Hellmayr's Parakeet
Pyrrhura amazonum

Hellmayr's Parakeet

Description:

22 cm.. length.

The Hellmayr's Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum) It is a mainly green parakeet; the area from crown to the nape is dark brown; the belly, the rump and tip tail, They are dark red; below, the tail It is also dark red.

They have a patch whitish in ear-coverts; a blue band in front of eyes. The face It is dark reddish brown; the upper region chest It is greenish gray with gray scalloping; the bottom of the chest It is scaled with yellowish effect; the in bend of wing green; brown-red patch in the center of abdomen; of remiges blue (visible only in flight). Orbital ring blackish; the cheeks and ocular region are dark brown.
Bill grey-black; eyes orange brown.

The immature birds They have a darker plumage.

Taxonomic status:

Considered a subspecies of the Painted Parakeet by some authors

  • Sound of the Hellmayr's Parakeet.

Description 3 subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura amazonum amazonum

    (Hellmayr, 1906) – Nominal.

  • Pyrrhura amazonum lucida

    (Arndt, 2008 parrots[Arndt]) – Little or no blue on the front of the crown. Slightly smaller and paler than the Pyrrhura amazonum snethlageae

  • Pyrrhura amazonum snethlageae

    perico madeira – (Joseph & Bates,JM, 2002) – The bare periophthalmic is of color beige.

Habitat:

They distributed in tropical rain forests and adjacent habitats. It´s social. Observed in pairs or groups. It is quite common in most of its range and live in several protected areas. The Pyrrhura amazonum amazonum It is in the Amazon National Park, For, Brazil, while the Pyrrhura amazonum lucida It is in the The Cristalino State Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Reproduction:

They build their nests in tree cavities.

Food:

With feed seed, flowers, fruit, berries and nuts. They are also considered local pests, and regularly they venture into cornfields and orchards, occasionally causing considerable damage.

Distribution:

Size of its range (reproductores / residents): 392.000 km2

Distribution 3 subspecies:

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the Red List Category

Based on a model of deforestation in the Amazon basin, and their potential susceptibility to capture for the bird trade, It is suspected that the population of the Hellmayr's Parakeet It has declined rapidly over three generations, and therefore it has been classified as danger of extinction.

Justification of the population

Recent world population is unknown given taxonomic divisions.

Justification trend

This species is suspected that he has been able to lose 43,0 to 52,1% of suitable habitat within their distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation of the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the . 2006, Bird et to the. 2011). Given the susceptibility of this species to capture, It suspected population decline by 50% in three generations.

Threats

The main threat to this species is that it is accelerating the Deforestation in the Amazon basin Livestock and soybean production, provided by the expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et to the. 2006, Bird et to the. 2011).

The changes proposed by the Forest code of Brazil reduce the percentage of land to a private owner it has the legal obligation to maintain as forest and include an amnesty for owners who deforested before July 2008 (that later they would be absolved of the need to reforest cleared land illegally) (Bird et to the. 2011).

His capture for bird trade wild can represent a significant threat.

Conservation actions and ongoing research

It is not known any.

Conservation actions and research proposals

Expand the network of protected areas to effectively protect IBA.

Effectively manage the resources of existing protected areas and new, the use of new opportunities for financing the management of protected areas with the common goals of reducing carbon emissions and maximize biodiversity conservation.

conservation on private lands is also essential, through the expansion of market pressures for rational land management and prevention of logging on land not suitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et to the. 2006).

Campaign against proposed changes to Forest code of Brazil which would lead to a decrease in the width of the coastal areas of forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), that function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Cotorra de Santarém en cautividad:

It is a bird in danger of extinction. Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Hellmayr’s Parakeet, Santarem Parakeet, Santarem Parakeet (Santarem) (English).
Conure de Hellmayr (French).
Santaremsittich (German).
Tiriba-de-hellmayr (Portuguese).
Cotorra de Santarém, Perico Santarém (Spanish).

Carl Edward Hellmayr

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura amazonum
Citation: Hellmayr, 1906
Protonimo: Pyrrhura picta amazonum

Images Hellmayr's Parakeet:

Hellmayr's Parakeet
Santarem Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum) Cristalino Jungle Lodge, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Hellmayr's Parakeet
Santarem Parakeet – Cristalino Lodge, Brazil

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Hellmayr's Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Pyrrhura or Amazon by snethlageae Blake MathesonFlickr
(2) – Santarem Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum) Cristalino Jungle Lodge, Mato Grosso, Brazil by Amy McAndrewsFlickr
(3) – Santarem Parakeet – Cristalino Lodge, Brazil by Jorge MontejoFlickr

Sounds: Jeremy Recall, XC235131. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/235131

Painted Parakeet
Pyrrhura picta

Painted Parakeet


Description:

23 cm.. length and 54-70 g. of weight.

