Sulphur-winged Parakeet
Pyrrhura hoffmanni

Sulphur-winged Parakeet

Description:

23 cms. length and 84 g. of weight.

Sulphur-winged Parakeet

The Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) It, mostly, green with some individual variations in plumage.

It has a distinctive tail long and round about ear-coverts crimson red. Yellow at the top of the wings, largely hidden when the bird is at rest, but perfectly visible in flight.

The feathers of the forecrown, crown, cheeks and nape, They are green with yellow centers (the proportion of the yellow color is higher in the forecrown, lower in the back of the crown). Above predominantly green, It is the leading edges of the wings, sometimes, yellow. The lesser coverts and median are, generally, green, sometimes with some yellow in outer median coverts and feathers alula.

Yellow at the base of the outerweb of the greater coverts. Outerwebs of primaries, to a great extent, blue; primaries and secondaries with bright yellow patch, especially on the basis of innerwebs; flight feather with black tips. Under, the wings with the lesser coverts green, the majors, greenish yellow; a central portion flight feather yellowed with greyish tips.

Chin reddish; throat, sides neck and the top chest, green with yellow tips on feathers, which gives an overall light effect Scaled. The belly, the flanks and undertail-coverts, are green. Upper, the tail is green, below, reddish.

The bill and cere They are pink colored horn; bare periophthalmic white or yellowish white; the irises brown; legs pale grey.

Both sexes are similar, but the male player has yellow stripes on pens crown.
The Immature It has less yellow in head, the chest and wings.

  • Sound of the Sulphur-winged Parakeet.

Subspecies description:

  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni gaudens

    (Bangs, 1906) – Very similar to nominal, although feathers crown and nape They have yellower, with their ends red or red and orange (in some birds, red ends of the feathers may extend over the back, the throat and the chest). Underparts slightly darker.

  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni hoffmanni

    (Cabanis, 1861) – Nominal.

Habitat:

Observed, mainly, in mountainous areas, preferring montane forests in the subtropical zone, mainly 1.000 a 2.400 meters above sea level, although views 550 meters in the region Almirante Bay, Panama and a 3.000 metres in Costa Rica.

They appear to tolerate a considerable disturbance of habitat, including managed forests, areas and the second growth partially cleared, forests and wooded pasture shrubs. Usually seen in pairs or small flocks of 5-15 birds. You can perform altitudinal movements daily to feed, returning to the mountains to rest. Forage occurs in the canopy or smaller trees and bushes near the edge of the woods.

Reproduction:

They nest in tree hollows, including old nests woodpeckers, a 8-20 meters of land. With reproduce dry season (January June). Clutch six eggs in captivity.

Food:

Its diet includes fruit of Ficus, Croton, Leandra, Myrtus and Miconia.

Distribution and status:

Extending its range (players / residents): 18.400 km2

Confined south of Costa Rica and western Panama.

The species is found in the highlands of the southern half of Costa Rica, including the slopes of Caribbean, the mountains of the central plateau south and the two sides of the Cordillera de Talamanca, sometimes the region Cartago and Paradise and the Irazu volcano.

In western Panama They are mainly distributed in the west and center Chiriquí and areas adjacent in Bull's mouths, in the highest mountains (including the Chiriqui volcano and the high ridges on Boquette) and at lower elevations around, for example, of the Chiriqui Lagoon and Admiral Bay.

The easternmost Panamanian registry was found east of the central mountain range in 1868.

Some altitudinal movements (higher in the dry season). Birds are perhaps only sporadic in the extremities of their range. Apparently, It is common in middle to high elevations Cordillera de Talamanca and in isolated areas, and it is believed to be quite numerous throughout the main range.

Its Habitat It is now highly fragmented, though still apparently numerous, even in areas where the forest is partly cloudy. Rare in captivity.

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni gaudens

    (Bangs, 1906) – West of Panama and Caribbean slope of Bull's mouths.

  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni hoffmanni

    (Cabanis, 1861) – Nominal. South of Costa Rica.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the red list category

Although this species may have a small range, it is not believed that approximates the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criteria of size range (Extension <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión / calidad del hábitat o tamaño de la población y un pequeño número de lugares o fragmentación severa). La trend of the population It appears to be stable, so that the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size It has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un declive continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

They suspected that the population of Catana Cotorra is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

Cotorra Catana in captivity:

Rare in captivity. Quieter than other parakeets. In Panama the export of these birds is prohibited from 1980.

Alternative names:

Hoffmann’s Conure, Hoffmann’s Parakeet, Hoffman’s Conure, Hofman’s Conure, Sulfur-winged Parakeet, Sulphur winged Parakeet, Sulphur-winged Conure, Sulphur-winged Parakeet (English).
Conure de Hoffmann, Perriche de Hoffmann, Perruche de Hoffmann (French).
Hoffmann Sittich, Hoffmannsittich, Hoffmann-Sittich (German).
Tiriba-de-asa-amarelada (Portuguese).
Cotorra Catana, Perico aliazufrado, Perico de Hofman (Spanish).
Perico aliazufrado (Costa Rica).

Jean Louis Cabanis
Jean Louis Cabanis

Scientific classification:

Its name refers to the German naturalist Karl Hoffman.

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura hoffmanni
Citation: (Cabanis, 1861)
Protonimo: Conurus hoffmanni

Sulphur-winged Parakeet Images:

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Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni). Photographed at Savegre, in Costa Rica By Dominic Sherony [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Parakeet HOFFMAN (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) Loro Parque, Tenerife by ZOOTOGRAFIANDO
(3) – A Sulphur-winged Parakeet at Savegre, Costa Rica By Dominic Sherony [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) at Savegre Lodge, near San Gerardo, Costa Rica By Michael Woodruff [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Sulphur-winged Parakeet or Hoffmann’s Conure (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) by elite-pets
(6) – Conurus hoffmanni = Pyrrhura hoffmanni by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Mike Nelson, XC107214. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/107214

Red-crowned Parakeet
Pyrrhura roseifrons

Red-crowned Parakeet


Description:

22 cm.. in length and a weight ranging from 54 and 70 g..

