Yellow-faced Parrotlet
Forpus xanthops

Yellow-faced Parrotlet

Description:

14 cm.. height.

Yellow-faced Parrotlet

The Yellow-faced Parrotlet (Forpus xanthops) is plump appearance and a tail short ending in point. Distinguished by the crown, face, chest and belly yellow, with strong blue patch on the wing , in flight blue occupies almost half of wing . Dorsally gray cafesoso, with the rump blue. Its bill It is ocher.

The female has blue patch on the rump and wings pale smaller.

taxonomy:

Closely related Pacific Parrotlet (Forpus coelestis); in the past it has been considered a subspecies of this, but there are clear differences in size and color. Monotypic.

Habitat:

The Yellow-faced Parrotlet It Gregarious, He lives in varied habitats, usually arid, riparian forests in the gallery in the tropics and subtropics, between 1000 to 1600 m, Although it has been reported to 2745 m.

Reproduction:

Nest in communal area, using tree hollows or sand. The breeding season It is from March to April.

In captivity, They are made of 3 to 6 eggs and breed up to three broods per year.

Food:

Their diet includes cactus, besides fruit trees. If you know that feeds on Cercidium praecox, paté flowers Bombax discolor and plum fruit Prunus domestica (Begazo 1996, F. Angulo Prato Longo a slightly. 2012).

Distribution:

Extensión de la distribución (cría/residente): 4,800 km2

The Yellow-faced Parrotlet It endemic North Peru in the Valley of the Marañón River, South of this country and Western Amazon.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : 350-1500 individuals.

In accordance with the categories of the UICN It is considered Vulnerable (VU). Habitat degradation and trade are adversely affecting the population.

Justification of the population

The population It is estimated in 250-999 mature individuals, according to surveys Begazo (1996) and subsequent recovery of the small-scale. This equates to a total of 375-1,499 individuals, rounded here 350-1,500 individuals.

The ban on the capture and trade has improved the status of this species. The rate of decline was very rapid in the Decade of 1980, Although at present has been reduced and even stabilized. However, the population is still very small, with records in very few places.

Conservation Actions Underway

Appendix II of the CITES.

– This protected legally in the Peru, but enforcement is poor.

– Catch rates have declined significantly since the ban, and trappers capture the species apparently only on request (Begazo 1996).

There are no protected areas within its range.

Conservation Actions Proposed

– Examine the population, especially in the less accessible center of its range, and between the distribution areas of the two known species of Forpus.

Monitor the population, working with local people to generate the will to preserve the species in situ (Begazo 1996).

– Study their biology and ecology over an annual cycle.

– controlling trade and enforce laws capture.

– Create at least one protected area within the range of the species (Angulo et al. 2008).

In captivity:

Captured for wild bird trade, It is estimated that 17.000 birds were captured between 1981 and 1994. The rate of mortality during capture is estimated between the 40% and the 100%. Rare and unknown in captivity until 1979-1980.

It´s territorial, temperament quiet, active and initially timid, usually it takes in trust although this depending more on their previous experiences, age, type of farming (Hand or natural breeding).

Notes on captive breeding of Forpus xanthops

Alternative names:


- Yellow faced Parrotlet, Yellow-faced Parrotlet (inglés).
- Perruche-moineau à tête jaune, Toui à tête jaune (francés).
- Gelbmaskenpapagei, Gelbmasken-Sperlingspapagei (alemán).
- Tuim-de-cabeça-amarela (portugués).
- Catita Enana de Cara Amarilla, Cotorrita Carigualda (español).
- Periquito de Cara Amarilla (Perú).

Salvin Osbert
Salvin Osbert

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Género: Forpus
- Nombre científico: Forpus xanthops
- Citación: (Salvin, 1895)
- Protónimo: Psittacula xanthops

Yellow-faced Parrotlet images:

Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
• Parrots Book, Parrots and macaws Neotropical
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – An adult male Yellow-faced Parrotlet perching on the top of its cage by Ruth Rogers [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – An adult male Yellow-faced Parrotlet photographed at the 2002 AFA convention in Tampa, Florida, USA by Rogers [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – An adult Yellow-faced Parrotlet photographed at the 2002 AFA convention in Tampa, Florida, USA by Rogers [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – An adult male Yellow-faced Parrotlet photographed at the 2002 AFA convention in Tampa, Florida, USA by Ruth Rogers [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Forpus xanthops Marañon near Canyon Ferry, Cajamarca, Peru by Nick AthanasFlickr
(6) – John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain] – Novelty Zoologicae, too.. 2

Newton's Parakeet †
psittacula exaul

Newton's Parakeet


Description:

Of 40 centimeters length.

