurity as subspecies. However, Joseph and Stockwell (2002) they restored the status to Pyrrhura subandina as a species, based on a detailed assessment and phylogenetic analyses recent (com. pers. 2003).

DNA analysis has shown that the population of the Sinu Parakeet (Pyrrhura subandina) It is probably different (monotypic) (Joseph & Stockwell 2002), although at present it remains a subspecies of the Pyrrhura picta pending further studies (SACC 2007).

There is no information on the ecology of the Sinu Parakeet or current status. The species has never been reported alive and its range has been extensively deforested (Salaman obs. pers.)

At the beginning of 2004 Paul Salman He visited the four sites type; two are entirely deforested, While Quimarí and the Cerro Murrucucú still have some fragmented forests. No evidence of any Pyrrhura It was obtained by observations and interviews with the local community. In May of 2004, a researcher at ProAves he spent three months exploring for this species along the Cerro Murrucucú but their results were not favorable. The lack of recent records of this species and its restricted and unprotected range give reasons for concern about their survival and current status.

    Reference: Joseph, L. and Stockwell, D. 2002. Climatic modeling of the distribution of some Pyrrhura parakeets of northwestern South America with notes on their systematics and special reference to Pyrrhura caeruleiceps Todd, 1947. Ornitologia Neotropical 13: 1-8.

The Sinu Parakeet (Pyrrhura subandina) It was last recorded reliably in 1949. Almost nothing was recorded about their habits. It was not found during searches 2004 and 2006 (ProAves Colombia 2008). He may be extinct, but if still survives, this bird will be seriously threatened by habitat loss and hunting associated with the armed conflict in the region; The future of this Pyrrhura It looks bleak.

* Subspecies included within the species Pyrrhura picta.

Sinu Parakeet (Pyrrhura subandina)


– Book parrots, Parrots and macaws.
– Extinct Birds by Julian P. Hume, Michael Walters.

Photo: Parrots, Parrots and macaws Neotropical

Hyacinth Macaw
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

Hyacinth Macaw



90 a 100 cm.. of length and a weight of 1,5 a 1,7 kg.

Hyacinth Macaw illustration

The Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) is the largest parrot; has a distinctive coloration, mostly blue intense, with different colors. Wings and tail below black. The basis of the bill and periocular ring, naked and yellow. The tail is very long, and its powerful bill Black is deeply curved and pointed.

The species Anodorhynchus glaucus, similar but smaller, extinct in the early 20th century, It may have been present in Bolivia.


The Hyacinth Macaw take advantage of a great diversity of habitats rich in various species of Palm trees with large seeds, of which feeds.

In the Brazilian Amazon avoid areas of more moisture, preferring forests of lowlands, and seasonally moist formations with light areas. In the drier parts of the northeast of Brazil inhabits areas of Plateau cut by Rocky valleys, steep with closed deciduous woodland, Gallery forest and swamps with Mauritia flexuosa.

In the the Pantanal region the birds frequent gallery forest with Palm trees in wet grassy areas.

Apparently performs migratory movements.

Usually seen in pairs, family groups or small flocks (usually up to 10); much larger flocks reported before the decline.


They nest in large tree hollows, in cracks in rocks from cliffs in the northeast of Brazil or in moriche or aguaje (Mauritia).

The favorite for nesting trees in the Mato Grosso, Brazil, include Enterolobium and Sterculia striata. In Northeast Brazil, the nest is located in Palms Mauritia dead or on cliffs.

They usually put one or two eggs, Although only one brood usually survive if the second egg hatches a few days after the first, Since lower breeding cannot compete with the greatest food.

The incubation period lasts about a month, and the male will assist his partner while she incubates the eggs.

Young people remain with their parents up to three months of age. They reach maturity and begin to play on the seven years.

The breeding season is from August to December, Maybe a little later in areas of pantanal.


The diet Hyacinth Macaw consists mainly of nuts, locally available of various Palms, including (on Amazon) Maximiliana regia, Orbignya martiana and Astrocaryum, in the northeast of Brazil, of the Syagrus coronata and Orbignya eicherir, in areas of wetlands of Bone collectors and Acrocomia.

The palm nuts they take them from the own soil or plant (especially after a fire or when available as remains not digested in cattle droppings).

Other fruits that have information are the from the Ficus sp., as well as aquatic molluscs Pomacea.