The Red-crowned Parakeet (Pyrrhura roseifrons) has the head pinkish red. The neck and the area of ​​the upper chest They are dark with whitish scales. The bill is black. The tail and the central area of belly They are red. The tip of his tail It is dark red. The wings they are blue. Orbital ring dark gray bordered by a yellowish white. the legs are grey.

The immature It has reddish forehead and dark tones in the rest of the head. The pinkish red head in adults it is distinctive. Losl youth They may resemble subspecies Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana or the Deville's Parakeet (Pyrrhura lucianii), but it lacks of the ear-coverts pale.

  • Sound of the Red-crowned Parakeet.

Description 4 subspecies
  • Pyrrhura roseifrons dilutissima

    (Arndt, 2008) – Blue restricted to a narrow strip on the forecrown; yellowish beige in ear-coverts; upper region chest pale brown festooned with pale yellowish beige.

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons roseifrons

    (Gray,GR, 1859) – Nominal. –

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons parvifrons

    (Arndt, 2008) – It looks like the Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana, but with blue, rather than red, on forecrown.

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana

    (Hocking, Blake & Joseph, 2002) – 22 cm., length. Absent in his bright red plumage, It has more dark brown in crown and the area eyes, the crown with bluish.

Habitat:

He lives mostly in small groups of a dozen members and remains in partner during the period breeding. They lead a life Nomad, little little is known about the behavior of this species in the wild.

Reproduction:

build their nest in tree cavities. The laying is of 5 a 7 eggs incubated by both parents for 26 days (captive breeding data). Offspring remain in the nest 2 months, becoming independent at the age of 3 months.

Food:

It feeds on fruits, seeds, leaves and flowers.

Distribution:

Size of its range (reproduction / residents): 1.000.000 km2

It is located in the west of the Amazon, from the state Amazon about the Juruá, in Brazil, and the lowlands of eastern Peru in the North of Bolivia. In Brazil, They spread south and west of habitat Deville's Parakeet (Pyrrhura lucianii)

Distribution 4 subspecies
  • Pyrrhura roseifrons dilutissima

    (Arndt, 2008) – Center of Peru around the rio Ene at the confluence with the rio Quipachiari, and around Hacienda Louisiana, on Cordillera Vilcabamba.

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons roseifrons

    (Gray,GR, 1859) – Nominal. – Amazon Western, to the South of the Amazon, from the North of Peru South to North of Bolivia (Peace) and in the West of Brazil (Western Amazon).

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons parvifrons

    (Arndt, 2008) – Two disjoint regions in northern Peru; in the East of San Martin and adjacent areas, Center west Loreto, and along the Amazon in the northeast of Loreto (only on the southern shore of Amazon).

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana

    (Hocking, Blake & Joseph, 2002) – Foothills of Andes in the southeast of Ecuador (Morona-Santiago) and North of Peru (Amazon and Loreto Western)

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the Red List Category

This species has a very large range, and therefore does not approach the thresholds for vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20.000 km2 combinan con un tamaño gama disminución o fluctuante, hábitat medida / calidad, o de la población tamaño y un pequeño número de localidades o fragmentación severa). A pesar de que la tendencia de la población parece estar disminuyendo, el descenso no se cree que es suficientemente rápido como para acercarse a los umbrales para Vulnerables según el criterio tendencia de la población (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size It has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be reason to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or a specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

Recent world population is unknown given taxonomic divisions.

Justification trend

This species is suspected that there may be lost 7,0-7,3% of habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation of the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the. 2006, Bird et to the. 2011). Given the susceptibility of this species to hunting and / or entrapment, it is suspected that its population can decrease <25% en tres generaciones.

frentirrosa parrot in captivity:

little presence in captivity and found only in some aviaries, where however they reproduce very well. After acclimation is a strong bird that can live outdoors. It is a bird suspicious although curious and playful nature, especially if they feel safe. Young birds in captivity quickly lose their fear and are very attached to their caregivers. It´s noisy, especially in the morning and sleeps in the nest. The female is very aggressive during the breeding period with other other birds.

Alternative names:


Red-crowned Parakeet, Rose-fronted Parakeet, Rose-fronted Parakeet (Rose-fronted) (English).
Conure à calotte rouge, Conure rougissante (French).
Rotscheitelsittich (German).
Tiriba-de-cabeça-vermelha (Portuguese).
Cotorra frentirrosa, Perico de Frente Rosada (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura roseifrons
Citation: (Gray, GR, 1859)
Protonimo: Conurus roseifrons

Images Red-crowned Parakeet:

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Red-crowned Parakeet (Pyrrhura roseifrons)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Painted Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta) – the subspecies on this photo, roseifrons, is now often considered a separate species, the Rose-fronted Parakeet (Pyrrhura roseifrons) By http://www.birdphotos.com (http://www.birdphotos.com) [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Micah Riegner, XC208597. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/208597

Hellmayr's Parakeet
Pyrrhura amazonum

Hellmayr's Parakeet

Description:

22 cm.. length.

The Hellmayr's Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum) It is a mainly green parakeet; the area from crown to the nape is dark brown; the belly, the rump and tip tail, They are dark red; below, the tail It is also dark red.

They have a patch whitish in ear-coverts; a blue band in front of eyes. The face It is dark reddish brown; the upper region chest It is greenish gray with gray scalloping; the bottom of the chest It is scaled with yellowish effect; the in bend of wing green; brown-red patch in the center of abdomen; of remiges blue (visible only in flight). Orbital ring blackish; the cheeks and ocular region are dark brown.
Bill grey-black; eyes orange brown.

The immature birds They have a darker plumage.

Taxonomic status:

Considered a subspecies of the Painted Parakeet by some authors

  • Sound of the Hellmayr's Parakeet.

Description 3 subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura amazonum amazonum

    (Hellmayr, 1906) – Nominal.

  • Pyrrhura amazonum lucida

    (Arndt, 2008 parrots[Arndt]) – Little or no blue on the front of the crown. Slightly smaller and paler than the Pyrrhura amazonum snethlageae

  • Pyrrhura amazonum snethlageae

    perico madeira – (Joseph & Bates,JM, 2002) – The bare periophthalmic is of color beige.

Habitat:

They distributed in tropical rain forests and adjacent habitats. It´s social. Observed in pairs or groups. It is quite common in most of its range and live in several protected areas. The Pyrrhura amazonum amazonum It is in the Amazon National Park, For, Brazil, while the Pyrrhura amazonum lucida It is in the The Cristalino State Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Reproduction:

They build their nests in tree cavities.

