Festive Parrot
Amazona festiva

Amazona festiva

Content

Description

38-41 cm.. tall and 370g. weight.

The Festive Parrot (Amazona festiva) has the cheeks and sides neck Green with strong blue diffusion; lores and a close frontal band red; feathers above and behind them eyes blue; Front rather yellowish green. Crown Green but darker; Feathers of the nape of color green with a band terminal dark. Mantle, scapulars, top of the back and uppertail-coverts dark green; Rump and the greater part of the low back bright red. Primary coverts Violet Blue. Other coverts dark green.

Amazon-festive-6

Edge carpal of the wing and margin of the outerweb of the primaries, blue; innerwebs black; secondaries dark blue-tipped, secondaries more interior Green. Underwing-coverts green. Chin and throat blue; Breast and belly green; coverts infra-flows brighter yellowish green. Tail green, of paler green yellowish at the tip; Trace reddish at the base of some feathers.


Anatomy-parrots-eng

The bill color cuerno-marron; Iris yellow, legs dark grey.

Both sexes are similar.

Immature have irises dark and show a less intense color in the head. Its back low is practically Green; some of the pens outside of it tail they have a red base.

Subspecies description

  • Amazona festiva bodini

    (Finsch, 1873) – It has a Broadband Violet Blue and red in the front behind the eyes.


  • Amazona festiva festiva

    (Linnaeus,1758) – The nominal.

Habitat:

Video "Festive Parrot"

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Festive Parrot they attend primary and secondary lowland forests, mainly várzea, swamp forest and River Islands, also igapó (permanently flooded forest), usually are found near the water and can prevent forests of Earth firm, Although also reported in Gallery forests and savannas with scattered trees.

Observed in cocoa plantations in Brazil. At altitudes of 500 metres in Colombia and 100 metres in Venezuela. Usually in small flocks with larger meetings occasionally reported. Flocks of up to 50 birds are about Leticia between the months of May-June. Tend to gather is by the afternoon and in the evening in products communal.

Reproduction:

It nests in hollow of trees dead between mayo to June.
A breeding pair averages 3 eggs in each clutch of eggs and the incubation period is usually about 28 days.

Food:

Usually in numerous flocks, little of its power is known.

Distribution:

The Festive Parrot found in the North of South America mainly as two large populations disjunct in the basins of the Amazon and Orinoco.

A population occupies the Northwest of Guyana (very few records) and Venezuela in southern Apure in the Meta River and a half Orinoco to Delta Amacuro.

The second extends from parts of the lowlands of the East (Colombia including the lower part of the Casanare River, lower Meta River and Rio Vaupes towards the South through the Amazon of Ecuador (where birds are reported in Rio Napo, but few recent records) and northeast of Peru, and further to the East through the West of Brazil, from Rio Branco, Rio Negro and bottom of the Madeira River up to the Basin Amazon East in Amapá and For and at the mouth of the Amazon on Ilha Mexiana (where is its status uncertain).

Probably in its greater part resident, Although sporadic Bird on the edge of its distribution area in Ecuador and Guyana, They suggest seasonal movements outside their range, obviously low in Guyana and local in Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, but more common in parts of the Amazon Western in Brazil and locally the Amazona more common in some areas of Colombia (for example by of Leticia).

Pursued to the trade in live birds in parts of its area of distribution (for example, Peru). Its swampy habitat is not much in demand for agriculture, by what does not seems to have a contraction apparent large scale of its population.

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Amazona festiva bodini

    (Finsch, 1873) – East of Colombia to the basin of the Orinoco of Venezuela


  • Amazona festiva festiva

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – The nominal.

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Status Near Threatened (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

While it has declined locally, It remains fairly common throughout a large part of its distribution area, and may even be close to cities as Manaus and Iquitos.

The size of the world population It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “rare

As a result, is considered of least concern by BirdLife International and the IUCN , Although it was categorized as vulnerable in 2012, because of patterns of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest and the susceptibility to hunt, predicts that the population will decrease quickly during the next three generations.

Festive Parrot in captivity:

Very rare in captivity.

His temperament is extremely excitable. Males tend to be aggressive. Good to excellent imitator.

It feeds on the sunflower seeds or other provided you ,fruit, vegetables etc..

Alternative names:

Festive Parrot, Festive Amazon, Red-backed Amazon, Red-backed Parrot (English).
Amazone tavoua, Amazona festiva (French).
Blaubartamazone (German).
Papagaio-da-várzea, papa-cacau, tauá, tavua (Portuguese).
Amazona de Lomo Rojo, Amazona Festiva, Lora Festiva (Spanish).
Lora Festiva (Colombia).
Loro de Lomo Rojo (Peru).
Loro Lomirrojo (Venezuela).


Scientific classification:

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona festiva
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protonimo: Psittacus festivus


Festive Parrot Images:



Sources:

  • Book parrots, Parrots and macaws Neotropical
  • Avibase

Photos:

(1) – Festive Amazon at Loro Parque, Teneriffe By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Festive_Amazon_BW. JPG: Berthold Werner (Festive_Amazon_BW. JPG) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Festive Amazon at Tulsa Zoo, USA. This subspecies is known as Bodinus’ Amazon By Christopher G from Tulsa Oklahoma, USA (Amazon Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A pet Festive Amazon By Tutu … F. Lopes (originally posted to Flickr as ♠) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Two Festive Amazons in an aviary at a bird park in Kaluga Oblast, Russia. They are the subspecies Amazona festiva bodini, common name Bodinus’ Amazon. They are probably jostling for room on their perch By Remiz [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Festive Parrot By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Amazona_festiva-8.jpg: frank wouters [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Image from http://search.abaa.org/dbp2/book1700_08832.html

Sounds: Sergio Chaparro Herrera

St. Lucia Parrot
Amazona versicolor

St. Lucia Parrot

Content

Description:

43 cm.. length and 700-800 g. of weight.

