Festive Parrot
Amazona festiva

Amazona festiva

Content

Description


Anatomy-parrots-eng

38-41 cm.. tall and 370g. weight.
The Festive Parrot (Amazona festiva) has the cheeks and sides neck Green with strong blue diffusion; lores and a close frontal band red; feathers above and behind them eyes blue; Forehead rather yellowish green. Crown Green but darker; Feathers of the nape of color green with a band terminal dark. Mantle, scapulars, top of the back and uppertail-coverts dark green; Rump and the greater part of the low back bright red. Primary coverts Violet Blue. Other coverts dark green.

Amazon-festive-6

Edge carpal of the wing and margin of the outerweb of the primaries, blue; innerwebs black; secondaries dark blue-tipped, secondaries more interior Green. Underwing-coverts green. Chin and throat blue; Breast and belly green; coverts infra-flows brighter yellowish green. Tail green, of paler green yellowish at the tip; Trace reddish at the base of some feathers.

The bill color cuerno-marron; Iris yellow, legs dark grey.

Both sexes are similar.

Immature have irises dark and show a less intense color in the head. Its back low is practically Green; some of the pens outside of it tail they have a red base.

Subspecies description

  • Amazona festiva bodini

    (Finsch, 1873) – It has a broadband Violet Blue and red in the front behind the eyes.


  • Amazona festiva festiva

    (Linnaeus,1758) – The nominal.

Habitat:

Video – "Festive Parrot" (Amazona festiva)

The Festive Parrot they attend primary and secondary lowland forests, mainly várzea, swamp forest and River Islands, as well igapó (permanently flooded forest), usually are found near the water and can prevent forests of Earth firm, although also reported in gallery forests and savannahs with scattered trees.

Observed in cocoa plantations in Brazil. At altitudes of 500 metres in Colombia and 100 metres in Venezuela. Usually in small flocks with larger meetings occasionally reported. Flocks of up to 50 birds are about Leticia between the months of May-June. Tend to gather is by the afternoon and in the evening in products communal.

Reproduction:

It nests in hollow of trees dead between mayo to June.
A breeding pair averages 3 eggs in each clutch and the incubation period is generally about 28 days.

Food:

Usually in numerous flocks, little of its power is known.

Distribution:

The Festive Parrot found in the North of South America mainly as two large populations disjunct in the basins of the amazon and Orinoco.

A population occupies the Northwest of Guyana (very few records) and Venezuela in southern Apure in the Meta River and a half Orinoco to Delta Amacuro.

The second extends from parts of the lowlands of the East (Colombia including the lower part of the Casanare River, lower Meta River and Vaupes River towards the South through the amazon of Ecuador (where birds are reported in Napo River, but few recent records) and northeast of Peru, and further to the East through the West of Brazil, from Rio Branco, Black river and bottom of the Madeira river up to the Basin Amazon East in Amapá and For and at the mouth of the amazon on Ilha Mexiana (where is its status uncertain).

Probably in its greater part resident, Although sporadic Bird on the edge of its distribution area in Ecuador and Guyana, They suggest seasonal movements outside their range, obviously low in Guyana and local in Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, but more common in parts of the Amazonia occidental in Brazil and locally the Amazona more common in some areas Colombia (for example by of Leticia).

Pursued to the trade in live birds in parts of its area of distribution (for example, Peru). Its swampy habitat is not much in demand for agriculture, by what does not seems to have a contraction apparent large scale of its population.

Subspecies distribution:

  • Amazona festiva bodini

    (Finsch, 1873) – It is from Colombia to the basin of the Orinoco of Venezuela


  • Amazona festiva festiva

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – The nominal.

Conservation:

State of conservation ⓘ


Status Near Threatened (UICN)ⓘ

• Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

While it has declined locally, still fairly common throughout much of its range, and may even be close to cities as Manaus and Iquitos.

The size of the world population It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “Rare

Consequently, is considered of least concern by BirdLife International and the IUCN , Although it was categorized as vulnerable in 2012, because of patterns of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest and the susceptibility to hunt, predicts that the population will decrease quickly during the next three generations.

Festive Parrot in captivity:

Very rare in captivity.

His temperament is extremely excitable. Males tend to be aggressive. Good to excellent imitator.

It feeds on the sunflower seeds or other provided you ,fruit, vegetables etc..

Alternative names:

Festive Parrot, Festive Amazon, Red-backed Amazon, Red-backed Parrot (English).
Amazone tavoua, Amazona festiva (French).
Blaubartamazone (German).
Papagaio-da-várzea, papa-cacau, tauá, tavua (Portuguese).
Amazona de Lomo Rojo, Amazona Festiva, Lora Festiva (español).
Lora Festiva (Colombia).
Loro de Lomo Rojo (Peru).
Loro Lomirrojo (Venezuela).


scientific classification:

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona festiva
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protonimo: Psittacus festivus


Festive Parrot Images:


Species of the genus Amazona

  • Amazona festiva
  • —- Amazona festiva bodini
  • —- Amazona festiva festiva
  • Amazona vinacea
  • Amazona tucumana
  • Amazona pretrei
  • Amazona agilis
  • Amazona albifrons
  • —- Amazona albifrons albifrons
  • —- Amazona albifrons nana
  • —- Amazona albifrons saltuensis
  • Amazona collaria
  • Amazona leucocephala
  • —- Amazona leucocephala bahamensis
  • —- Amazona leucocephala caymanensis
  • —- Amazona leucocephala hesterna
  • —- Amazona leucocephala leucocephala
  • Amazona ventralis
  • Amazona vittata
  • —- Amazona vittata gracilipes †
  • —- Amazona vittata vittata
  • Amazona finschi
  • Amazona autumnalis
  • —- Amazona autumnalis autumnalis
  • —- Amazona autumnalis lilacina
  • —- Amazona autumnalis salvini
  • Amazona diadema
  • Amazona viridigenalis
  • Amazona xantholora
  • Amazona dufresniana
  • Amazona rhodocorytha
  • Amazona arausiaca
  • Amazona versicolor
  • Amazona oratrix
  • —- Amazona oratrix belizensis
  • —- Amazona oratrix hondurensis
  • —- Amazona oratrix oratrix
  • Amazona tresmariae
  • Amazona auropalliata
  • —- Amazona auropalliata auropalliata
  • —- Amazona auropalliata caribaea
  • —- Amazona auropalliata parvipes
  • Amazona ochrocephala
  • —- Amazona ochrocephala nattereri
  • —- Amazona ochrocephala ochrocephala
  • —- Amazona ochrocephala panamensis
  • —- Amazona ochrocephala xantholaema
  • Amazona barbadensis
  • Amazona aestiva
  • —- Amazona aestiva aestiva
  • —- Amazona aestiva xanthopteryx
  • Amazona mercenarius
  • —- Amazona mercenarius canipalliata
  • —- Amazona mercenarius mercenarius
  • Amazona guatemalae
  • —- Amazona guatemalae guatemalae
  • —- Amazona guatemalae virenticeps
  • Amazona farinosa
  • Amazona kawalli
  • Amazona imperialis
  • Amazona brasiliensis
  • Amazona amazonica
  • Amazona guildingii

  • Sources:

    • Parrot Book, Parrots and macaws Neotropical
    • avibase

    Photos:

    (1) – Festive Amazon at Loro Parque, Teneriffe By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Festive_Amazon_BW. JPG: Berthold Werner (Festive_Amazon_BW. JPG) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
    (2) – A Festive Amazon at Tulsa Zoo, USA. This subspecies is known as Bodinus’ Amazon By Christopher G from Tulsa Oklahoma, USA (Amazon Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (3) – A pet Festive Amazon By Tutu … F. Lopes (originally posted to Flickr as ♠) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (4) – Two Festive Amazons in an aviary at a bird park in Kaluga Oblast, Russia. They are the subspecies Amazona festiva bodini, common name Bodinus’ Amazon. They are probably jostling for room on their perch By Remiz [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (5) – Festive Parrot By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Amazona_festiva-8.jpg: frank wouters [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (6) – Image from http://search.abaa.org/dbp2/book1700_08832.html

    Sounds: Sergio Chaparro Herrera

    Saint Lucia amazon
    Amazona versicolor

    Saint Lucia amazon

    Content

    Description:

    43 cm.. length and 700-800 g. of weight.