The male of the Newton's Parakeet (psittacula exaul) It was probably green, with red patches on wings, also manifested in a variation bluish; only two skins of this species, both blue hue; the plumage It was generally greenish blue with gray shades; chest, abdomen and under cover tail slightly paler shades; head darker gray hue without; thin black line between cere and the eye; black bars cheek and narrow black strip on the neck, strip adjacent the blue-green; primaries blue-green; feathers on top of the tail blue-green, underside grey; mandible red top, mandible lower black; irises yellow; legs grey.

The female with narrow black stripe on the forehead; black bars cheek not extend to the side neck; crown washed with gray; upper mandible black.

Immature; No information

Habitat:

It was a kind forest who lived in areas of pine Pandanus and Palm trees.

Reproduction:

Probably similar to Reunion Parakeet (Psittacula eques)

Food:

According to reports, birds preferred nuts and fruits Cassine East and Fernelia buxifolia.

Distribution:

The Newton's Parakeet It was endemic to the forests of Rodrigues, Mauritius (checks 1987).

by explorer was said to be abundant Leguat in 1691 (Cowles 1987), but Pingre He noted that it was rare in 1761, and the last record was a bird caught in August 1875 (Forshaw 2010).

It seems likely that the last birds were destroyed at the end of that year, when the island suffered “the worst hurricane season nineteenth century” (checks 1987).

Survived by two complete specimens, plus several bones subfossil (Cowles 1987).

Conservation:

Justification of the red list category

This species was endemic to the Rodrigues Island, Mauritius, but it has not been seen since 1875 and now it is extinct.

• Current red list category of the UICN: Extinct.
• The last record was a bird collected in August 1875

It is believed that hunting and habitat loss greatly contributed to its decline, and that the final blow could have been given by heavy storms 1876. curiously, He survived much longer than most species of endemic birds of the island.

Justification of the population

extinct.

In captivity:

Leguat and his followers saw the birds – presumably Newton's Parakeet – feeding nuts, and they taught to speak to some of these parakeets, which certainly it is an indication of what these birds were tame. Apparently they became bilingual; They could speak both French and Flemish! When Leguat and his small band of followers fled the island, a parakeet they took with them on their trip to Mauritius.

Alternative names:


- Newton's Parakeet, Newton's Parrot, Rodrigues Parakeet, Rodrigues Ring-necked Parakeet, Rodriguez Parakeet (inglés).
- Perruche de Newton (francés).
- Rodriguessittich, Rodrigues-Sittich, Rodriguez-Edelsittich (alemán).
- Periquito-de-rodriguez (portugués).
- Cotorra de Newton, Cotorra de Rodrigues (español).

Alfred Newton
Alfred Newton

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Género: Psittacula
- Nombre científico: Psittacula exsul
- Citación: (Newton, A, 1872)
- Protónimo: Palaeornis exsul


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – psittacula exaul (Newton’s Parakeet), female holotype specimen – Wikipedia
(2) – Sternum and mandible of Psittacula exsul, extracted from the female holotype specimen – Wikipedia

Seychelles Parakeet †
Psittacula ward

Seychelles Parakeet


Description:

The Seychelles Parakeet (Psittacula wardi) It was a medium-sized parrot with a length of about 41 cm. and a weight between 100 and 125 g..

It was green with a large bill red with yellow tips, a red stain on the shoulders and a long tail. The male had a narrow black band on the cheek and neck which they lacked black female and youth. blueness in nape and eyes yellow. the legs They were greyish

taxonomy:

Phylogenetic studies suggest that this species away from the Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria).

Habitat:

In a report they were seen over the forest along a field maize.

They encuentraban probably in small groups or flocks, making striking flights. It was reported that the birds were cautious, presumably due to its constant pursuit.

Reproduction:

No data.

Food:

It was a forest species, which probably it fed on fruit and seeds.

Distribution:

The Seychelles Parakeet It was endemic to Mahe and Silhouette, Seychelles, with a visual record of Praslin. A considerable number was found in 1811, But it was rare in 1867 and the last specimen was shot in Mahe by Abbott in 1893. It may have survived until the twentieth century (Skerrett y Disley 2011), although apparently he was already extinguished when Nicoll He visited the island 1906 (Lionnet 1984).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Extinct.
• Population trend: The last known individuals were shot dead in 1893.

Clearing forests for plantations and coconut hunting and capture (in particular, to protect maize crops) were the main causes of the disappearance of the species (Forshaw and Cooper 1989).

In captivity:

Recent records captive birds from the year 1883.

At present there are two specimens in museums Liverpool and New York City.

Alternative names:

- Green Parakeet, Seychelles Alexandrine Parrot, Seychelles Parakeet, Seychelles Parrot (inglés).
- Perruche des Seychelles (francés).
- Seychellen-Edelsittich, Seychellensittich, Seychellen-Sittich (alemán).
- Periquito-das-seychelles (portugués).
- Cotorra de las Seychelles, Cotorra de los Seychelles, Cotorra de Seychelles (español).