St. Lucia Parrot

The St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor) has the lores, cheeks and forecrown, bright blue; crown, ear-coverts and lower cheeks, paler blue with iridescent emerald suffusion from some angles; dark tips to feathers on head.

Hindneck neck, nape and upperparts, yellowish-olive, many feathers with visible black tips, giving the whole a barred effect strong, especially in the upper region. Wing coverts yellowish green olive. Primary coverts dyed blue, rest with black tips to some feathers. Primaries blue; bases of external secondarys forman speculum red, blue tips; secondary internal green and blue at the base to the tips. Underwing, yellowish green with blackish tips to some feathers; flight feather bluish green. Chin and throat, bright blue with blackish tips to feathers; tips of feathers on lower throat and top of the chest, bright red forming a patch distinct red patch or mottled red area; chest and belly rather yellowish-green, blackish tips and brick red in the subterminal area of some feathers, giving scalloped appearance with scattered rusty patches; the thighs and undertail-coverts, green-yellow. Tail bluish green in the center, outer feathers green with large yellowish green tips and hidden red bases. Bill grey; irises orange; legs grey.


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Probably no sexual dimorphism.

Immature has irises brown.

  • Sound of the St. Lucia Parrot.

Habitat:

Video "St. Lucia Parrot"

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

Mainly they inhabit the canopy montana primary rainforest, but they make inroads into areas of secondary growth to feed. Reported flocks of up 20 birds. living forms community.

Reproduction:

They nest in tree hollows. Nests observed in trees Dacryodes excelsa, Pouleria and Tetracera caribaeum. Breeding season in February-August. Clutch usually two eggs, Although, usually, only one young per nest thrives.

Food:

Its diet includes flowers and fruits of Clusia, Fruits of Talauma dodecapetala, Acrocomia irenensis, Pouleria, Dacryodes excelsa, Sloanea massoni, Byrsonima martinicensis, Miconia mirabilis, Pterocarpus officinalis and Euterpe globosa; also they have been seen feeding on bananas after the hurricane and presumably due to the depletion of natural food sources. Absence of common areas from August to November possibly linked to the lack of fruitfulness of Clusia.

Distribution and status:

Size of the area of distribution (raising / resident): 230 km2

Confined to St. lucia in the Lesser Antilles, now in the central and southern mountains, although you were formerly widespread everywhere where the rainforest grew. The species has suffered a contraction of the range since the nineteenth century and now It occupies an area of ​​only 65-70 km2 from Millet and Mont Lacombe in the North, until Mont Beucop and Calfourc in the East, Piton Pig, St Piton, St Desrache and Big store in the south to Morne Gimie in the west and Mont Houlemon in the Northwest. The results of studies on the species suggest that the southwestern part of this area is the most densely populated of parrots, while relatively few live in the northeast.

Plentiful mid-nineteenth century, but decreasing rapidly to very little in the early twentieth century. Subsequently they recovered, with an estimated population of 1.000 birds in 1950. They declined again sixties, mostly due to hunting; observations in 1977 They estimated that there were more than 100 birds. steady increase since then with an estimated population of 300-350 birds in 1990.

The threats main arise from habitat loss and its hunting for food and pet trade as. Forestry practices that lead to the removal of mature trees (favorite breeding sites) could pose additional pressure. They seem to be less susceptible to hurricanes than their counterparts in Dominica, but this may be due to conservation efforts rather than any intrinsic ability to withstand the effects of severe storms.

Can compete for nesting sites with Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus), which it has increased considerably since 1950.

Amazona versicolor Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Vulnerable Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: In increased.

• Population size : 230-330

Justification of the red list category

Conservation action may have saved this species from extinction. The numbers are now increasing and there is some evidence of a small extension of the range. However, the habitat area apparently adequate (but vacated) It may be waning. If this begins to affect the habitat occupied, the species can be described as danger of extinction. In the news, its small population size and small size on one island are calling it Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The population is estimated at 350-500 individuals, approximately equal to 230-330 mature individuals.

Justification of trend

No new data on population trends, so it is assumed that the species continues increasing.

Threats

The human population St. lucia It is growing at a considerable rate, increasing the pressure on the forest and resulting in habitat loss (Copsey 1995). The selective logging of mature trees You can significantly reduce breeding sites (Juniper and Parr 1998), and hurricanes, the hunting and the trade pose new threats. There have been recent efforts to raise the moratorium on hunting within forest reserves, which seriously threaten this species (J. D. Gilardi in litt., 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
Coat of arms of Saint Lucia

Appendices I and II of CITES. This protected by national legislation (J. D. Gilardi in litt., 1999).

Education programs and awareness have made this bird in a National symbol.

This has eliminated successfully hunting (Juniper and Parr 1998), helped by a moratorium on hunting within forest reserves (J. D. Gilardi in litt., 1999).

In 1975 program was established captive breeding, and in 1995 He had developed a total of 19 young birds (Copsey, 1995).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Maintain the moratorium on hunting within all forest reserves. Conduct a studyor basic food and breeding ecology. Designate the remaining habitat protected areas. Reassess the objectives of the program captive breeding.

St. Lucia Parrot in captivity:

Extremely rare; currently only it found in the Jersey Zoo

Appendices I and II CITES. This protected by national legislation.

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-managed program captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, with the objective of ensure their survival long-term.

Alternative names:

Blue-masked Amazon, Blue-masked Parrot, St Lucia Amazon, St Lucia Parrot, St. Lucia Amazon, St. Lucia Parrot, St.Lucia amazon, Versicolored Parrot, Versicoloured Parrot (English).
Amazone de Sainte-Lucie, Amazone versicolore, Amazone versicolore de Sainte-Lucie (French).
Blaumaskenamazone, Blaustirnamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-santa-lúcia (Portuguese).
Amazona de Santa Lucia, Amazona de Santa Lucía, Amazona de Sta. Lucia (Spanish).