    Saint Lucia amazon

    The Saint Lucia amazon (Amazona versicolor) has the lores, cheeks and forecrown, bright blue; crown, ear-coverts and lower cheeks, paler blue with iridescent emerald suffusion from some angles; dark tips to feathers on head.

    Hindneck neck, nape and upperparts, yellowish-olive, many feathers with visible black tips, giving the whole a barred effect strong, especially in the upper region. Wing coverts yellowish green olive. Primary coverts dyed blue, rest with black tips to some feathers. Primaries blue; bases of external secondarys forman speculum red, blue tips; secondary internal green and blue at the base to the tips. Underwing, yellowish green with blackish tips to some feathers; flight feather bluish green. Chin and throat, bright blue with blackish tips to feathers; tips of feathers on lower throat and top of the chest, bright red forming a patch distinct red patch or mottled red area; chest and belly rather yellowish-green, blackish tips and brick red in the subterminal area of some feathers, giving scalloped appearance with scattered rusty patches; the thighs and undertail-coverts, green-yellow. Tail bluish green in the center, outer feathers green with large yellowish green tips and hidden red bases. Bill grey; irises orange; legs grey.


    Anatomy-parrots-eng

    Probably no sexual dimorphism.

    Immature has irises brown.

    • Sound of the Saint Lucia amazon.

    Habitat:

    Video "Saint Lucia amazon"

    Mainly they inhabit the canopy montana primary rainforest, but they make inroads into areas of secondary growth to feed. Reported flocks of up 20 birds. living forms community.

    Reproduction:

    They nest in tree hollows. Nests observed in trees Dacryodes excelsa, Pouleria and Tetracera caribaeum. breeding season in February-August. Clutch usually two eggs, although, usually, only one young per nest thrives.

    Food:

    Its diet includes flowers and fruits of Clusia, Fruits of Talauma dodecapetala, Acrocomia irenensis, Pouleria, Dacryodes excelsa, Sloanea massoni, Byrsonima martinicensis, Miconia mirabilis, Pterocarpus officinalis and Euterpe globosa; also they have been seen feeding on bananas after the hurricane and presumably due to the depletion of natural food sources. Absence of common areas from August to November possibly linked to the lack of fruitfulness of Clusia.

    Distribution and status:

    Size of the area of distribution (raising / resident): 230 km2

    Confined to St. Lucia in the Lesser Antilles, now in the central and southern mountains, aunque antiguamente eras más generalizadas en todas partes en donde crecía el bosque húmedo. The species has suffered a contraction of the range since the nineteenth century and now It occupies an area of ​​only 65-70 km2 from Millet and Mont Lacombe in the North, until Mont Beucop and Calfourc in the East, Piton Pig, St Piton, St Desrache and Big store in the south to Morne Gimie in the west and Mont Houlemon in the Northwest. The results of studies on the species suggest that the southwestern part of this area is the most densely populated of parrots, while relatively few live in the northeast.

    Plentiful mid-nineteenth century, but decreasing rapidly to very little in the early twentieth century. Subsequently they recovered, with an estimated population of 1.000 birds in 1950. They declined again sixties, en su mayoría debido a la caza; observations in 1977 They estimated that there were more than 100 birds. steady increase since then with an estimated population of 300-350 birds in 1990.

    The threats main arise from habitat loss and its hunting for food and pet trade as. Forestry practices that lead to the removal of mature trees (favorite breeding sites) podrían suponer una presión adicional. They seem to be less susceptible to hurricanes than their counterparts in Dominica, pero esto puede deberse a esfuerzos de conservación en lugar de cualquier capacidad intrínseca de soportar los efectos de tormentas severas.

    Can compete for nesting sites with Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus), which it has increased considerably since 1950.

    Amazona versicolor Conservation:

    State of conservation ⓘ


    Vulnerable Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

    • Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.

    • Population trend: In increased.

    • Population size : 230-330

    Rationale for the Red List category

    Conservation action may have saved this species from extinction. Los números ahora están aumentando y hay alguna evidencia de una extensión pequeña de la gama. However, the habitat area apparently adequate (but vacated) It may be waning. If this begins to affect the habitat occupied, the species can be described as danger of extinction. In the news, its small population size and small size on one island are calling it Vulnerable.

    Justification of the population

    The population is estimated at 350-500 individuals, approximately equal to 230-330 mature individuals.

    Justification of trend

    No new data on population trends, so it is assumed that the species continues increasing.

    Threats

    The human population St. Lucia It is growing at a considerable rate, increasing the pressure on the forest and resulting in habitat loss (Copsey 1995). The selective logging of mature trees You can significantly reduce breeding sites (Juniper and Parr 1998), and hurricanes, the hunting and the trade pose new threats. There have been recent efforts to raise the moratorium on hunting within forest reserves, lo que amenazaría seriamente esta especie (J. D. Gilardi in litt., 1999).

    Conservation Actions Underway
    Coat of arms of Saint Lucia

    Appendices I and II of CITES. This protected by national legislation (J. D. Gilardi in litt., 1999).

    Education programs and awareness have made this bird in a símbolo nacional.

    This has eliminated successfully hunting (Juniper and Parr 1998), helped by a moratorium on hunting within forest reserves (J. D. Gilardi in litt., 1999).

    In 1975 program was established captive breeding, and in 1995 se había desarrollado un total de 19 young birds (Copsey, 1995).

    Conservation Actions Proposed

    Maintain the moratorium on hunting within all forest reserves. Conduct a studyo básico de la alimentación y la ecología de la cría. Designate the remaining habitat protected areas. Reassess the objectives of the program captive breeding.

    La Amazona de Santa Lucía en cautividad:

    Extremadamente rara; currently only it found in the Jersey Zoo

    Appendices I and II CITES. This protected by national legislation.

    Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-managed program captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, with the objective of ensure their survival long-term.

    Alternative names:

    Blue-masked Amazon, Blue-masked Parrot, St Lucia Amazon, St Lucia Parrot, St. Lucia Amazon, St. Lucia Parrot, St.Lucia amazon, Versicolored Parrot, Versicoloured Parrot (English).
    Amazone de Sainte-Lucie, Amazone versicolore, Amazone versicolore de Sainte-Lucie (French).
    Blaumaskenamazone, Blaustirnamazone (German).
    Papagaio-de-santa-lúcia (Portuguese).
    Amazona de Santa Lucia, Amazona de Sta. Lucia (español).