Food:

With feed seed, flowers, fruit, berries and nuts. They are also considered local pests, and regularly they venture into cornfields and orchards, occasionally causing considerable damage.

Distribution:

Size of its range (players / residents): 392.000 km2

Distribution 3 subspecies:

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the Red List Category

Based on a model of deforestation in the Amazon basin, and their potential susceptibility to capture for the bird trade, It is suspected that the population of the Hellmayr's Parakeet It has declined rapidly over three generations, and therefore it has been classified as danger of extinction.

Justification of the population

Recent world population is unknown given taxonomic divisions.

Justification trend

This species is suspected that he has been able to lose 43,0 a 52,1% of suitable habitat within their distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation of the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the . 2006, Bird et to the. 2011). Given the susceptibility of this species to capture, It suspected population decline by 50% in three generations.

Threats

The main threat to this species is that it is accelerating the Deforestation in the Amazon basin Livestock and soybean production, provided by the expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et to the. 2006, Bird et to the. 2011).

The changes proposed by the Forest code of Brazil reduce the percentage of land to a private owner it has the legal obligation to maintain as forest and include an amnesty for owners who deforested before July 2008 (that later they would be absolved of the need to reforest cleared land illegally) (Bird et to the. 2011).

His capture for bird trade wild can represent a significant threat.

Conservation actions and ongoing research

It is not known any.

Conservation actions and research proposals

Expand the network of protected areas to effectively protect IBA.

Effectively manage the resources of existing protected areas and new, the use of new opportunities for financing the management of protected areas with the common goals of reducing carbon emissions and maximize biodiversity conservation.

conservation on private lands is also essential, through the expansion of market pressures for rational land management and prevention of logging on land not suitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et to the. 2006).

Campaign against proposed changes to Forest code of Brazil which would lead to a decrease in the width of the coastal areas of forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), that function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Parrot in captivity Santarém:

It is a bird in danger of extinction. Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Hellmayr’s Parakeet, Santarem Parakeet, Santarem Parakeet (Santarem) (English).
Conure de Hellmayr (French).
Santaremsittich (German).
Tiriba-de-hellmayr (Portuguese).
Cotorra de Santarém, Perico Santarém (Spanish).

Carl Edward Hellmayr

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura amazonum
Citation: Hellmayr, 1906
Protonimo: Pyrrhura pictured on Amazon

Images Hellmayr's Parakeet:

Hellmayr's Parakeet
Santarem Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum) Cristalino Jungle Lodge, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Hellmayr's Parakeet
Santarem Parakeet – Cristalino Lodge, Brazil

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Hellmayr's Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Pyrrhura or Amazon by snethlageae Blake MathesonFlickr
(2) – Santarem Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum) Cristalino Jungle Lodge, Mato Grosso, Brazil by Amy McAndrewsFlickr
(3) – Santarem Parakeet – Cristalino Lodge, Brazil by Jorge MontejoFlickr

Sounds: Jeremy Recall, XC235131. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/235131

Painted Parakeet
Pyrrhura picta

Painted Parakeet


Description:

23 cm.. length and 54-70 g. of weight.

The Painted Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta) has a close frontal band, lores, upper cheeks and area around eyes, dull red.

lower cheeks matte red with blue points on some feathers; the front of the crown is blue; rear area of the crown and of the neck, opaque reddish brown with some blue spots; ear-coverts yellowish. Nape bluish green to green in fusion area the mantle; the scapulars and the top and bottom of the back Brown; rump and uppertail-coverts, green. Upperwing-coverts green except for primary coverts external blue and some red feathers in the carpal area. Primaries blue up, gray below. Underwing-coverts green. Feathers of the throat, upper region chest and sides neck, opaque yellowish brown with wide margins, which results in a surprising scaled diamond shaped means or semicircles; bottom area chest and sides belly, green; Center of the belly brown; undertail-coverts green. Tail verde basalmente, brown distally. Bill brownish-grey; bare periophthalmic grey; brown the irises; legs grey.

Both sexes are similar.

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Pyrrhura [picta, roseifrons, lucianii, amazonum, snethlageae or peruviana] (sensu lato) by some authors

  • Sound of the Painted Parakeet.

Description 4 subspecies
  • Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps

    (Todd, 1947) – 22 cm.. length. Mostly green with a long tail reddish brown, patch belly dark red color and the primaries Bright blue. The front of the crown blue is becoming fuzzy blue brown behind; the area of the Carpus red and ear-coverts gray-brown pale.

  • Azuero parakeet By Itzel Fong Gadea (www.itzelfong.com) [GFDL or CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Pyrrhura picta eisenmanni

    (Dr. Francisco Delgado – ornithologist panameño, 1985) – 22 cm.. length. Of mostly green with a long tail brown, the flight feathers blue, belly dark red and white patch cheek. This species has most of its face Red Color, Lacking any blue has except in the rear area neck. It has the eyes dark. Pens top chest They are dark gray with cream colored tips. The front of the crown It is red, quickly becoming a dark brown from the middle of the crown to the back of the neck.

  • Pyrrhura picta picta

    (Statius Müller, 1776) – Nominal.

  • Pyrrhura picta subandina

    (Todd, 1917) – 21 cm.. Has the face bright brownish-red; the forecrown blue and dull red; Scalloped yellow and gray in the chest. Share with other species Pyrrhura a long tail red, the primaries blue and patch belly dark red. Area Carpus is green, Unlike the red color Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps which it is the closest geographically.

Habitat:

They inhabit in moist forests and land borders, seasonally flooded forests (várzea), and on the slopes of tepuyes.

They travel in flocks with quick flights.

Reproduction:

The breeding season It is between the months of December and February. Nest in hollow trees or old abandoned nests of woodpeckers.

Food:

They feed on, to a large extent, of fruit of Goupia glabra, Bagassa guianensis, Trema micrantha, Heisteria spruceana, Zanthoxylum, flowers and seeds.

Distribution:

Size of its range (Play / residents): 1.560.000 km2

The Painted Parakeet It is located in northeast South America, distributed south of Orinoco, in Venezuela, eastward through Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname and the state of Amapá in the North of Brazil (pit et to the. 1997).

