Marigold Lorikeet
Trichoglossus capistratus

Marigold Lorikeet

Description Marigold Lorikeet:

26 cm.. length and a weight between 100-157 g..

The Marigold Lorikeet (Trichoglossus capistratus) has the forecrown, the cheeks and chin, dark blue; and the rest of the head It is green with a broadband yellow-green in nape (part posterior of the neck). The upper breast is yellow with green narrow edges feathers. Underwing-coverts are yellow with scattered orange marks. Males may have some red on their edges. The abdomen is dark green. Their peaks They are hooked.

The males and females and players seem to depend on DNA or endoscopic sexing to determine gender.

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Trichoglossus [haematodus, rosenbergii, moluccana, forsteni, capistratus, weberi] (sensu lato) by some authors.

  • Sound of the Marigold Lorikeet (1).

(1) Some species are under extreme pressure because of traps and harassment. Therefore, open availability of high-quality recordings of these species may further worsen problems, this being the reason why downloading these recordings is off. In conclusion, recorders themselves are free to share these files on xeno-canto, but they will have to approve access to these recordings.

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Description 3 subspecies:
  • Trichoglossus capistratus capistratus

    (Bechstein, 1811) – Nominal.

  • Trichoglossus capistratus flavotectus

    (Hellmayr, 1914) – Head green with purple / blue streaks on forecrown up to the cheeks; variability of yellow to deep orange in chest; neck wide and yellow; abdomen dark green to green / black; underwing-coverts yellow with orange markings variables.

  • Trichoglossus capistratus fortis

    (Hartert, 1898) – Head black / brown with purple / blue streaks on forecrown up to the cheeks; lores , throat, line up back of the eyes and occiput, green; chest bright yellow with orange but not barred / red marks; abdomen dark green, with occasional shades blue / black; underwing-coverts yellow.

Habitat Lori flanged:

The Marigold Lorikeet They are in mixed flocks with other parrots; small and noisy groups. Nomads, since they depend on flowering trees. It perches communally in groups of hundreds of birds.

It is more common in lowlands, but it is up to altitudes of 2400 m. Wide variety of areas including settlements, forests, coconut plantations, Savanna, eucalyptus forests and mangroves, including dry forest Roti.

Reproduction Lori flanged:

Total of 21 nests found in Sumba between late August and early October 1992, all cavities in large trees (principalmente deciduous).

Food Lori flanged:

Few specific dietary data, but presumably similar to Trichoglossus haematodus and it is known to take nectar and pollen from native trees, as well as insects and figs.

Distribution Lori flanged:

Extensión de la distribución (cría/residente): 171.000 km2

The Marigold Lorikeet It is a species of parrot endemic to the islands of Southeast Asia Sumba, Roti, Wetar and Blend (Indonesia) and Timor (Indonesia and East Timor).

Distribution 3 subspecies:

Conservation Lori flanged:

1. Current category Red List UICN: Least concern.

2. The population trend: Decreasing.

3. Population size : —.

Justification of the red list category

Although this species may have a restricted range, It not believed to approach the thresholds Vulnerable under the criterion of size range (Scope of the presence <20.000 km2 combined with a decreasing area size or fluctuating distribution, extension / habitat quality, or size of the population and a small number of places or severe fragmentation).

While the trend of the population seems to be decreasing, It not believed to be declining fast enough to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion population trend (decrease of more than 30% in ten years or three generations).
The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 mature individuals with an estimated> 10% continuous decline in ten years or three generations, or a specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

Global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common in Timor (pit et to the. 1997).

Justification trend

They suspected that the population is declining due to unsustainable levels of exploitation.

Threats

The species has been the subject of a intense trade: from 1981, When it was included in the Appendix II of the CITES, they have been 100.388 individuals captured in international trade (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, January 2005).

In captivity:

It's one of the lori rainbow less noisy but rare in captivity except Dili (Capital of Timor Oriental), where it is quite common. Its longevity It 20 years en libertad, 15-25 years in captivity.

Alternative names:


- Marigold Lorikeet, Rainbow Lorikeet (Marigold) (inglés).
- Loriquet à tête bleue (harnaché), Loriquet à tête bleue [capistratus], Loriquet d'Edward, Loriquet harnaché (francés).
- Blauwangenlori, Timor-Allfarblori (alemán).
- Periquito-arco-íris-de-timor, Lóris-de-timor (portugués).
- Lori de Caléndula, Lori embridado, Lori Arcoiris [capistratus Group] (español).

Johann Matthäus Bechstein
Johann Matthäus Bechstein

Scientific classification:


- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Trichoglossus
- Nombre científico: Trichoglossus capistratus
- Citación: (Bechstein, 1811)
- Protónimo: Psittacus capistratus

Marigold Lorikeet images:


Marigold Lorikeet (Trichoglossus capistratus)

Macquarie Parakeet †
Cyanoramphus erythrotis

Macquarie Parakeet - Cyanoramphus erythrotis


Description Perico Macquarie:

27 cm.. length

The extinct Macquarie Parakeet (Cyanoramphus erythrotis) was a medium-sized green parrot. The head was bright green with pileum and a line in the eyes crimson red. The upperparts They were bright yellow-green to dark green with a scarlet stain on either side of the rump (usually they are hidden by the wings when resting), and a greenish-blue leading edge to the wings. The eyes They were yellow or red, and the bill It was black with a base Pearly. Both sexes appeared similar, but the female It was smaller (Forshaw & Cooper 1981; Higgins 1999; Oliver 1955)

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Cyanoramphus [novaezelandiae, erythrotis, subflavescens] (sensu lato) by some authors

Perico habitat Macquarie:

The Macquarie Parakeet inhabited coastal grasslands tussock in the subantarctic Isla Macquarie (Forshaw & Cooper 1981; Taylor 1979).