Amazona versicolor Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona versicolor
Citation: (Statius Müller, 1776)
Protonimo: Psittacus versicolor

Images St. Lucia Parrot:


St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor)


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Saint Lucia Parrot(Amazona versicolor) by Josh MoreFlickr
(2) – Chrysotis bouqueti (a.k.a. Amazona versicolor, the St. Lucia amazon, or the St. Lucia parrot) by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Allen T. Chartier, XC9438. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/9438

Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet
Trichoglossus forsteni

Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet

Content

Description:

25 - 30 centimeters length and 100-157 g. of weight.

The distinctive and colorful Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet (Trichoglossus forsteni) has the head dark blue, neck pale green, chest smooth red, and belly dark blue. The remaining plumage It is a bright pale green, and the bill typically red.

In flight the species shows a flash of bright yellow on the inside of all flight feather, and coverts bright red at the bottom of the wings.

  • Sound of the Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet.

taxonomy:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Trichoglossus [haematodus, rosenbergii, moluccana, forsteni, capistratus, weberi] (sensu lato) by some authors.

The specific epithet forsteni commemorates the Dutch naturalist Eltio Alegondas Forestry.

Subspecies description
  • Trichoglossus forsteni djampeanus

    (Hartert 1897) – They differ from the species nominal by the fact that their head It is darker and more evidently streaked with bright purple / blue.


  • Trichoglossus forsteni forsteni

    (Bonaparte 1850) – Nominal.


  • Trichoglossus forsteni mitchellii

    (Gray,GR 1859) – Both adults have head black / brown with gray / green streaks in crown up to the cheeks; red / brown in occiput; chest Red with minimal or no Barred; neck yellow green; purple / black belly; smaller.


  • Trichoglossus forsteni stresemanni

    (Meise 1929) – As the species nominal but with paler chest orange / red; green washing occiput; feathers the mantle yellow / orange basis.

Habitat:

The Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet is located in lowlands and lower montane forests, including secondary growth and plantations, tending to be observed at the edges and around perturbed vegetation instead of inside the closed canopy forest (pit et to the. 1997). In Sumbawa the Trichoglossus forsteni It ranges from sea level to 800-1200 meters and up 2150 metres in Lombok (pit et to the. 1997); at least in Sumbawa, the variation in altitudinal range is attributed to the movements in monitoring trees in bloom in a large area (White y Bruce 1986).

Reproduction:

Birds have been reported in breeding conditions in May Sumbawa (White y Bruce 1986). It nests in a deep hole in a large tree (pit et to the. 1997).

Food:

No specific data, but presumably similar to Coconut Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus)

Distribution:

Extension of the distribution (breeding / resident): 101.000 km2

The Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet (incorporating subspecies mitchelli, djampeanus and stresemanni) It is located on the islands of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Tanahjampea and Kalaotowa, Indonesia.

An assessment of the state of the taxa that make up the species indicates that the species may no longer be present in Bali, It is extinct in Tanahjampea after capture, mainly before 1990, and it is not clear if he persists in kalatom (Eaton et al. 2015). In Lombok the species is still present, with a recent observation of a flock of 18 individuals above 1.500 metres in 2015 (F. Rheindt per Eaton et al. 2015), although given the lack of other records for many decades, it can be assumed that the population is likely to be small. Sumbawa now it may be the stronghold of the species, and it was suggested that the species is “secure(Eaton et al. 2015), and there is a large area of ​​potentially suitable habitat remaining on the island.

Distribution of subspecies

Conservation:


Vulnerable


• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 1600-7000 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

It is estimated that this newly divided species has a small population that is experiencing suspected moderately rapid population decline due to the pressure of the traps for wild bird trade. Therefore, is classified as Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

It is estimated that the population size is lower to 10.000 mature individuals, on the basis of an interim evaluation of the places where it is likely that any number is retained species. In addition, it is considered possible that the population supposedly higher in Sumbawa does not exceed 1.000 mature individuals.

Justification trend

It is suspected that the population is experiencing descent moderately fast because of unsustainable levels of exploitation.

Conservation actions and research in progress

Appendix II of the CITES, where they include species that are not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival. CMS Appendix II (Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals).

Conservation actions and research proposals

– Estimate the population and assess population trends and scale of capture pressure.
– Carry out a specific study of the species to identify important sites, in order to provide protection.
– Conduct research on their status and habitat use (with special attention to food ecology and forest fragmentation).
– Initiate awareness campaigns to enlist the support of local people in protecting forests and preventing illegal trade.

"Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet" in captivity:

Rare in captivity. Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival. However it copies sold from the Loroparque Foundation at a price of around 400 EUR.

In captivity, It appeared in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, for example, in 1896 It was imported by the London Zoo. The first offspring of the world recorded in 1990 on India.

The Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet It has a longevity 20 years in nature, 15-25 years in captivity.

Alternative names:

Rainbow Lorikeet (Sunset), Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet, Scarley-breasted Lorikeet, Sunset Lorikeet (English).
Loriquet à face bleue, Loriquet à tête bleue (de Forsten), Loriquet à tête bleue [forsteni], Loriquet de Forsten (French).
Bali-Allfarblori, Forstenlori (German).
Lóris-de-forstein (Portuguese).
Lori de Puesta del Sol, Lori pechiescarlata (Spanish).