Newton Edward
Newton Edward

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittaculidae
- Genus: Psittacula
- Nombre científico: Psittacula wardi
- Citation: (Newton, E, 1867)
- Protónimo: Palaeornis wardi


Seychelles Parakeet (Psittacula wardi)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Seychelles Parakeet (Psittacula wardi), depiction by John Gerrard Keulemans from ‘Extinct Birds’ by Lionel Walter Rothschild from the year 1907 by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Carolina Parakeet †
Conuropsis carolinensis

Carolina Parakeet


Description:

32 to 34 cm. length and 280 g. of weight.

Carolina Parakeet

Male and female adults of Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis) They were identical in plumage, however males were slightly larger than females.

Most plumage It was green with underparts light green. The primary feathers They were mainly green, but with yellow edges in outer primary. The shoulders They were yellow, continuing along the outer edge of the wings. The the thighs They were green and yellow up to the feet. The legs and feet They were light brown. The most distinctive feature of this species was the forecrown and face orange. The feathers Orange extended to behind eyes and upper cheeks (lores). The skin around the eyes It was white and bill They were pale flesh color. The plumage of the head It was completely bright.

The immature They differed slightly in coloration of adults. The face and all body They were green, with underparts paler. Lacked yellow plumage or orange in face, wings and thighs. Hatchlings were covered with gray mouse-gray, up to approximately 39-40 the days when they appear wings and queues green. The chicks They had full adult plumage around 1 año de edad.

Subspecies description:
  • Conuropsis carolinensis carolinensis †

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – Nominal.

  • Conuropsis carolinensis ludoviciana †

    (Gmelin, 1788) –

Habitat:

The habitats Preferred of Carolina Parakeet lands were overgrown and heavily forested swamps and rivers bordering. These parrots also lived in farmland and crops were eaten. Anidaban in large groups of hollow shafts. Prefierían forests sicomoro and swamp cypress. (” Parakeets”, 2000; Fuller, 2001; Mauler, 2001; Snyder and Russell, 2002)

They were traveling in flocks of 100 to 1000 birds. Anidaban up 30 birds in a nest. It was assumed that they were Monogamie. It was about very social birds, it was probably one of the many factors that led to their extinction. When a man shot a bird, fellow herd member flitted over his lost flock, making them vulnerable too. Farmers were shooting all flock to save their crops. It is doubtful that the Carolina Parakeet migrated, as it is seen in the northern states during the cold winters. They were attracted by the salt and pacifiers were observed ingesting salt water, earth and sand.

The Carolina Parakeet They are walking, They are jumping and climbing trees using their beaks as a third leg. Its flight was registered as a fast and elegant, but very noisy as birds rarely stayed silent during flight. Were involved in cleaning and grooming to keep their social cohesion. During the day they rested, They slept or sunned. They fed in the morning and evening. (“Parakeets”, 2000;”Nature Serve, Conuropsis carolinensis”, 2005; Howell, 1932; Rising, 2004; Snyder and Russell, 2002; Strattersfield y Capper, 2000)

Reproduction:

Some sources say that Carolina Parakeet they were Monogamie, having only one partner for life. However, no studies were conducted on mating systems and many birds apparently shared nests. (Laycock, Audobon Magazine, March of 1969; Snyder and Russell, 2002)

There is little information available upon the reproduction of this species. They reproduced in spring, producing 2 to 5 eggs These perpetual Nidada, which then incubaban during 23 days. (Snyder and Russell, 2002; Snyder and Russell, 2002)

Food:

The Carolina Parakeet they ate mainly seeds of genre Xanthium. Also consumed the fruits and seeds many other plants, as well as flower buds and, occasionally, insects. They were recorded as ruin of many fruit crops. They rip off the immature fruit of the tree and ate seeds. Flocks could ruin the fruit of a tree in minutes. when they ate, the Carolina Parakeet They are taking food with their beaks, They placed them in their claws and held while using its beak to eat. (Greenway, JR. 1967; Howell, 1932; Snyder and Russell, 2002; Strattersfield y Capper, 2000; Greenway, JR. 1967; Howell, 1932; Snyder and Russell, 2002; Strattersfield y Capper, 2000)

Distribution:

the former Conuropsis carolinensis It was found from southern Florida until North Carolina and in coastal areas as far north as New York City. The Carolina Parakeet he was in the states Gulf as far west as Texas East and north along the rivers Arkansas, Missouri, Mississippi and Ohio and its tributaries. They were also recorded in South Dakota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio and W.V.. The westernmost appearances were in eastern Colorado. (” Nature Serve, Conuropsis carolinensis”, 2005; Fuller, 2001; Laycock, Audobon Magazine, March of 1969; Snyder and Russell, 2002)

Distribution of subspecies:
  • Conuropsis carolinensis carolinensis †

    (Linnaeus, 1758) – Nominal.