Birds drink liquid Green Palm fruits.


Its distribution includes the Centre of South America, Perhaps in several spacious separate areas.

In the Amazon in For from the Tapajós River, to the East of the basin of the Tocantins River, extending to the South, possibly to the Northwestern area of Tocantins. At least before present North of the Amazon River (in Amapá, Amazon and Roraima, Brazil) and perhaps they can still inhabit some examples, Although there is no known recent records.

Distributed, also, through the Northeast interior of Brazil, more or less centered on the Microregion of the Chapadas das Mangabeiras in the union between Maranhão, Piauí, Goiás and Bay, Brazil (the region Gerais).

A third important population focuses on habitats wetlands of the upper basin of the Río Paraguay in the southwest of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and extending into the adjacent area of the East of Bolivia and North end of Paraguay.

Reported as probable for the Mapori River to the South-East of Colombia (Vaupés).

Movements General residents but perhaps seasonal in the Amazon in relation to the ecology of the plants on which they feed.

The territory between the three current major distributions, can still be occupied while given recent trends, They seem to indicate that this seems unlikely.

Formerly common in some areas (for example, Mato Grosso). Now they are rather unevenly distributed, with the recent and likely declines continuous in its population due mainly to the illegal trade internal and to the smaller, but significant, international market of live birds. Also hunted for its feathers (especially Pari) and as food. Declining in some areas (for example Eastern Amazonia), because of the alteration or loss of habitat.

Total estimated wild population in 3000 (1.992). CITES Appendix I.



• Current red list of UICN: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

The Hyacinth Macaw It has been subjected to a massive illegal trade. At least 10.000 birds were captured in the wild, in the Decade of 1980, with a 50% destined to the Brazilian market (Mittermeier et to the. 1990).

Between 1983-1984, more than 2.500 birds were moved out of Bahia Negra, Paraguay, with others 600 extra at the end of 1980 (J. Pryor in litt., 1998). Although these numbers are now much smaller, the illegal trade continues (for example 10 bird went through a pet market in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in August 2004 until July 2005, where the birds were changing hands for 1.000 $ US and went to Peru [Herrera and Hennessey 2007]). More recently it has been observed that it seems to be no almost no illegal trade of this species in Bolivia (B. Hennessey in litt. 2012).

Through its area of distribution, There is something of the local game for use as food and for its feathers.

In the Amazon, There has been loss of habitat for the livestock and the rivers hydropower systems Tocantins and Xingu.

In the Pantanal, only the 5% trees S. apetala have suitable cavities (Guedes 1993, Johnson 1996). Young trees are used as food for livestock and burned by frequent fires (Newton 1994).

The Gerais is it being quickly transformed by mechanized agriculture, livestock and plantations of exotic trees (Conservation International 1999).

In Paraguay, the preferred habitats of the Hyacinth Macaw are considered seriously threatened (N. Kochalka Lopez in litt. 2013) and the Paso Bravo National Park suffering from illegal logging.

Conservation Actions Underway:

    – CITES Appendix I and II, protected under the Brazilian and Bolivian law and ban on exports from countries of origin.

    – Many landowners in the Pantanal (more and more in the Gerais) they do not allow hunters on their property.

    – There are several studies long-term and conservation initiatives (for example. Anon 2004).

    – In the Refuge Caiman ecological in the Pantanal, the Hyacinth Macaw Project It has used artificial nests and hatchlings management techniques and created awareness among farmers (Anonymous 2004).

Conservation Actions Proposed:

    – Study of the range, the current status of the population and the scope of the negotiation of the different parts of its area of distribution (Snyder et to the., 2000).

    – Assess the effectiveness of artificial nesting boxes (Snyder et to the., 2000).

    – To enforce the legal measures that hinder trade.

    – Experiment with ecotourism in one or two sites to encourage donors (Snyder et to the., 2000).

Hyacinth Macaw in captivity:

Rare up to 1970; then, starting at 1980, It increased considerably in number of captive birds due to the increase of breeding.

Despite the prohibitions, many of these Macaws they are still trading at high prices (10.000 euros or more), due to its beauty and ease to mimic human language.

The breeding of this species can be difficult and, Unfortunately, many chicks die each year in inexperienced hands.

From this page we strongly preserve these beautiful birds in their natural environment, sincerely not us seems reasonable to his tenure as a pet.