Charles Lucien Bonaparte
Charles Lucien Bonaparte

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Trichoglossus
Scientific name: Trichoglossus forsteni
Citation: Bonaparte, 1850
Protonimo: Psittacus forsteni

Images “Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet”:


“Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet” (Trichoglossus forsteni)

    Sources:

    Avibase
    • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
    • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
    Birdlife

    Photos:

    (1) – Sunset Lorikeet (also known as the Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet and Forsten’s Lorikeet) at Cincinnati Zoo, USA by Ted [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (2) – A Sunset Lorikeet (also known as the Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet and Forsten’s Lorikeet) at Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio, USA by Ted [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (3) – Two Rainbow Lorikeets at Newport Aquarium. This subspecies of the Rainbow Lorikeet is also called Forsten’s Lorikeet by Trichoglossus_haematodus_-Newport_Aquarium-8a.jpg: Jeff Kubinaderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (4) – Two Rainbow Lorikeets at Newport Aquarium. This subspecies of the Rainbow Lorikeet is also called Forsten’s Lorikeet
    Date 22 April 2009, 15:31 (UTC)_haematodus_-Newport_Aquarium-8a.jpg: Jeff Kubinaderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
    (5) – Lories at the Jurong BirdPark, Singapore. Taken by Terence Ong in November 2006. Trichoglossus haematodus forsteni by rk, Singapore. Taken by Terence Ong in November 2006. Trichoglossus haematodus forsteniNo machine-readable author provided. Terence assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC BY 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons

    Sounds: Patrik Aberg, XC40063. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/40063

Reischek's Parakeet
Cyanoramphus hochstetteri

Reischek's Parakeet

Content


Anatomy-parrots-eng

Description:

28 cms. length and 140 g. of weight.

The Reischek's Parakeet (Cyanoramphus hochstetteri). Named after the Austrian ornithologist and taxidermist “Andreas Reischek“, the first scientist who visited the Antipodes Islands. He was a passenger of Stella and reached the Antipodes Islands in February 1888.

It is one of two species of parakeets Cyanoramphus who live in remote Antipodes Islands. It is a medium-sized green parrot, brightly colored, the outer flight feathers are light blue with a crown red, which closely it resembles other parakeets “red crown” (for example, Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae). But appearances are deceptive. Genetic studies revealed that the color of the crown can not be a good indicator of taxonomy parakeet, and the tiny Malherbe's Parakeet (Cyanoramphus malherbi) It may be the closest relative of Reischek's Parakeet. It is common in all Antipodes Islands, particularly in more open areas and nearby coastal areas to the penguin colonies.

Habitat:

The Reischek's Parakeet They are more abundant than Antipodes Parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) in most habitats. Significant differences were observed in diet between the two species of parakeets. are also evident strong seasonal and annual differences in diet related food availability. The Reischek's Parakeet They are strong fliers and have been observed flying between islands within the group Antipodean.

Social behavior is similar to other species of parakeets Cyanoramphus, but it has been observed that spend considerable periods sunbathing and primping in protected areas. Like other species Cyanoramphus, are strongly territorial around nests, and they call loudly and chase intruders from nearby.

They are usually found in pairs or, most commonly, in small groups that feed on or near the ground. You can often see them in meetings springs and wells isolated. Occasionally they flock fly to neighboring islands in search of food.

Reproduction:

We know relatively little about the breeding of the Reischek's Parakeet. Apparently nest October to March in modified or constructed within the base groups tunnels tussocks or ferns. The nest is lined with small pieces of wood, feathers, moss, herbs and other dry materials. They can reuse nests each year.

clutch size is unknown in nature. Is likely to ecology and reproductive behavior are similar to those of other parakeets Cyanoramphus.

Food:

It has been recorded feeding on leaves, flowers, berries and seeds 14 plant species. Invertebrates are a minor component of the diet. The Reischek's Parakeet occasionally feed carcasses petreles and albatrosses, but not as often as Antipodes Parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor). They feed on the floor often, including mud and feces accumulated within colonies Penguin Antipodean (Eudyptes sclateri) unoccupied, When Penguins are away at their winter migration.

Distribution:

The Reischek's Parakeet is endemic of the Antipodes Islands. It is common in all Antipodes Islands, particularly in more open areas and nearby coastal areas to the penguin colonies.

Conservation:


Vulnerable

• Under Threat Classification System New Zealand 2008: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : 4000-6000 individuals.

The Reischek's Parakeet apparently they have a stable population, and are common within their distribution area of 2,000 has. They are protected by the isolated situation of the islands and their status Natural reserve strict. The greatest threat to long-term survival Reischek's Parakeet is the arrival of mammalian predators. In the winter of 2016 we attempted to eradicate the mice Antipodes Islands.

The species is also affected negatively by forestry operations: logging and burning have drastically reduced the available habitat, and selective logging can reduce the number of trees with holes suitable nesting and foraging opportunities.

It was hunted by Maori for food, and previously it was persecuted because birds were damaging crops and orchards.

"Reischek's Parakeet" in captivity:

Are confident from the beginning and not at all shy. Usually they are ready to breed in captivity. Although they are ripe (about five months), It is best not to allow them to play in the first year.

Alternative names:

Antipodes Island Parakeet, Antipodes Red-crowned (English).
Perruche de Reischek, Perruche des Antipodes (French).
Antipoden-Ziegensittich (German).
Periquito de Reischek (Portuguese).
Perico de Reischek, Perico Frentirrojo de las Antípodas (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Andreas Reischek
Andreas Reischek

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Cyanoramphus
Scientific name: Cyanoramphus hochstetteri
Citation: (Reischek, 1889)
Protonimo: Platycercus hochstetteri

Images:

New Zealand Birds Online – Photos

Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Greene, T.C. 2013 [updated 2017]. Reischek’s parakeet. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz

Photos:

(1) – Cyanoramphus hochstetteri by Auckland Museum [CC BY 4.0]

Sounds: Captive birds calling, Mount Bruce National Wildlife Centre, April 1973, 1215, Les McPherson, McPherson Natural History Unit Sound Archive, www.archivebirdsnz.com

Pearly Parakeet
Pyrrhura lepida

Pearly Parakeet

Content

Pearly Parakeet

Description:

24 cm.. in length and 70 to 80 grams.

The Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida) has the head dark blackish brown with mottled light on nape; ear-coverts creamy white; cheeks pale bluish green.

