Grey-cheeked Parakeet
Brotogeris pyrrhoptera

Catita Macareña


20 cm.. height.

The Grey-cheeked Parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera) discovered in 1801. Is difference for them cheeks and sides neck grey, crown up to almost the nape, blue, bill yellowish, armpit reddish orange (only visible in flight), tail long and pointed, the rest of the body green.

The immature they have the crown greenish blue and the bill blackish.

Hybrid species:

    Brotogeris [erythrogenys x pyrrhoptera] (hybrid)
    Brotogeris [chevroned x pyrrhoptera] (hybrid)
    Brotogeris [pyrrhoptera x jugularis] (hybrid)
  • Sound of the Grey-cheeked Parakeet.

It inhabits in forest wet, semi-humid, secondary, formations of semi-deciduous forest and cultivated areas, until 1500 m. Has also seen it is in the banana plantations. Flies in pairs or small groups up to of 12 individuals, sometimes associated with other parrots.


Nest in hollows and termite mounds on large trees and apparently be reproduced between January and March. It remains unclear why the termites tolerate their presence.

Their eggs, they are around for 2 cm.. x 1,6 cm.. they settle in sunsets of four to six eggs in a nest filled with MOSS. The female incubates them for a few 25-26 days, While the male mounts guard out of the nest.


Feeds of flowers and seeds large trees including Erythina, Chorisia and cavanillesia platanifolia, Cecropia catkins, fruits of Ceiba and Ficus figs. Sometimes they feed of banana.


Tamaño del área de distribución (reproducción/residente): 9.300 km2

The Grey-cheeked Parakeet distributed over the southwest of Ecuador and Northwest corner of Peru, from the Valley of the Chone River, Manabi, to the South up to Gold and Loja in Ecuador, and Tumbes and Piura in Peru.

The populations more large is found in the coast of Manabi and Guayas, and at the border between Ecuador and Peru (Juniper and Parr, 1998).

There was a large decrease in the population during the 20TH century, at the beginning of the year 1980 (Best et to the., 1995, Juniper and Parr 1998), with 59.320 birds imported by countries CITES between 1983-1988. In 1995, the population Wild was estimated in 15.000 birds, mainly in Ecuador (Best et to the., 1995). This represents a very crude c.70% decline in 10 years, Although still being locally common in some remains of its habitat. (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Counts of investigations in the Cerros de Amotape National Park and in the Tumbes national reserve they revealed a descent of the 33,2% between 1992 and 2008 (Anon. 2009).


• Current red list category of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

The main threat to this species is the wild bird trade. The Habitat It is also losing out by logging, Agriculture and overgrazing. Its persecution as a pest crops can be also significant.

Is expected that the rate of decline is more slow in the next 10 years.

In captivity:

Most of the existing populations are in the homes of individuals as pets. Because of this, effort has been made to save this species of Brotogeris.

Alternative names:

- Gray-cheeked Parakeet, Gray cheeked Parakeet, Grey cheeked Parakeet, Grey-cheeked Parakeet (inglés).
- Toui flamboyant, Perroquet à flancs orangés, Perroquet de Perico, Perruche ou (francés).
- Feuerflügelsittich (alemán).
- Periquito-de-bochecha-cinza (portugués).
- Catita Macareña, Periquito de Alas Naranjas (español).
- Perico de Mejilla Gris (Perú).

John Latham
John Latham

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Brotogeris
- Nombre científico: Brotogeris pyrrhoptera
- Citation: (Latham, 1801)
- Protónimo: Psittacus pyrrhopterus

Images Grey-cheeked Parakeet:


Grey-cheeked Parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Book parrots, parrots and macaws Neotropical


(1) – Grey-cheeked Parakeet (also known as the Fire-winged Parakeet) at El Empalme (also known officially as Velasco Ibarra), a town located in Guayas, Ecuador By markaharper1 [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Periquito macareño (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera), Quito, Ecuador by Diego Delso [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Grey-cheeked Parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera) in captivity in Cuenca, Ecuador By Beatrice Murch (originally posted to Flickr as Grey headed parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A pet Grey-cheeked Parakeet By Juano80 (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Gray-cheeked Parakeet Brotogeris pyrrhoptera in Río Milagro en Yaguachi. Prov. Guayas. ECU by Ronald Navarrete-AmayaFlickr

Sounds: (xENO-singing)

Green-rumped Parrotlet
Forpus passerinus

Green-rumped Parrotlet


13-14 cm.. height.