In the states of Amazon and western and southern Bolivar, in Venezuela They can be observed, mainly, on the slopes of the tepuyes, while further east inhabit the lowlands.

Distribution and status of 4 subspecies
  • Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps

    (Todd, 1947) – It is located on the western slope at the northern end of the Andes to the east, from south Cesar state north through Los Motilones on Sierra de Perija, at the border of Venezuela and Colombia. It is estimated to have lost about 70% of its original habitat within their distribution Colombia, and its area of ​​occupation within Colombia It is expected to be less than 3.700 km2 (Botero-Delgadillo et to the. 2012a, b). It's kind extremely poorly known Venezuela, there are some samples and records of sightings in only four locations, all in the Zulia state; recorded infrequently in recent years, despite the significant fieldwork (Sharpe 2015, CJ Sharpe in litt . 2015).

  • Classified as danger of extinction. Its population is in steady decline due to fragmentation of their habitat and capture for the pet trade.

  • Pyrrhura picta eisenmanni

    (Dr. Francisco Delgado – ornithologist panameño, 1985) – Known only in the Cerro Hoya National Park in provinces Veraguas and The Saints, in the South of Panama. The distribution area is considered to be less than 700 km2; It is common locally to the 1.660 m (Juniper and Parr 1998, Forshaw 2006, 2010, Montañez and Angehr 2007). However, the population It has been estimated less than 2.000 individuals (World Parrot Trust 2014), and it is considered nationally threatened (Montañez and Angehr 2007).

  • Pyrrhura picta picta

    (Statius Müller, 1776) – Nominal. They can be observed in Northeast South America, distributed south of Orinoco, in Venezuela, eastward through Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname, and in the North of Brazil, state Amapá (pit et to the. 1997). In Amazon and western and southern Bolivar states Venezuela mainly inhabit hillside tepuyes, while further east are distributed in the lowlands.

  • This species is classified as least concern, although the size of its population is decreasing mainly because of its capture for trade in bird cage.

  • Pyrrhura picta subandina

    (Todd, 1917) – Observed only in the Valley of the Rio Sinu in the North of Colombia, although recent searches have failed to find the species which may be extinct (PGW Salaman in litt. 2011). 18 specimens are known from four places; Jaraquiel, Quimarí and Murucucú in Bolivar, and Tierra Alta Nazareth (Joseph and Stockwell 2002). Placements Nazareth and in Jaraquiel, apparently, They have been deforested, but apparently small areas of suitable habitat may occur in Quimarí and in the Murucucú hills Although searches on these sites could not find any evidence of the continued presence of the Pyrrhura picta subandina (Pgv Salman in Lit. . 2011).

  • There have been no confirmed records of this parakeet from Colombia 1949 despite extensive searches, and any remaining population is likely to be extremely small and declining. Therefore, It has been classified as Critically Endangered (possibly extinct).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the Red List Category

The Painted Parakeet has a range very large, and therefore does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion. While the trend of the population seems to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be fast enough to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion population trend (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or a specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The world population It has not been quantified, due to recent taxonomic divisions.

Justification trend

This species is suspected that there may be lost 6,5-7,3% of habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation in the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the . 2006, Bird et to the . 2011). Given the susceptibility of this species to hunting and / or entrapment, It is suspected that it will fall in <25% en tres generaciones.

Painted parrot in captivity:

Rare.

Alternative names:

Painted Parakeet, Painted, Azuero, Sinu or Todd’s Parakeet (English).
Conure versicolore, Conure versicolore, C. d’Eisenmann, C. du Sinu ou C. de Todd (French).
Rotzügelsittich (German).
Tiriba-de-testa-azul (Portuguese).
Cotorra Pintada, Periquito Pintado (Spanish).
Periquito Pintado (Colombia).
Perico Pechiescamado (Venezuela).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura picta
Citation: (Statius Müller, 1776)
Protonimo: Psittacus pictus

Images Painted Parakeet:

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Painted Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Venezuelan Parakeet | Perico Pintado ( Pyrrhura picta emma) By Fernando Flores from Caracas, Venezuela [CC BY-SA 2.0 or CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: William Adsett, XC82876. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/82876

Grey-breasted Parakeet
Pyrrhura griseipectus

Grey-breasted Parakeet

Content

Description:

23 cm.. length and 70 g. of weight.

Grey-breasted Parakeet

The Grey-breasted Parakeet (Pyrrhura griseipectus) is a bird marked by a mask in reddish face, interrupted by a surrounding white coloration in the regions orbitals and ear-coverts.

The feathers of the neck to the upper region chest They have a gray color with light stripes interleaved, giving the region a striped appearance or escamado. The species has a characteristic patch reddish in belly, highlighting green coloration, its predominant body. The region forecrown up to the nape, It is dark brown with white spots or brown clear that vary from one bird to other. rear area neck green blue border with a width. They have a patch reddish brown in the bottom of the back which leads to the crown. The tail It is long and maroon. Bill gray-black; eye ring white gray; irises brown-orange.

It has no sexual dimorphism. The immature they are more muted than adults; You have scattered green feathers in the abdomen; the cere and the bare periophthalmic is white, less gray tone.

Taxonomic status:

This species is considered to be a subspecies of Pyrrhura [leucotis, emma or griseipectus] by some authors

  • Sound of the Grey-breasted Parakeet.

Habitat:

It is in the moist forests, often located in Serranas regions, where orographic rains favor the occurrence of enclaves Atlantic Forest and Mata dry amid caatinga.

Reproduction:

The breeding season It occurs during the rainy season. The laying It is five to eight eggs in holes dug by woodpeckers since they are not able to dig their own nests; They use these holes to sleep.

When the young are born, the couple divides the task of feeding. Sometimes they help until a third member of the flock for breeding all offspring successful.

Food:

Probably it feeds on fruits, flowers, seeds and algae.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (players / residents): 830 km2

This species was formerly known in 15 Locations (. Anon 2014) within Brazil. At present it is in only three areas in the state of Ceará, the Serra de Baturité and Quixadá (C. Albano in a little . 2006, Waugh et al 2010.) and most recently observed in a rocky mountain Ceará, where five birds were recorded in March 2014 (Anon. 2014).