Upper mantle blue; robe bottom until uppertail-coverts, green. Scapulars green at the base, blue down; lesser wing coverts slightly green tinted olive; median coverts and older, mainly blue; some red at the leading edge of wing . Flight feather Blue above, secondaries with green in the outerweb; dark gray below. Underwing-coverts bright red. Sides of the neck, the throat and the top chest, mainly brown with some blue marks and points yellowish brown, which gives an overall scaled aspect; The underparts remaining are green with blue on the flanks and the thighs. Upper, the tail mainly brown, green in the basal area and narrow blue tips. Bill black-brown; bare periophthalmic grey; irises dark brown; legs black slate.

The plumages of both sexes are, apparently, similar.

taxonomic history

Confusing taxonomic history: until recently known as Pyrrhura perlata, but that name is actually applied to the known way long as Pyrrhura rhodogaster, currently a synonym for the species Pyrrhura perlata; the current species therefore assumes his next oldest name, Pyrrhura lepida. Forms a pair of species with parapatric Pyrrhura perlata, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific; the recent molecular phylogeny indicated that the closest relatives of these two are the Pyrrhura frontalis and Pyrrhura molinae.

  • Sound of the Pearly Parakeet.

Description 3 subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura lepida anerythra

    (Neumann, 1927) – Similar to the species nominal but with the chest, the belly and cheeks green with occasional shades of blue.


  • Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens

    (Neumann, 1927) – Similar to the species nominal, but with the forecrown and crown brown, gray throat and upper chest, green on the upper cheeks; bluer in the lower chest

  • .

  • Pyrrhura lepida lepida

    (Wagler, 1832) – Nominal.

Habitat:

The Pearly Parakeet, usually, inhabits humid forests of mainland. The species has been observed in forest edges, clear areas and second growth.

They are seen in flocks of up to ten birds, particularly in places where food is plentiful.

Reproduction:

They nest hollow logs. The laying is of 3-4 eggs incubados during 23 days; breeding needs about 7 weeks for independence.

Food:

probably catkins, small fruits and flowers.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 585.000 km2

The Cotorra Pulcra is endemic to Northeast Brazil, to the South of the Amazon. Observed around the basin Xingu and its tributaries, from the river Pracuí and the left bank of Tocantins River, and from Belém and the Río grass, in For, east to around Sao Luis in Maranhão, and from northern Maranhão to the East of Rosary, although apparently no longer in some coastal areas, where according to sources, They were formerly quite common.

Today are rare and extinct in many parts of their former range (for example, North of Maranhão) due to large-scale deforestation, although they are, apparently, tolerant habitat alterations.

The coerulescens subspecies It is near extinction due to the almost total loss of their habitat. The species is found in protected areas but its integrity is compromised by the illegal logging.

Distribution 3 subspecies:

Note:

Pyrrhura lepida is the new name of the taxon Pyrrhura perlata, whose name has been shown to be applied first to an immature bird of that species, Crimson-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura perlata).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 6700 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

From a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, While shows some tolerance degraded landscapes, It suspected that the population of this species decline rapidly over the next three generations and, therefore, It has risen to Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The population It is preliminarily estimated to number at least 10.000 individuals, approximately equivalent to 6.700 mature individuals. This requires confirmation.

Justification of trend

It is suspected that this species has lost between 47 and the 64,5% of habitat suitable within their distribution during three generations (18 years) starting from a model of deforestation Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the ., 2006, Bird et to the ., 2011). However, because the species seems to have some degree of tolerance to habitat degradation (A. Lees in litt ., 2011), It suspected to decline by 30-49% during three generations.

Threats

Despite an apparent tolerance of some degradation of the habitat, It is perhaps close to extinction in coastal areas of northern Maranhão, due to the large scale deforestation (Juniper and Parr, 1998). They are distributed within protected areas, but its integrity is compromised by the illegal logging (Juniper and Parr 1998). It is expected that deforestation in the Amazon basin to increase as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soybean production, provided by the expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et to the. , 2006). The proposed changes to Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land to a private owner is legally obliged to keep as forest and include an amnesty for owners who deforested before July 2008 (That later they would be absolved of the need to reforest the land illegally cleared) (Bird et to the., 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. The species is classified as Vulnerable nationally in Brazil (MMA 2014), with subspecies elegant and coerulescens considered in Danger (Silveira y Straube 2008).

Conservation Actions Proposed

* Census and population monitoring to assess the world's population and demographic trends and refine distribution and locate strengths.

* Investigate their ecology, threats and conservation requirements. Strengthen the network of protected areas within the remaining core habitat.

Effectively manage resources and management of existing protected areas and new, using the emerging opportunities for funding the management of protected areas with the overall goal of reducing carbon emissions and maximize the conservation of biodiversity. It is also essential conservation on private land, through the expansion of market pressures for proper land management and prevention of deforestation on land not suitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006).

Campaign against the proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the riparian forest protected areas as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), that function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

"Pearly Parakeet" in captivity:

Rare in captivity.

It is a bird Vulnerable nationally in Brazil and protected by CITES Appendix II; each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Pearly Conure, Pearly Parakeet (English).
Conure perlée, Perriche perlée, Perruche perlée (French).
Blausteißsittich (German).
tiriba, tiriba-de-barriga-vermelha, Tiriba-peróla, tiriba-pérola (Portuguese).
Catita cola granate, Cotorra Pulcra, Cotorra Ventrirroja (Spanish).