Green-rumped Parrotlet

The Green-rumped Parrotlet (Forpus passerinus) is the psittacine smaller that can be found on the American continent. It is distinguished by being green, with a brighter green in the front, cheeks, lower part of the body and behind the neck; the rump bright green in the two sexes, wing with one Strip Turquoise Blue followed by another greenish-blue in males; belly lighter than the back, tail with yellow border.

Female with rump greenish-yellow and wings without blue. It is possible to have dyes more yellowish forehead.

  • Sound of the Green-rumped Parrotlet.
[audio:HTTPS:// Parrotlet.mp3]
Subspecies description:
  • Forpus passerinus cyanochlorus

    (Schlegel, 1864) – Also known as Parrotlet Schlegel. Similar to the subspecies Forpus passerinus passerinus, but the feathers of the tail of the female they are more green in the bottom. Also it has more yellow along the forecrown .

  • Forpus passerinus cyanophanes

    (Todd, 1915) – Show more blue with the wing closed in the other subspecies.

  • Forpus passerinus deliciosus

    (Ridgway, 1888) – The male has the rear area Emerald green with blue and pale blue tint at the edge of the the greater wing coverts. Female has more yellow in all the facial area.

  • Forpus passerinus passerinus

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – The nominal.

  • Forpus passerinus viridissimus

    (Lafresnaye, 1848) – Also known as Venezuela green parakeet. The plumage is green in males; in females it varies considerably according to the region you live in.


It is found in dry forest, semi-open areas, crops, among others, until the 500 m. In flocks of more of 100 individuals. You can perform altitudinal migrations.


It nests in abandoned nests of woodpeckers or in other holes, from May to November.


Feed of seeds, including the of the grasses.


Tamaño del área de distribución (reproducción/residente): 1.060.000 km2

This is a very widespread and common. Are distributed in the northeast of Colombia, North of Venezuela, Guyanas to the northeast of Brazil, also in Curaçao, Trinidad and the West Indies.

Distribution of subspecies:
  • Forpus passerinus cyanochlorus

    (Schlegel, 1864) – Is located in Roraima, Brazil.

  • Forpus passerinus cyanophanes

    (Todd, 1915) – Are found in the areas around the North of Colombia.

  • Forpus passerinus deliciosus

    (Ridgway, 1888) – Is located in the lower basin of the Amazon, in Brazil.

  • Forpus passerinus passerinus

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – The nominal. Found in the Guianas.

  • Forpus passerinus viridissimus

    (Lafresnaye, 1848) – Found in the North of Venezuela, Trindad and Tobago.


• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the population

The size of the world population It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

It is suspected that this species has lost 19,2-21% of habitat within its distribution in three generations (12 years) based on a model of Amazon deforestation (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006, Bird et to the., 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunt or capture, It is suspected that it will fall in <25% durante tres generaciones.

In captivity:

It´s common bird cage. In captivity they are sweet and playful. It might be possessive with toys and people.

Alternative names:

- vBlue-winged Parrotlet, Common Parrotlet, Green rumped Parrotlet, xGuiana Parrotlet, Guianan Parrotlet, Passerine Parrotlet (inglés).
- Toui été, Perruche-moineau de Guyane (francés).
- Grünbürzel-Sperlingspapagei (alemán).
- tuim-santo, periquitinho, periquito-do-espírito-santo, periquito-santo, periquito-tabacú, periquito-vassoura (portugués).
- Catita Enana de Lomo Verde, Cotorrita Culiverde, Periquito Coliverde (español).
- Periquito Coliverde (Colombia).
- Periquito Mastrantero (Venezuela).

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Forpus
- Nombre científico: Forpus passerinus
- Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Protónimo: Psittacus passerinus

Parrot images Culiverde:


Green-rumped Parrotlet (Forpus passerinus)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Book parrots, Parrots and macaws Neotropical


(1) – Forpus passerinus in Trinidad 2014, Caribbean By Jam.mohd (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Photograph of pet Green-rumped Parrotlet (Forpus passerinus) By self (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Green-rumped Parrotlet, (Forpus passerinus), a pair, male (right) and female (left), in Venezuela By kulyka on flickr (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Periquito mastrantero [Green-rumped Parrotlet] (Forpus passerinus viridissimus) by Cristóbal Alvarado MinicFlickr
(5) – Periquito mastrantero [Green-rumped Parrotlet] (Forpus passerinus viridissimus) by Cristóbal Alvarado MinicFlickr
(6) – Blue-winged Parrotlet, adult male (above); Green-rumped Parrotlet, young(?) male (below) Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Hyacinth Macaw
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

Hyacinth Macaw


90 to 100 cm.. of length and a weight of 1,5 to 1,7 kg.