Reproduction:

It is known nesting in grasslands without trees.

Food Tito Macquarie:

Little is known about the diet of the Macquarie Parakeet, but it is said that feed on crustaceans and other small invertebrates (Oliver 1955; Taylor 1979).

It was Earth (Forshaw & Cooper 1981) and it is said to have been foraged on the seashore, taking invertebrates fused cell algae on the beach (Oliver 1955; Taylor 1979).

Distribution Tito Macquarie:

The Macquarie Parakeet It was an endemic parrot Isla Macquarie, one sub-Antarctic island in the Antartic Ocean It is politically part of Tasmania Australia. The island and this species were discovered in 1810, time when this was still very common parakeet. The last sighting of Perico Isla Macquarie was in 1891.

Conservation Macquarie Parakeet:

• Current red list category of the UICN: EXTINCT.

Although hard Macquarie Parakeet They were adjusted well to inhospitable terrestrial environment Macquarie Island, They did not survive the predatory introduced species.

The extinction of the Macquarie Parakeet It was caused by the introduction of exotic predators, like cats, rabbits, mice and rats boat. He was also prey to rascón weka or the rascón of Lord Howe (Gallirallus australis). This robust flightless bird from New Zealand It was introduced on the island in the mid-nineteenth century as food for sealers, the same hunters killed a large number of Perico Macquarie (Macquarie Island) to feed. Unfortunately, the wekas They have caused considerable damage to endangered species, as they feed on small birds, Native insects and lizards.

The last sighting of live parakeets occurred in 1891

Threat Reduction and Recovery

Translocation program may be suitable for the reintroduction of Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) on Isla Macquarie. Although programs have been tested for translocation failed Norfolk Island Parakeet (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hermes et al. 1986), Similar programs have been successful for this parakeet in New Zealand. These programs have been successful with only 15 birds, Bottlenecks causing genetic programs with less than 150 birds. The low success of the young in the program New Zealand It may be the result of inbreeding depression or poor design of nests (Oritz-Cathedral & Brunton 2008).

The programs of eradication They are underway in Isla Macquarie. The cats were eradicated in 2002, the Keep (Gallirallus australis) in 1988 and is ongoing eradication program rats, rabbits and mice (Mouse muscle) (it. PWS 2009).

Alternative names:


- Macquarie Island Parakeet, Macquarie Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche de Macquarie (francés).
- Macquarie-Laufsittich, Macquarie-Ziegensittich (alemán).
- Periquito de Macquarie (portugués).
- Perico de Macquarie (español).

Johann Georg Wagler
Johann Georg Wagler

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus erythrotis
- Citación: (Wagler, 1832)
- Protónimo: Psittacus erythrotis


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Department of the Environment (2018). Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae erythrotis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat

Norfolk Island Parakeet
Cyanoramphus cookii

Norfolk Island Parakeet


Description:

30 cm.. length and 100 g. of weight.

The Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) has a plumage bright green with reddish front, one red band extending through each eye; and light blue region in the leading edge of each wing . Upperwing-coverts green. Primary coverts and outerweb of primaries violet blue. Underwing-coverts yellow-green. red spot on each side of the rump. Above, the tail dark green with yellow edges, under dark gray. Eyes red.

The sexes are similar in appearance. The females They are distinguished by their smaller size, less red in the forecrown, stains on the front of the crown, and bill smaller and narrower. The young hatched are coated with a thin gray background.

The youth They are similar in appearance to adults, but the red is less extensive (Forshaw 1981; Higgins 1999). Juveniles have a bill distinctive color meat during the first 4 to 6 weeks after the flight (Forshaw 1981).

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Cyanoramphus [novaezelandiae, erythrotis, subflavescens, hochstetteri, saisseti or cookii] (sensu lato) by some authors

  • Sound of the Norfolk Island Parakeet.

Habitat:

The Norfolk Island Parakeet It is found mainly in the rainforest remainder, although it can also be seen in other areas of the island (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; J. Hicks pers. comm. quoted in Hill 2002).

It is considered sedentary (Higgins 1999). The species moves from the National Park Norfolk Island to orchards and gardens when fruit available (Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999). Most sightings Norfolk Island Parakeet outside the National Park Norfolk Island They are recorded in December and January (Lane et al., 1998).

Foraging occurs in all strata of vegetation (Higgins 1999), including in the forest canopy, on the floor, in disturbed habitats and habitats modified depending on food availability (Forshaw & Cooper 1989; Higgins 1999). It has been observed to Perico Norfolk, including youth, feeding on the ground during winter, eating fallen seeds and fruits African olive, Pine Norfolk Island and red guava (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins 1999; Lane et al., 1998; Ortiz-Catedral 2013).

