22 to 26 cm.. length.
The White-fronted Parrot (Amazona albifrons) has the forecrown white; lores, upper cheeks and ring of feathers around eyes, red; the crown pale blue mingles with the green nape; the feathers with dark margins; sides neck green with narrow black margins. Mantle, back and scapulars, grass-green, sometimes with olive tint; the mantle with indistinct black tips; rump green, perhaps more emerald colors than the rest of the upperparts.
Great coverts and alula, red, other coverts green. The outerweb of the primaries, green, They turn blue at the tips; outerweb of the secondaries, blue; innerwebs of the flight feather, blackish. Under, the wings bluish green. Underparts green with weak blackish edges to feathers on throat and the chest. Upper, the tail It is yellow in the center, outer feathers red at the base, blue in the outerweb. Bill light colored horn, darker at the tip; bare periophthalmic pale grey; irises pale yellow; legs pale grey.
It presents an undistinguished sexual dimorphism. The female It differs from the male in the red face It is limited to the region eye ring and it lacks the red hue in wing coverts. The immature male It looks like female but with red on the primary coverts.
- Sound of the White-fronted Parrot.
Amazona albifrons albifrons
(Sparrman, 1788) – Nominal.
Amazona albifrons nana
(Miller,W, 1905) – smaller the species nominal. Little differentiated from nominal but the green plumage It is perhaps paler, yellower. Some individuals Coast Pacific show some red on the throat.
Amazona albifrons saltuensis
(Nelson, 1899) – Similar to the nominal but the plumage It is heavily steeped in blue. The blue of the crown It extends to the nape.
This adaptable Amazona uses all kinds of wooded habitats and open field with trees, including semi-evergreen forest semi-humid and seasonal perennially (especially at the edge), pine forests, Gallery forest, agricultural land with open forests, savannah and tropical arid scrub with cactus, tending to more frequent open areas in the Caribbean slope.
Generally they prefer drier forests, but where it is simpátrica with Yellow-lored Parrot (Amazona xantholora), It tends to prefer the more moist and dense vegetation.
In Yucatan the White-fronted Parrot They inhabit coastal coconut plantations while breeding. In altitudes of 900 m (Oaxaca), 1.800 m (Honduras) and 1.500 m (Sonora meridional: register only known outside the tropics).
In pairs during the breeding season but usually gregarious, distributed primarily in small groups, with occasional concentrations of hundreds of birds and some communal roosts (for example, mangroves) with several thousand birds.
The White-fronted Parrot nest in trees, cavities of the palm tree termitarium, sometimes in the cavity excavated by a woodpecker. Trees of the species Bursera simaruba and Caesalpinia gaumeri are among the favorites to nest in Yucatan. Breeding January July, depending on the location.
A clutch contains 3-5 eggs. Only the female incubates. The incubation lasts around 24 days.
Registered foods include guilt of Acacia gaumeri (Yucatan), fruits of Lemaireocereus thurberi and Pachycereus and cocoons of Jatropha cordata (Sonora), Ehretia tinijolia and Metopium browneii (Campeche); They also feed on cultivated fruits like mango and grain, including corn. Birds often get excited and shout while feeding.
Tamaño de su área de distribución (reproductor/residente ): 2.330.000 km2
The White-fronted Parrot They extend Mexico, from the South of Sonora (north to about 28 ° N) along the Sinaloa and West Durango south through the Pacific to Oaxaca and north through Tehuantepec isthmus the Atlantic coast in southern Veracruz and to the East by Tabasco the entire Yucatan Peninsula, including northern Guatemala and Belize.
They are present in southern Chiapas and in the lowlands of the Pacific Guatemala and, reportedly, in West El Salvador, extending through the lowlands of Pacific, arid and Caribbean lowlands Honduras to the Pacific Northwest Costa Rica and Nicaragua (where distribution is not detailed).
Mainly seasonal residents but visitors in some parts of the range (for example, Yucatan, El Salvador western and eastern mountains Guatemala).
Introduced in urban areas Cozumel Island, in the State of Quintana Roo (Mexico). Their presence only in urban areas of the island, the ability of the species to live successfully in urban areas, the abundance of fruit trees and use as a pet by the islanders allows us to suggest that registered individuals are the result of leakage or were released by their owners.
Generally common and together with the Orange-fronted Parakeet (Eupsittula canicularis), It is the largest parrot in the Pacific slope of Central America; although obviously scarce in some areas. The deforestation It is possibly promoting increases in population Caribbean slope of Central America. Captured for pet trade and hunted as food, for example in Yucatan, where recently there has been a population decline due to the persecution of parrots that feed on fruit after loss of wild foods cultivated by Hurricane Gilbert. Its capture It is authorized only during the months of October to February in the states of Warrior, Jalisco, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Sinaloa and Tabasco and from September to January in Veracruz.