The Painted Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta) has a close frontal band, lores, upper cheeks and area around eyes, dull red.

lower cheeks matte red with blue points on some feathers; the front of the crown is blue; rear area of the crown and of the neck, opaque reddish brown with some blue spots; ear-coverts yellowish. Nape bluish green to green in fusion area the mantle; the scapulars and the top and bottom of the back Brown; rump and uppertail-coverts, green. Upperwing-coverts green except for primary coverts external blue and some red feathers in the carpal area. Primaries blue up, gray below. Underwing-coverts green. Feathers of the throat, upper region chest and sides neck, opaque yellowish brown with wide margins, which results in a surprising scaled diamond shaped means or semicircles; bottom area chest and sides belly, green; Center of the belly brown; undertail-coverts green. Tail verde basalmente, brown distally. Bill brownish-grey; bare periophthalmic grey; brown the irises; legs grey.

Both sexes are similar.

Taxonomic status:

This taxon is considered a subspecies of Pyrrhura [picta, roseifrons, lucianii, amazonum, snethlageae or peruviana] (sensu lato) by some authors

  • Sound of the Painted Parakeet.

Description 4 subspecies
  • Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps

    (Todd, 1947) – 22 cm.. length. Mostly green with a long tail reddish brown, patch belly dark red color and the primaries Bright blue. The front of the crown blue is becoming fuzzy blue brown behind; the area of the Carpus red and ear-coverts gray-brown pale.

  • Azuero parakeet By Itzel Fong Gadea (www.itzelfong.com) [GFDL or CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Pyrrhura picta eisenmanni

    (Dr. Francisco Delgado – ornithologist panameño, 1985) – 22 cm.. length. Of mostly green with a long tail brown, the flight feathers blue, belly dark red and white patch cheek. This species has most of its face Red Color, Lacking any blue has except in the rear area neck. It has the eyes dark. Pens top chest They are dark gray with cream colored tips. The front of the crown It is red, quickly becoming a dark brown from the middle of the crown to the back of the neck.

  • Pyrrhura picta picta

    (Statius Müller, 1776) – Nominal.

  • Pyrrhura picta subandina

    (Todd, 1917) – 21 cm.. Has the face bright brownish-red; the forecrown blue and dull red; Scalloped yellow and gray in the chest. Share with other species Pyrrhura a long tail red, the primaries blue and patch belly dark red. Area Carpus is green, Unlike the red color Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps which it is the closest geographically.

Habitat:

They inhabit in moist forests and land borders, seasonally flooded forests (várzea), and on the slopes of tepuyes.

They travel in flocks with quick flights.

Reproduction:

The breeding season It is between the months of December and February. Nest in hollow trees or old abandoned nests of woodpeckers.

Food:

They feed on, to a large extent, of fruit of Goupia glabra, Bagassa guianensis, Trema micrantha, Heisteria spruceana, Zanthoxylum, flowers and seeds.

Distribution:

Tamaño de su área de Distribución (reproducción/residentes): 1.560.000 km2

The Painted Parakeet It is located in northeast South America, distributed south of Orinoco, in Venezuela, eastward through Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname and the state of Amapá in the North of Brazil (pit et to the. 1997).

In the states of Amazon and western and southern Bolivar, in Venezuela They can be observed, mainly, on the slopes of the tepuyes, while further east inhabit the lowlands.

Distribution and status of 4 subspecies
  • Pyrrhura picta caeruleiceps

    (Todd, 1947) – It is located on the western slope at the northern end of the Andes to the east, from south Cesar state north through Los Motilones on Sierra de Perija, at the border of Venezuela and Colombia. It is estimated to have lost about 70% of its original habitat within their distribution Colombia, and its area of ​​occupation within Colombia It is expected to be less than 3.700 km2 (Botero-Delgadillo et to the. 2012to, b). It's kind extremely poorly known Venezuela, there are some samples and records of sightings in only four locations, all in the Zulia state; recorded infrequently in recent years, despite the significant fieldwork (Sharpe 2015, CJ Sharpe in litt . 2015).

  • Classified as danger of extinction. Its population is in steady decline due to fragmentation of their habitat and capture for the pet trade.

  • Pyrrhura picta eisenmanni

    (Dr. Francisco Delgado – ornithologist panameño, 1985) – Known only in the Cerro Hoya National Park in provinces Veraguas and The Saints, in the South of Panama. The distribution area is considered to be less than 700 km2; It is common locally to the 1.660 m (Juniper and Parr 1998, Forshaw 2006, 2010, Montañez and Angehr 2007). However, the population It has been estimated less than 2.000 individuals (World Parrot Trust 2014), and it is considered nationally threatened (Montañez and Angehr 2007).

