The Todd’s Parakeet(Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps) green is generally the forecrown and areas around eyes, dark red.
In flight the dark red stain is very evident abdomen. Wings below greyish. The crown and nape they are blue; the front and sides of the strip head, red and scaly appearance of the chest with wider margins. This subspecies is included within the species Pyrrhura picta.
Historically, classification of Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps (Todd 1947) He has been subject to opinions found. While some authors recognize this taxon at the species level, others consider it a subspecies of Pyrrhura subandina (Todd 1947) or Pyrrhura picta (Meyer de Schauensee 1949), the latter being the most widely followed ranking (Hilty & Brown 1986, pit et to the. 1997, Rodríguez & Hernandez-Camacho 2002). Based on analysis of morphological characters, Joseph (2000) and Joseph & Stockwell (2002) suggested that P. caeruleiceps should be considered as a distinct phylogenetic species and taxon Pyrrhura pantchenkoi (Phelps 1977), described from two specimens with worn plumage, is its synonym. Hilty (2003) He continued this treatment, but the classification committee Bird South America of the American Ornithologists’ Union recently it considered that existing information was insufficient to support this taxonomic change according to the biological species concept and kept provisionally caeruleiceps like a subspecies of painted parakeet (Remsen et al. 2010).
They inhabit in rainforest, semi-húmeda and low cloud forests. Nest sizable trees in abandoned nests of other species.
The enigmatic and little known Todd’s Parakeet(Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps) It has a very restricted range in the rainforest, mainly between 500 and 900 Attitude meters along the border between Colombia and Venezuela, as well as patches of tropical forest in the foothills of the Serranía del Perijá.
Its Freedom population It is believed to be about 30 a 50 individuals.
The forest loss and fragmentation are the main threats facing this bird, but the species is also trapped and kept in cages as a pet. In accordance with the categories of the UICN It is considered In danger (IN), mainly due to the habitat destruction.
Todd’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps)
– Book parrots, Parrots and macaws Neotropical
The Sinu Parakeet(Pyrrhura subandina) It, in general, green, with the forecrown and areas around eyes dark red.
In flight It is very evident dark red stain abdomen, the wings below greyish. The cheeks They have a greenish blue tone, the area surrounding the ear It is yellowish-brown and the breast feathers with design marginalized gray escamado.
Lives or lived in rainforest, semi-húmeda, deciduous forests of Gallery,low. It nests on trees of considerable size in hollow nests woodpeckers.
Endemic of Colombia, in the lower valley of Sinu river, Jaraquiel, Cerro Murrucucú, Córdoba.
Expeditions in recent years have failed to see her.
Estimated population: 0-100; The population trend: possibly extinct
We recommend that you devote to Sinu Parakeet immediate attention to the conservation of this unique endemic species of the plain Sinú River.
Habitats in the forest and close to the Valley of the Sinú River have been extensively altered and lost.
The Sinu Parakeet It was described by Todd 1917 as a distinctive bird endemic Valley Sinú River, Córdoba Department, Northwest of Colombia. Peters (1937), without evidence or any basis placed the Pyrrhura subandina within the species Pyrrhura picta, and the species immediately fell into obscurity as subspecies. However, Joseph and Stockwell (2002) they restored the status to Pyrrhura subandina as a species, based on a detailed assessment and phylogenetic analyses recent (com. pers. 2003).
DNA analysis has shown that the population of the Sinu Parakeet(Pyrrhura subandina) It is probably different (monotypic) (Joseph & Stockwell 2002), although at present it remains a subspecies of the Pyrrhura picta pending further studies (SACC 2007).
There is no information on the ecology of the Sinu Parakeet or current status. The species has never been reported alive and its range has been extensively deforested (Salaman obs. pers.)
At the beginning of 2004 Paul Salman He visited the four sites type; two are entirely deforested, While Quimarí and the Cerro Murrucucú still have some fragmented forests. No evidence of any Pyrrhura It was obtained by observations and interviews with the local community. In May of 2004, a researcher at ProAves he spent three months exploring for this species along the Cerro Murrucucú but their results were not favorable. The lack of recent records of this species and its restricted and unprotected range give reasons for concern about their survival and current status.