Alternative names:

Hyacinth Macaw, Blue Macaw, Black Macaw (English).
Ara hyacinthe (French).
Hyazinthara, Hyathinzara (German).
Arara-azul-grande, arara-azul, arara-hiacinta, arara-preta, arara-roxa, arara-una, canindé (Portuguese).
arara-azul, Arara-azul-grande, arara-hiacinta, arara-preta, arara-roxa, Ararauna, arara-una, canindé (Portuguese (Brazil)).
Guacamayo Azul, Guacamayo Jacinto, Papagayo azul (Spanish).
Jacinta azul, Paraba azul (Bolivia).
Vihina (Desana).
Kaheta (Carijona).
Guaía-hovy (Guaraní).
Arara-úna (Tupi guaraní).

John Latham
John Latham

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Anodorhynchus
Scientific name: Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus
Citation: (Latham, 1790)
Protonimo: Psittacus hyacinthinus

Hyacinth Macaw images:


Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Parrots, Parrots and macaws (Neotropical)


(1) – Hyacinth Macaw also known as Hyacinthine Macaw at Disney’s Animal Kingdom Park by Hank Gillette [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Hyacinth Macaw at Brevard Zoo, Florida, USA By Rusty Clark from merritt usland FLA (Brevard Zoo Hyacinth Macaw) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Hyacinthine Macaw at Melbourne Zoo, Australia By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Anodorhynchus_hyacinthinus_-Australia_Zoo_-8.jpg: Erik (HASH) Hersman [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Hyacinth Macaws at Stone Zoo, Stoneham, Massachusetts, USA By Eric Kilby (originally posted to Flickr as Squawking Heads) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Hyacinthine Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) By Ana_Cotta (originally posted to Flickr as ARARA) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Hyacinth Macaws, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus at the Aquarium of the Americas in New Orleans, Louisiana By Derek Jensen [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A pair of Hyacinth Macaws and thier nest in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil By Geoff Gallice from Gainesville, FL, USA (Hyacinth macaws) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A Hyacinth Macaw preening at the Aquarium of the Americas, New Orleans, USA By Quinn Dombrowski (originally posted to Flickr as Dainty) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus by Hans – Pixabay
(10) – Illustration Guacamayo Jacinto By Lear, Edward [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Niels Poul Dreyer (Xeno-canto)

Tucuman Parrot
Amazona tucumana

Tucuman Parrot


31 cm.. length.

The Tucuman Parrot (Amazona tucumana) It is mostly green, with black borders on the feathers, giving the whole a scalloped appearance.

Relatively large and stocky have the forecrown red and eye rings white. Has also patch Red in the wing-coverts (most notoriously in flight); thin yellow line in shoulder almost half of wing ; the primary wing feathers They have the blue tips, and the thighs They are orange-yellow. The tail It is short and feathers yellow.

The bill It is yellowish to pinkish, and eyes adults are orange-yellow. The legs They are pale gray.

Both the male as the female They are similar in appearance, but the immature They are generally green in full, with the thighs green than orange and less red on the forecrown. Another key difference between adult and immature is that eyes young people are gray.

Taxonomic note:

Until a few years ago it was considered a subspecies of the Red-spectacled Parrot (Amazona pretrei) (Fjeldså y Krabbe 1990), but now they are recognized as separate species, although closely related to each other and, In addition, with the Vinaceous Parrot (Amazona vinacea), who possibly form a basal group to all other parrots of the genus (Russello y Amato 2004).

  • Sound of the Amazona tucumana.


Video Amazona Tucumana

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

It is found in open forests Andean mountain forests Yungas, particularly in areas with Alnus acuminata or Podocarpus parlatorei, as well as other species of Alnus, Podocarpus and Nothofagus. This species It is in elevations of between 1.600 and 2.600 metres in the breeding season, but during breeding season not descend to lower elevations around 350 m. At this time, sometimes you can enter inhabited areas.

Often it gathers in large flocks often have more than 200 individuals.


The Tucuman Parrot They breed between November and January or February, building usually your nest in a hole in a tree Alnus or Podocarpus. The normal size clutch is three to four eggs, although they have been reported sunsets from one to five eggs. The incubation lasts around 26 a 29 days, usually it is the female that the male incubates and which feeds, and the main source of food for chicks come from seeds and flowers Podocarpus parlatorei. Young they leave the nest usually after seven to nine weeks.