    Clasificación científica Amazona versicolor:

    Order: Psittaciformes
    Family: Psittacidae
    Genus: Amazona
    Scientific name: Amazona versicolor
    Citation: (Statius Müller, 1776)
    Protonimo: Psittacus versicolor

    Imágenes Amazona de Santa Lucía:


    Species of the genus Amazona

  • Amazona festiva
  • —- Amazona festiva bodini
  • —- Amazona festiva festiva
  • Amazona vinacea
  • Amazona tucumana
  • Amazona pretrei
  • Amazona agilis
  • Amazona albifrons
  • —- Amazona albifrons albifrons
  • —- Amazona albifrons nana
  • —- Amazona albifrons saltuensis
  • Amazona collaria
  • Amazona leucocephala
  • —- Amazona leucocephala bahamensis
  • —- Amazona leucocephala caymanensis
  • —- Amazona leucocephala hesterna
  • —- Amazona leucocephala leucocephala
  • Amazona ventralis
  • Amazona vittata
  • —- Amazona vittata gracilipes †
  • —- Amazona vittata vittata
  • Amazona finschi
  • Amazona autumnalis
  • —- Amazona autumnalis autumnalis
  • —- Amazona autumnalis lilacina
  • —- Amazona autumnalis salvini
  • Amazona diadema
  • Amazona viridigenalis
  • Amazona xantholora
  • Amazona dufresniana
  • Amazona rhodocorytha
  • Amazona arausiaca
  • Amazona versicolor
  • Amazona oratrix
  • —- Amazona oratrix belizensis
  • —- Amazona oratrix hondurensis
  • —- Amazona oratrix oratrix
  • Amazona tresmariae
  • Amazona auropalliata
  • —- Amazona auropalliata auropalliata
  • —- Amazona auropalliata caribaea
  • —- Amazona auropalliata parvipes
  • Amazona ochrocephala
  • —- Amazona ochrocephala nattereri
  • —- Amazona ochrocephala ochrocephala
  • —- Amazona ochrocephala panamensis
  • —- Amazona ochrocephala xantholaema
  • Amazona barbadensis
  • Amazona aestiva
  • —- Amazona aestiva aestiva
  • —- Amazona aestiva xanthopteryx
  • Amazona mercenarius
  • —- Amazona mercenarius canipalliata
  • —- Amazona mercenarius mercenarius
  • Amazona guatemalae
  • —- Amazona guatemalae guatemalae
  • —- Amazona guatemalae virenticeps
  • Amazona farinosa
  • Amazona kawalli
  • Amazona imperialis
  • Amazona brasiliensis
  • Amazona amazonica
  • Amazona guildingii

  • Sources:

    • Avibase
    • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
    • Birdlife

    Photos:

    (1) – Saint Lucia Parrot(Amazona versicolor) by Josh MoreFlickr
    (2) – Chrysotis bouqueti (a.k.a. Amazona versicolor, the St. Lucia amazon, or the St. Lucia parrot) by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

    Sounds: Allen T. Chartier, XC9438. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/9438

    Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet
    Trichoglossus forsteni

    Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet

    Content

    Description:

    25 a 30 centimeters length and 100-157 g. of weight.

    The distinctive and colorful Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet (Trichoglossus forsteni) has the head dark blue, neck pale green, chest smooth red, and belly dark blue. The remaining plumage It is a bright pale green, and the bill típico es rojo.

    In flight the species shows a flash of bright yellow on the inside of all flight feather, and coverts bright red at the bottom of the wings.

    • Sound of the Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet.

    taxonomy:

    This taxon is considered a subspecies of Trichoglossus [haematodus, rosenbergii, moluccana, forsteni, capistratus, weberi] (sensu lato) by some authors.

    El epíteto específico forsteni commemorates the Dutch naturalist Eltio Alegondas Forestry.

    Subspecies description
    • Trichoglossus forsteni djampeanus

      (Hartert 1897) – They differ from the species nominal by the fact that their head es más oscura y más evidentemente veteada de color púrpura/azul brillante.


    • Trichoglossus forsteni forsteni

      (Bonaparte 1850) – Nominal.


    • Trichoglossus forsteni mitchellii

      (Gray,GR 1859) – Both adults have head black / brown with gray / green streaks in crown up to the cheeks; red / brown in occiput; chest rojo con mínima o ninguna barrado; neck yellow green; vientre púrpura/negro; smaller.


    • Trichoglossus forsteni stresemanni

      (Meise 1929) – As the species nominal but with paler chest orange / red; green washing occiput; feathers the mantle yellow / orange basis.

    Habitat:

    The Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet is located in lowlands and lower montane forests, including secondary growth and plantations, tending to be observed at the edges and around perturbed vegetation instead of inside the closed canopy forest (pit et to the. 1997). In Sumbawa the Trichoglossus forsteni varía desde el nivel del mar hasta 800-1200 meters and up 2150 metres in Lombok (pit et to the. 1997); at least in Sumbawa, the variation in altitudinal range is attributed to the movements in monitoring trees in bloom in a large area (White y Bruce 1986).

    Reproduction:

    Birds have been reported in breeding conditions in May Sumbawa (White y Bruce 1986). It nests in a deep hole in a large tree (pit et to the. 1997).

    Food:

    No hay datos específicos, but presumably similar to Coconut Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus)

    Distribution:

    Extension of the distribution (breeding/resident): 101.000 km2

    The Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet (incorporating subspecies mitchelli, djampeanus and stresemanni) It is located on the islands of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Tanahjampea and Kalaotowa, Indonesian.

    An assessment of the state of the taxa that make up the species indicates that the species may no longer be present in Bali, It is extinct in Tanahjampea after capture, mainly before 1990, and it is not clear if he persists in kalatom (Eaton et al. 2015). In Lombok la especie todavía está presente, with a recent observation of a flock of 18 individuals above 1.500 metres in 2015 (F. Rheindt per Eaton et al. 2015), although given the lack of other records for many decades, it can be assumed that the population is likely to be small. Sumbawa now it may be the stronghold of the species, and it was suggested that the species is “secure(Eaton et al. 2015), and there is a large area of ​​potentially suitable habitat remaining on the island.

    Subspecies distribution

    Conservation:


    Vulnerable


    • Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.

    • Population trend: Decreasing.

    • Population size : 1600-7000 individuals.

    Rationale for the Red List category

    It is estimated that this newly divided species has a small population that is experiencing suspected moderately rapid population decline due to the pressure of the traps for wild bird trade. So, is classified as Vulnerable.

    Justification of the population

    It is estimated that the population size is lower to 10.000 mature individuals, sobre la base de una evaluación provisional de los lugares en los que es probable que se retenga cualquier número de la especie. It also, it is considered possible that the population supposedly higher in Sumbawa does not exceed 1.000 mature individuals.

    Justification trend

    It is suspected that the population is experiencing descent moderately fast because of unsustainable levels of exploitation.

    Conservation actions and research in progress

    Appendix II of the CITES, where they include species that are not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival. CMS Appendix II (Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals).

    Acciones de conservación e investigación propuestas

    – Estimate the population and assess population trends and scale of capture pressure.
    Llevar a cabo un estudio específico de la especie para identificar los sitios importantes, in order to provide protection.
    – Conduct research on their status and habitat use (con especial atención a la ecología alimentaria y la fragmentación de los bosques).
    – Initiate awareness campaigns to enlist the support of local people in protecting forests and preventing illegal trade.

    "Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet" in captivity:

    Rare in captivity. Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, must be placed in a well-managed captive breeding program and not sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival. However it copies sold from the Loroparque Foundation at a price of around 400 EUR.

    In captivity, It appeared in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, for example, in 1896 It was imported by the London Zoo. The first offspring of the world recorded in 1990 on India.

    The Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet It has a longevity 20 years in nature, 15-25 years in captivity.

    Alternative names:

    Rainbow Lorikeet (Sunset), Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet, Scarley-breasted Lorikeet, Sunset Lorikeet (English).
    Loriquet à face bleue, Loriquet à tête bleue (de Forsten), Loriquet à tête bleue [forsteni], Loriquet de Forsten (French).
    Bali-Allfarblori, Forstenlori (German).
    Lóris-de-forstein (Portuguese).
    Lori de Puesta del Sol, Lori pechiescarlata (español).