  • Conuropsis carolinensis ludoviciana †

    (Gmelin, 1788) – Paler overall than the nominal.

Conservation:

This species was previously in the southeastern United States, but now it is EXTINCT, primarily as a result of persecution. Records are the last wild subspecies Conuropsis carolinensis ludoviciana in 1910.

The main causes of extinction of the species were the persecution (for feeding, crop protection, poultry production and trade of hats for ladies), and also deforestation (especially lowland), probably aggravated by his gregarious nature (Saikku 1991), and competition with introduced bees (McKinley 1960).

In captivity:

One of the reasons for his extinction He was hunting birds released before attempting to breeding to sell as pets, possibly because it was more profitable and it was difficult to grow up in captivity. They could live up 30 years in captivity.

Alternative names:


- Carolina Conure, Carolina Parakeet, Carolina Paroquet, Louisiana Parakeet (inglés).
- Conure de Caroline, Perriche à tête jaune, Perruche à tête jaune, Perruche de la Caroline du Sud (francés).
- Carolinasittich, Karolinasittich (alemán).
- Periquito-da-carolina (portugués).
- Cotorra de Carolina (español).

Carlos-Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:


- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Conuropsis
- Nombre científico: Conuropsis carolinensis
- Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Protónimo: Psittacus carolinensis

Carolina Parakeet Images:

————————————————————————————————

Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
Animal Diversity Web

Photos:

(1) – axidermied Carolina Parakeet. Teaching and research collections, Laval University Library By Cephas (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Conuropsis carolinensis (Linnaeus, 1758) – the extinct Carolina parakeet (mount, public display, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois, USA). By James St. John (Conuropsis carolinensis (Carolina parakeet) 2) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Mounted specimen of Conuropsis carolinensis, Museum Wiesbaden, Germany By Fritz Geller-Grimm (Own work) [CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Taxodermic bird specimen in the Fairbanks Museum and Planetarium, St. Johnsbury, Vermont, USA. By Daderot (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Conuropsis carolinensis Linnaeus, 1758 by Huub Veldhuijzen van Zanten / Naturalis [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis) by Biodiversity Heritage LibraryFlickr

Slender-billed Parakeet
Enicognathus leptorhynchus

Slender-billed Parakeet


Description:

40 to 42 cms. length and 200 to 250 g. of weight.

Slender-billed Parakeet

The Slender-billed Parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus) has the lores, forecrown and a narrow ring feathers around the eyes bright crimson red; cheeks and sides neck, green; feathers of the crown, the nape, the the mantle and back, with dark green margins producing a scalloped effect (more pronounced in the crown, where the feathers are brighter and more emerald).

Scapulars, rump and uppertail-coverts They are green. Primary coverts green with blue suffusion; other coverts green. Flight feather green-blue above with dark margins in innerwebs near the tips; light gray below. Underwing-coverts brighter yellowish green. Underparts yellowish green with patch dull red in centre of belly. Upper, the long tail red is off; greenish toward the tip; undertail, dull red suffused greyish.

The upper mandible It is dark gray with colored tip horn, the lower mandible is horn; Strait bare periophthalmic grey; irises orange-red; legs grey.

Both sexes are similar.

Immature darker, with the upper mandible shorter, less red in the face little or no red on belly.

  • Sound of the Slender-billed Parakeet.

Habitat:

The Slender-billed Parakeet dwells in wooded areas, mainly Nothofagus and Araucaria, although they can be seen in more open cultivated fields or pastures, especially in winter. Its range is located from sea level in winter 2.000 meters in summer. Usually in flocks, of a few individuals to several hundred, even during the breeding season; large communal concentrations sometimes composed of several thousand birds.

Reproduction:

Nests generally treeholes, often at a certain height and several couples using the same tree; very deep holes fill them with twigs to raise the base level. Occasionally nidifican in rock crevices, building the nest with twigs (for example, Bamboo thicket This chusquea) if there is no tree cavities available. Breeding season in November-December. Clutch 5-6 eggs.

Food:

Its diet It consists of seeds of wild and cultivated plants (They are sometimes considered a pest), including grains and thistles, seed cones araucaria (March April) open with its elongated peaks, acorns, seeds of Nothofagus and bulbous roots. generally place vigilantes while the rest of the birds feed.

Distribution and status:

Área de distribución (cría / residente): 195.000 km2

The Slender-billed Parakeet It is confined to the center Chile, from the South of Santiago through coastal lowlands and valleys on the slopes of hills Pacific, south to the Chiloe Island and maybe Palena river in the North of Aysen; They can also be seen in Isla Mocha off the southwest coast Bío Bío.

made some movements altitudinal seasonal, with moving from coastal lowlands to the foothills of the hills between spring and autumn bird (September-May).

Fairly common, although in recent decades its population has decreased due, fundamentally, deforestation, his capture and the Newcastle disease.