The Tucuman Parrot They feed on trees Family Myrtaceae, as well as seeds and flowers trees as Podocarpus parlatorei, Juglans australis and Alnus, of the immature fruits of the species Cedrela and flowers species Erythrina.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 86.200 km2

The Amazona tucumana It is located in northwest Argentina and in southern Bolivia, where it is known in 12 locations departments Tarija, Chuquisaca and Santa Cruz (A. Maccormick in some. 2005, R. Hoyer in some. Slightly., 2012).

A recent study of the situation and distribution of the species Argentina registered 6.015 individuals (Rivera et al., 2007) and Argentina estimated that the population was near 10.000 birds, but around 20.000 They were exported from Argentina in the mid 80, suggesting that there may have been a substantial population decline.

After inclusion in the Appendix I of the CITES, international trade was cut, Although the Local exploitation continues. However, It does not appear that the stocks have recovered, and loss of habitat is of concern, particularly in Argentina, where their habitat is highly degraded and there are only a few remains of small forests and isolated. Threats to habitat are less severe in Bolivia, but the species has declined there and is projected to continue to do so (A. Maccormick in a bit., 2005).

The main concentrations of this species in Bolivia are in clad hills, Villa Serrano and Tariquía Flora and Fauna National Reserve, with 1.643 individuals recorded in several places during a recent study (Rivera et al., 2009).


Conservation status ⓘ

Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 6000-15000.

Justification of the red list category

This species is classified as Vulnerable, as it is experiencing rapid population decline due to the loss of habitat and capture for the bird trade.

Justification of the population

A recent study of the situation and distribution of the species Argentina registered 6,015 individuals and Argentina estimated that the population was approximately 10.000 birds (L. Rivera in a bit., 2004). In addition, 1.643 individuals were recorded at several sites in Bolivia during another recent study (Rivera et al., 2007). The total population is well placed in the band 10.000-19.999 individuals (L. Rivera in a bit., 2012). This is equivalent to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, round here 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Justification of trend

The results of the survey, observations on habitat loss and the local occurrence of the species, and catch and trade data suggest that the population is suffering rapid population decline (L. Rivera in some.)

Conservation Actions Underway

• CITES Appendix I, although the convention is not respected in Bolivia (AB Hennessey in litt., 2012).

• Present in several protected areas, including the El Rey National Park, Argentina, mainly in the non-breeding season (L. Rivera in some. 2012).

• In 2006, was appointed the Iñao National Park and Integrated Management Natural Area, which it was the basis for the conservation of one of the largest shelters species Bolivia (Rivera Et al . 2009).

• currently it is developing an action plan for the conservation of species for each of their native countries (L. Rivera in a bit., 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Apply local trade ban (L. Rivera in a bit., 2012).

• Evaluate current population size.

• Produce an action plan species.

• Conduct additional research to clarify the scope of the current threat of trade.

• Effectively protect the core areas of remaining habitat; review their habitat requirements and complement nesting sites using boxes where appropriate (AB Hennessey in some. 2012).

• Addressing unsustainable use of resources and illegal activities in protected areas.

• Designate clad hills a protected area.

The Tucuman Parrot in captivity:

Parrots Gender Amazona are among the most recognizable and sought-after pet birds. His colorful plumage and ability to mimic the human voice have made them highly sought after for centuries and unfortunate consequence of this is the threatened status of most species (Russello y Amato 2004). In the Red list of Threatened Species International Union for the conservation of nature, 16 parrot species of this genus are included either as Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered (IUCN 2010). In the same way, 16 species are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

The Amazona tucumana It is a species that should only be kept in captive with the sole purpose of achieving their reproduction and subsequent insertion into wildlife.

Alternative names:

Tucuman Parrot, Alder Amazon, Alder Parrot, Tucuman Amazon (English).
Tucumanaamazone, Tucumanamazone (German).
Amazone de Tucuman (French).
Papagaio-tucumă (Portuguese).
Amazona Alisera, Amazona Tucumana, Loro alisero (Spanish).
Loro alisero (Argentina).
Loro alisero (Bolivia).