Reference: Joseph, L. and Stockwell, D. 2002. Climatic modeling of the distribution of some Pyrrhura parakeets of northwestern South America with notes on their systematics and special reference to Pyrrhura caeruleiceps Todd, 1947. Ornitologia Neotropical 13: 1-8.
The Sinu Parakeet(Pyrrhura subandina) It was last recorded reliably in 1949. Almost nothing was recorded about their habits. It was not found during searches 2004 and 2006 (ProAves Colombia 2008). He may be extinct, but if still survives, this bird will be seriously threatened by habitat loss and hunting associated with the armed conflict in the region; The future of this Pyrrhura It looks bleak.
* Subspecies included within the species Pyrrhura picta.
Sinu Parakeet (Pyrrhura subandina)
– Book parrots, Parrots and macaws.
– Extinct Birds by Julian P. Hume, Michael Walters.
Those who come to achieve Venezuela cardenalito it seems that are satisfied with the sole idea of getting him the coveted F1 (hybrids of this beautiful exotic with female Canary), totally disregarding better information and knowledge of their particular biology.
The lack of information available on the Customs is very strange, food, reproduction and Habitat of the Venezuela Cardenalito.
"Ornithology and Canaricultura treaties only describes its colors", its properties to convey the color red to the Canary and well little more. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the more relatives to the life of this small fringílido, such as twitchers & dealers, They jealously guard for himself, the knowledge of their customs, avoiding, "competition". It comes to thinking this belief by aware illegal trade that exists in their country of origin.
"Due to the high demand for Cardenalitos", coming from all countries where the color Canaricultura is practiced, This bird has become the most coveted by stealthy casual and hunters merchants. In Caracas, as well as in La Guaira, his famous seaport, purchase and sale of Cardenalitos trade constituted, until very recently, an authentic international business. Sailors and travelers came to pay desorbitantes quantities by a Cardenalito. The few who came alive to Europe listed to astronomical prices.
"It is not strange to think", because, that lack of scientific knowledge of its wildlife is the result of a tacit agreement between illegal hunters and traders. As you want it, This disregard for his life and customs brings, as a result, the early illness and death of the majority of the Cardenalitos that manage to come alive to Europe.
"On the other hand", This species is seriously threatened with extinction. This beautiful winged Ruby of the Venezuelan northern regions, It is already very sparsely found by have turned, inevitably, in one vítima of selfishness and the irrational whim of man. Fortunately, the measures taken by the Government, rigorously applying existing laws for the protection of Venezuelan fauna, they come to alleviate, as far as possible, the damage caused to this species. These laws you are applying in a blunt way today and trade, as flourishing in past years, This disappearing, with the natural joy of ornithologists and lovers of nature from around the world.
SCIENTIFIC AND VERNACULAR NAMES.-
"This beautiful American gouldi measures of" 11 a 12 centimeters. It is known by various vernacular names, such as Tarin, in Argentina, Eurasian Red, in other South American countries, Cardenalillo, in Spain, Cardenalito, in Venezuela, etc. The scientific name is also varied and confusing: etcnus cucullatus, Carduelis cucullatus and Crhysomitris cucullatus. As we see it, ornithologists have not deepened much in his study and taxonomy: Some include him among the "Goldfinch", others among the "Spinus", etc.
"All of this contributes negatively to authentic scientific knowledge of this beautiful tropical bird", so fundamental to the canaricultor of color. Of which there is no doubt is the Cardenalito of Venezuela closely emado with a large group of American fringillidae: the "Spinus".
COLORS OF THE MALE.-
"The head", the neck and throat are black Jet, in the form of Hood; the back is dark red; the chest and the obispillo are red fire, beautiful; the tail, completely black. The wings are black, with a beautiful and wide strip of color orange through primary and secondary shirts. The legs and beak, dark brown. The eyes are amber.
COLORS OF THE FEMALE.-
"The female of the Cadelalito has a head", the neck, the back and the flanks of ash grey streaks, with little red colouring on the chest and obispillo. The tail is black; the wings of the same color, taking the same strip Orange wing than the male.