The Norfolk Island Parakeet It gregarious, usually they are seen in pairs or in family groups (Higgins 1999) and flocks (C. Jones pers. comm. 2016). The species occurs as a single contiguous breeding population (Garnett et to the., 2011).

Reproduction:

The Norfolk Island Parakeet usually nest less than two meters above the ground, usually in a recess or cavity in the branch, trunk or stump living or dead trees, especially in larger native trees. This includes Nestegis apetala (ironwood), Blood Wood (Corymbia spp. / Eucalyptus spp.), Cordyline spp. and Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine) (Garnett et to the., 2011; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; Lane et al., 1998). The species has occasionally been observed nesting in holes in the ground created by roots rotted pine (C. Jones pers. comm. 2016).
Usually it perches in hidden areas with thick vegetation, including treeholes, epiphytes, tussocks, sedges and ferns. The species often perches on nesting sites (Higgins 1999). Inexperienced chicks often roost in exposed sites (Higgins 1999).

The reproduction It occurs throughout the year, peaking from December to March (Greenwood et al., 1989; Hicks & Preece 1991). The females. hatch eggs and are very reluctant to leave their nests during this time (P. Stevenson com. pers. quoted in Hill 2002). The incubation hard 21 days (Hicks & Preece 1991). When the chicks reach about two weeks old, the female can leave to start a new nest (Greenwood 1993). Los Pericos Norfolk can have multiple set and successfully give birth to four times a year, with males and females sharing parental care (R. Ward com. pers. quoted in Hill 2002). They prefer to use a fresh nest site for each clutch (Hill 2002). The chicks leave the nest six to seven. weeks after hatching and depend on their parents to feed three to seven weeks (Davidson 1997; Forshaw 1981; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Hicks & Preece 1991). The clutch is large (1-8) (Hicks & Greenwood 1989). the age of first reproduction is unknown, but it may be soon after independence (Greene 1990).

Food:

Adults eat mainly seeds, fruit, flowers, bark and leaves of native and introduced trees, and shrubs, including Pine Norfolk Island, ironwood, Rhopalostylis Bauer (Palm Norfolk Island), Blood Wood, Cordyline, Lagunaria (White Oak), Elaeodendron curtipendulum (silvestre) arce), wild snuff (Solanum mauritianum), red guava (Psidium spp.), African olive (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidate), peach (Prunus persica) and lantana (Lantana camara) (Forshaw & Cooper 1978; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins 1999; Lane et al., 1998).

Distribution:

The Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) is endemic of the Norfolk island. Before European settlement stretched across the island, but now it is mainly in the region Mt Pitt de Norfolk. (460 has) and in the Botanical Gardens Norfolk Island (5,5 has) (Director of National Parks 2010; Garnett et to the., 2011). The Norfolk Island Parakeet also they are seen in wooded areas outside the national park and botanical gardens, and they are observed throughout the island in small amounts (Director of National Parks 2010).

The breeding of Norfolk Island Parakeet It is largely confined to a suitable habitat within the range of Norfolk Island National Park (Hill 2002), although there are reports playback on adjacent private property to the National Park Norfolk Island (C. Rowston press. comm. cited in Garnett et al., 2011).

In 2013, One study estimated that its population on Norfolk Island It was only 46-92 individuals (Ortiz-Catedral 2013).

Conservation:

Law on Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation 1999 (Cwlth) (EPBC Act): Critically endangered.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 50-100 mature individuals.

The Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) It is classified as In danger under the Law on Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation 1999 (Cwlth) (EPBC Act). The species is eligible for inclusion on the list since before the start of the EPBC Act, It was included as endangered under Annexed 1 of the Law on Protection of Endangered Species 1992.

Garnett et to the (2011) They reviewed the state of conservation Norfolk Island Parakeet and they considered in Danger critic. The Threatened species Scientific Committee You are using the findings of Garnett et al. (2011) to consider whether the reassessment of the conservation status of each of the threatened birds listed in the EPBC Act It is mandatory.

The main factors causing the species to be eligible for inclusion in the List of Endangered Species are are very restricted area of ​​occupancy (< 10 km2).) and a population small (< 250 mature individuals) (Garnett et to the., 2011).

Threats

Extensive vegetation clearing for agriculture and logging of large trees destroyed nesting sites most suitable in Norfolk island (Hicks & Greenwood 1989).

A change in the structure of forests in the Norfolk island, as a result of the invasion of weeds, there may also be reduced available habitat area. (Garnett et to the., 2011).

Introduced the Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans), European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and occasionally European honey bees (Apis mellifera) competing for residues treeholes (Hicks & Preece 1991; Hill 2002).

Predation by black rats (Rattus rattus) It has resulted in most nest failures and an imbalance in the sex ratio in the population of Norfolk Island Parakeet, as rats often surprise female incubating (Hicks & Preece 1991; Hill 2002).

Cats (Felis catus) They are also significant predators (Garnett et to the., 2011).