Johann Georg Wagler
Johann Georg Wagler

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura lepida
Citation: (Wagler, 1832)
Protonimo: Sittace lepida

Images Pearly Parakeet:

Videos "Pearly Parakeet"

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Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Pyrrhura lepida by Florin FeneruFlickr
(2) – Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens Neumann, 1929 – Huub Veldhuijzen van Zanten / Naturalis Biodiversity Center [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida) also known as the Pearly Conure in aviculture. A pet parrot By manginwu (originally posted to Flickr as my name is twoday.) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Tiriba-perola [Pearly Parakeet] by Helio LourenciniFlickr
(5) – Tiriba pearl (Pyrrhura perlata) – www.avesilvestre.com.br
(6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: GABRIEL MILK, XC212988. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/212988

Maroon-bellied Parakeet
Pyrrhura frontalis

Maroon-bellied Parakeet

Content

Maroon-bellied Parakeet

Description:

24-28 cm.. length and 72-94 g. of weight.

The Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis) has a frontal band matte red close with a few more bright red feathers behind cere; lores blackish; feathery cheeks and crown, greyish green blackish tips; ear-coverts olive green.

The upperparts They are green grass with a small area reddish at the bottom of the back. Primary coverts bluish green; wing-coverts grass-green, some feathers sometimes with olive tint. Primaries Blue in the outerweb. Green on innerwebs, with dark tips; secondaries, mainly green. Sides of neck, throat and chest, brown oliváceo, feathers subterminally brown and black black tips, giving the whole a scalloped effect; lower breast green with a patch brown in the center of belly; flanks, the thighs and undertail-coverts, green. Upper, green tail in basal half, Shaded bronze to reddish tones on the tips; below, the tail is opaque brown.

Bill grey, sometimes paler in base mandible; yellow cere; bare periophthalmic whitish grey; irises dark brown; legs dark gray.

Both sexes are similar. The incipient brown lacks the belly. Immature paler than adult with irises darker.

Taxonomic note:

Closely related Blaze-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura devillei), with which it can be conspecific (populations or races that belong to the same species). It has been suggested that the species may also be conspecific with Green-cheeked Parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae).

  • Sound of the Maroon-bellied Parakeet.

Description 2 subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe

    (Vieillot, 1818) – As the nominal, but the upper surface of the tail It is completely green olive. Some orange-red markings on the bend of wing in some birds.


  • Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Subspecies nominal.

Habitat:

The Maroon-bellied Parakeet They extend through several forest habitats, forests, margins and marshy habitats, including the remaining patches Araucaria (for example, in Rio Grande do Sul). In the Paraguayan Chaco They seem almost confined to coastal areas of growth over the Río Paraguay and its main tributaries. In Southeast Brazil They are mainly distributed in the highlands, - 1.400 meters above sea level; in other parts of the lowlands up near 1.000 m, where they are generally tolerant to disturbance, even reaching visit urban parks in the city of Assumption, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, and feeding in gardens (Rio Grande do Sul). Gregarious, usually in flocks of 6-12 birds (until 40).

Reproduction:

They nest in the cavity of the trees. The breeding season It covers the months from October to December. Clutch 5-6 eggs.
The female incubated one for almost 30 days. The young leave the nest after about 45 days, after which they continue to be fed for some time by the two partners.

Food:

In Southeast Brazil, Their diet includes pulp of Euterpe edulis, seeds of Schinus, Xylopia, Cecropia, Croton, Miconia, ficus, Psidium and Pinus; flowers of Ambrosia and Vernonia and aryl of Protium; elsewhere, the Araucaria It is a very important food source, for example in southern Brazil; also they feed dried fruits and fruits of Campomanesia xanthocarpa and Podocarpus lambertii; homoptera sheets Persea pyrifolia and fly larvae. The orange crops and corn sometimes they suffer from their visits, but depredations were lower compared to the damage caused by the Parrot Argentina (Myiopsitta monachus) in cornfields.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (reproductive / residents): 2.690.000 km2

The Maroon-bellied Parakeet It is endemic in Southeast South America, from the southeast of Brazil to the North of Argentina.

In Brazil They can be observed from south Bay ,through coastal states, until Rio Grande do Sul, and west, in the southeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil and South of Mato Grosso, through Paraguay (extension of records suggests its presence throughout the west end), North of Uruguay and North of Argentina, in Missions, Currents, Formosa, Chaco and sporadically in the past, in the North of Santa Fe (a population in Buenos Aires probably descended from leaks), and southeastern Bolivia.

Resident. Locally common to very common (for example, in Missions) but rare elsewhere (for example Currents) and extinguished in places due to conversion of forests for agriculture.

With He commercialized in large quantities with substantial late eighties exports averaging over 5.000 birds per year. There is a large captive population.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Central and southern Paraguay, northern Uruguay and northern Argentina.


  • Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Subspecies nominal. Southeastern Brazil from southern Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul including southeastern Minas Gerais and south and southeast of Mato Grosso.

Conservation:

• Red list category: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the red list category

This species has a extremely large range and, therefore, it does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable at the discretion of the distribution area size (Extension <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión o calidad del hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número de lugares o fragmentación severa). La tendencia de la población parece ser estable, por lo que la especie no se aproxima a los umbrales de Vulnerables bajo el criterio de tendencia poblacional (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un declive continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as least concern.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

They suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

Threats

The species has been marketed strongly: from 1981, when it was included in Appendix II of CITES, 52.523 individuals captured in the wild have been recorded in international trade (Trade database of UNEP-WCMC CITES, January 2005).

"Maroon-bellied Parakeet" in captivity:

The species is listed in Appendix II of the CITES.

There is a large captive population. They are intelligent birds, friendly and active. Readily they adapt to human contact and are easy to train. They are among the quietest cotorras, but its powerful high-pitched voices can become very annoying. Like other parakeets, They tend to express emotion with a series of loud cries, chillidos.