    Charles Lucien Bonaparte
    Charles Lucien Bonaparte

    scientific classification:


    Order: Psittaciformes
    Family: Psittaculidae
    Gender: Trichoglossus
    Scientific name: Trichoglossus forsteni
    Subpoena: Bonaparte, 1850
    Protonimo: Psittacus forsteni

    Images “Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet”:


    “Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet” (Trichoglossus forsteni)

      Sources:

      Avibase
      • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
      • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
      Birdlife

      Photos:

      (1) – Sunset Lorikeet (also known as the Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet and Forsten’s Lorikeet) at Cincinnati Zoo, USA by Ted [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
      (2) – A Sunset Lorikeet (also known as the Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet and Forsten’s Lorikeet) at Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio, USA by Ted [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
      (3) – Two Rainbow Lorikeets at Newport Aquarium. This subspecies of the Rainbow Lorikeet is also called Forsten’s Lorikeet by Trichoglossus_haematodus_-Newport_Aquarium-8a.jpg: Jeff Kubinaderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
      (4) – Two Rainbow Lorikeets at Newport Aquarium. This subspecies of the Rainbow Lorikeet is also called Forsten’s Lorikeet
      Date 22 April 2009, 15:31 (UTC)_haematodus_-Newport_Aquarium-8a.jpg: Jeff Kubinaderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
      (5) – Lories at the Jurong BirdPark, Singapore. Taken by Terence Ong in November 2006. Trichoglossus haematodus forsteni by rk, Singapore. Taken by Terence Ong in November 2006. Trichoglossus haematodus forsteniNo machine-readable author provided. Terence assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC BY 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons

      Sounds: Patrik Åberg, XC40063. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/40063

    Reischek's Parakeet
    Cyanoramphus hochstetteri

    Reischek's Parakeet

    Content


    Anatomy-parrots-eng

    Description:

    28 cms. length and 140 g. of weight.

    The Reischek's Parakeet (Cyanoramphus hochstetteri). Named after the Austrian ornithologist and taxidermist “Andreas Reischek“, el primer científico que visitó las Islas Antípodas. He was a passenger of Stella and reached the Islas Antípodas in February 1888.

    It is one of two species of parakeets Cyanoramphus who live in remote Islas Antípodas. It is a medium-sized green parrot, brightly colored, the outer flight feathers are light blue with a crown red, which closely it resembles other parakeets “red crown” (for example, Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae). But appearances are deceptive. Estudios genéticos revelan que el color de la corona puede no ser un buen indicador de la taxonomía del perico, and the tiny Malherbe's parakeet (Cyanoramphus malherbi) It may be the closest relative of Reischek's Parakeet. Es común en todas las Islas Antípodas, particularmente en áreas más abiertas y en las franjas costeras cercanas a las colonias de pingüinos.

    Habitat:

    The Reischek's Parakeet They are more abundant than Antipodes parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) en la mayoría de los hábitats. Significant differences were observed in diet between the two species of parakeets. are also evident strong seasonal and annual differences in diet related food availability. The Reischek's Parakeet They are strong fliers and have been observed flying between islands within the grupo de las Antípodas.

    Social behavior is similar to other species of parakeets Cyanoramphus, pero se ha observado que pasan períodos considerables tomando el sol y acicalándose en áreas protegidas. Like other species Cyanoramphus, are strongly territorial around nests, and they call loudly and chase intruders from nearby.

    They are usually found in pairs or, more commonly, in small groups that feed on or near the ground. You can often see them in meetings springs and wells isolated. Occasionally they flock fly to neighboring islands in search of food.

    Reproduction:

    We know relatively little about the breeding of the Reischek's Parakeet. Apparently nest de octubre a marzo dentro de túneles modificados o construidos dentro de las bases de grupos de tussocks or ferns. The nest is lined with small pieces of wood, feathers, moss, herbs and other dry materials. They can reuse nests each year.

    clutch size is unknown in nature. Es probable que su ecología y comportamiento reproductivo sean similares a los de otros pericos de Cyanoramphus.

    Food:

    It has been recorded feeding on leaves, flowers, berries and seeds 14 plant species. Invertebrates are a minor component of the diet. The Reischek's Parakeet occasionally feed carcasses petreles and albatrosses, but not as often as Antipodes parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor). They feed on the floor often, including mud and feces accumulated within colonies pingüino de las Antípodas (Eudyptes sclateri) unoccupied, cuando los pingüinos están lejos en su migración invernal.

    Distribution:

    The Reischek's Parakeet is endemic of the Islas Antípodas. Es común en todas las Islas Antípodas, particularmente en áreas más abiertas y en las franjas costeras cercanas a las colonias de pingüinos.

    Conservation:


    Vulnerable

    • Según Sistema de Clasificación de Amenazas de Nueva Zelanda de 2008: Vulnerable.

    • Population trend: Stable.

    • Population size : 4000-6000 individuals.

    The Reischek's Parakeet apparently they have a stable population, and are common within their distribution area of 2,000 has. They are protected by the isolated situation of the islands and their status Natural reserve strict. The greatest threat to long-term survival Reischek's Parakeet es la llegada de depredadores mamíferos. In the winter of 2016 we attempted to eradicate the mice Islas Antípodas.

    The species is also affected negatively by forestry operations: logging and burning have drastically reduced the available habitat, y la tala selectiva puede reducir el número de árboles con agujeros de anidación adecuados y oportunidades de búsqueda de alimento.

    It was hunted por los maoríes para alimentarse, and previously it was persecuted because birds were damaging crops and orchards.

    "Reischek's Parakeet" in captivity:

    Son confident desde el principio y en absoluto tímidos. Usually they are ready to breed in captivity. Although they are ripe (about five months), It is best not to allow them to play in the first year.

    Alternative names:

    Antipodes Island Parakeet, Antipodes Red-crowned (English).
    Perruche de Reischek, Perruche des Antipodes (French).
    Antipoden-Ziegensittich (German).
    Periquito de Reischek (Portuguese).
    Perico de Reischek, Perico Frentirrojo de las Antípodas (español).

    scientific classification:

    Andreas Reischek
    Andreas Reischek

    Order: Psittaciformes
    Family: Psittaculidae
    Gender: Cyanoramphus
    Scientific name: Cyanoramphus hochstetteri
    Subpoena: (Reischek, 1889)
    Protonimo: Platycercus hochstetteri

    Images:

    New Zealand Birds Online – Photos

    Sources:

    Avibase
    • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
    • Greene, T.C. 2013 [updated 2017]. Reischek’s parakeet. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz

    Photos:

    (1) – Cyanoramphus hochstetteri by Auckland Museum [CC BY 4.0]

    Sounds: Captive birds calling, Mount Bruce National Wildlife Centre, April 1973, 1215, Les McPherson, McPherson Natural History Unit Sound Archive, www.archivebirdsnz.com

    Pearly Parakeet
    Pyrrhura lepida

    Pearly Parakeet

    Content

    Description:

    Pearly Parakeet

    24 cm.. in length and 70–80 grams in weight.

    The Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida) has the head dark blackish brown with mottled light on nape; ear-coverts creamy white; cheeks pale bluish green.

    Upper mantle blue; robe bottom until uppertail-coverts, green. Scapulars green at the base, blue down; lesser wing coverts slightly green tinted olive; median coverts and older, mainly blue; some red at the leading edge of wing . Flight feathers Blue above, secondaries with green in the outerweb; dark gray below. Underwing-coverts bright red. Sides of the neck, the throat and the top chest, mainly brown with some blue marks and points yellowish brown, which gives an overall scaled aspect; The underparts remaining are green with blue on the flanks and the thighs. Upper, the tail mainly brown, green in the basal area and narrow blue tips. Bill black-brown; bare periophthalmic grey; irises dark brown; legs black slate.

    The plumages of both sexes are, apparently, similar.

    taxonomic history

    Confusing taxonomic history: until recently known as Pyrrhura perlata, but that name is actually applied to the known way long as Pyrrhura rhodogaster, currently a synonym for the species Pyrrhura perlata; the current species therefore assumes his next oldest name, Pyrrhura lepida. Forms a pair of species with parapatric Pyrrhura perlata, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific; the recent molecular phylogeny indicated that the closest relatives of these two are the Pyrrhura frontalis and Pyrrhura molinae.