The illness psitacina circoviral It is present in the population and can cause mortality in individuals stressed (Hicks & Preece 1991).

Window collisions also cause a small number of deaths annually (Hill 2002).

Conservation actions

Conservation and management priorities Invasive species

or Maintaining a control program black rat in the National Park Norfolk Island using baits to reduce the number of black rats.

or Maintaining a control program cats in the National Park Norfolk Island using capture methods to reduce the number of cats.

or Maintaining a control program Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans) in the National Park Norfolk Island using methods shooting to reduce their number.

Continue implementing and maintaining or protecting trees tin nesting sites (predator-proof) inside of the National Park Norfolk Island, And Botanical gardens adjacent private lands where appropriate.

Continue removing or European starlings and nesting material for nest sites.

or continue destroying the hives of European honeybees nesting sites if necessary.

o Perform intensive control weed in the National Park Norfolk Island, appropriate methods, focusing on improving habitat areas suitable playback.

Lost, disturbance and habitat modifications

o Perform habitat restoration within the National Park Norfolk Island by revegetation. appropriate areas with native plants, in conjunction with the weed control program. Breeding, reproduction and other measures ex situ

Maintaining or nesting sites to support breeding pairs adding material suitable nesting and fixing nests as needed.

or establish a wild population Phillip Island by methods translocation, when you consider that the source population is large enough to support the reduction of individuals.

Participation of stakeholders

or engage with the local community to provide information on the species and the importance of conservation actions.

or engage with the public on the green parrots of Norfolk Island through conservation. and environmental interpretation center National Park Norfolk Island.

Priorities and follow-up survey

Keeping monitoring or rats and black cats within the National Park Norfolk Island to determine its relative density within the park and report management actions.

Monitor or nesting sites known to detect the presence of Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans), European starlings and European honeybees to determine the continuing impact of competition of these species and Norfolk Island Parakeet and reporting on management actions.

o Conduct population studies to assess more accurately the size of the population, reproduction and breeding of these birds, success and demographic trends.

or to perform monitoring for the presence of disease psitacina circoviral in population Norfolk Island Parakeet.

o Monitor the progress of conservation actions, including the effectiveness of management actions and adapt them if necessary to contribute to the recovery of the species.

Priorities for research and information

o Investigate options to improve the current population.

or investigate conservation benefits to establish a wild population in Lord Howe Island.

or investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit methods for controlling predators and competitors introduced nest.

or investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit methods for weed control.

In captivity:

More than 600 baby Norfolk Island Parakeet They were banded between 1985 and 2007, most of which were bred in the wild assisted reproduction program National Park.

Alternative names:


- Cook's Parakeet, Norfolk Island Green Parrot, Norfolk Island Parakeet, Norfolk Island Parrot, Norfolk Parakeet, Tasman Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche australe, Perruche de Norfolk (francés).
- Norfolkziegensittich, Ziegensittich (alemán).
- Periquito de Norfolk (portugués).
- Perico de Norfolk (español).

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus cookii
- Citación: (Gray, GR, 1859)
- Protónimo: Platycercus Cookii

Norfolk Island Parakeet pictures:

Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
THREATENED SPECIES SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE © Commonwealth of Australia
• Perico de Norfolk cheating extinction with a little help from their human friends – abc.net.au

Photos:

(1) – Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) by David CookFlickr
(2) – Norfolk Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii), 2011 Norfolk Island National Park by Duncan Watson [CC BY-SA 4.0], from Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Norfolk Parakeet (also called Tasman Parakeet, Norfolk Island Green Parrot or Norfolk Island Red-crowned Parakeet) in Palm Glen, Norfolk Island, Australia by Paul Gear [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A juvenile Norfolk Parakeet (also called Tasman Parakeet, Norfolk Island Green Parrot or Norfolk Island Red-crowned Parakeet) in Palm Glen, Norfolk Island, Australia. by Paul Gear [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Norfolk Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii) by David CookFlickr

New Caledonian Parakeet
Cyanoramphus saisseti

New Caledonian Parakeet

Description:

26 cm.. length and 100 g. of weight.

New Caledonian Parakeet

The upperparts of the New Caledonian Parakeet (Cyanoramphus saisseti) They are mostly green, with some bluish green in the tail, violet-blue along the outerweb flight feathers, and red patches on each side of the rump. The underparts are yellowish green, yellower near throat, and gray below tail (Forshaw 1989, Juniper & Parr 1998, Doughty et al. 1999).

A red patch extends from the crown up to the forecrown, and it extends in a narrow band from the forecrown up to the lores (Juniper & Parr 1998).
The bill is leaden gray, with black tips, the irises is red-orange and legs are dark gray. (Layard & Layard 1882b, Juniper & Parr 1998).

The males typically exceed the females in size, although its plumage is similar (Verreaux & walls 1860, Layard & Layard 1882b, Salvadori 1891, Forshaw 1989)

taxonomy:

In the past it was considered to New Caledonian Parakeet conspecific of Red-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) of New Zealand, but genetic studies have shown that it is a separate species and occupying a basal position on gender Cyanoramphus, It is indicating that the genre would have originated New Caledonia.

  • Sound of the New Caledonian Parakeet.