Less frequent and perhaps only sporadic in the northern and southern ends of its range.

Caught locally as pets, although quite rare in captivity outside Chile.

Conservation:
  1. Current category Red List UICN: Least concern.
  2. The population trend: Stable.
  3. Population size : Unknown.

(classified in Appendix II of CITES)

Justification of the Red List Category

This species has a range very large, and as a result does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20.000 km2). La tendencia de la population seems to be stable, and therefore the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion population trend (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size It has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or in a particular population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The world population It has not been quantified, but the species according to sources is locally common (pit et to the., 1997).

Justification trend

The population suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

In captivity:

Virtually unknown until 1976.

It is a nice and noisy bird, whose docility and cunning behavior have meant it to be hunted down and captured to commercialize as pets, common practice but absolutely unlawful, because they are removed from their natural means of inhabitancy in South Chile, which they can not be replaced in urban areas and in captivity. People who do sell through a network of illegal trafficking. However, it is a rare bird watching in captivity outside Chile.

In captivity, According to sources, a specimen lived 15,3 years.

Alternative names:


- Chilean Parakeet, Long-billed Conure, Long-billed Parakeet, Slender billed Parakeet, Slender-billed Conure, Slender-billed Parakeet, Slight-billed Conure, Slight-billed Parakeet (inglés).
- Conure à long bec, Perriche à long bec, Perruche à long bec (francés).
- Langschnabelsittich, Langschnabel-Sittich (alemán).
- Periquito Delgado-faturado (portugués).
- Choroy, Cotorra Choroy (español).

Admiral Phillip Parker King
Admiral Phillip Parker King

Scientific classification:


Orden: Psittaciformes
Familia: Psittacidae
Genus: Enicognathus
Nombre científico: Enicognathus leptorhynchus
Citation: (King, PP, 1831)
Protónimo: Psittacara leptorhyncha

Images Slender-billed Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Slender-billed Parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife
  • surmagico

Photos:

  • (1) Enicognathus leptorhynchus (Slender-billed parakeet), Vogelpark Walsrode Taken sometime during 1985 by Rüdiger StehnFlickr
  • (2) Enicognathus leptorhynchus Paso Mamuil by Malal xerofitoFlickr
  • (3) they choroy, recovering after being stoned Austral By Blizzard (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
  • (4) Slender-billed Parakeets rehabilitating in a Parque Tumbes in a large aviary, Talcahuano, Bio Bio Region, Chile. In January 2012, about a 100 parrots were rescued from a pet shop in La Granja, Santiago Province, Chile. They were rehabilitated for about three months before being released to the wild. By Municipality of Talcahuano [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
  • (5) Enicognathus leptorhynchus – thin nose cones – Slender-billed conure – conure Beaked by Florin FeneruFlickr
  • (6) A painting of a Slender-billed Parakeet (originally captioned “Psittacara leptorhyncha Long-billed. Parrakeet-Maccaw.”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Ross Gallardy, XC296142. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/296142

Austral Parakeet
Enicognathus ferrugineus

Austral Parakeet


Description:

28–36 cm. length.

Austral Parakeet

The Austral Parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus), It is mostly green; the lores and forecrown rather dull brick-red; the front of the crown with yellow and green feathers in the center, and edges dark green olive feathers central part of the crown.

The feathers of the upperparts They are olive green with darker edges, giving a scalloped effect. The upperwing-coverts They are olive color with dark margins. Flight feather green with metallic blue suffusion. Underwing-coverts green with dark tips; Bottom of the flight feather pale grey. The underparts They are mainly pale green olive, with darker margins (except in the the thighs) and a large opaque red spot on the central belly. In the long run tail It is dark red off above; pale grayish below. The upper mandible horn is dark colored with a black tip; the bottom is dark horn-colored; irises reddish brown; legs dark gray.

Both sexes are similar. The immature It has a duller red on the head and patch in the belly red less dense and less extensive.

  • Sound of the Austral Parakeet.

Subspecies description:
  • Enicognathus ferrugineus ferrugineus

    (Statius Müller, 1776) – Nominal.

  • Enicognathus ferrugineus minor

    (Chapman, 1919) – Smaller and darker than the nominal, with a abdominal patch Red less extensive (sometimes absent).

Habitat:

The Austral Parakeet occurs mainly in forests, including forests of Nothofagus, Araucaria and Quercus, but also in more open habitats with shrubs Berberis darwinii and Drimys winteri, also they visit cultivated areas, mainly at sea level in the southern part of the range, may reach 1200 meters and even 2.000 meters north. Observed in flocks of 10-15 individuals, coming to meet more than 100 birds outside the breeding period; flocks of 10 or more in Fire land with reports of attacks caused by Red-backed Hawk (Geranoaetus polyosoma).

In April and before the arrival of winter flocks leave the mountains to take refuge in lower valleys of lower altitude.