Hyacinth Macaw illustration

The Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) is the largest parrot; has a distinctive coloration, mostly blue intense, with different colors. Wings and tail below black.

The basis of the bill and periocular ring, naked and yellow.

The tail is very long, and its powerful bill Black is deeply curved and pointed.

The species Anodorhynchus glaucus, similar but smaller, extinct in the early 20th century, It may have been present in Bolivia.

  • Sound of the Hyacinth Macaw.
[audio:HTTPS:// Jacinto.mp3]

The Hyacinth Macaw take advantage of a great diversity of habitats rich in various species of Palm trees with large seeds, of which feeds.

In the Brazilian Amazon avoid areas of more moisture, preferring forests of lowlands, and seasonally moist formations with light areas. In the drier parts of the northeast of Brazil inhabits areas of Plateau cut by Rocky valleys, steep with closed deciduous woodland, Gallery forest and swamps with Mauritia flexuosa.

In the the Pantanal region the birds frequent gallery forest with Palm trees in wet grassy areas.

Apparently performs migratory movements.

Usually seen in pairs, family groups or small flocks (usually up to 10); much larger flocks reported before the decline.


They nest in large tree hollows, in cracks in rocks from cliffs in the northeast of Brazil or in moriche or aguaje (Mauritia).

The favorite for nesting trees in the Mato Grosso, Brazil, include Enterolobium and Sterculia striata. In Northeast Brazil, the nest is located in Palms Mauritia dead or on cliffs.

They usually put one or two eggs, Although only one brood usually survive if the second egg hatches a few days after the first, Since lower breeding cannot compete with the greatest food.

The incubation period lasts about a month, and the male will assist his partner while she incubates the eggs.

Young people remain with their parents up to three months of age. They reach maturity and begin to play on the seven years.

The breeding season is from August to December, Maybe a little later in areas of pantanal.


The diet Hyacinth Macaw consists mainly of nuts, locally available of various Palms, including (on Amazon) Maximiliana regia, Orbignya martiana and Astrocaryum, in the northeast of Brazil, of the Syagrus coronata and Orbignya eicherir, in areas of wetlands of Bone collectors and Acrocomia.

The palm nuts they take them from the own soil or plant (especially after a fire or when available as remains not digested in cattle droppings).

Other fruits that have information are the from the Ficus sp., as well as aquatic molluscs Pomacea.

Birds drink liquid Green Palm fruits.


Its distribution includes the Centre of South America, Perhaps in several spacious separate areas.

In the Amazon in For from the Tapajós River, to the East of the basin of the Tocantins River, extending to the South, possibly to the Northwestern area of Tocantins. At least before present North of the Amazon River (in Amapá, Amazon and Roraima, Brazil) and perhaps they can still inhabit some examples, Although there is no known recent records.

Distributed, also, through the Northeast interior of Brazil, more or less centered on the Microregion of the Chapadas das Mangabeiras in the union between Maranhão, Piauí, Goiás and Bay, Brazil (the region Gerais).

A third important population focuses on habitats wetlands of the upper basin of the Río Paraguay in the southwest of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and extending into the adjacent area of the East of Bolivia and North end of Paraguay.

Reported as probable for the Mapori River to the South-East of Colombia (Vaupés).

Movements General residents but perhaps seasonal in the Amazon in relation to the ecology of the plants on which they feed.

The territory between the three current major distributions, can still be occupied while given recent trends, They seem to indicate that this seems unlikely.

Formerly common in some areas (for example, Mato Grosso). Now they are rather unevenly distributed, with the recent and likely declines continuous in its population due mainly to the illegal trade internal and to the smaller, but significant, international market of live birds. Also hunted for its feathers (especially Pari) and as food. Declining in some areas (for example Eastern Amazonia), because of the alteration or loss of habitat.

Total estimated wild population in 3000 (1.992). CITES Appendix I.



• Current red list of UICN: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

The Hyacinth Macaw It has been subjected to a massive illegal trade. At least 10.000 birds were captured in the wild, in the Decade of 1980, with a 50% destined to the Brazilian market (Mittermeier et to the. 1990).

Between 1983-1984, more than 2.500 birds were moved out of Bahia Negra, Paraguay, with others 600 extra at the end of 1980 (J. Pryor in litt., 1998). Although these numbers are now much smaller, the illegal trade continues (for example 10 bird went through a pet market in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in August 2004 until July 2005, where the birds were changing hands for 1.000 $ US and went to Peru [Herrera and Hennessey 2007]). More recently it has been observed that it seems to be no almost no illegal trade of this species in Bolivia (B. Hennessey in litt. 2012).