In Serra do Baturité It seems to be very rare and appears to have been extinct in several areas, but recent records of groups in the Environmental Protection Area mountains Baturité; surveys 2007 half of the remaining habitat in this site revealed near 80 individuals (C. Albano in a little. 2007, 2008) and the population here is now estimated at about 250 birds (Waugh et al . 2010).

Forests of Baturité mountains They have been greatly reduced to make way for coffee plantations and only 13% Jungle was kept in 1996. The discovery in 2010 a population of about 50 birds in Quixadá (Waugh et al ., 2010) It raises the known world population of this species in about 300 birds.

The Grey-breasted Parakeet It was previously known two other areas: the eastern slope of the Saw Ibiapaba in Ceará, and small Serra Negra, in Pernambuco, where it was common in 1974, with flocks of 4-6 individuals regularly seen in the early 1980, although there are no recent records. There are also unconfirmed reports 1991 in organic station Murici Alagoas in which possibly it refers to individuals released; Recent fieldwork was unable to locate the species.

Its known range is very small, and the species has declined dramatically in the past, a trend that may be permanent.

Conservation:

  • Justification of the Red List Category

Recent surveys indicate that this species has a extremely small population, which continues to decline after dramatic historical declines. For these reasons it qualifies as Critically endangered.

  • Justification of the population

• Current red list category of the UICN: Critically Endangered.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 200 individuals.

The population in the area Baturité Mountains Environmental Protection It is estimated at about 250 birds, and discovery in 2010 a population of about 50 birds in Quixadá raises the known world population of about 300 birds (Waugh et al ., 2010). This equates to approximately 200 mature individuals.

  • Justification trend

This species is suspected to be decreasing quickly because of their capture and habitat loss in progress within its range.

  • Threats

The habitat destruction He has played a role in the decline of the species with the original forest cover now reduced to only 13%.

The coffee plantations (especially where coffee is grown in the sun instead of shade coffee) They are impacting the habitat of the species.

The main threat, However, It is believed to come from the capture illegal underway for local and national trade (C. Albano a slightly 2006, Anon 2009..) and captive breeding (Fernandes-Ferreira et al 2012.); the Grey-breasted Parakeet They can be easily purchased through Internet (Girão y Albano 2008).

It is easily found in the international trade in bird cage.

The lack of natural nesting sites also it believed to are limiting reproductive success of the species (Campos et al . 2014).

Conservation Actions Underway

Appendix II of CITES.

In Brazil, It was considered above in critically endangered (Silveira y Straube 2008), but it has now been legally designated as endangered national (MMA 2014), and protected Brazilian law.

Dwelleth within Environmental Protection Area Mountains Baturité, but this area has been designated for sustainable use and traditionally has not been achieved for conservation.

Management of land by a private owner in the area has led to an increase in a small town known (C. Albano a slightly . 2006).

From 2007, NGO AQUASIS Brazil has been conducting two research projects: one sponsored by the Brazilian Boticário Foundation for Nature Protection, the topography of the Baturité mountains to monitor their status and their biology research; and another sponsored Fundación Loro Parque, for additional populations (C. Albano in a little. 2007, 2008).

Surveys in historical sites and areas of potential habitat in the period 2007-2008 They have not been able to locate members of this species, although there are strong indications that individuals may still be dwelling in the degraded Sierra Stephen, municipality Jaw, state Ceará (C. Albano in a little. 2007 2008, Anon 2007), where it was actually rediscovered in the 2010 (Waugh et al ., 2010).

A team of AQUASIS, funded by an award Leadership Program for Conservation in 2012, He conducted searches of the species in an isolated mountain in Ceará and he found a small population of five individuals in March 2014 (Anon. 2014).

You can also persist in Serra Negra Biological Reserve, state Pernambuco, although a combination of crops of marijuana and the hostile local culture makes it difficult to research in the latter area (C. Albano in a little. 2007, 2008).

At least 11 private reserves (RPPN) They are in the process of being created in the Serra de Baturité (C. Albano in a little. 2007, 2008) and AQUASIS They are now engaged in the process of developing a nature reserve in the Baturité mountains (Campos et al . 2014).

AQUASIS It has strengthened ties with government agencies in order to influence policy decisions (Campos et al . 2014).

Scheme nest box sponsored by Loro Parque It has been carried out with nest boxes installed in different places with the consent of the landowners. (Anon, 2009).

AQUASIS also they provided nest boxes Insecticide treated to reduce infestations of bee and wasp (Campos et al . 2014). These measures have proved effective, with 16 boxes occupied in 2012 give place to 97 eggs and 71 chicks hatched successfully.

A education and awareness campaign large scale was carried out in the Serra de Baturité in 2008 (C. Albano in a little. 2007, 2008) and continues today, with many schools currently participating in education programs AQUASIS (Campos et al . 2014).

A main objective of AQUASIS is to promote the Cotorra pechigrís Como specie of the nsignia, the work being supported by commercial NGOs and ecotourism WATER Trails of the Park (Anonymous 2009).

AQUASIS also it aims to develop the ability to bird watching and a development process of consciousness creating alternative livelihoods (Anonymous 2009). A visitor center has recently been established (Campos et al . 2014).

It breeds well in captivity and stocks are held in Brazil and abroad. Always captive breeding is well managed and coordinated, it could be used for reintroduction into nature.

They are being conducted studies on factors influencing the survival rate of chicks, population's genetics (in future DNA techniques can be used as a deterrent against illegal collection of wild birds); both adults and juveniles have been banded (Campos et al . 2014).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Conduct more studies in areas similar to the mountains Baturité in the northeast of Brazil, such as Sierras de Aratanha, Maranguape and Machado, by the presence of additional existing populations.

continue population monitoring known in Serra de Baturité.

improve conservation management practiced in the Guaramiranga Ecological Park.

Provide incentives for landowners to increase the network of private reserves Baturité mountains.

Monitor and control trade locally, National and international.

Investigate the feasibility of using giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus) as sites for constructing artificial nests (Campos et al . 2014).

continue making awareness campaigns to promote the Grey-breasted Parakeet as a symbol for conservation of rain forests and associated biodiversity in Baturité mountains.

Investigate in situ conservation measures.