Scientific classification:

Jean Louis Cabanis
Jean Louis Cabanis

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona tucumana
Citation: (Cabanis, 1885)
Protonimo: Chysotis tucumana

Images Tucuman Parrot:


Tucuman Parrot (Amazona tucumana)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– RIVERA, Luis; POLICE, Natalia y BUCHER, Enrique H. Ecology and conservation of Loro Alisero (Amazona tucumana). Hornero [online]. 2012, vol.27, n.1 [aforementioned 2017-01-29], pp. 51-61 . Available in: <>. ISSN 0073-3407.


(1) – Tucuman Parrot (Amazona tucumana) by birdsandbirds

Sounds: Niels Krabbe, XC29107. accessible

Melopsittacus undulatus

Common Budgie



18 cm. length and a weight between 22 and 32 g..


In the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) of adults, the cere Blue contrasts with the frontal zone; the front of the face and throat are pale yellow. The latter is covered by a line of black spots. The area which is located below the cheeks is purple.

The central part of the pileum extending from the rear of the eyes to neck It is covered with alternating thin black bands and bands of pale yellow. These bars are expanded on the the mantle and wing-coverts, forming a scaly effect.

The underparts, the area beneath the wings, the lower part of the back and rump create a beautiful pale green together. The tail is opaque blue tones with a central yellow stripe on the side feathers.

The female has a Brown wax.

The immature they are more turned off with bars on the front. The black spots on the throat they are absent.


The Budgerigar they are distributed by a wide variety of open habitats, including open forests, lightly wooded grasslands and savannas. Also appreciate the areas of Mallee, farmland, the vegetation that grows along the rivers, bushes adapted to drought and open plains. They come fitted with desert areas of Mulga (Acacia aneura). Although they are able to survive several days without water, These birds are never far from a water source.

In areas where fruit production is steady and in others where it is stable for very long periods, the movements of the Budgerigar they are easily predictable.

In the South end, There are pilgrimages only in cases of prolonged drought and wandering parakeets return to their territory with the first rains and recolonizan when the level of the rivers return to normal.


The Budgerigar they build their nests of June to September in the North its area of distribution. They reproduce between August and January in the South. Nests can be installed at any time of the year after the rains fall. Establish a second breeding as soon as conditions are favorable.

These parakeets usually nest in colonial way. The nest is located in a natural cavity in a tree, in a strain, an any fence post, or in a large fallen branch.

The female lays from 4 a 6 eggs and incubation lasts a few 18 days. The chicks remain in place of birth during 30 days before flying.


The Budgerigar It vegetarian, they eat herbs and seeds of quenopodios. Plants vary in categories and proportions, According to which regions and times.

The East inside of Australia, These birds feed exclusively on seeds that are on the ground, While in the middle of the continent, There is more variety of plants to select. In the first case, grain size barely exceeds the 2 mm diameter and the second, more than 40 plant varieties make up the diet of these parakeets.

From time to time, the Budgerigar, they come in growing areas and take advantage of the ripe fruits.


The Budgerigar are distributed widely throughout the Interior of Australia, Although they are rare in the coastal districts of the This and the end South-West (absent of Tasmania, Arnhem Land and Cape York Peninsula).

The species may be of common to very abundant, but they are nomadic, and may change from year to year areas.

These parakeets, frequently, they burst from the arid areas to more humid areas and there are temporary movements towards the South during the summer, but these changes may be affected by annual rainfall patterns.

We have introduced, without success, in a number of places around the world (or they have escaped from captivity and could not be) including South Africa, United Kingdom, Japan, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Switzerland, Colombia, the Society Islands, New Zealand and Oman.

In the EE.UU. the species has managed to colonize Hawaii and California (leaks also occur regularly in the city of New York City). In Florida a population was originally registered in the area of St. Petersburg, in the Decade of 1950 and now has more of 3.000 individuals; These birds are mobile and have been recorded along the coast This of all the South from Jacksonville a Miami, and in the West everything Hudson to South of Fort Myers, from time to time go towards the North in Gainsville.

Parakeets, occasionally escaped, they may appear in Tasmania.

The world population is estimated at around 5.000,000 copies.


• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Growing

This species is not threatened at all, even they are abundant, and in some places where resources are good, countless flocks darken the sky, to cause branches to break from 4 centimeters in diameter, When large number of birds used them as support for their breaks.

Populations fluctuate widely depending on weather conditions.