    • Sound of the Pearly Parakeet.

    Description 3 subspecies:

    • Pyrrhura lepida anerythra

      (Neumann, 1927) – Similar to the species nominal but with the chest, the belly and cheeks green with occasional shades of blue.


    • Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens

      (Neumann, 1927) – Similar to the species nominal, but with the forecrown and crown brown, gray throat and upper chest, green on the upper cheeks; bluer in the lower chest

    • .

    • Pyrrhura lepida lepida

      (Wagler, 1832) – Nominal.

    Habitat:

    The Pearly Parakeet, usually, inhabits moist terra firme forests. The species has been observed in forest edges, clear areas and second growth.

    They are seen in flocks of up to ten birds, particularly in places where food is plentiful.

    Reproduction:

    They nest hollow logs. The laying is of 3-4 eggs incubados during 23 days; the hatchling needs close to 7 weeks for independence.

    Food:

    probably catkins, small fruits and flowers.

    Distribution and status:

    Size of its range (breeding/resident): 585.000 km2

    The Cotorra Pulcra is endemic to Northeast Brazil, to the South of the Amazonia. Observed around the basin Xingú and its tributaries, from the Pracui River and the left bank of Tocantins River, and from Belem and the Capim River, in For, east to around Sao Luis in maranhão, and from northern maranhão to the East of Rosary, although apparently no longer in some coastal areas, where according to sources, They were formerly quite common.

    Today are rare and extinct in many parts of their former range (for example, North of maranhão) due to large-scale deforestation, although they are, apparently, tolerant habitat alterations.

    The coerulescens subspecies It is near extinction due to the almost total loss of their habitat. The species is found in protected areas but its integrity is compromised by the illegal logging.

    Distribution 3 subspecies:

    Note:

    Pyrrhura lepida is the new name of the taxon Pyrrhura perlata, whose name has been shown to be applied first to an immature bird of that species, Crimson-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura perlata).

    Conservation:

    State of conservation ⓘ


    Vulnerable Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

    • Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.

    • Population trend: Decreasing.

    • Population size : 6700 individuals.

    Rationale for the Red List category

    From a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, While shows some tolerance degraded landscapes, It suspected that the population of this species decline rapidly over the next three generations and, therefore, It has risen to Vulnerable.

    Justification of the population

    The population is preliminarily estimated at the number of at least 10.000 individuals, approximately equivalent to 6.700 mature individuals. This requires confirmation.

    Justification of trend

    It is suspected that this species has lost between 47 and the 64,5% of habitat suitable within their distribution during three generations (18 years) starting from a model of deforestation Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the ., 2006, Bird et to the ., 2011). However, because the species seems to have some degree of tolerance to habitat degradation (A. Lees in litt ., 2011), It suspected to decline by 30-49% during three generations.

    Threats

    Despite an apparent tolerance of some degradation of the habitat, It is perhaps close to extinction in coastal areas of northern maranhão, due to the large scale deforestation (Juniper and Parr, 1998). They are distributed within protected areas, but its integrity is compromised by the illegal logging (Juniper and Parr 1998). Deforestation in the Amazon basin is expected to increase as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, provided by the expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et to the. , 2006). The proposed changes to Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land that a private owner is legally required to keep as forest and include an amnesty for owners who deforested before July 2008 (That they would later be absolved of the need to reforest the illegally cleared land) (Bird et to the., 2011).

    Conservation Actions Underway

    CITES Appendix II. The species is classified as Vulnerable nationally in Brazil (MMA 2014), with subspecies elegant and coerulescens considered in Danger (Silveira y Straube 2008).

    Conservation Actions Proposed

    * Census and population monitoring to assess the world's population and demographic trends and refine distribution and locate strengths.

    * Investigate its ecology, threats and conservation requirements. Strengthen the network of protected areas within the remaining core habitat.

    Effectively manage resources and management of existing protected areas and new, using the emerging opportunities for funding the management of protected areas with the overall goal of reducing carbon emissions and maximize the conservation of biodiversity. It is also essential conservation on private land, through the expansion of market pressures for proper land management and prevention of deforestation on land not suitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006).

    Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of protected riparian forest areas as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), that function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

    "Pearly Parakeet" in captivity:

    Rare in captivity.

    It is a bird Vulnerable nationally in Brazil and protected by CITES Appendix II; each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, must be placed in a well-managed captive breeding program and not sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

    Alternative names:

    Pearly Conure, Pearly Parakeet (English).
    Conure perlée, Perriche perlée, Perruche perlée (French).
    Blausteißsittich (German).
    tiriba, tiriba-de-barriga-vermelha, Tiriba-peróla, tiriba-pérola (Portuguese).
    Catita cola granate, Cotorra Pulcra, Cotorra Ventrirroja (español).


    scientific classification:

    Johann Georg Wagler
    Johann Georg Wagler

    Order: Psittaciformes
    Family: Psittacidae
    Genus: Pyrrhura
    Scientific name: Pyrrhura lepida
    Citation: (Wagler, 1832)
    Protonimo: Sittace lepida

    Images Pearly Parakeet:

    Videos "Pearly Parakeet"



    Especies del género Pyrrhura
  • Pyrrhura cruentata
  • Pyrrhura devillei
  • Pyrrhura frontalis
  • —- Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe
  • —- Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis
  • Pyrrhura lepida
  • —- Pyrrhura lepida anerythra
  • —- Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens
  • —- Pyrrhura lepida lepida
  • Pyrrhura perlata
  • Pyrrhura molinae
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae australis
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae flavoptera
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae hypoxantha
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae molinae
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae phoenicura
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae restricta
  • Pyrrhura pfrimeri
  • Pyrrhura griseipectus
  • Pyrrhura leucotis
  • Pyrrhura picta
  • —- Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps
  • —- Pyrrhura picta eisenmanni
  • —- Pyrrhura picta picta
  • —- Pyrrhura picta subandina
  • Pyrrhura emma
  • Pyrrhura amazonum
  • —- Pyrrhura amazonum amazonum
  • —- Pyrrhura amazonum lucida
  • —- Pyrrhura amazonum snethlageae
  • Pyrrhura lucianii
  • Pyrrhura roseifrons
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons dilutissima
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons roseifrons
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons parvifrons
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana
  • Pyrrhura viridicata
  • Pyrrhura egregia
  • —- Pyrrhura egregia egregia
  • —- Pyrrhura egregia obscura
  • Pyrrhura melanura
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura berlepschi
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura chapmani
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura melanura
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura pacifica
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura souancei
  • Pyrrhura orcesi
  • Pyrrhura albipectus
  • Pyrrhura rupicola
  • —- Pyrrhura rupicola rupicola
  • —- Pyrrhura rupicola sandiae
  • Pyrrhura calliptera
  • Pyrrhura hoematotis
  • —- Pyrrhura hoematotis hoematotis
  • —- Pyrrhura hoematotis immarginata
  • Pyrrhura rhodocephala
  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni
  • —- Pyrrhura hoffmanni gaudens
  • —- Pyrrhura hoffmanni hoffmanni

  • Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida)


    Sources:

    Avibase
    – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
    Birdlife

    Photos:

    (1) – Pyrrhura lepida by Florin FeneruFlickr
    (2) – Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens Neumann, 1929 – Huub Veldhuijzen van Zanten / Naturalis Biodiversity Center [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (3) – Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida) also known as the Pearly Conure in aviculture. A pet parrot By manginwu (originally posted to Flickr as my name is twoday.) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (4) – Tiriba-perola [Pearly Parakeet] by Helio LourenciniFlickr
    (5) – Tiriba pearl (Pyrrhura perlata) – www.avesilvestre.com.br
    (6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

    Sounds: GABRIEL MILK, XC212988. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/212988

    Maroon-bellied Parakeet
    Pyrrhura frontalis

    Maroon-bellied Parakeet

    Content

    Description:

    24-28 cm.. length and 72-94 g. of weight.