  • Pyrrhura picta picta

    (Statius Müller, 1776) – Nominal. They can be observed in Northeast South America, distributed south of Orinoco, in Venezuela, eastward through Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname, and in the North of Brazil, state Amapá (pit et to the. 1997). In Amazon and western and southern Bolivar states Venezuela mainly inhabit hillside tepuyes, while further east are distributed in the lowlands.

  • This species is classified as least concern, although the size of its population is decreasing mainly because of its capture for trade in bird cage.

  • Pyrrhura picta subandina

    (Todd, 1917) – Observed only in the Valley of the Rio Sinu in the North of Colombia, although recent searches have failed to find the species which may be extinct (PGW Salaman in litt. 2011). 18 specimens are known from four places; Jaraquiel, Quimarí and Murucucú in Bolivar, and Tierra Alta Nazareth (Joseph and Stockwell 2002). Placements Nazareth and in Jaraquiel, apparently, They have been deforested, but apparently small areas of suitable habitat may occur in Quimarí and in the Murucucú hills Although searches on these sites could not find any evidence of the continued presence of the Pyrrhura picta subandina (Pgv Salman in Lit. . 2011).

  • There have been no confirmed records of this parakeet from Colombia 1949 despite extensive searches, and any remaining population is likely to be extremely small and declining. Therefore, It has been classified as Critically Endangered (possibly extinct).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the Red List Category

The Painted Parakeet has a range very large, and therefore does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion. While the trend of the population seems to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be fast enough to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion population trend (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or a specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The world population It has not been quantified, due to recent taxonomic divisions.

Justification trend

This species is suspected that there may be lost 6,5-7,3% of habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation in the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the . 2006, Bird et to the . 2011). Given the susceptibility of this species to hunting and / or entrapment, It is suspected that it will fall in <25% en tres generaciones.

Cotorra pintada en cautividad:

Rare.

Alternative names:

Painted Parakeet, Painted, Azuero, Sinu or Todd’s Parakeet (English).
Conure versicolore, Conure versicolore, C. d’Eisenmann, C. du Sinu ou C. de Todd (French).
Rotzügelsittich (German).
Tiriba-de-testa-azul (Portuguese).
Cotorra Pintada, Periquito Pintado (Spanish).
Periquito Pintado (Colombia).
Perico Pechiescamado (Venezuela).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura picta
Citation: (Statius Müller, 1776)
Protonimo: Psittacus pictus

Images Painted Parakeet:

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Painted Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Venezuelan Parakeet | Perico Pintado ( Pyrrhura picta emma) By Fernando Flores from Caracas, Venezuela [CC BY-SA 2.0 or CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: William Adsett, XC82876. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/82876

Grey-breasted Parakeet
Pyrrhura griseipectus

Grey-breasted Parakeet

Description:

23 cm.. length and 70 g. of weight.

Grey-breasted Parakeet

The Grey-breasted Parakeet (Pyrrhura griseipectus) is a bird marked by a mask in reddish face, interrupted by a surrounding white coloration in the regions orbitals and ear-coverts.

The feathers of the neck to the upper region chest They have a gray color with light stripes interleaved, giving the region a striped appearance or escamado. The species has a characteristic patch reddish in belly, highlighting green coloration, its predominant body. The region forecrown up to the nape, It is dark brown with white spots or brown clear that vary from one bird to other. rear area neck green blue border with a width. They have a patch reddish brown in the bottom of the back which leads to the crown. The tail It is long and maroon. Bill gray-black; eye ring white gray; irises brown-orange.

It has no sexual dimorphism. The immature they are more muted than adults; You have scattered green feathers in the abdomen; the cere and the bare periophthalmic is white, less gray tone.

Taxonomic status:

This species is considered to be a subspecies of Pyrrhura [leucotis, emma or griseipectus] by some authors

  • Sound of the Grey-breasted Parakeet.

Habitat:

It is in the moist forests, often located in Serranas regions, where orographic rains favor the occurrence of enclaves Atlantic Forest and Mata dry amid caatinga.

Reproduction:

The breeding season It occurs during the rainy season. The laying It is five to eight eggs in holes dug by woodpeckers since they are not able to dig their own nests; They use these holes to sleep.

When the young are born, the couple divides the task of feeding. Sometimes they help until a third member of the flock for breeding all offspring successful.

Food:

Probably it feeds on fruits, flowers, seeds and algae.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (reproductores / residents): 830 km2

This species was formerly known in 15 Locations (. Anon 2014) within Brazil. At present it is in only three areas in the state of Ceará, the Serra de Baturité and Quixadá (C. Albano in a little . 2006, Waugh et al 2010.) and most recently observed in a rocky mountain Ceará, where five birds were recorded in March 2014 (Anon. 2014).