COLORS OF THE INMATUROS YOUTH.-
"Inmaturos youth are identified perfectly by their uniform coloration from Brown grey". The colour of the wing band is barely noticeable in the early days of leave the nest. Similar to the adult female Saint, but without the black and red colours, being the shade of grey, duller.
"This beautiful gouldi is originally from the northern regions of Venezuela", characterized by mountain ranges, hills and Plains. This wide strip is characterized by its totally different weather stations each other: A , rainy and humid, comprising of April to U.k. and other dry, from November to March. The vegetation is itself the American Savannah, This is, shrubs, grasses and herbs of all kinds, with very little Grove. The average temperatures of this area vary significantly, Depending on the station wet or dry.
"Live the Cardenalito wandering flocks", on the plains of lower floors. It feeds on seeds, tender stems and small insects. It nests in the spring. The female lays three to five eggs, pure white, that incubates alone. The male brings food, providing a longer regurgitado. The nest is built in the form of Cup, with abundant material dry grasses and hair. The female so carefully lined with feathers and other soft materials. To the 11-12 days of being incubated eggs, hatch chicks, covered with a fine low down. They are fed with insects, larvae and seed peeled and regurgitadas, by both parents. To the 15 days, they leave the nest. The female makes two to three released per year.
CARDENALITO IN CAPTIVITY.-
"The Cardenalito of Venezuela is usually easily to life in captivity"; It is committed and loving with whom care you and is not quarrelsome with other birds into your company. He is cheerful and very cantor. His singing resembles our serin (Serinus serinus). Is always on the move. Much like the green food, especially the lettuce. He is so loving the Whitehorn that if, by your tastes outside, It would only eat the seed and lettuce. Some consent to die than testing other grains. But the Whitehorn just becoming ill will. They must eat of this oilseed seed, but not in excess, because they resist not a diet continued on the basis of this food.
"It is necessary to make them also eat birdseed", millet, Turnip rape, Thistle and rapeseed seed, as well as some fruit and green food. Should they also be lettuce seeds, Blue poppy and some crushed cañamones. Should not be given egg pasta, as is done with the Canaries, because they end up becoming ill hepatitis and die soon.
"The hardest thing is its adaptation and acclimatization to our latitudes". Must acclimate them very slowly and to ensure that the temperature does not fall from the 10 degrees Celsius. It is a very chilly bird, immediately accusing the lack of heat. Once made the first move in the cage, already does not require special care.
"The clear evidence of its health is singing". If a Cardenalito sing, We can think of to raise with him with many chances of success. Is very hot in nature and if this strong and healthy, can attach you with two female perfetamente.
"But in this work we are not going to try their breeding and genetic qualities", Neither of its extraordinary influence on color canaricultura. This item, along with a profound study scientific-convenient for its reproduction in captivity with his own female, It will be developed, in detail, in a next job. We advance, However, This birding event has taken place in Spain with Cardenalitos brought Venezuela and adapted to climate nauestro. This achievement has been achieved, "after long years of tests and trials by the author of this article".
by José Moreno Sánchez
Judge of the F.O.E. (Spain)
Several trials have been conducted to estimate the number of wild individuals who survive today; However, Dear sayings are characterized by their inaccuracies and is not really known the current population. Estimates vary from a minimum of 600 until 800 birds across the country, of which are calculated each 350 a 500 individuals in the West, and other 300 in the central zone. Other estimates indicate that they currently survive around 4.000 Wild cardenalitos total, of which approximately 2.500 they live in the States of Lara and Falcón. Captured birds figures support more the estimated second that the first. It is necessary to clarify that, While you can ensure that the figure is low, still lack information to estimate the population with accuracy. In any case, the current figures are lower than the previous ones and the majority of the populations referred to in the past are now extinct.
Their coloration is unmistakable: While the female has more muted colors, the male looks reddish plumage in the chest. It is not threatened and has populations of between fifteen and twenty-eight million copies in Europe.
It is a highly sociable bird, which serves immediately when called by imitating his song.