Reproduction:

They nest in the cavity of the trees, filling very deep holes with twigs and branches where building nests are no cavities available. The breeding season It comprising the months of November to December. Clutch 4-8 eggs. To the 26 days are born nestlings, emplumándose to 7-8 weeks.

Food:

predominantly eat seeds (can cause damage to grain crops). Its diet It includes herbaceous seeds and bamboo, Drimys winteri, acorns and nuts Araucaria, fruit, berries and sprouts p. Nothofagus and bulbous roots.

Distribution and status:

Extensión de su área de distribución (reproducción / residentes): 2.010.000 km2

Distributed by the south end of South America, psittacine distribution is the southernmost in the world.

They can be observed from Land of Fire north through Chile to province O'Higgins and east of Andes in Argentina, extending through Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro Western and Neuquén Western.

Generally residents, even in the extreme south, although the foothills move to raise (at least in Land of Fire) with some predictable local movements in the north. Generally common, It is very abundant in the wooded coast Land of Fire. Large areas remain intact habitat and inhabiting several large protected areas.

Very rare in captivity.

Distribution of subspecies:
Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the Red List Category

This species has a very large range, and therefore does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion. The trend population seems to be stable, and therefore the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion population trend (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estimada en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or in a particular population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as ‘quite common(Stotz et to the. (1996).

Justification trend

The population suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

In captivity:

Very rare in captivity.

Chilean law prohibits the purchase, sale and possession of this magpie.

If you have a Austral Parakeet I recommend you give it to SAG or the Center for Rehabilitation of Wildlife of Codeff ([email protected], background: 777 25 34 – Santiago), because in that place you will come across many other parrots of the same species that suffered the same process, and specialized people who care very well, For then return to the wild.

Alternative names:


- Austral Conure, Austral Parakeet, Emerald Conure, Emerald Parakeet, Magellan Conure, Magellan Parakeet (inglés).
- Conure émeraude, Conure magellanique, Perriche magellanique, Perruche magellanique (francés).
- Smaragdsittich, Smaragd-Sittich (alemán).
- Periquito-austral (portugués).
- Cachaña, Cachaña austral, Cotorra Austral, Cotorra Cachaña (español).

Scientific classification:

Antiguamente separada del género monoespecífico Microsittace.

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Enicognathus
- Nombre científico: Enicognathus ferrugineus
- Citation: (Statius Mulller, 1776)
- Protónimo: Psittacus ferrugineus

Images Austral Parakeet:

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Austral Parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Austral Parakeet (also known as Austral Conure or Emerald Parakeet) in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile By Miguel Vieira [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two Austral Parakeets in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina By Francesco Veronesi [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Austral Parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus) seen near Laguna Onelli, Glaciers National Park, Santa Cruz, Argentina By Fabienkhan (Personal Picture) [CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons – credit : Fabien Dany – www.fabiendany.com
(4) – Cachañas in San Martin de los Andes, Province of Neuquen, Argentina By Ignsal (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – An Austral Parakeet in Magallanes Province, Chile By Paulo Fassina (Parrot EatingUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Austral Parakeet – Torres del Paine National Park, Chile by Eleanor BriccettiFlickr

Sounds: Bobby Wilcox, XC236937. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/236937

Sulphur-winged Parakeet
Pyrrhura hoffmanni

Sulphur-winged Parakeet

Description:

23 cms. length and 84 g. of weight.

Sulphur-winged Parakeet

The Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) It, mostly, green with some individual variations in plumage.

It has a distinctive tail long and round about ear-coverts crimson red. Yellow at the top of the wings, largely hidden when the bird is at rest, but perfectly visible in flight.

The feathers of the forecrown, crown, cheeks and nape, They are green with yellow centers (the proportion of the yellow color is higher in the forecrown, lower in the back of the crown). Above predominantly green, It is the leading edges of the wings, sometimes, yellow. The lesser coverts and median are, generally, green, sometimes with some yellow in outer median coverts and feathers alula.

Yellow at the base of the outerweb of the greater coverts. Outerwebs of primaries, to a great extent, blue; primaries and secondaries with bright yellow patch, especially on the basis of innerwebs; flight feather with black tips. Under, the wings with the lesser coverts green, the majors, greenish yellow; a central portion flight feather yellowed with greyish tips.

Chin reddish; throat, sides neck and the top chest, green with yellow tips on feathers, which gives an overall light effect Scaled. The belly, the flanks and undertail-coverts, are green. Upper, the tail is green, below, reddish.

The bill and cere They are pink colored horn; bare periophthalmic white or yellowish white; the irises brown; legs pale grey.

Both sexes are similar, but the male player has yellow stripes on pens crown.
The Immature It has less yellow in head, the chest and wings.

  • Sound of the Sulphur-winged Parakeet.