The cattle that live on farms in the Centre of Australia has made to the Budgerigar they will benefit from new water supplies. Like this, the number of parakeets are in constant increase.

These parakeets are the most well known psittacidas in the world.

Common parakeet in captivity:

This parakeet was discovered in 1805 and since then it has become the most popular captive bird in the world. While it is considered as domestic fowl, However, is a gregarious and instinctive animal, with the same needs that the parrots who freely roam the lands of Australia.

The Budgerigar It dynamic, curious, melodious and because of its small size, the beauty of their plumage and their entertaining behaviour, truly charming. This is what makes it a coveted bird. However, It is still a bird that needs to fly, play and socialize with their peers. Like any bird, It is sensitive to the social and environmental context. In fact, their real needs are too often overlooked, many parakeets suffer neglect or even abuse.

In captivity, the Budgerigar It is larger than its counterpart in nature. Measures of 20 a 25 cm. from head to tail and weighs between 30 and 45 g.. In addition to the colour of your coat, wild type, There are numerous mutations (other coat colors) associated with the increase in crossings and selections in certain genes, that translates into more spontaneous mutations.

The Budgerigar has two silent by year average, and the first moult occurs between the fourth and sixth month. The molt is complete renovation of the plumage of the bird. Pens fall to others push, includes your tube of keratin that parakeets will open with their beaks to release pen and relieve the irritation that engenders the same thrust. It can be more or less painful and intense. Some plucking is so fast that the bird may experience some difficulties during the flight.

Check the intensity of the change of the parakeet through black head tubes, tiredness and especially the number of feathers on the ground.

The food of the Budgerigar is based on the millet and the birdseed, Although it must be complemented with other seeds or vegetables (as the lettuce, Spinach, pepper, carrot, corn on the COB). The fruits are also a good dietary supplement for these birds. Occasionally it can provide a little bread or biscuit, but always with caution that not give them anything very sweet. The avocado, the chocolate and the parsley they are deadly toxic for the Australian parakeets.

The the parakeet cage It must be sheltered from the cold, a temperature between the 20-25 º C. It must be of one sufficient size so you have freedom of movement and can exercise. The balusters must be arranged horizontally so that they can climb up them. Wash the cage at least once a month with a disinfectant, change the water daily and clean the shells of the food. A cat litter tray can be placed to make their needs.
It is also important to let the parakeet out occasionally and fly freely around the room. Windows must be closed and curtains, because you can hit them.
Are very sociable birds and it is better to live with other parakeet. The best couple is formed by a male and a female. This will attempt to kill his companion if it is of the same gender.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, these animals can come to live until 21 years in captivity. The same sources indicate that these parakeets suffer from a high incidence with respect to ovarian cancer.

Alternative names:

Budgerigar, Budgerygah, Budgie, Canary Parrot, Grass-Parakeet, Lovebird, Scalloped Parrot, Shell Parakeet, Shell Parrot, Undulated Parrot, Warbling Grass-Parrot, Zebra Parrot (English).
Perruche ondulée (French).
Wellensittich (German).
Periquito-australiano (Portuguese).
Periquito Australiano, Periquito Común, Cotorra Australiana, Cata Australiana (Spanish).

George Shaw

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Budgerigar
Scientific name: Melopsittacus undulatus
Citation: (Shaw, 1805)
Protonimo: Psittacus undulatus

Budgerigar pictures:


Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Budgerigar at Zoo Atlanta, USA By TheSussman (Mike) (originally posted to Flickr as Parakeet) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two budgerigar at Henry Doorly Zoo, USA By Jeff Coffman (originally posted to Flickr as DSC_1265) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – male budgerigar. taken near Cameron’s Corner, Qld By Benjamint444 (Own work) [GFDL 1.2], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Detail shot of budgerigars head By Kirk (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Melopsittacus undulatus flock, Karratha, Pilbara region, Western Australia By Jim Bendon from Karratha, Australia (budgies_4) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – By User Magnus Manske on en.wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Exterior diagram of a green budgerigar By ZooFari [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Marc Anderson (Xeno-canto)

Red-cheeked Cordonbleu
Uraeginthus bengalus

Azulito de Senegal

The Red-cheeked Cordonbleu are in Equatorial Africa and East Africa. They live in pairs or in groups of a few individuals in semi-arid areas.