Habitat:

The New Caledonian Parakeet They were primarily fed at low altitudes canopy, and regularly they observed on the edge of the forest, on slopes or in the forest maquis (scrub).

Seem to have small populations and their distributions are expected to shrink as a result of climate change.
They are not particularly shy, although they tend to be rather quiet and difficult to observe.

Reproduction:

It has been reported that the nesting It occurs between November and January, and nidadas They consist of two to five eggs, that they are placed in holes in trees (Hannecart & Létocart 1980, Theuerkauf et al. 2009b).
Genetic evidence suggests that the species is polyandrous, and the presence of male food assistants suggests that probably involves mating system poliandria cooperative (Theuerkauf et al., 1999).

Food:

It is usually fed in average heights, low canopy, but it has also been observed that feeds on the floor.
Essentially it is granívoro. It feeds mainly on seeds and fruits, besides berries, nuts and other plant parts (outbreaks, flowers and leaves).

Distribution:

The New Caledonian Parakeet It is endemic to the main island of New Caledonia, although there are still uncertainties about the extent of its range and population size (Taylor 1985, Juniper & Parr 1998). The species was considered rare at the time of its introduction (Verreaux & walls 1860). However, in the Decade of 1880, Flocks of birds were reported in the West, flying into the valleys Moindou from nearby mountain forests, where it is rumored to have slept in large quantities (Layard & Layard 1882b).

It has the lowest population density of parrots New Caledonia.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 2500-10,000 individuals.

The New Caledonian Parakeet They face a variety of threats, and their populations seem to be in decline. However, it is difficult to determine the cause or the extent of their declines due to the lack of ecological data.

classified as Vulnerable because it has a single small population suspected to be declining due to predation by invasive species; His strength is threatened by a nickel mining area and can suffer a rapid decline in the near future.
The mountain rainforest is not threatened, but it is possible that this species in need of other habitats, some of which, particularly semi-deciduous forests lowland, They have almost disappeared from the island. It is possible that introduced diseases (such as avian malaria) or mammals (especially rats) It has been a cause of decline.

There is no evidence that nest poaching is widespread.

In captivity:

unregistered.

Alternative names:


- New Caledonian Parakeet, New Caledonian Parrot, New Caledonian Red-crowned Parakeet, Red-crowned Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche à front rouge, Perruche calédonienne, Perruche de Nouvelle-Calédonie (francés).
- Cyanoramphus saisseti (alemán).
- Periquito-da-nova-caledônia (portugués).
- Perico de Nueva Caledonia (español).

Jules Verreaux

Scientific classification:


- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Cyanoramphus
- Nombre científico: Cyanoramphus saisseti
- Citación: Verreaux & Des Murs, 1860
- Protónimo: Cyanoramphus Saisseti


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Cyanoramphus saisseti, Park the blue river, New Caledonia by Mickaël T. [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Cyanoramphus saisseti Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1882 (Web) by Joseph Smit [Public domain]

Ouvea Parakeet
Eunymphicus uvaeensis

Ouvea Parakeet

Description:

Of 32cm.. length and 117 g. of weight.

The Ouvea Parakeet (Eunymphicus uvaeensis) is similar to the Horned Parakeet (Eunymphicus cornutus) but with the face and nape green, no yellow, and crest upturned six pens greenish black: the Red of the crown It is limited to the center forecrown.

The Ouvea Parakeet generally bright mid-green. Head green, lighter on ear-coverts with some light shaft-streaks; centre of forecrown red with six wispy blackish-green uperwing feathers forming a small crest; rear-crown darker green; lores and cheeks dark green lower.

The upperparts light green, paler on rump. Wing coverts green; outerweb of primaries greenish-blue with innerwebs black. Underwing-coverts green. Underparts light yellowish-green. Uppertail green with a slight blue suffusion distally and blue edges to lateral feathers; undertail gray.

Bill blue-gray at base, blackish toward tip; irises orange; legs grey.

Both sexes similar.

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Eunymphicus [cornutus or uvaeensis] (sensu lato) by some authors

  • Sound Uvea Parakeet.

Note:

some species, as in the case of Ouvea Parakeet, They are subject to extreme stress due to traps or harassment. The open availability of high-quality recordings of these species may further worsen problems. For this reason, transmission and download of these recordings is off. Recorders are free to share in xeno-edge, but they will have to approve access to these recordings.

We do not take this action lightly, and we wish it were not necessary, but we are convinced that the negative impacts of offering easy access to these recordings outweigh the benefits. To access these recordings, You can contact directly with the recorder.

Habitat:

It is restricted to areas of old growth forest with holes for nesting, but higher numbers are given about papaya plantation areas.

The Ouvea Parakeet They are active in early morning and late afternoon, and generally they rest on the trees during the hot day.

Reproduction:

An average of 2.9 Eggs are laid in one or two broods per year, of which 1.7 chicks hatch, but only 0.75 chicks survive to 30 days (Robinet et al. 1995, Robinet et al. 1996, Robinet and Salas 1999).

Food:

It feeds in the forests and crops of cultivated land adjacent. The Ouvea Parakeet It depends mainly on mature native forests with pines kauri Agathis australis.