Through its area of distribution, There is something of the local game for use as food and for its feathers.

In the Amazon, There has been loss of habitat for the livestock and the rivers hydropower systems Tocantins and Xingu.

In the Pantanal, only the 5% trees S. apetala have suitable cavities (Guedes 1993, Johnson 1996). Young trees are used as food for livestock and burned by frequent fires (Newton 1994).

The Gerais is it being quickly transformed by mechanized agriculture, livestock and plantations of exotic trees (Conservation International 1999).

In Paraguay, the preferred habitats of the Hyacinth Macaw are considered seriously threatened (N. Kochalka Lopez in litt. 2013) and the Paso Bravo National Park suffering from illegal logging.

Conservation Actions Underway:

    – CITES Appendix I and II, protected under the Brazilian and Bolivian law and ban on exports from countries of origin.

    – Many landowners in the Pantanal (more and more in the Gerais) they do not allow hunters on their property.

    – There are several studies long-term and conservation initiatives (for example. Anon 2004).

    – In the Refuge Caiman ecological in the Pantanal, the Hyacinth Macaw Project It has used artificial nests and hatchlings management techniques and created awareness among farmers (Anonymous 2004).

Conservation Actions Proposed:

    – Study of the range, the current status of the population and the scope of the negotiation of the different parts of its area of distribution (Snyder et to the., 2000).

    – Assess the effectiveness of artificial nesting boxes (Snyder et to the., 2000).

    – To enforce the legal measures that hinder trade.

    – Experiment with ecotourism in one or two sites to encourage donors (Snyder et to the., 2000).

In captivity:

Rare up to 1970; then, starting at 1980, It increased considerably in number of captive birds due to the increase of breeding.

Despite the prohibitions, many of these Macaws they are still trading at high prices (10.000 euros or more), due to its beauty and ease to mimic human language.

The breeding of this species can be difficult and, Unfortunately, many chicks die each year in inexperienced hands.

From this page we strongly preserve these beautiful birds in their natural environment, sincerely not us seems reasonable to his tenure as a pet.

Alternative names:

- Hyacinth Macaw, Blue Macaw, Black Macaw (inglés).
- Ara hyacinthe (francés).
- Hyazinthara, Hyathinzara (alemán).
- Arara-azul-grande, arara-azul, arara-hiacinta, arara-preta, arara-roxa, arara-una, canindé (portugués).
- arara-azul, Arara-azul-grande, arara-hiacinta, arara-preta, arara-roxa, Ararauna, arara-una, canindé (portugués (Brasil)).
- Guacamayo Azul, Guacamayo Jacinto, Papagayo azul (español).
- Jacinta azul, Paraba azul (Bolivia).
- Vihina (Desana).
- Kaheta (Carijona).
- Guaía-hovy (Guaraní).
- Arara-úna (Tupi guaraní).

John Latham
John Latham

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Anodorhynchus
- Nombre científico: Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus
- Citation: (Latham, 1790)
- Protónimo: Psittacus hyacinthinus

Hyacinth Macaw images:


Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Parrots, Parrots and macaws (Neotropical)


(1) – Hyacinth Macaw also known as Hyacinthine Macaw at Disney’s Animal Kingdom Park by Hank Gillette [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Hyacinth Macaw at Brevard Zoo, Florida, USA By Rusty Clark from merritt usland FLA (Brevard Zoo Hyacinth Macaw) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Hyacinthine Macaw at Melbourne Zoo, Australia By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Anodorhynchus_hyacinthinus_-Australia_Zoo_-8.jpg: Erik (HASH) Hersman [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Hyacinth Macaws at Stone Zoo, Stoneham, Massachusetts, USA By Eric Kilby (originally posted to Flickr as Squawking Heads) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Hyacinthine Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) By Ana_Cotta (originally posted to Flickr as ARARA) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Hyacinth Macaws, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus at the Aquarium of the Americas in New Orleans, Louisiana By Derek Jensen [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A pair of Hyacinth Macaws and thier nest in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil By Geoff Gallice from Gainesville, FL, USA (Hyacinth macaws) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A Hyacinth Macaw preening at the Aquarium of the Americas, New Orleans, USA By Quinn Dombrowski (originally posted to Flickr as Dainty) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus by Hans – Pixabay
(10) – Illustration Guacamayo Jacinto By Lear, Edward [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Niels Poul Dreyer (Xeno-canto)

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