    The Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis) has a frontal band matte red close with a few more bright red feathers behind cere; lores blackish; feathery cheeks and crown, greyish green blackish tips; ear-coverts olive green.

    The upperparts They are green grass with a small area reddish at the bottom of the back. Primary coverts bluish green; wing-coverts grass-green, some feathers sometimes with olive tint. Primaries blue in the outerweb. green in the innerwebs, with dark tips; secondaries, mainly green. Sides of neck, throat and chest, brown oliváceo, feathers subterminally brown and black black tips, giving the whole a scalloped effect; lower breast green with a patch brown in the center of belly; flanks, the thighs and undertail-coverts, green. Upper, green tail in basal half, Shaded bronze to reddish tones on the tips; below, the tail is opaque brown.

    Maroon-bellied Parakeet

    Bill grey, sometimes paler in base mandible; yellow cere; bare periophthalmic whitish grey; irises dark brown; legs dark gray.

    Both sexes are similar. The incipient brown lacks the belly. Immature paler than adult with irises darker.

    Taxonomic note:

    Closely related to Blaze-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura devillei), with which it can be conspecific (populations or races that belong to the same species). It has been suggested that the species may also be conspecific with Green-cheeked Parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae).

    • Sound of the Maroon-bellied Parakeet.

    Description 2 subspecies:

    • Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe

      (Vieillot, 1818) – As the nominal, but the upper surface of the tail It is completely green olive. Some orange-red markings on the bend of wing in some birds.


    • Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis

      (Vieillot, 1818) – Subspecies nominal.

    Habitat:

    Video – "Maroon-bellied Parakeet" (Pyrrhura frontalis)

    The Maroon-bellied Parakeet They extend through several forest habitats, forests, margins and marshy habitats, including the remaining patches Araucaria (for example, in Rio Grande do Sul). In the Paraguayan Chaco They seem almost confined to coastal areas of growth over the Paraguay River and its main tributaries. In Southeast Brazil They are mainly distributed in the highlands, a 1.400 meters above sea level; in other parts of the lowlands up near 1.000 m, where they are generally tolerant to disturbance, even reaching visit urban parks in the city of Assumption, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, and feeding in gardens (Rio Grande do Sul). Gregarias, usually in flocks of 6-12 birds (until 40).

    Reproduction:

    They nest in the cavity of the trees. The breeding season It covers the months from October to December. Clutch 5-6 eggs.
    The female incubated one for almost 30 days. Las crías abandonan el nido después de unos 45 days, tras los cuales continúan siendo alimentados durante algún tiempo por los dos miembros de la pareja.

    Food:

    In Southeast Brazil, Their diet includes pulp of Euterpe edulis, seeds of Schinus, Xylopia, Cecropia, Croton, Miconia, ficus, Psidium and Pinus; flowers of Ambrosia and Vernonia and aryl of Protium; elsewhere, the Araucaria It is a very important food source, for example in southern Brazil; also they feed dried fruits and fruits of Campomanesia xanthocarpa and Podocarpus lambertii; homoptera sheets Persea pyrifolia and fly larvae. The cultivos de naranja y de maíz sometimes they suffer from their visits, but depredations were lower compared to the damage caused by the Parrot Argentina (Myiopsitta monachus) in cornfields.

    Distribution and status:

    Size of its range (reproductive / residents): 2.690.000 km2

    The Maroon-bellied Parakeet It is endemic in Southeast South America, from the southeast of Brazil to the North of Argentina.

    In Brazil They can be observed from south Bay ,through coastal states, until Rio Grande do Sul, and west, in the southeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil and South of Mato Grosso, through Paraguay (extension of records suggests its presence throughout the west end), North of Uruguay and North of Argentina, in Missions, Currents, Formosa, Chaco and sporadically in the past, in the North of Santa Fe (a population in Buenos Aires probably descended from leaks), and southeastern Bolivia.

    Resident. Locally común a muy común (for example, in Missions) but rare elsewhere (for example Currents) and extinguished in places due to conversion of forests for agriculture.

    With He commercialized in large quantities with substantial late eighties exports averaging over 5.000 birds per year. There is a large captive population.

    Distribution 2 subspecies:

    • Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe

      (Vieillot, 1818) – Central and southern Paraguay, northern Uruguay and northern Argentina.


    • Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis

      (Vieillot, 1818) – Subspecies nominal. Southeastern Brazil from southern Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul including southeastern Minas Gerais and south and southeast of Mato Grosso.

    Conservation:

    State of conservation ⓘ


    Status Minor Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

    • Red List Category: Least concern

    • Population trend: Stable.

    Rationale for the Red List category

    This species has a extremely large range and, therefore, it does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable at the discretion of the distribution area size (Extension <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión o calidad del hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número de lugares o fragmentación severa). La tendencia de la población parece ser estable, por lo que la especie no se aproxima a los umbrales de Vulnerables bajo el criterio de tendencia poblacional (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un declive continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as least concern.

    Justification of the population

    The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

    Justification of trend

    They suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

    Threats

    The species has been marketed strongly: from 1981, when it was included in Appendix II of CITES, 52.523 individuals captured in the wild have been recorded in international trade (Trade database of UNEP-WCMC CITES, January 2005).

    "Maroon-bellied Parakeet" in captivity:

    The species is listed in Appendix II of the CITES.

    There is a large captive population. They are intelligent birds, friendly and active. Readily they adapt to human contact and are easy to train. They are among the quietest cotorras, but its powerful high-pitched voices can become very annoying. Like other parakeets, They tend to express emotion with a series of loud cries, chillidos.

    Alternative names:

    Maroon bellied Parakeet, Maroon Parakeet, Maroon-bellied Conure, Maroon-bellied Parakeet, Reddish-bellied Parakeet, Scaly-breasted Parakeet (English).
    Conure de Vieillot, Conure ou, Perriche de Vieillot, Perruche à oreillons bruns, Perruche d’Azara, Perruche de Vieillot (French).
    Braunohrsittich, Braunohr-Sittich (German).
    cara-suja, periquito, tiriba, Tiriba-de-testa-vermelha, tiriva (Portuguese).
    Chiripepe, Chiripepé, Chiripepé cabeza verde, Chiripepé de cabeza verde, Cotorra Chiripepé, Perico de Vientre Rojo (español).


    scientific classification:

    Vieillot, Jean Pierre Louis
    Vieillot, Jean Pierre Louis

    Order: Psittaciformes
    Family: Psittacidae
    Genus: Pyrrhura
    Scientific name: Pyrrhura frontalis
    Citation: (Vieillot, 1818)
    Protonimo: Psittacus frontalis

    Images Maroon-bellied Parakeet:



    Especies del género Pyrrhura
  • Pyrrhura cruentata
  • Pyrrhura devillei
  • Pyrrhura frontalis
  • —- Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe
  • —- Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis
  • Pyrrhura lepida
  • —- Pyrrhura lepida anerythra
  • —- Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens
  • —- Pyrrhura lepida lepida
  • Pyrrhura perlata
  • Pyrrhura molinae
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae australis
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae flavoptera
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae hypoxantha
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae molinae
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae phoenicura
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae restricta
  • Pyrrhura pfrimeri
  • Pyrrhura griseipectus
  • Pyrrhura leucotis
  • Pyrrhura picta
  • —- Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps
  • —- Pyrrhura picta eisenmanni
  • —- Pyrrhura picta picta
  • —- Pyrrhura picta subandina
  • Pyrrhura emma
  • Pyrrhura amazonum
  • —- Pyrrhura amazonum amazonum
  • —- Pyrrhura amazonum lucida
  • —- Pyrrhura amazonum snethlageae
  • Pyrrhura lucianii
  • Pyrrhura roseifrons
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons dilutissima
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons roseifrons
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons parvifrons
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana
  • Pyrrhura viridicata
  • Pyrrhura egregia
  • —- Pyrrhura egregia egregia
  • —- Pyrrhura egregia obscura
  • Pyrrhura melanura
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura berlepschi
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura chapmani
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura melanura
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura pacifica
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura souancei
  • Pyrrhura orcesi
  • Pyrrhura albipectus
  • Pyrrhura rupicola
  • —- Pyrrhura rupicola rupicola
  • —- Pyrrhura rupicola sandiae
  • Pyrrhura calliptera
  • Pyrrhura hoematotis
  • —- Pyrrhura hoematotis hoematotis
  • —- Pyrrhura hoematotis immarginata
  • Pyrrhura rhodocephala
  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni
  • —- Pyrrhura hoffmanni gaudens
  • —- Pyrrhura hoffmanni hoffmanni

  • Sources:

    Avibase
    – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
    Birdlife

    Photos:

    (1) – TIRIBA-DE-TESTA-VERMELHA Jardim Botânico de São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (2) – Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) on a wooden stump. Jardim Botânico de São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (3) – Pyrrhura frontalis Ilhabela-SP By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil (Maroon-bellied parakeet ( Pyrrhura frontalis)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (4) – Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) – Horto Florestal de São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (5) – Pyrrhura frontalis – Track dos Tucanos – Tapiraí-SP IBA: Maciço Florestal de Paranapiacaba By Jairmoreirafotografia (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

    Sounds: Gustavo Luz, XC344423. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/344423

    Blue-throated Parakeet
    Pyrrhura cruentata

    Blue-throated Parakeet

    Content

    Description:

    Blue-throated Parakeet
    30 cm.. length and 90 g. of weight.

    The Blue-throated Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) It is a very colorful bird; has the forecrown, crown and rear of the neck, dark brown with pale orange sides and with some feathers (especially posteriorly) giving speckled appearance; lores, cheeks top, supercilii area and ear-coverts, dull red, merging on sides of neck with yellowish patch bordered behind by blue band running across nape; bottom of the cheeks, green.

    Mantle, back and scapulars, green; amplio parche carmesí en la lower back and rump; uppertail-coverts green. Bend of wing bright red; upperwing-coverts green. Outerwebs of the primaries, blue, green on the innerwebs; secondaries green on outerweb, Gray on innerwebs; flight feather with dark tips; infra-wing coverts minor, olive green, the gray greater coverts; underside of flight feather, olive gray wash. Chin green; the throat and the top chest, blue with some dark tips; underparts verdes con un parche de tamaño variable de color carmesí en el belly. Upper, the tail It is golden in color with green tint; brown below. Bill grey; bare periophthalmic grey; irises yellow orange; legs grey.

    Both sexes similar, but the irises perhaps brighter in the male. Immature more off, with less red at bend of wing.

    • Sound of the Blue-throated Parakeet.

    Habitat:

    The Blue-throated Parakeet inhabit, mainly, in primary forests of the Atlantic forest or on the edges of forests and, sometimes, in slightly modified natural forests, penetran en las zonas agrícolas donde los árboles forestales altos sombrean los cultivos de cacao. Unknown seasonal and dry forests. (Usually in lowlands below 400 m, but 960 metres in Minas Gerais, Brazil, usually in flocks of 6-20 birds(mainly 8-12), at least where they are locally common.

    Reproduction:

    Nests in tree hollows. The breeding, apparently, It occurs in the austral spring, from June to October. Clutch 2-4.

    Food:

    The diet of the Blue-throated Parakeet includes plants of Talisia esculenta, Alchornea iricurana, Mabea fistulifera, Trema micrantha and Cecropia. The fruits of Miconia hypoleuca pueden ser importantes en períodos de escasez. Birds feeding in the canopy and the lower edge vegetation, never out of the woods; Once he observed feeding on the Golden-capped Parakeet (Aratinga auricapillus).

    Distribution and status:

    Size of its range (breeding/resident): 281.000 km2

    Endémicas del este de Brazil, from Bahia until Rio de Janeiro. Antiguamente se las conocía desde Jequié and islanders, Bay, but the latest reports are North Río Jequitinhonha, south of which, reports come from remaining patches of forest (including the Monte Pascoal National Park) to the border Espírito Santo.

    Las aves continúan en las pocas zonas boscosas del este de Minas Gerais, Brazil as the Rio Doce State Park, the Book Caratinga (about Raúl Soares) and about Mantena and several locations in northern Espirito Santo, including Biological reserves Great stream and Sooretama and neighboring Linhares Sooretama reserve. It is apparently absent from the southern state but survives near Desengano State Park in the State of Rio de Janeiro, the southernmost site which have been observed recently.

    Resident. Común y difundida a finales del siglo XIX, but decreased dramatically with massive deforestation within its range due to agriculture, speak, minería, roads and urban development. The final bastion (el único lugar donde las aves permanecen comunes) It is complex reserve Sooretama / Linhares; existen números mucho más pequeños en otros remanentes forestales (protected but widely separated). La pérdida de hábitat continúa en Bay with some sites (for example Monte Pascoal) under intense pressure.

    Rare in captivity, but trapping for illegal trade is an additional threat. Listed in Appendix I of the CITES and protected by Brazilian law.

    Conservation:

    State of conservation ⓘ


    Vulnerable Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

    • Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Vulnerable.

    • Population trend: Decreasing.

    • Population size : 2500-9999 individuals.

    Rationale for the Red List category

    This species survives in scattered fragments of Atlantic Forest, where the extent of suitable habitat continues to decline rapidly. The remaining populations are small, severely fragmented into isolated reserves, where protection is largely inadequate and are suspected to be declining rapidly. So, qualifies as Vulnerable.

    Justification of the population

    The population se calcula en el número 2.500-9.999 mature individuals based on an evaluation of known records, descriptions of abundance and size range. This is consistent with estimates of population density recorded for congeners or close relatives with similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of its distribution area is occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3.750-14.999 individuals, rounded here to 3.500-15.000 individuals.

    Justification of trend

    continued rapid population decline is suspected because rates loss of habitat.

    Threats

    The extensive and continuous clearing of the forest You are responsible for its current fragmented distribution. Their apparent tolerance to shade cocoa plantations provides little hope because shading techniques since the early 1980 They have involved the use of banana trees and Erythrina, rather than stand, and unstable prices have led to conversion to pasture. Muchas poblaciones restantes se ven afectadas por amenazas específicas del lugar, as conflicts between habitat conservation and the rights of local communities in the Monte Pascoal National Park. The capture for the cage bird trade It is a relatively new phenomenon, Although the species is rare in domestic and international markets.

    Conservation Actions Underway

    CITES Appendix I. It is considered nationally Vulnerable in Brazil (Silveira y Straube 2008, MMA 2014), and is protected by Brazilian law. It is in the National Parks of Chapada da Diamantina and Monte Pascoal, on Experimental Station Barrolândia, on Linhares Forest Reserve, on Book Caratinga, in sweet River and probably in the Desengano State Parks, and in the Biological Reserves Great Stream, Deer Stream and Sooretama (Wege and Long 1995).

    Conservation Actions Proposed

    Survey to locate additional populations and protect undetected (Snyder et to the., 2000), especially in southern Bay and northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ensure protection de facto key reserves, especially Sooretama, Linhares and Estação Vera Cruz. Confiscation of birds of trade and well-planned release of these birds in areas of the previous range of species to improve recovery and connectivity of disjunct populations (J. Gilardi in little).

    "Blue-throated Parakeet" in captivity:

    Protected by CITES Appendix I.