Fruits of Ficus spp., there Canaria, scrub and passion fruit. Also forage for seeds. The cultivated papaya (Carica papaya) It is a favorite.

Distribution and status:

Extensión de la población (de cría/residente): 640 km2

Los Pericos Uvea are confined to 110 km2 in Ouvea island, Loyalty Islands. Introduced unsuccessfully in the nearby Lifou.

The species is found in isolated patches of forest now restricted to the coast, mainly in the district St Joseph between Cape Rossel and Cape Steep. Alone 15-25 km2 of suitable habitat was considered that remained on the island 1993, with about 70-90 birds present, although a more thorough study has suggested a total population of 617 individuals. More recent studies is estimated at 1.780 mature individuals in total (Theuerkauf s suffering. 2016)
In the past, the reduction of individuals to extensive conversion of forests for agriculture due, hunting and trade. The delicate political situation in Uvea, while Kanak Liberation Front struggle for independence France, It has hampered the work of conservation of the species.

It is relying on a captive breeding program based on Forest Park, about Noumea, in New Caledonia. Transfers from island to island also be considered feasible.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Growing.

• Population size : 600-1800 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

This species is classified as Vulnerable because it is in one very small island and can be threatened by invasive species, in particular the Black rat, which could lead to the species category Critically Endangered or Extinct in no time.

Justification of the population

The population is estimated at 1.780 mature individuals in total (Theuerkauf s suffering. 2016), round here 1.800 mature individuals.

Justification trend

Barré et al (2010) reported that the population has increased in a 29% (of 10 birds / km2 34 birds / km2) between 1993 and 2009, which equates to an increase in population 34% in three generations.

Conservation Actions Underway

1 – Appendix I and II of CITES.

2 – The Association for the Protection of Perico Ouvea (ASPO) It was created in 1993 with members mostly local.

3 – ASPO started a long-term study of biology and ecology of the species as a basis for two recovery plans (1997-2002 and 2003-2008).

4 – Forest loss is being addressed through awareness programs and community trials to mitigate habitat degradation and improve the quality of forests, particularly in regard to nesting sites.

5 – ten guidelines are used, whom, among other tasks, nests located.

6 – Illegal trade is being addressed successfully through increased awareness and enforcement.

7 – It discussed a program of captive breeding, but still not started, and the species is found only in small quantities in captivity for a very limited reproductive success (Tap 1996).

8 – In 1998 translocation program began to repopulate southern Ouvea, and the number of birds in the south was 395 individuals in 2011 (Theuerkauf s suffering. 2016).

9 – Black rats were trapped on the island (Theuerkauf s suffering. 2016) and predator control is important.

10 – In 2003 a recovery plan was drawn updated, in which it recommended, among other things, the translocation program was canceled, since the population is considered viable and grow naturally; This recovery plan has been accepted by local indigenous authorities (N. Barré a slightly. 2003, Anon 2004).

11 – Ouvea has been classified as IBA, but still it has not established a management plan and protection program involving communities (Spaggiari et al. 2007).

12 – SCO obtained funding from the British Bird Watching Fair to build and test artificial nests PCV after the failure of trails wooden nest.

13 – ASPO personnel destroyed or removed 187 bee colonies between 2002 and 2008 (L. Verfaille a slightly. 2007, Barré et al. 2010).

14 – It is believed that the continued presence of local guides effectively prevents poaching of nests (Barré et al. 2010).

Conservation Actions Proposed

1 – Continue population monitoring (Primotel 2000).

2 – Research interactions with Trichoglossus haematodus.

3 – Investigate the non-use of artificial nests.

4 – Review and strengthen measures to control predators.

5 – Assess progress and update plans for translocations.

6 – Review and update all aspects of the Action Plan.

7 – Maintaining the momentum of awareness and participation of the community and the island (Robinet and Salas 1997).

8 – Establish a project IBAs in Ouvea and fund a protection program (N. Barré a slightly. 2003).

9 – Start a captive breeding program to support future reintroductions.

10 – Carry out surveillance screening BFDV to guide future efforts biosecurity and conservation, and better understand the risk posed by BFDV (Jackson et al. 2014).

In captivity:

The Ouvea Parakeet they are still captured using a rope inside a fruit Upload papaya, and because the island is a plain, exports through an easily accessible atoll are difficult to control. Birds bought from trappers by 50 dollars can be sold by traders up 1.000 Australian dollars.

There is a captive breeding program, but still not started, and the species is found only in small quantities in captivity for a very limited reproductive success (Tap 1996).

Alternative names:


- Horned Parakeet (Ouvea), Ouvea Parakeet, Short-horned Parrot, Uvea Parakeet (inglés).
- Nymphique d'Ouvéa, Perruche cornue (Ouvéa), Perruche d’Ouvéa, Perruche d'Ouvéa (francés).
- Ouvéahornsittich, Uveasittich (alemán).
- Periquito-de-uvea (portugués).
- Perico de Uvea (español).