Pechigrís parrot in captivity:

Its continuous capture, both for domestic and international trade, They have led to this beautiful bird to a critical situation, there are only 200 specimens in the nature. There are probably more animals captivity in its natural habitat

Protected by the Appendix II of CITES, each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure long term survival.

Alternative names:

Gray-breasted Conure, Gray-breasted Parakeet, Grey-breasted Conure, Grey-breasted Parakeet, Maroon-faced Parakeet (Gray-breasted) (English).
Conure à poitrine grise (French).
Graubrustsittich, Salvadori-Weißohrsittich (German).
Tiriba-de-orelha-branca, tiriba-de-peito-cinza, periquito cara-suja (Portuguese).
Cotorra pechigrís, Periquito sujo, Cotorra de pecho gris (Spanish).

Salvadori-Thomas
Salvadori Tommaso

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura griseipectus
Citation: Salvadori, 1900
Protonimo: Pyrrhura griseipectus

Grey-breasted Parakee images:

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Grey-breasted Parakeet (Pyrrhura griseipectus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Grey-breasted Parakeet By writhedhornbill [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Grey-breasted Parakeet by Internet Archive Book ImagesFlickr

Sounds: Ciro Albano, XC7948. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/7948

Maroon-faced Parakeet
Pyrrhura leucotis

Maroon-faced Parakeet

Description:

The Maroon-faced Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis) measured 21 centimeters length and 50-53 g. of weight, It is the smallest species long-tailed parakeets.

Maroon-faced Parakeet

Their cheeks and forecrown, They are brown brown mostly, blue above eyes and on lower cheeks; crown and nape, dark brown, dotted with orange-brown from the ends of pens; ear-coverts white to pale brown; nape with bluish green tones.

Mantle and top of the back, green with scattered dark margins on some feathers; lower back, rump and uppertail-coverts, brown. Wing coverts except green primary coverts which they are blue and patch Red in the bend of wing.

Primaries blue. Under, the wings with the lesser coverts green, the greater coverts dark gray; the flight feathers grey. Feathers of the throat and sides neck, blue base with a yellowish subterminal band and black tips; Feathers of the chest with little blue tones and instead to brown in bases; the underparts They are green with a large patch brown in the center of belly. maroon brown with green edges at the base of the outerweb of the lateral feathers; undertail, the tail It is reddish brown opaque.

Bill black; cere black; bare periophthalmic grey; irises dark orange-brown; legs dark grey.

The plumage of both sexes are similar.

Taxonomic status:

Considered one subspecies Pyrrhura [leucotis or emma] by some authors

  • Sound of the Maroon-faced Parakeet.

Habitat:

The Maroon-faced Parakeet inhabits forests, clear edges and adjacent with scattered trees including cocoa plantations shaded Bay, sometimes visiting parks and residential areas. They can be observed, mainly, in lowlands (for example, a 600 meters in east Brazil) and in forests at higher elevations in Northeast Brazil. Gregarious, generally close to flocks 15-20 birds.

Reproduction:

No information about your reproduction in the wild. Clutch 5-9 eggs in captivity.

Food:

Probably you have a diet comparable to his close relatives in the wild, where is recorded the Miconia hypoleuca as one of their food. There are reports of birds feeding in cornfields.

Distribution:

Size of its range (players / residents): 352.000 km2

The distribution of the Maroon-faced Parakeet It is limited to Southeast Brazil, from Bay to the South of the río Jequitinhonha, to the South up to Espirito Santo, including Southeast Minas Gerais, Brazil, and previously São Paulo.

Conservation:

  • Justification of the Red List Category

– This species appears as Near-threatened on the basis that it is suspected that there has been a decrease in moderately rapid population due to the habitat loss and capture.

  • Justification of the population

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened..

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 10000-19999 individuals.

– The Maroon-faced Parakeet is believed to have a small town; However, Marsden et al .(2000) It estimated that there is a combined population of about 19,300 individuals on Biological Federal Reserve Sooretama the Nature Reserve Linhares in the State of Espirito Santo, based on surveys 1998, It is suggesting that the population has been previously underestimated.

– Until an updated estimate available, the population was provisionally placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, representing a population of about 15,000-30,000 individuals in total, although the structure of the subpopulation not known.

  • Justification trend

– It is suspected that the species is in a moderate to rapid decline due to the habitat loss and capture. The rate of decline is thought to be not so fast because tolerance to modified habitats of this species cushion the impacts of deforestation to some extent.

  • Threats

– The logging It has been extensive, It is affecting most of board woods, in Bay and Espirito Santo.

– Most of the original forest cover which distributed the Maroon-faced Parakeet It was eliminated more than a century ago; in the news, are being eliminated very quickly the remaining patches (pit et to the ., 1997).

– This bird often seized in captivity, suggesting that there is a major catch birds for trade. (J. Gilardi in little ., 2010).

Conservation Actions Underway

protected in parts of Bay (Private Reserve Station Veracruz, and national parks Discovery, Pau Brazil and Monte Pascoal) (Lamb 2002).

Monte Pascoal It faces an uncertain future, as it has been invaded by Indians Pataxó they have largely eliminated neighboring area.

– Elsewhere the species is known from reserves Linhares-Sooretama (Espirito Santo), Rio Doce State Park (Minas Gerais, Brazil) and Ting Biological Reserveeructate (Rio de Janeiro).

Conservation Actions Proposed

– continue monitoring of this species in the field and in trade.

– Strengthen the network of protected areas within the Atlantic Forest of Brazil conservation of key sites.

Cotorra orejiblanca in captivity:

Very rare.

Its diet in captivity it is similar to that of their peers.

Its population in the wild is small and decreasing whereby each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Maroon-faced Parakeet, Maroon-faced Parakeet (White-eared), White-eared Parakeet (English).
Conure emma, Conure leucotique, Conure leucotique (nominal), Conure leucotique (nominale), Conure leucotique (race nominale) (French).
Weißohrsittich (German).
tiriba-de-orelha-branca (Portuguese).
Cotorra orejiblanca, Perico Pintado, Cotorra cariparda (Spanish).

Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura leucotis
Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
Protonimo: Psittacus leucotis

Images Maroon-faced Parakeet:

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Maroon-faced Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Maroon-faced parakeet By Gabriel Resende Veiga (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

(2) – Several White-eared Parakeets (Pyrrhura_leucotis) at Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria, Spain By Bjoertvedt (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons

(3) – A White-eared Parakeet in Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By Kee Yip from Union City, California, USA (IMG_4336_P1030859Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

(4) – White-eared Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis), Vale Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil by Brendan RyanFlickr

(5) – By Almond ButterscotchFlickr

(6) – Parrots in captivity /. London :George Bell and Sons,1884-1887 [i.e. 1883-1888] by Biodiversity Heritage LibraryFlickr

Sounds: Roney Souza, XC265102. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/265102

Pfrimer's Parakeet
Pyrrhura pfrimeri

Pfrimer's Parakeet

Description:

22 a 23 cm.. length and an approximate weight of 80 g..

Pfrimer's Parakeet

The Pfrimer's Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri) is a small psittacine of tail Long endemic Brazil very similar to Maroon-faced Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis), of which has recently been separated.

Its main color is green with bluish hues in primary rémiges and reddish tones in the back, the belly and retrizes penas. The bend of wing They are reddish.
The neck It has clear blue feathers with lighter edges, giving the whole a scaled aspect. The sides of the face They are red while the crown and nape They are bluish. The bill It is black and tail red-blue color at the tips

It has no sexual dimorphism.

Taxonomic status:

It has often been considered a subspecies of the Maroon-faced Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis)Pyrrhura leucotis pfrimeri. The separation was made based on their distribution and the differences in Habitat and plumage, He was the only member of the complex P. leucotis in which the light spot on ear-coverts It was very small. Recent mitochondrial DNA studies have confirmed this separate species status.

  • Sound of the Pfrimer's Parakeet.

Habitat:

Its distribution is restricted to the forests dry deciduous or semi-evergreen growing on limestone outcrops in the calcareous. This habitat type caatinga is an isolated island within the surrounding savannah closed. The forest caatinga typically it has a closed canopy and dense undergrowth of vines and some cactus, particularly in disturbed areas. The species has been seen recently fragmented woodlots (Olmos et al., 1998), but reportedly did not live far from the edge of the forest.

Social, usually they are seen in flocks of up 10 birds. Noisy and conspicuous when they fly above the canopy. Difficult to observe while feeding or resting among the foliage.

Reproduction:

We know very little about their reproductive habits.

Food:

They fly in flocks in search of fruits, seeds, flowers and larvae insects (wasps Family Agaonidae) .

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (Widgets / Resident): 20.300 km2

It is located in the Brazilian states of Goiás, Tocantins and the northwestern tip of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population: 20,000-50,000.

Justification of the Red List Category

This species has a range very small very fragmented and where habitat loss and degradation continue. For these reasons, It is classified as endangered.

Justification of the population

The total population is estimated to lie within the band 20,000-49,999 individuals (CA Bianchi in a little. 2006, 2007). The population density of the species has been estimated 11,7 individuals / km2 .

Justification trend

Given the rapid pace of deforestation within restricted range species, and its strong dependence on forest habitats suspected its population is declining rapidly (F. Olmos in some ., 2004).

Threats:

The main threat to this species is the deforestation driven selective logging, fires and conversion of habitat to pasture (Olmos et al . 1998). Dry wood Goiás He declined to be covering 15,8% of the region 1990 only the 5,8% in 1999, and less than 1% of the remaining fragments they were larger than 100 has (F. Olmos a slightly. 2007). There has been a reduction 66% habitat available in the last 31 years, with a current annual deforestation rate 2,1% (Bianchi 2010). Rapid deforestation is occurring within the range of the species to create pastures with widespread burning to improve poor pastures destroying the habitat of dry forest. It is mainly directed to logging forests durable normally used to make fence posts, and cement are starting to target areas of limestone outcroppings (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007). The species is rare while they recorded in the trade waves collections of exotic birds; This poses a potential threat (Olmos et al ., 1998). Population pressures increase as their range is close to the capital, Brasilia (Olmos et al ., 1998).

Conservation Actions Underway

In Brazil, previously considered vulnerable (Silveira y Straube 2008), but now legally designated as endangered national (MMA 2014) and protected by the Brazilian legislation. They are distributed within the proposal Terra Ronca State Park, but this has not yet been fully implemented. (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007). Downs Terra Ronca State Park now they appear to have been deforested, leaving only forest fragments outcrops of limestone karst (Willis in a little .). Other parts of the range are not protected. The species appears in the Brazil Red List as vulnerable and the IBAMA (Federal Environment Agency Brazil) is about to create a conservation group Small parrots understand all the Pyrrhura spp, and establishes conservation efforts. Brasilia zoo began a program captive breeding in 2001 with 10 individuals, but none survived after six years (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007). There are very few known private poultry farmers who maintain the species in captivity (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Determine the extent of habitat and current rates of deforestation remaining. Closely monitor the species in trade if demand increases.

Parakeet Goiás in captivity:

Very rare.

It's a bird in danger of extinction; each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Goias Parakeet, Pfrimer’s Conure, Pfrimer’s Parakeet (English).
Conure de Pfrimer (French).
Goiasittich, Pfrimers Sittich (German).
tiriba de Pfrimer, Tiriba-de-pfrimer, Tiriba-do-paranã , ciganinha, barreirinha, chiriri e periquito-do-morro (Portuguese).
Cotorra de Goiás (Spanish).

Alipio Ribeiro de Miranda, brazilian natural scientist

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura pfrimeri
Citation: Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920
Protonimo: Pyrrhura pfrimeri

Images Pfrimer's Parakeet:

Cotorra videos of Goiás:


Pfrimer's Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by Lander Van NieuwenhuyseFlickr
(2) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by Lander Van NieuwenhuyseFlickr
(3) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by Lander Van NieuwenhuyseFlickr
(4) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by pyaf.net
(5) – Tiriba-de-Pfrimer, “Pyrrhura pfrimeri” – Pfrimer's Parakeet by Brazilian Claudia Martins
Brazilian Claudia Martins
(6) – Photo of Alipio de Miranda Ribeiro, brazilian natural scientist By File created by Flávio de Miranda Ribeiro (Picture taken by family) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Pearly Parakeet
Pyrrhura lepida

Pearly Parakeet

Description:

24 cm.. in length and 70 to 80 grams.