Subspecies description:
  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni gaudens

    (Bangs, 1906) – Very similar to nominal, although feathers crown and nape They have yellower, with their ends red or red and orange (in some birds, red ends of the feathers may extend over the back, the throat and the chest). Underparts slightly darker.

  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni hoffmanni

    (Cabanis, 1861) – Nominal.

Habitat:

Observed, mainly, in mountainous areas, preferring montane forests in the subtropical zone, mainly 1.000 to 2.400 meters above sea level, although views 550 meters in the region Almirante Bay, Panama and a 3.000 metres in Costa Rica.

They appear to tolerate a considerable disturbance of habitat, including managed forests, areas and the second growth partially cleared, forests and wooded pasture shrubs. Usually seen in pairs or small flocks of 5-15 birds. You can perform altitudinal movements daily to feed, returning to the mountains to rest. Forage occurs in the canopy or smaller trees and bushes near the edge of the woods.

Reproduction:

They nest in tree hollows, including old nests woodpeckers, to 8-20 meters of land. With reproduce dry season (January June). Clutch six eggs in captivity.

Food:

Its diet includes fruit of Ficus, Croton, Leandra, Myrtus and Miconia.

Distribution and status:

Extensión de su área de distribución (reproductores / residentes): 18.400 km2

Confined south of Costa Rica and western Panama.

The species is found in the highlands of the southern half of Costa Rica, including the slopes of Caribbean, the mountains of the central plateau south and the two sides of the Cordillera de Talamanca, sometimes the region Cartago and Paradise and the Irazu volcano.

In western Panama They are mainly distributed in the west and center Chiriquí and areas adjacent in Bull's mouths, in the highest mountains (including the Chiriqui volcano and the high ridges on Boquette) and at lower elevations around, for example, of the Chiriqui Lagoon and Admiral Bay.

The easternmost Panamanian registry was found east of the central mountain range in 1868.

Some altitudinal movements (higher in the dry season). Birds are perhaps only sporadic in the extremities of their range. Apparently, It is common in middle to high elevations Cordillera de Talamanca and in isolated areas, and it is believed to be quite numerous throughout the main range.

Its Habitat It is now highly fragmented, though still apparently numerous, even in areas where the forest is partly cloudy. Rare in captivity.

Distribution of subspecies:
  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni gaudens

    (Bangs, 1906) – West of Panama and Caribbean slope of Bull's mouths.

  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni hoffmanni

    (Cabanis, 1861) – Nominal. South of Costa Rica.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the red list category

Although this species may have a small range, it is not believed that approximates the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criteria of size range (Extension <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión / calidad del hábitat o tamaño de la población y un pequeño número de lugares o fragmentación severa). La trend of the population It appears to be stable, so that the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size It has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un declive continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

They suspected that the population of Catana Cotorra is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

In captivity:

Rare in captivity. Quieter than other parakeets. In Panama the export of these birds is prohibited from 1980.

Alternative names:


- Hoffmann's Conure, Hoffmann's Parakeet, Hoffman's Conure, Hofman's Conure, Sulfur-winged Parakeet, Sulphur winged Parakeet, Sulphur-winged Conure, Sulphur-winged Parakeet (inglés).
- Conure de Hoffmann, Perriche de Hoffmann, Perruche de Hoffmann (francés).
- Hoffmann Sittich, Hoffmannsittich, Hoffmann-Sittich (alemán).
- Tiriba-de-asa-amarelada (portugués).
- Cotorra Catana, Perico aliazufrado, Perico de Hofman (español).
- Perico aliazufrado (Costa Rica).

Jean Louis Cabanis
Jean Louis Cabanis

Scientific classification:


Su nombre hace referencia al naturalista alemán Karl Hoffman.

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Pyrrhura
- Nombre científico: Pyrrhura hoffmanni
- Citation: (Cabanis, 1861)
- Protónimo: Conurus hoffmanni

Sulphur-winged Parakeet Images:

————————————————————————————————

Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni). Photographed at Savegre, in Costa Rica By Dominic Sherony [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Parakeet HOFFMAN (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) Loro Parque, Tenerife by ZOOTOGRAFIANDO
(3) – A Sulphur-winged Parakeet at Savegre, Costa Rica By Dominic Sherony [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) at Savegre Lodge, near San Gerardo, Costa Rica By Michael Woodruff [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Sulphur-winged Parakeet or Hoffmann’s Conure (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) by elite-pets
(6) – Conurus hoffmanni = Pyrrhura hoffmanni by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Mike Nelson, XC107214. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/107214

Red-crowned Parakeet
Pyrrhura roseifrons

Red-crowned Parakeet


Description:

22 cm.. in length and a weight ranging from 54 and 70 g..

The Red-crowned Parakeet (Pyrrhura roseifrons) has the head pinkish red. The neck and the area of ​​the upper chest They are dark with whitish scales. The bill is black. The tail and the central area of belly They are red. The tip of his tail It is dark red. The wings they are blue. Orbital ring dark gray bordered by a yellowish white. the legs are grey.