They have a melodious song, This varies depending on the species. Males have more brightly colored than females. The cheeks of the males are red. The female has a blue paler . Sometimes the female also sings, so you can not rely on the voice to determine the sex of the bird.

It is a large bird, It can co-exist with other small exotic birds. Small species of the Azulito of Senegal can co-exist if there is sufficient space, but the larger species are very aggressive and should not be mixed with other species of Azulitos.

They are insectivorous and granivores. Must be accustomed gradually to fruit and vegetables to prevent the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders (diarrhea). Must be given in small amounts, washed and dried at room temperature, withdrawing them as soon as they lose their freshness. Vitamins can also be put in drinking water, especially in times of illness, stress, molting and reproduction.

The best thing is to install them in the Aviary, so they can fly to and organize themselves into a social group. These birds are sensitive to cold and moisture. They need to keep at a temperature between 20 and 25 ° C. They must be protected from the cold currents and air, Although over time can be adapted to more extreme temperatures.

Reproduction must stay in pairs in a large cage (100 * 50 * 50 cm at least for a couple), in groups of the same species in a spacious Aviary, with a lot of places to hide, allowing them to build their nest in peace. Reproduction is usually easy, when birds are calm and have sufficient space. They must have variety of foods (seed mix, germinated seeds, spray millet and living insects (they are essential during the breeding season).

The female lays from 3 a 7 eggs, the parents take turns incubating and hard incubation of 15 a 17 days. The young leave the nest to the 3 weeks and are weaned at the 6 weeks. The sexual dimorphism appears to the 5 months.

Red-cheeked Cordonbleu (Uraeginthus bengalus)

Monk Parakeet
Myiopsitta monachus

Monk Parakeet


28-31 cm. length and 120-140 weight g

The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) has the forecrown (up to the half of the crown), the lores and cheeks, pale ash gray; the rear of the crown and nape, grass-green, fading to green, slightly more off, in the the mantle, the back and scapulars; rump green. Primary coverts, blue; other coverts, green.

Flight feather Blue by up. Under the wings has the lesser coverts green, the coverts more large and innerwebs of the the flight feathers, blue. Throat and upper area of the chest, Ash Grey, with pale edges to the feathers, giving a beaming effect; Bottom of the chest, pale yellow; Abdomen, the thighs and vent, pale green.

Upper, the tail is green with blue in the Center; below, pale bluish-green.

Bill color horn; Brown of the irises; legs grey.

Both sexes are similar.

Immature has the front green-tinted.

Subspecies description:

  • Myiopsitta monachus calita

    (Jardine & Selby, 1830) – Less of the nominal species (27cm.) with wings more blue and head dark gray.

  • Myiopsitta monachus cotorra

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Very similar to the subspecies Myiopsitta monachus calita, but supposedly more bright, belly least yellow.

  • Myiopsitta monachus monachus

    (Boddaert, 1783) – Nominal.


The Monk Parakeet is, mainly, in dry wooded areas or fields open with trees, such as gallery forest, isolated thickets, palm groves, forests, linens and areas with thorny thickets with Cactus, also in land cultivation and in urban areas with trees, mainly below 1.000 m.

They tend to be observed in pairs or flocks of 30-50 individuals; with much larger meetings outside of breeding season. Rest communally, Sometimes the nests, While you are not playing.


    There are reports of lines of transmission damaged by the birds to the be nesting. In general, in the area in which have been introduced these birds, the impacts are associated mainly to the behaviors of nesting. This species of birds build large, bulky nests in communications and transmission towers, and distribution poles. In the towers of transmission represent simply a problem of maintenance and does not affect the communications, but in electrical installations can cause blackouts and fires since the nests can create electrical circuits. This problem intensifies during rainy and humid climates. The nests of these birds can cause significant damage to the facilities power including a decrease in electrical reliability, damage to equipment and loss in income due to power outages caused by nests, an increase in the maintenance and operation costs associated with the removal of nests and repair of structures damaged as well as issues of public safety (ISC 2011).

Source: Naturalist


It is the only, between the parrots, It builds, usually, his nest with twigs (commonly Celtis shrubs) in branches of tree (sometimes in telephone poles, etc.). Sometimes build nests alone (especially in those areas more dry), Although they are usually communal (until 100 nests, usually around 10) combined to form large structures cluttered of several meters of width, with inputs from the side or by under. Each nest It is built with remains of chewed branches. The nests are sometimes used by them Spot-winged Falconet (Spiziapteryx circumcincta) and other birds, to nest and rest. A nest can get to to weigh 50 kilos and be formed by more than 20.000 remained.