Amazona albifrons albifrons
(Sparrman, 1788) – Nominal. Pacific Coast of Mexico from Nayarit to Oaxaca and South of Chiapas in the lowlands Pacific Guatemala. Birds in the northern Guatemalan lowlands and the arid interior, they can refer to the subspecies Amazona albifrons nana.
Amazona albifrons nana
Amazona albifrons saltuensis
• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.
• Population trend: Increasing.
Justification of the red list category
• This species has a very large range and therefore it is not close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of size range (Extent of occurrence below 20,000 km2 combined with a size decreasing or fluctuating range, extension / quality habitat or population size and a small number of places or severe fragmentation).
• The trend of the population appears to be increasing and, therefore, the species does not approach the thresholds Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (Wholesale 30% decrease in ten years or three generations).
• The population size is very large and, therefore, not approaching the thresholds for vulnerable under the criterion of population size (less than 10.000 mature individuals with continuing decline estimated a higher percentage of 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specific population structure).
• For these reasons, the species is evaluated as the least concern.
Justification of the population
• Partners in Flight estimated that the total population of 500.000-4.999.999 individuals (A. Panjabi in a bit., 2008).
Justification of trend
• It is suspected that the population is increasing as habitat degradation is creating new areas of suitable habitat.
Due to the decline of these birds in the wild, especially in the Mexican populations, the White-fronted Parrot is now, unlike other times, offered for sale only rarely. In addition, among birds received by importers, the males generally far outweigh the females so it is difficult to find a partner.
According to many observations, the White-fronted Parrot captured still quite shy and unsociable, especially if they were mature when they were trapped. The birds immature, which can be stained by the yellowing of his crown, relatively well sympathize with their caregivers and are easily adapted to a life in a cage or aviary. It is said to have some talent to imitate.
According to sources, the first hatchlings in captivity They were born in 1949 in the United States by I.D. Putman; the second in 1977 on German Federal Republic by H. Müller (Walsrode) and a third set in Switzerland in 1979; Since then several European poultry producers have reported success breeding. The latest report came in 1985 from the bird park Metelen Heide in Muen-sterland (Western Germany). there a clutch five eggs produced four offspring in mid-June 1984 after an incubation period of 28 days. The young left the nest after about 70 days, but they were still actively cared for and fed, mainly by the parent, for a few weeks more.
Its price in the European market round 1000 EUR. generally silent the Amazons largest. It can be noisy just before and during the breeding season.
These birds can become aggressive in the breeding season and can attack the caregiver. The nest boxes are better positioned to nest inspection can be performed from outside the aviary. The inspection of the nest is best when adult birds are out of the nest, however captive breeding has rarely been achieved between individuals.
Susceptible to intestinal infections during the acclimation period.
Their life expectancy can overcome the 50 years.
- White-fronted Parrot, Spectacled Amazon, Spectacled Parrot, White fronted Parrot, White-browed Amazon, White-browed Parrot, White-fronted Amazon (inglés).
- Amazone à front blanc, Amazone à lunettes (francés).
- Weißstirnamazone (alemán).
- Papagaio-de-testa-branca (portugués).
- Amazona de Frente Blanca, Amazona Frentialba, Cotorra Frentiblanca, Lora frentiblanca, Loro Frente Blanca, loro frente-blanca, Loro Frentiblanco, Cotorra Guayabera (español).
- Cabeza de Manta, Loro Manglero, Cocha, Cocho, Cucha (México).
- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Amazona
- Nombre científico: Amazona albifrons
- Citation: (Sparrman, 1788)
- Protónimo: Psittacus albifrons
White-fronted Parrot (Amazona albifrons)
- Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
- Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
- The New Parrot Handbook by Werner Lantermann,Matthew M. Vriends
(1) – White-fronted Amazon By David Oliva (originally posted to Flickr as Cotorro 007) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Weißstirnamazonen im Tiergarten Schönbrunn By spacebirdy(also known as geimfyglið (:> )=| made with Sternenlaus-spirit) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or FAL], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – white-fronted amazon (Amazona albifrons) By Christoph Anton Mitterer (Flickr: P8155550) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – White-fronted Amazon Amazona albifrons pair perching in a tree at Guanacaste, Costa Rica By Steve Jurvetson (originally posted to Flickr as love birds) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – White-fronted Amazon, (Amazona albifrons). A pet parrot on a perch. Red feathers on this parrots shoulders indicate that it is a male By ➨ Redvers (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Weißstirnamazonen im Tiergarten Schönbrunn By spacebirdy(also known as geimfyglið (:> )=| made with Sternenlaus-spirit) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or FAL], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A captive White-fronted Amazon in Copán Ruinas, Copán, Honduras By Troy from Charlottesville, USA (Flickr) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A White-fronted Amazon – upper body by sumba [CC BY 2.0 of], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – A pet juvenile White-fronted Amazon in Poole, Dorset, England By Kyle Payne from England (Odd Looking Seagull) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – White-fronted Amazon, Amazona albifrons, Remove alone B. Planet Earth – Flickr
Sounds: Richard E. Webster, XC353211. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/353211