The immature It has reddish forehead and dark tones in the rest of the head. The pinkish red head in adults it is distinctive. Losl youth They may resemble subspecies Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana or the Deville's Parakeet (Pyrrhura lucianii), but it lacks of the ear-coverts pale.

  • Sound of the Red-crowned Parakeet.

Description 4 subspecies
  • Pyrrhura roseifrons dilutissima

    (Arndt, 2008) – Blue restricted to a narrow strip on the forecrown; yellowish beige in ear-coverts; upper region chest pale brown festooned with pale yellowish beige.

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons roseifrons

    (Gray,GR, 1859) – Nominal. –

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons parvifrons

    (Arndt, 2008) – It looks like the Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana, but with blue, rather than red, on forecrown.

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana

    (Hocking, Blake & Joseph, 2002) – 22 cm., length. Absent in his bright red plumage, It has more dark brown in crown and the area eyes, the crown with bluish.

Habitat:

He lives mostly in small groups of a dozen members and remains in partner during the period breeding. They lead a life Nomad, little little is known about the behavior of this species in the wild.

Reproduction:

build their nest in tree cavities. The laying is of 5 to 7 eggs incubated by both parents for 26 days (captive breeding data). Offspring remain in the nest 2 months, becoming independent at the age of 3 months.

Food:

It feeds on fruits, seeds, leaves and flowers.

Distribution:

Tamaño de su área de distribución (reproducción / residentes): 1.000.000 km2

It is located in the west of the Amazon, from the state Amazon about the Juruá, in Brazil, and the lowlands of eastern Peru in the North of Bolivia. In Brazil, They spread south and west of habitat Deville's Parakeet (Pyrrhura lucianii)

Distribution 4 subspecies
  • Pyrrhura roseifrons dilutissima

    (Arndt, 2008) – Center of Peru around the rio Ene at the confluence with the rio Quipachiari, and around Hacienda Louisiana, on Cordillera Vilcabamba.

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons roseifrons

    (Gray,GR, 1859) – Nominal. – Amazon Western, to the South of the Amazon, from the North of Peru South to North of Bolivia (Peace) and in the West of Brazil (Western Amazon).

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons parvifrons

    (Arndt, 2008) – Two disjoint regions in northern Peru; in the East of San Martin and adjacent areas, Center west Loreto, and along the Amazon in the northeast of Loreto (only on the southern shore of Amazon).

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana

    (Hocking, Blake & Joseph, 2002) – Foothills of Andes in the southeast of Ecuador (Morona-Santiago) and North of Peru (Amazon and Loreto Western)

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the Red List Category

This species has a very large range, and therefore does not approach the thresholds for vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20.000 km2 combinan con un tamaño gama disminución o fluctuante, hábitat medida / calidad, o de la población tamaño y un pequeño número de localidades o fragmentación severa). A pesar de que la tendencia de la población parece estar disminuyendo, el descenso no se cree que es suficientemente rápido como para acercarse a los umbrales para Vulnerables según el criterio tendencia de la población (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size It has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be reason to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or a specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

Recent world population is unknown given taxonomic divisions.

Justification trend

This species is suspected that there may be lost 7,0-7,3% of habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation of the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the. 2006, Bird et to the. 2011). Given the susceptibility of this species to hunting and / or entrapment, it is suspected that its population can decrease <25% en tres generaciones.

In captivity:

little presence in captivity and found only in some aviaries, where however they reproduce very well. After acclimation is a strong bird that can live outdoors. It is a bird suspicious although curious and playful nature, especially if they feel safe. Young birds in captivity quickly lose their fear and are very attached to their caregivers. It´s noisy, especially in the morning and sleeps in the nest. The female is very aggressive during the breeding period with other other birds.

Alternative names:

-
Red-crowned Parakeet, Rose-fronted Parakeet, Rose-fronted Parakeet (Rose-fronted) (inglés).
- Conure à calotte rouge, Conure rougissante (francés).
- Rotscheitelsittich (alemán).
- Tiriba-de-cabeça-vermelha (portugués).
- Cotorra frentirrosa, Perico de Frente Rosada (español).

Scientific classification:

- Orden: Psittaciformes
- Familia: Psittacidae
- Genus: Pyrrhura
- Nombre científico: Pyrrhura roseifrons
- Citation: (Gray, GR, 1859)
- Protónimo: Conurus roseifrons

Images Red-crowned Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Red-crowned Parakeet (Pyrrhura roseifrons)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Painted Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta) – the subspecies on this photo, roseifrons, is now often considered a separate species, the Rose-fronted Parakeet (Pyrrhura roseifrons) By http://www.birdphotos.com (http://www.birdphotos.com) [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Micah Riegner, XC208597. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/208597

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