Edgar Leopold Layard
Edgar Leopold Layard

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Eunymphicus
- Nombre científico: Eunymphicus uvaeensis
- Citación: (Layard, EL & Layard, ELC, 1882)
- Protónimo: Nymphicus uvaeensis

Images:


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – This Uvea Parakeet was photographed feeding on a papaya at the edge of forest by Tunpin.ong [CC BY-SA 3.0], from Wikimedia Commons

Paradise Parrot †
Psephotellus pulcherrimus

Paradise Parrot

Description:

Paradise Parrot

The extinct Paradise Parrot (Psephotus pulcherrimus) was a small parrot (27-30 cm long) and rather distinctive, with scapulars red and long tail.

The male had forecrown of bright red and a crown black; eye rings yellowish; ear-coverts and throat emerald green. The nape black merged with the dark brown on the neck and then into paler, earthy brown the mantle and back. The scapulars were bright red; the rump was turquoise; and tail top green-bronze and blue, merging into bluish-black. The under body comprised an chest and upper abdomen emerald green, merging into turquoise on the sides of neck and in the part inferior of the abdomen; the belly, the vent and flanks were bright red; and the under tail was bluish white. The upperwing was earthy brown, concolorous with the mantle and back; and the underwing was deep blue.

The female was less colorful, differing from the male by forecrown and face yellowish; a crown duller blackish-brown; throat and chest with brownish-orange suffusion; belly pale blue and coverts the lower abdomen, vent and under tail red on the fringes of some feathers. In both sexes bill was grayish; the eyes brown; and legs and feet were grayish brown.

The juveniles resembled females.

taxonomy:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Psephotellus [pulcherrimus or dissimilis] (sensu lato) by some authors

Habitat:

The Paradise Parrot lived mainly in rolling river valleys were lightly wooded with eucalyptus forests, or open forests often dominated by ironbarks and bloodwoods, with an understory of annual and perennial native grasses; These areas often were dotted with termite mounds.

Reproduction:

the details of the distribution areas or territories unknown Paradise Parrot, although it is believed that adults have remained in the same places nesting for many years.

Little is known of sexual maturity or life expectancy of this species. The reproduction It was recorded between September and March. Sunsets are placed three to five white eggs, with a pink tinge, a camera nest at the end of a tunnel excavated in termite mounds.

Food:

There is little information on diet Paradise Parrot, however it was known that fed on seeds of native grasses.

Distribution:

The Paradise Parrot He was present in eastern Australia, only he reported with certainty from southeast Queensland. Is likely to records in upstate been wrong. It is also often said that the species had been found in New South Wales, but there has been no confirmed records (Olsen 2007). Era locally common although generally scarce in the nineteenth century (Forshaw and Cooper 1989), but then he declined rapidly and was thought to be extinct as a result of drought 1902 until it was rediscovered in 1918 (Chisholm 1922). The last observation was confirmed in 1928. Some credible reports continued in the years 30 and 40 (Olsen 2007), but although Kiernan (1993) He claims to have seen five birds 1990, the species is now considered extinct (Necklace et to the. 1994).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Extinct.

Its extinction It was probably marked by a reduction in food supply due to drought and overgrazing (Olsen 2007). Also contributed frequency altered fires and propagation tunas (Joseph 1988), the disease, the trampeo and harvest of eggs (Garnett 1992), the predation of nests by introduced and native species (Chisholm 1922) and removal of eucalyptus by ringbarking (Kiernan 1993). After a significant reduction in the size of the population of the species, It seems that endogamia inhibited fertility of birds (Gerrard 2008).

Alternative names:

-
Anthill Parrot, Beautiful Parakeet, Beautiful Parrot, Elegant Parrot, Grass Parrot, Ground Parrot, Ground Rosella, paradise parakeet, Paradise Parrot, Red-shouldered Parakeet, Red-shouldered Parrot, Red-winged Parrot, Scarlet-shouldered Parakeet, Scarlet-shouldered Parrot, Soldier Grass-Parrot, Soldier Parrot (inglés).
- Perruche de paradis (francés).
- Paradiessittich (alemán).
- Periquito-do-paraíso (portugués).
- Perico del Paraíso (español).

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Psephotellus
- Nombre científico: Psephotellus pulcherrimus
- Citación: (Gould, 1845)
- Protónimo: Platycercus pulcherrimus


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Preserved specimen by Naturalis [CC BY-SA 3.0]

(2) – Parrots in captivity /. London :George Bell and Sons in Biodiversity Heritage Library by Flickr

Naretha Bluebonnet
Northiella narethae


Description:

The Naretha Bluebonnet (Northiella narethae) It is smaller than Bluebonnet (Northiella haematogaster), about 28 cm. long.

The legs and feet are dark gray, and the irises is dark brown.

The adult male has a two tonal facial pattern forecrown lighter green-blue, the lores and the area above the eye contrasting with the rest of the face which is a purplish-blue. The head, the neck forward and breast are marked with pale steaks and diffuse spots.. The back It is olive gray. The belly, the area of the vent and the thighs are uniform yellow, while red is limited to the area of ​​the undertail-coverts. The lesser wing coverts are blue and outer median wing coverts red, while the inner median and greater wing coverts, and inner secondary a yellow-olive colour. The central feathers of the tail are tinged with pale blue..