    Rara in national and international markets. Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, must be placed in a well-managed captive breeding program and not sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

    Alternative names:

    Black-tailed Parakeet, Blue throated Conure, Blue throated Parakeet, Blue-chested Parakeet, Blue-throated Conure, Blue-throated Parakeet, Ochre Marked Conure, Ochre-marked Parakeet, Red-eared Parakeet, Red-rumped Parakeet (English).
    Conure tiriba, Perriche tiriba, Perruche tiriba (French).
    Blaulatzsittich, Blaulatz-Sittich (German).
    cara-suja, fura-mato, tiriba, tiriba-fura-mato, Tiriba-grande, tiriva (Portuguese).
    Cotorra Tiriba, Perico Grande (español).


    scientific classification:

    Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied
    Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied

    Order: Psittaciformes
    Family: Psittacidae
    Genus: Pyrrhura
    Scientific name: Pyrrhura cruentata
    Citation: (Wied-Neuwied, 1820)
    Protonimo: bloody parrot


    Images Blue-throated Parakeet:



    Especies del género Pyrrhura
  • Pyrrhura cruentata
  • Pyrrhura devillei
  • Pyrrhura frontalis
  • —- Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe
  • —- Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis
  • Pyrrhura lepida
  • —- Pyrrhura lepida anerythra
  • —- Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens
  • —- Pyrrhura lepida lepida
  • Pyrrhura perlata
  • Pyrrhura molinae
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae australis
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae flavoptera
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae hypoxantha
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae molinae
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae phoenicura
  • —- Pyrrhura molinae restricta
  • Pyrrhura pfrimeri
  • Pyrrhura griseipectus
  • Pyrrhura leucotis
  • Pyrrhura picta
  • —- Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps
  • —- Pyrrhura picta eisenmanni
  • —- Pyrrhura picta picta
  • —- Pyrrhura picta subandina
  • Pyrrhura emma
  • Pyrrhura amazonum
  • —- Pyrrhura amazonum amazonum
  • —- Pyrrhura amazonum lucida
  • —- Pyrrhura amazonum snethlageae
  • Pyrrhura lucianii
  • Pyrrhura roseifrons
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons dilutissima
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons roseifrons
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons parvifrons
  • —- Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana
  • Pyrrhura viridicata
  • Pyrrhura egregia
  • —- Pyrrhura egregia egregia
  • —- Pyrrhura egregia obscura
  • Pyrrhura melanura
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura berlepschi
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura chapmani
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura melanura
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura pacifica
  • —- Pyrrhura melanura souancei
  • Pyrrhura orcesi
  • Pyrrhura albipectus
  • Pyrrhura rupicola
  • —- Pyrrhura rupicola rupicola
  • —- Pyrrhura rupicola sandiae
  • Pyrrhura calliptera
  • Pyrrhura hoematotis
  • —- Pyrrhura hoematotis hoematotis
  • —- Pyrrhura hoematotis immarginata
  • Pyrrhura rhodocephala
  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni
  • —- Pyrrhura hoffmanni gaudens
  • —- Pyrrhura hoffmanni hoffmanni

  • Blue-throated Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata)


    Sources:

    Avibase
    – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
    Birdlife

    Photos:

    (1) – Ochre-marked Parakeet (also known as Blue-chested Parakeet, Blue-throated Parakeet, or Blue-throated Conure) at Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria, one of the Canary islands, Spain By ipfreaks (originally posted to Flickr as Papagei) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (2) – Blue-chested Parakeet, (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure. Pet parrot By ➨ Redvers (originally posted to Flickr as Hector and toy 8) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (3) – Blue-chested Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure at Central Park Zoo, New York, USA By Claire Houck [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (4) – Blue-chested Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure. Pet with yellow toy By ➨ Redvers (originally posted to Flickr as Hector and toy 4) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (5) – Blue-chested Parakeet (also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure); two on a perch By TJ Lin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

    Sounds: Jeremy Recall, XC85365. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/85365

    Large-billed Parrotlet
    Forpus crassirostris

    Large-billed Parrotlet

    Content

    Description:

    12 a 13 cm.. height.

    The Large-billed Parrotlet (Forpus crassirostris) has the crown, back of the neck and ear-coverts, green; the forecrown, cheeks, eye area and lores, emerald green.

    Upperparts and wings, green, except the part inferior of the back, rump and greater coverts, are cobalt blue and blue color toward the base of the secondaries. Primary coverts pale grayish violet color which contrasts with the darker coverts They are cobalt blue. Plumas del vuelo Matte metallic blue. The underparts green with yellow hues. Upper, the tail green; undertail, pale green.

    Bill and cere Pink with gray base up to the mandible top, laterally compressed in the Center; bare periophthalmic pale grey: irises dark brown: legs Gris-Rosado pale.
    Female all green with belly yellowish green without blue color wing-coverts visible in the male.
    Immature like adult respective, but with the blue of young males mixed with green.

    Taxonomic note:

    some authors (for example, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Forshaw, 1973, Monroe y Sibley, 1993) They have used the name Forpus xanthopterygius, while other authors (Stotz et to the., 1996, Collar 1997) They have followed Pinto (1945) and used the name Forpus crassirostris to define this species.

    • Sound of the Large-billed Parrotlet.

    Habitat:

    They inhabit in forest edges, clear, riparian forests, parks and gardens in urban areas.

    Reproduction:

    They build their nests in tree cavities or exploit abandoned nests Hornero Común (Furnarius rufus); lining the nesting chamber with grass and the female lays 3 a 7 eggs White. The incubation, lasts approximately 18 days, se realiza por la hembra y durante este período el macho se encarga de alimentarla.

    Food:

    They compose your diet seeds, fruit, plants and flowers herbaceous. They are feeding both the ground and in trees and shrubs. Among the fruits they are highly appreciated by the Large-billed Parrotlet, palm, Trumpet trees (Cecropia spp), así como semillas y brotes de Paineiras (Ceiba speciosa).

    Melo et al, 2009, reported mass consumption flowers of Handroanthus serratifolius (Fam. Bignoniaceae), in particular its nectar, what it appears to be an important power source especially during the dry season, where scarce fruits.

    Distribution:

    Size of its range (players / residents) 1.312.215 km²

    Southeast of Colombia to the East of Ecuador, North of Peru and West Brazil.

    Conservation:


    Status


    • Current category of the Red List of the UICN: Least concern.

    • Population trend: Stable.

    Justification of the population

    The size of the world's population of the Blue-winged Parrotlet It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

    Justification of trend

    Suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

    "Large-billed Parrotlet" in captivity:

    In captivity they are not very frequent. They are birds enable you require a large cage. Quiet and something Shy. Not is easy to accommodate them with other parrots.
    Can be prone to it Obesity.

    Alternative names:

    Blue-winged Parrotlet (crassirostris), Large-billed Parrotlet (English).
    Toui à gros bec, Toui de Spix (crassirostris) (French).
    Large-billed Parrotlet (German).
    Tuim, Large-billed Parrotlet (Portuguese).
    Catita enana, Lorito Aliazul, Periquito Azulejo, Cotorrita aliazul, Lorito de alas azules (español).

    Władysław Taczanowski


    scientific classification:


    Order: Psittaciformes
    Family: Psittacidae
    Genus: Forpus
    Scientific name: Forpus crassirostris
    Citation: (By Taczanowsk, 1883)
    Protonimo: Psittacula crassirostris

    Images "Large-billed Parrotlet"

    ————————————————————————————————

    “Large-billed Parrotlet” (Forpus crassirostris)


    Sources:

    Avibase
    – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

    Photos:

    (1) – Large-billed Parrotlet (Forpus crassirostris) Male – Photo by Tom Friedel – Puerto Nariño, amazon, Colombia – birdphotos.com

    Sounds: John V. Moore, XC257657. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/257657