The breeding season, in your area natural's distribution, is between October-December. The clutch generally 4-6 eggs, Although according to some sources, the laying You can understand between 1-11 eggs.


Its diet includes a wide range of seeds wild and cultivated, wild fruits, as well as different material plant in which will include seeds of grass and grains, stems of cactus, roots vegetables and fruits cultivated, sometimes also insects and their larvae. Feeds, both in trees as in the soil, sometimes with other species including pigeons and birds of the genus Molothrus.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 2720000 km2

The Monk Parakeet lives in the lowlands of the South of South America, to the East of the Andes front Bolivia to Rawson Department (Chubut) in Argentina.

Observed in the East and North of Bolivia in the southeast of Peace, to the south, in Cochabamba, West of Santa Cruz, North of Chuquisaca and possibly in other areas (for example, Tarija), Paraguay and South of Brazil, in the South and West of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso from the South and two-thirds of the southwest of Rio Grande do Sul, in all the Uruguay and in the Argentina, to the South of Rio Negro and probably to the North of Chubut.

Generally common and abundant in Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul (Although does not play there). It is the Parrot more common in large part of its area of distribution and largely local expansion is due to the plantations of Euralyptus in areas without trees, partial deforestation in other areas, the Elimination of predators and the expansion of crops.

Pursued in several areas, Although the overall effect on its population is apparently slight.

Wild populations established in many towns outside of the range, including Puerto Rico, Florida, New York City (where there are fears of that could convert is in a plague agriculture important) and several cities more than them EE.UU. There have also been populations of the Monk Parakeet in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Berlin (Germany), Austria, Belgium, Italy, Spain (including the Islas Canarias) and several places over the Mediterranean.

Is a trade in these birds, both local, as international, with large numbers of this species in captivity.

Distribution of subspecies:


• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Increasing.

Justification of the population

Global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996) and ‘common to abundant‘ (pit et to the., 1997).

Justification of trend

The population is suspected to have increased as a consequence of the creation of new areas of habitat suitable (pit et to the., 1997).


The species has been marketed strongly: from 1981, When is included in the Appendix II of the CITES, they have been 710.686 individuals captured in the Middle wild for the Commerce International (database CITES from the UNEP-WCMC, January 2005).

Cotorra Argentina in captivity:

Renowned for her beauty and intelligence, the Monk Parakeet is a pet people, especially in North America, Since the Decade of the 1960 ’ s (ISC, 2011). Can learn to imitate great amount of words, but at the same time are very bustling, demanding of attention and affection, with much character, and very territorial, by what not is rare that attack to their own owners when the manipulated or manipulate your cage. In captivity is reproduced with ease, but to the have many colonies in State Wildlife, not be usually stimulate its reproduction in captivity.
Its life expectancy It 3-10 years in freedom and 25 a 35 years in captivity (Alvarez-Romero et to the., 2008).

Before trying to acquire to an of these birds as mascot there that know that in many countries is prohibited its sale to the be listed as species invasive.

Alternative names:

Monk Parakeet, Monk Parakeet (Monk), South American monk parakeet (English).
Perriche veuve, Conure veuve (French).
Mönchsittich, Mönchssittich, Südamerikanischer Mönchsittich (German).
catorra, catorrita, Caturrita, papo-branco, periquito-do-Pantanal (Portuguese).
Cata Aliazul, Cotorra, Cotorra Argentina, Cotorra Común, Cotorrita, Perico Monje (Spanish).
Cotorra (Argentina).
Cotorra argentina (Chile).
Cotorrita (Paraguay).
Cotorra, Cotorra Común (Uruguay).
Periquito (Venezuela).

Pieter Boddaert
Pieter Boddaert

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Myiopsitta
Scientific name: Myiopsitta monachus
Citation: (Boddaert, 1783)
Protonimo: Psittacus monachus

Monk Parakeet images:

Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus)

Use of cookies

This web site uses cookies so that you have the best user experience. If you continue browsing you are giving your consent for the acceptance of the aforementioned cookies and the acceptance of our cookies policy, Click the link for more information.plugin cookies

Notice of cookies