The female adult has a duller blue color in forecrown, and a reduced color on wings and tail, and with no tint of orange on the belly. It is smaller overall, at around 26 26cm in length.

The chicks they have a bill yellow and gain their adult plumage in the first post moves to bloom (three to four months old).

taxonomy:

the species Northiella narethae It was formerly classified as a subspecies (Northiella haematogaster narethæ) of the Northiella haematogaster. A molecular study published in 2015 by Gaynor Dolman and Leo Joseph He confirmed the genetic isolation Naretha Bluebonnet (Northiella narethae) and recommended that it was restored as a separate species.

Habitat:

Arid and semiarid scrub and farmland, thickets mulga, weeds and dry forests open.

Reproduction:

It is heavily influenced by rainfall and food availability, but usually peaks between August and January.

The usual site nesting It is a very small cavity tree, particularly attracted she-oaks providing appropriate holes for nesting, often near the ground, coated shavings and wood dust rotten. The skt incubates the eggs but is attended by the male also it contributes to raising pups.

Four to seven white eggs round (23mm x 19mm). Time of incubation: 22 days. Hatchlings usually leave the nest around 30 days.

Food:

Seeds of various grasses and herbaceous plants (autochthonous), also nectar, flowers and various fruits.

Distribution:

Reports indicate that Naretha Bluebonnet They have been common in the arid region Nullarbor, and they have become more rare in the twentieth century. It is believed that localized individuals range makes the species highly endemic in an area on the border between Western Australia and Southern Australia.

Conservation:

We know the conservation status of this species, although probably in risk status.

In captivity:

No data.

Alternative names:


- Bluebonnet (Naretha), Little Bluebonnet, Naretha Bluebonnet (inglés).
- Perruche à bonnet bleu (narethae), Perruche de Nareth, Perruche petite (francés).
- (alemán).
- (portugués).
- Perico Cariazul Naretha (español).

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Northiella
- Nombre científico: Northiella narethae
- Citación: (White, HL, 1921
- Protónimo: Psephotus narethae


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Penochka Birds: Parrots (Psittacidae) – Source

Newton's Parakeet †
psittacula exaul

Newton's Parakeet


Description:

Of 40 centimeters length.

The male of the Newton's Parakeet (psittacula exaul) It was probably green, with red patches on wings, also manifested in a variation bluish; only two skins of this species, both blue hue; the plumage It was generally greenish blue with gray shades; chest, abdomen and under cover tail slightly paler shades; head darker gray hue without; thin black line between cere and the eye; black bars cheek and narrow black strip on the neck, strip adjacent the blue-green; primaries blue-green; feathers on top of the tail blue-green, underside grey; mandible red top, mandible lower black; irises yellow; legs grey.

The female with narrow black stripe on the forehead; black bars cheek not extend to the side neck; crown washed with gray; upper mandible black.

Immature; No information

Habitat:

It was a kind forest who lived in areas of pine Pandanus and Palm trees.

Reproduction:

Probably similar to Reunion Parakeet (Psittacula eques)

Food:

According to reports, birds preferred nuts and fruits Cassine East and Fernelia buxifolia.

Distribution:

The Newton's Parakeet It was endemic to the forests of Rodrigues, Mauritius (checks 1987).

by explorer was said to be abundant Leguat in 1691 (Cowles 1987), but Pingre He noted that it was rare in 1761, and the last record was a bird caught in August 1875 (Forshaw 2010).

It seems likely that the last birds were destroyed at the end of that year, when the island suffered “the worst hurricane season nineteenth century” (checks 1987).

Survived by two complete specimens, plus several bones subfossil (Cowles 1987).

Conservation:

Justification of the red list category

This species was endemic to the Rodrigues Island, Mauritius, but it has not been seen since 1875 and now it is extinct.

• Current red list category of the UICN: Extinct.
• The last record was a bird collected in August 1875

It is believed that hunting and habitat loss greatly contributed to its decline, and that the final blow could have been given by heavy storms 1876. curiously, He survived much longer than most species of endemic birds of the island.

Justification of the population

extinct.

In captivity:

Leguat and his followers saw the birds – presumably Newton's Parakeet – feeding nuts, and they taught to speak to some of these parakeets, which certainly it is an indication of what these birds were tame. Apparently they became bilingual; They could speak both French and Flemish! When Leguat and his small band of followers fled the island, a parakeet they took with them on their trip to Mauritius.

Alternative names:


- Newton's Parakeet, Newton's Parrot, Rodrigues Parakeet, Rodrigues Ring-necked Parakeet, Rodriguez Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche de Newton (francés).
- Rodriguessittich, Rodrigues-Sittich, Rodriguez-Edelsittich (alemán).
- Periquito-de-rodriguez (portugués).
- Cotorra de Newton, Cotorra de Rodrigues (español).

Alfred Newton
Alfred Newton

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Psittacula
- Nombre científico: Psittacula exsul
- Citación: (Newton, A, 1872)
- Protónimo: Palaeornis exsul


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – psittacula exaul (Newton’s Parakeet), female holotype specimen – Wikipedia
(2) – Sternum and mandible of Psittacula exsul, extracted from the female holotype specimen – Wikipedia

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