Despite being a quiet animal, during the early morning hours his State will of euphoria and very active. In the evening turns into a passive pet, lazy and dormilona. Both the male and female sing in a similar way. It is not one of their most notable qualities, its melody is not musical notes and is not too powerful. Observers as interesting friend inflará their feathers and throat in unison at the time of start singing.
Their customs are very different from other birds and many ornithologists believe that their partners are stable, because they are generally of two by two, male and female, in both summer and winter. The male is equipped with a sumptuous plumage, that puts in evidence during courtship. Spongy chest, leaves hanging their wings, to display contrasting drawing of his obispillo and swings conton is.
The Monk Parakeet(Myiopsitta monachus) has the forecrown (up to the half of the crown), the lores and cheeks, pale ash gray; the rear of the crown and nape, grass-green, fading to green, slightly more off, in the the mantle, the back and scapulars; rump green. Primary coverts, blue; other coverts, green.
Flight feather Blue by up. Under the wings has the lesser coverts green, the coverts more large and innerwebs of the the flight feathers, blue. Throat and upper area of the chest, Ash Grey, with pale edges to the feathers, giving a beaming effect; Bottom of the chest, pale yellow; Abdomen, the thighs and vent, pale green.
Upper, the tail is green with blue in the Center; below, pale bluish-green.
The Monk Parakeet is, mainly, in dry wooded areas or fields open with trees, such as gallery forest, isolated thickets, palm groves, forests, linens and areas with thorny thickets with Cactus, also in land cultivation and in urban areas with trees, mainly below 1.000 m.
They tend to be observed in pairs or flocks of 30-50 individuals; with much larger meetings outside of breeding season. Rest communally, Sometimes the nests, While you are not playing.
There are reports of lines of transmission damaged by the birds to the be nesting. In general, in the area in which have been introduced these birds, the impacts are associated mainly to the behaviors of nesting. This species of birds build large, bulky nests in communications and transmission towers, and distribution poles. In the towers of transmission represent simply a problem of maintenance and does not affect the communications, but in electrical installations can cause blackouts and fires since the nests can create electrical circuits. This problem intensifies during rainy and humid climates. The nests of these birds can cause significant damage to the facilities power including a decrease in electrical reliability, damage to equipment and loss in income due to power outages caused by nests, an increase in the maintenance and operation costs associated with the removal of nests and repair of structures damaged as well as issues of public safety (ISC 2011).
It is the only, between the parrots, It builds, usually, his nest with twigs (commonly Celtis shrubs) in branches of tree (sometimes in telephone poles, etc.). Sometimes build nests alone (especially in those areas more dry), Although they are usually communal (until 100 nests, usually around 10) combined to form large structures cluttered of several meters of width, with inputs from the side or by under. Each nest It is built with remains of chewed branches. The nests are sometimes used by them Spot-winged Falconet (Spiziapteryx circumcincta) and other birds, to nest and rest. A nest can get to to weigh 50 kilos and be formed by more than 20.000 remained.
The breeding season, in your area natural's distribution, is between October-December. The clutch generally 4-6 eggs, Although according to some sources, the laying You can understand between 1-11 eggs.
Its diet includes a wide range of seeds wild and cultivated, wild fruits, as well as different material plant in which will include seeds of grass and grains, stems of cactus, roots vegetables and fruits cultivated, sometimes also insects and their larvae. Feeds, both in trees as in the soil, sometimes with other species including pigeons and birds of the genus Molothrus.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 2720000 km2
The Monk Parakeet lives in the lowlands of the South of South America, to the East of the Andes front Bolivia to Rawson Department (Chubut) in Argentina.
Generally common and abundant in Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul (Although does not play there). It is the Parrot more common in large part of its area of distribution and largely local expansion is due to the plantations of Euralyptus in areas without trees, partial deforestation in other areas, the Elimination of predators and the expansion of crops.
Pursued in several areas, Although the overall effect on its population is apparently slight.
Wild populations established in many towns outside of the range, including Puerto Rico, Florida, New York City (where there are fears of that could convert is in a plague agriculture important) and several cities more than them EE.UU. There have also been populations of the Monk Parakeet in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Berlin (Germany), Austria, Belgium, Italy, Spain (including the Islas Canarias) and several places over the Mediterranean.