Alternative names:

Maroon bellied Parakeet, Maroon Parakeet, Maroon-bellied Conure, Maroon-bellied Parakeet, Reddish-bellied Parakeet, Scaly-breasted Parakeet (English).
Conure de Vieillot, Conure ou, Perriche de Vieillot, Perruche à oreillons bruns, Perruche d’Azara, Perruche de Vieillot (French).
Braunohrsittich, Braunohr-Sittich (German).
cara-suja, periquito, tiriba, Tiriba-de-testa-vermelha, tiriva (Portuguese).
Chiripepe, Chiripepé, Chiripepé cabeza verde, Chiripepé de cabeza verde, Cotorra Chiripepé, Perico de Vientre Rojo (Spanish).

Vieillot, Jean Pierre Louis
Vieillot, Jean Pierre Louis

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura frontalis
Citation: (Vieillot, 1818)
Protonimo: Psittacus frontalis

Images Maroon-bellied Parakeet:

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Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Maroon-bellied parakeet Botanical Garden of São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) on a wooden stump. Botanical Garden of São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Pyrrhura Ilhabela-SP By Dario Sanches frontalis from São Paulo, Brazil (Maroon-bellied parakeet ( Pyrrhura frontalis)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) – Horto Florestal de São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Pyrrhura frontalis – Track dos Tucanos – Tapiraí-SP IBA: Forest massif Paranapiacaba By Jairmoreirafotografia (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: Gustavo Luz, XC344423. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/344423

Blue-throated Parakeet
Pyrrhura cruentata

Blue-throated Parakeet

Content

Blue-throated Parakeet

Description:

30 cm.. length and 90 g. of weight.

The Blue-throated Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) It is a very colorful bird; has the forecrown, crown and rear of the neck, dark brown with pale orange sides and with some feathers (especially posteriorly) giving speckled appearance; lores, cheeks top, supercilii area and ear-coverts, dull red, merging on sides of neck with yellowish patch bordered behind by blue band running across nape; bottom of the cheeks, green.

Mantle, back and scapulars, green; broad crimson patch on the lower back and rump; uppertail-coverts green. Bend of wing bright red; upperwing-coverts green. Outerwebs of the primaries, blue, green on the innerwebs; secondaries green on outerweb, Gray on innerwebs; flight feather with dark tips; infra-wing coverts minor, olive green, the gray greater coverts; underside of flight feather, olive gray wash. Chin green; the throat and the top chest, blue with some dark tips; underparts green with variable-sized crimson patch on belly. Upper, the tail It is golden in color with green tint; brown below. Bill grey; bare periophthalmic grey; irises yellow orange; legs grey.

Both sexes similar, but the irises perhaps brighter in the male. Immature more off, with less red at bend of wing.

  • Sound of the Blue-throated Parakeet.

Habitat:

The Blue-throated Parakeet inhabit, mainly, in primary forests of the Atlantic forest or on the edges of forests and, sometimes, in slightly modified natural forests, penetrate in agricultural areas where high forest trees shade cacao. Unknown seasonal and dry forests. (Usually in lowlands below 400 m, but 960 metres in Minas Gerais, Brazil, usually in flocks of 6-20 birds(mainly 8-12), at least where they are locally common.

Reproduction:

Nests in tree hollows. The breeding, apparently, It occurs in the austral spring, from June to October. Clutch 2-4.

Food:

The diet of the Blue-throated Parakeet includes plants of Talisia esculenta, Alchornea iricurana, Mabea fistulifera, Trema micrantha and Cecropia. The fruits of Miconia hypoleuca They may be important in times of shortage. Birds feeding in the canopy and the lower edge vegetation, never out of the woods; Once he observed feeding on the Golden-capped Parakeet (Aratinga auricapillus).

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding / resident): 281.000 km2

Endemic East Brazil, from Bahia until Rio de Janeiro. Formerly they were known from Jequié and islanders, Bay, but the latest reports are North Río Jequitinhonha, south of which, reports come from remaining patches of forest (including the Monte Pascoal National Park) to the border Espírito Santo.

Birds remain in the few forested areas of eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil as the Rio Doce State Park, the Book Caratinga (about Raúl Soares) and about Mantena and several locations in northern Espirito Santo, including Biological reserves Great stream and Sooretama and neighboring Linhares Sooretama reserve. It is apparently absent from the southern state but survives near Desengano State Park in the State of Rio de Janeiro, the southernmost site which have been observed recently.

Resident. Common and widespread in the late nineteenth century, but decreased dramatically with massive deforestation within its range due to agriculture, speak, mining, roads and urban development. The final bastion (the only place where birds remain common) It is complex reserve Sooretama / Linhares; there are much smaller numbers in other forest remnants (protected but widely separated). Habitat loss continues Bay with some sites (for example Monte Pascoal) under intense pressure.

Rare in captivity, but trapping for illegal trade is an additional threat. Listed in Appendix I of the CITES and protected by Brazilian law.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 2500-9999 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

This species survives in scattered fragments of Atlantic Forest, where the extent of suitable habitat continues to decline rapidly. The remaining populations are small, severely fragmented into isolated reserves, where protection is largely inadequate and are suspected to be declining rapidly. Therefore, qualifies as Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The population It is calculated on the number 2.500-9.999 mature individuals based on an evaluation of known records, descriptions of abundance and size range. This is consistent with estimates of population density recorded for congeners or close relatives with similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of its distribution area is occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3.750-14.999 individuals, round here 3.500-15.000 individuals.

Justification of trend

continued rapid population decline is suspected because rates loss of habitat.