Pearly Parakeet

The Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida) has the head dark blackish brown with mottled light on nape; ear-coverts creamy white; cheeks pale bluish green.

Upper mantle blue; robe bottom until uppertail-coverts, green. Scapulars green at the base, blue down; lesser wing coverts slightly green tinted olive; median coverts and older, mainly blue; some red at the leading edge of wing . Flight feather Blue above, secondaries with green in the outerweb; dark gray below. Underwing-coverts bright red. Sides of the neck, the throat and the top chest, mainly brown with some blue marks and points yellowish brown, which gives an overall scaled aspect; The underparts remaining are green with blue on the flanks and the thighs. Upper, the tail mainly brown, green in the basal area and narrow blue tips. Bill black-brown; bare periophthalmic grey; irises dark brown; legs black slate.

The plumages of both sexes are, apparently, similar.

taxonomic history

Confusing taxonomic history: until recently known as Pyrrhura perlata, but that name is actually applied to the known way long as Pyrrhura rhodogaster, currently a synonym for the species Pyrrhura perlata; the current species therefore assumes his next oldest name, Pyrrhura lepida. Forms a pair of species with parapatric Pyrrhura perlata, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific; the recent molecular phylogeny indicated that the closest relatives of these two are the Pyrrhura frontalis and Pyrrhura molinae.

  • Sound of the Pearly Parakeet.

Description 3 subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura lepida anerythra

    (Neumann, 1927) – Similar to the species nominal but with the chest, the belly and cheeks green with occasional shades of blue.

  • Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens

    (Neumann, 1927) – Similar to the species nominal, but with the forecrown and crown brown, gray throat and upper chest, green on the upper cheeks; bluer in the lower chest

  • .

  • Pyrrhura lepida lepida

    (Wagler, 1832) – Nominal.

Habitat:

The Pearly Parakeet, usually, inhabits humid forests of mainland. The species has been observed in forest edges, clear areas and second growth.

They are seen in flocks of up to ten birds, particularly in places where food is plentiful.

Reproduction:

They nest hollow logs. The laying is of 3-4 eggs incubados during 23 days; breeding needs about 7 weeks for independence.

Food:

probably catkins, small fruits and flowers.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 585.000 km2

The Cotorra Pulcra is endemic to Northeast Brazil, to the South of the Amazon. Observed around the basin Xingu and its tributaries, from the river Pracuí and the left bank of Tocantins River, and from Belém and the Río grass, in For, east to around Sao Luis in Maranhão, and from northern Maranhão to the East of Rosary, although apparently no longer in some coastal areas, where according to sources, They were formerly quite common.

Today are rare and extinct in many parts of their former range (for example, North of Maranhão) due to large-scale deforestation, although they are, apparently, tolerant habitat alterations.

The coerulescens subspecies It is near extinction due to the almost total loss of their habitat. The species is found in protected areas but its integrity is compromised by the illegal logging.

Distribution 3 subspecies:

Note:

Pyrrhura lepida is the new name of the taxon Pyrrhura perlata, whose name has been shown to be applied first to an immature bird of that species, Crimson-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura perlata).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 6700 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

From a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, While shows some tolerance degraded landscapes, It suspected that the population of this species decline rapidly over the next three generations and, therefore, It has risen to Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The population It is preliminarily estimated to number at least 10.000 individuals, approximately equivalent to 6.700 mature individuals. This requires confirmation.

Justification of trend

It is suspected that this species has lost between 47 and the 64,5% of habitat suitable within their distribution during three generations (18 years) starting from a model of deforestation Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the ., 2006, Bird et to the ., 2011). However, because the species seems to have some degree of tolerance to habitat degradation (A. Lees in litt ., 2011), It suspected to decline by 30-49% during three generations.

Threats

Despite an apparent tolerance of some degradation of the habitat, It is perhaps close to extinction in coastal areas of northern Maranhão, due to the large scale deforestation (Juniper and Parr, 1998). They are distributed within protected areas, but its integrity is compromised by the illegal logging (Juniper and Parr 1998). It is expected that deforestation in the Amazon basin to increase as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soybean production, provided by the expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et to the. , 2006). The proposed changes to Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land to a private owner is legally obliged to keep as forest and include an amnesty for owners who deforested before July 2008 (That later they would be absolved of the need to reforest the land illegally cleared) (Bird et to the., 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. The species is classified as Vulnerable nationally in Brazil (MMA 2014), with subspecies elegant and coerulescens considered in Danger (Silveira y Straube 2008).

Conservation Actions Proposed

* Census and population monitoring to assess the world's population and demographic trends and refine distribution and locate strengths.

* Investigate their ecology, threats and conservation requirements. Strengthen the network of protected areas within the remaining core habitat.

Effectively manage resources and management of existing protected areas and new, using the emerging opportunities for funding the management of protected areas with the overall goal of reducing carbon emissions and maximize the conservation of biodiversity. It is also essential conservation on private land, through the expansion of market pressures for proper land management and prevention of deforestation on land not suitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006).

Campaign against the proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the riparian forest protected areas as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), that function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Cotorra Pulcra in captivity:

Rare in captivity.

It is a bird Vulnerable nationally in Brazil and protected by CITES Appendix II; each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Pearly Conure, Pearly Parakeet (English).
Conure perlée, Perriche perlée, Perruche perlée (French).
Blausteißsittich (German).
tiriba, tiriba-de-barriga-vermelha, Tiriba-peróla, tiriba-pérola (Portuguese).
Catita cola granate, Cotorra Pulcra, Cotorra Ventrirroja (Spanish).

Johann Georg Wagler
Johann Georg Wagler

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura lepida
Citation: (Wagler, 1832)
Protonimo: Sittace lepida

Images Pearly Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Pyrrhura lepida by Florin FeneruFlickr
(2) – Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens Neumann, 1929 – Huub Veldhuijzen van Zanten / Naturalis Biodiversity Center [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida) also known as the Pearly Conure in aviculture. A pet parrot By manginwu (originally posted to Flickr as my name is twoday.) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Tiriba-perola [Pearly Parakeet] by Helio LourenciniFlickr
(5) – Tiriba pearl (Pyrrhura perlata) – www.avesilvestre.com.br
(6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: GABRIEL MILK, XC212988. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/212988

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