24-28 cm.. length and 72-94 g. of weight.
The Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis) has a frontal band matte red close with a few more bright red feathers behind cere; lores blackish; feathery cheeks and crown, greyish green blackish tips; ear-coverts olive green.
The upperparts They are green grass with a small area reddish at the bottom of the back. Primary coverts bluish green; wing-coverts grass-green, some feathers sometimes with olive tint. Primaries Blue in the outerweb. Green on innerwebs, with dark tips; secondaries, mainly green. Sides of neck, throat and chest, brown oliváceo, feathers subterminally brown and black black tips, giving the whole a scalloped effect; lower breast green with a patch brown in the center of belly; flanks, the thighs and undertail-coverts, green. Upper, green tail in basal half, Shaded bronze to reddish tones on the tips; below, the tail is opaque brown.
Bill grey, sometimes paler in base mandible; yellow cere; bare periophthalmic whitish grey; irises dark brown; legs dark gray.
Both sexes are similar. The incipient brown lacks the belly. Immature paler than adult with irises darker.
Closely related Blaze-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura devillei), with which it can be conspecific (populations or races that belong to the same species). It has been suggested that the species may also be conspecific with Green-cheeked Parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae).
- Sound of the Maroon-bellied Parakeet.
Description 2 subspecies:
Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe
(Vieillot, 1818) – As the nominal, but the upper surface of the tail It is completely green olive. Some orange-red markings on the bend of wing in some birds.
Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis
(Vieillot, 1818) – Subspecies nominal.
The Maroon-bellied Parakeet They extend through several forest habitats, forests, margins and marshy habitats, including the remaining patches Araucaria (for example, in Rio Grande do Sul). In the Paraguayan Chaco They seem almost confined to coastal areas of growth over the Río Paraguay and its main tributaries. In Southeast Brazil They are mainly distributed in the highlands, - 1.400 meters above sea level; in other parts of the lowlands up near 1.000 m, where they are generally tolerant to disturbance, even reaching visit urban parks in the city of Assumption, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, and feeding in gardens (Rio Grande do Sul). Gregarious, usually in flocks of 6-12 birds (until 40).
They nest in the cavity of the trees. The breeding season It covers the months from October to December. Clutch 5-6 eggs.
The female incubated one for almost 30 days. The young leave the nest after about 45 days, after which they continue to be fed for some time by the two partners.
In Southeast Brazil, Their diet includes pulp of Euterpe edulis, seeds of Schinus, Xylopia, Cecropia, Croton, Miconia, ficus, Psidium and Pinus; flowers of Ambrosia and Vernonia and aryl of Protium; elsewhere, the Araucaria It is a very important food source, for example in southern Brazil; also they feed dried fruits and fruits of Campomanesia xanthocarpa and Podocarpus lambertii; homoptera sheets Persea pyrifolia and fly larvae. The orange crops and corn sometimes they suffer from their visits, but depredations were lower compared to the damage caused by the Parrot Argentina (Myiopsitta monachus) in cornfields.
Distribution and status:
Size of its range (reproductive / residents): 2.690.000 km2
The Maroon-bellied Parakeet It is endemic in Southeast South America, from the southeast of Brazil to the North of Argentina.
In Brazil They can be observed from south Bay ,through coastal states, until Rio Grande do Sul, and west, in the southeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil and South of Mato Grosso, through Paraguay (extension of records suggests its presence throughout the west end), North of Uruguay and North of Argentina, in Missions, Currents, Formosa, Chaco and sporadically in the past, in the North of Santa Fe (a population in Buenos Aires probably descended from leaks), and southeastern Bolivia.
With He commercialized in large quantities with substantial late eighties exports averaging over 5.000 birds per year. There is a large captive population.
Distribution 2 subspecies:
Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe
(Vieillot, 1818) – Central and southern Paraguay, northern Uruguay and northern Argentina.
Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis
(Vieillot, 1818) – Subspecies nominal. Southeastern Brazil from southern Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul including southeastern Minas Gerais and south and southeast of Mato Grosso.
• Red list category: Least concern
• Population trend: Stable.
Justification of the red list category
This species has a extremely large range and, therefore, it does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable at the discretion of the distribution area size (Extension <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión o calidad del hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número de lugares o fragmentación severa). La tendencia de la población parece ser estable, por lo que la especie no se aproxima a los umbrales de Vulnerables bajo el criterio de tendencia poblacional (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un declive continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as least concern.
Justification of the population
The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).
Justification of trend
They suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.
The species has been marketed strongly: from 1981, when it was included in Appendix II of CITES, 52.523 individuals captured in the wild have been recorded in international trade (Trade database of UNEP-WCMC CITES, January 2005).
"Maroon-bellied Parakeet" in captivity:
The species is listed in Appendix II of the CITES.
There is a large captive population. They are intelligent birds, friendly and active. Readily they adapt to human contact and are easy to train. They are among the quietest cotorras, but its powerful high-pitched voices can become very annoying. Like other parakeets, They tend to express emotion with a series of loud cries, chillidos.
– Maroon bellied Parakeet, Maroon Parakeet, Maroon-bellied Conure, Maroon-bellied Parakeet, Reddish-bellied Parakeet, Scaly-breasted Parakeet (English).
– Conure de Vieillot, Conure ou, Perriche de Vieillot, Perruche à oreillons bruns, Perruche d’Azara, Perruche de Vieillot (French).
– Braunohrsittich, Braunohr-Sittich (German).
– cara-suja, periquito, tiriba, Tiriba-de-testa-vermelha, tiriva (Portuguese).
– Chiripepe, Chiripepé, Chiripepé cabeza verde, Chiripepé de cabeza verde, Cotorra Chiripepé, Perico de Vientre Rojo (Spanish).
– Order: Psittaciformes
– Family: Psittacidae
– Genus: Pyrrhura
– Scientific name: Pyrrhura frontalis
– Citation: (Vieillot, 1818)
– Protonimo: Psittacus frontalis
Images Maroon-bellied Parakeet:
Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis)
(1) – Maroon-bellied parakeet Botanical Garden of São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) on a wooden stump. Botanical Garden of São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Pyrrhura Ilhabela-SP By Dario Sanches frontalis from São Paulo, Brazil (Maroon-bellied parakeet ( Pyrrhura frontalis)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) – Horto Florestal de São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Pyrrhura frontalis – Track dos Tucanos – Tapiraí-SP IBA: Forest massif Paranapiacaba By Jairmoreirafotografia (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Sounds: Gustavo Luz, XC344423. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/344423