Threats

The extensive and continuous clearing of the forest You are responsible for its current fragmented distribution. Their apparent tolerance to shade cocoa plantations provides little hope because shading techniques since the early 1980 They have involved the use of banana trees and Erythrina, rather than stand, and unstable prices have led to conversion to pasture. Many other populations are affected by specific threats site, as conflicts between habitat conservation and the rights of local communities in the Monte Pascoal National Park. The capture for the cage bird trade It is a relatively new phenomenon, Although the species is rare in domestic and international markets.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix I. It is considered nationally Vulnerable in Brazil (Silveira y Straube 2008, MMA 2014), and is protected by Brazilian law. It is in the National Parks of Chapada da Diamantina and Monte Pascoal, on Experimental Station Barrolândia, on Linhares Forest Reserve, on Book Caratinga, in sweet River and probably in the Desengano State Parks, and in the Biological Reserves Great Stream, Deer Stream and Sooretama (Wege and Long 1995).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Survey to locate additional populations and protect undetected (Snyder et to the., 2000), especially in southern Bay and northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ensure protection de facto key reserves, especially Sooretama, Linhares and Station Vera Cruz. Confiscation of birds of trade and well-planned release of these birds in areas of the previous range of species to improve recovery and connectivity of disjunct populations (J. Gilardi in little).

"Blue-throated Parakeet" in captivity:

Protected by CITES Appendix I.

Rara in national and international markets. Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Black-tailed Parakeet, Blue throated Conure, Blue throated Parakeet, Blue-chested Parakeet, Blue-throated Conure, Blue-throated Parakeet, Ochre Marked Conure, Ochre-marked Parakeet, Red-eared Parakeet, Red-rumped Parakeet (English).
Conure tiriba, Perriche tiriba, Perruche tiriba (French).
Blaulatzsittich, Blaulatz-Sittich (German).
cara-suja, fura-mato, tiriba, tiriba-fura-mato, Tiriba-grande, tiriva (Portuguese).
Cotorra Tiriba, Perico Grande (Spanish).

Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied
Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied

Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura cruentata
Citation: (Wied-Neuwied, 1820)
Protonimo: bloody parrot


Images Blue-throated Parakeet:

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Blue-throated Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Ochre-marked Parakeet (also known as Blue-chested Parakeet, Blue-throated Parakeet, or Blue-throated Conure) at Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria, one of the Canary islands, Spain By ipfreaks (originally posted to Flickr as Papagei) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Blue-chested Parakeet, (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure. Pet parrot By ➨ Redvers (originally posted to Flickr as Hector and toy 8) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Blue-chested Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure at Central Park Zoo, New York, USA By Claire Houck [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Blue-chested Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure. Pet with yellow toy By ➨ Redvers (originally posted to Flickr as Hector and toy 4) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Blue-chested Parakeet (also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure); two on a perch By TJ Lin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: Jeremy Recall, XC85365. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/85365

Large-billed Parrotlet
Forpus crassirostris

Large-billed Parrotlet

Content

Description:

12 - 13 cm.. height.

The Large-billed Parrotlet (Forpus crassirostris) has the crown, back of the neck and ear-coverts, green; the forecrown, cheeks, eye area and lores, emerald green.

Upperparts and wings, green, except the part inferior of the back, rump and greater coverts, are cobalt blue and blue color toward the base of the secondaries. Primary coverts pale grayish violet color which contrasts with the darker coverts They are cobalt blue. Flight feathers Matte metallic blue. The underparts green with yellow hues. Upper, the tail green; undertail, pale green.

Bill and cere Pink with gray base up to the mandible top, laterally compressed in the Center; bare periophthalmic pale grey: irises dark brown: legs Gris-Rosado pale.
Female all green with belly yellowish green without blue color wing-coverts visible in the male.
Immature like adult respective, but with the blue of young males mixed with green.

Taxonomic note:

some authors (for example, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Forshaw, 1973, Monroe y Sibley, 1993) They have used the name Forpus xanthopterygius, while other authors (Stotz et to the., 1996, Collar 1997) They have followed Pinto (1945) and used the name Forpus crassirostris to define this species.

  • Sound of the Large-billed Parrotlet.

Habitat:

They inhabit in forest edges, clear, riparian forests, parks and gardens in urban areas.

Reproduction:

They build their nests in tree cavities or exploit abandoned nests Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus); lining the nesting chamber with grass and the female lays 3 - 7 eggs White. The incubation, lasts approximately 18 days, It is carried by the female and during this period the male is responsible for feeding.

Food:

They compose your diet seeds, fruit, plants and flowers herbaceous. They are feeding both the ground and in trees and shrubs. Among the fruits they are highly appreciated by the Large-billed Parrotlet, palm, Trumpet trees (Cecropia spp), as well as seeds and sprouts Paineiras (Ceiba speciosa).

Melo et al, 2009, reported mass consumption flowers of Handroanthus serratifolius (Fam. Bignoniaceae), in particular its nectar, what it appears to be an important power source especially during the dry season, where scarce fruits.

Distribution:

Size of its range (players / residents) 1.312.215 km²

Southeast of Colombia to the East of Ecuador, North of Peru and West Brazil.

Conservation:


Status


• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population of the Blue-winged Parrotlet It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

Suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

"Large-billed Parrotlet" in captivity:

In captivity they are not very frequent. They are birds enable you require a large cage. Quiet and something timid. Not is easy to accommodate them with other parrots.
Can be prone to it Obesity.

Alternative names:

Blue-winged Parrotlet (crassirostris), Large-billed Parrotlet (English).
Toui à gros bec, Toui de Spix (crassirostris) (French).
Large-billed Parrotlet (German).
Tuim, Large-billed Parrotlet (Portuguese).
Catita enana, Lorito Aliazul, Periquito Azulejo, Cotorrita aliazul, Lorito de alas azules (Spanish).

Władysław Taczanowski


Scientific classification:


Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Forpus
Scientific name: Forpus crassirostris
Citation: (By Taczanowsk, 1883)
Protonimo: Psittacula crassirostris

Images "Large-billed Parrotlet"

————————————————————————————————

“Large-billed Parrotlet” (Forpus crassirostris)


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Photos:

(1) – Large-billed Parrotlet (Forpus crassirostris) Male – Photo by Tom Friedel – Puerto Nariño, Amazon, Colombia – birdphotos.com

Sounds: John V. Moore, XC257657. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/257657