Is a trade in these birds, both local, as international, with large numbers of this species in captivity.
• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.
• Population trend: Increasing.
Justification of the population
Global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996) and ‘common to abundant‘ (pit et to the., 1997).
Justification of trend
The population is suspected to have increased as a consequence of the creation of new areas of habitat suitable (pit et to the., 1997).
The species has been marketed strongly: from 1981, When is included in the Appendix II of the CITES, they have been 710.686 individuals captured in the Middle wild for the Commerce International (database CITES from the UNEP-WCMC, January 2005).
Cotorra Argentina in captivity:
Renowned for her beauty and intelligence, the Monk Parakeet is a pet people, especially in North America, Since the Decade of the 1960 ’ s (ISC, 2011). Can learn to imitate great amount of words, but at the same time are very bustling, demanding of attention and affection, with much character, and very territorial, by what not is rare that attack to their own owners when the manipulated or manipulate your cage. In captivity is reproduced with ease, but to the have many colonies in State Wildlife, not be usually stimulate its reproduction in captivity.
Its life expectancy It 3-10 years in freedom and 25 a 35 years in captivity (Alvarez-Romero et to the., 2008).
Before trying to acquire to an of these birds as mascot there that know that in many countries is prohibited its sale to the be listed as species invasive.
It is a beautiful bird colors is appreciated for its beauty and singing, If that be prodige in this activity is recommended to leave only the male.
It feeds on millet, oats, birdseed, wheat, rapeseed, and a long etc. We can also add various herbs and fruits. This bird should be always available fresh water as she loves to bathe. It must be said that it is very strong and resistant and supports hassle-free winter in an outdoor cage. Well looked after is a bird that can live up to 20 years in captivity.
For breeding your convenience is in a large aviary, with shrubs which can establish its nest, Although not always the case and sometimes also nest in open nidales.
The implementation consists of 3 a 6 eggs which the female incubates almost always alone, Although in some couples both parents take turns to do so. The incubation period is of 15 days and children leave the nest to the 17 days even though the parents are still alimentandolos for three weeks more.
The Red-crested Cardinal lives in South America, from the South of Brazil, Bolivia and reaches the central part of Argentina.
The female is indistinguishable from the male as the colorful, but in a quiet State male has bun dropped on his head and Hedgehog it in moments of excitement. Young Cardinals have the head of a brown hue and not present bow, This begins to grow them seven weeks after his birth, Although not harder adult plumage until the second year.
Serinus Canaria is its scientific name.
It is native of the Canary Islands, Azores and Madeira. Now considered a close relative of the European Serin (Serinus serinus), He was formerly associated with the goldfinch and the Sparrow.
It was domesticated to become one of the favorite birds of company in our homes.
The color that know you, It is a bright yellow, but can also display plumage ranging from pure white to deep red. Their size varies between 12 and 20 cm and is much appreciated for the quality of their singing.
Many species are born from successive crosses made by breeders of this species.
The Canary only must buy in specialized pet stores or breeders certificates and future owners should investigate a bit before you buy: a surface palpation of the area of the chest to see if the bird is not excessively thin , a review of feathers must be smooth and shiny, the observation of respiratory movements in order to identify possible respiratory problems.
The canaria enjoys human company, but it is not very fond of direct contact with the human hand. If you want to listen to his wonderful singing remember to give your space away from the cage.
For reasons of hygiene, You must place a source for birds in the cage in order to preserve a beautiful plumage, This ritual should be performed twice a week. With a special nail clippers that can cut the nails of the birds to a suitable length.
The Canarian fresh water constantly needs to contaminated water can be fatal.
The small seeds available in specialized pet stores ensures a balanced for its Canarian diet. However, a varied diet that includes cuts of spinach, Dandelion Green, grape or Apple, peas, corn or small pieces of egg will be a guarantee for the harmonious development of the bird, avoiding health problems.
Diseases affecting the Canaries are: Trichomoniasis avian, Parrot fever, smallpox, liver disease, dust mites, atoxoplasmosis. A clean environment and a balanced diet can help prevent these diseases. However, If health problems appear, the vet is the only one who can recommend appropriate treatment.