In Serra do Baturité It seems to be very rare and appears to have been extinct in several areas, but recent records of groups in the Environmental Protection Area mountains Baturité; surveys 2007 half of the remaining habitat in this site revealed near 80 individuals (C. Albano in a little. 2007, 2008) and the population here is now estimated at about 250 birds (Waugh et al . 2010).

Forests of Baturité mountains They have been greatly reduced to make way for coffee plantations and only 13% Jungle was kept in 1996. The discovery in 2010 a population of about 50 birds in Quixadá (Waugh et al ., 2010) It raises the known world population of this species in about 300 birds.

The Grey-breasted Parakeet It was previously known two other areas: the eastern slope of the Saw Ibiapaba in Ceará, and small Serra Negra, in Pernambuco, where it was common in 1974, with flocks of 4-6 individuals regularly seen in the early 1980, although there are no recent records. There are also unconfirmed reports 1991 in organic station Murici Alagoas in which possibly it refers to individuals released; Recent fieldwork was unable to locate the species.

Its known range is very small, and the species has declined dramatically in the past, a trend that may be permanent.

Conservation:

  • Justification of the Red List Category

Recent surveys indicate that this species has a extremely small population, which continues to decline after dramatic historical declines. For these reasons it qualifies as Critically endangered.

  • Justification of the population

• Current red list category of the UICN: Critically Endangered.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 200 individuals.

The population in the area Baturité Mountains Environmental Protection It is estimated at about 250 birds, and discovery in 2010 a population of about 50 birds in Quixadá raises the known world population of about 300 birds (Waugh et al ., 2010). This equates to approximately 200 mature individuals.

  • Justification trend

This species is suspected to be decreasing quickly because of their capture and habitat loss in progress within its range.

  • Threats

The habitat destruction He has played a role in the decline of the species with the original forest cover now reduced to only 13%.

The coffee plantations (especially where coffee is grown in the sun instead of shade coffee) They are impacting the habitat of the species.

The main threat, However, It is believed to come from the capture illegal underway for local and national trade (C. Albano a slightly 2006, Anon 2009..) and captive breeding (Fernandes-Ferreira et al 2012.); the Grey-breasted Parakeet They can be easily purchased through Internet (Girão y Albano 2008).

It is easily found in the international trade in bird cage.

The lack of natural nesting sites also it believed to are limiting reproductive success of the species (Campos et al . 2014).

Conservation Actions Underway

Appendix II of CITES.

In Brazil, It was considered above in critically endangered (Silveira y Straube 2008), but it has now been legally designated as endangered national (MMA 2014), and protected Brazilian law.

Dwelleth within Environmental Protection Area Mountains Baturité, but this area has been designated for sustainable use and traditionally has not been achieved for conservation.

Management of land by a private owner in the area has led to an increase in a small town known (C. Albano a slightly . 2006).

From 2007, NGO AQUASIS Brazil has been conducting two research projects: one sponsored by the Brazilian Boticário Foundation for Nature Protection, the topography of the Baturité mountains to monitor their status and their biology research; and another sponsored Fundación Loro Parque, for additional populations (C. Albano in a little. 2007, 2008).

Surveys in historical sites and areas of potential habitat in the period 2007-2008 They have not been able to locate members of this species, although there are strong indications that individuals may still be dwelling in the degraded Sierra Stephen, municipality Jaw, state Ceará (C. Albano in a little. 2007 2008, Anon 2007), where it was actually rediscovered in the 2010 (Waugh et al ., 2010).

A team of AQUASIS, funded by an award Leadership Program for Conservation in 2012, He conducted searches of the species in an isolated mountain in Ceará and he found a small population of five individuals in March 2014 (Anon. 2014).

You can also persist in Serra Negra Biological Reserve, state Pernambuco, although a combination of crops of marijuana and the hostile local culture makes it difficult to research in the latter area (C. Albano in a little. 2007, 2008).

At least 11 private reserves (RPPN) They are in the process of being created in the Serra de Baturité (C. Albano in a little. 2007, 2008) and AQUASIS They are now engaged in the process of developing a nature reserve in the Baturité mountains (Campos et al . 2014).

AQUASIS It has strengthened ties with government agencies in order to influence policy decisions (Campos et al . 2014).

Scheme nest box sponsored by Loro Parque It has been carried out with nest boxes installed in different places with the consent of the landowners. (Anon, 2009).

AQUASIS also they provided nest boxes Insecticide treated to reduce infestations of bee and wasp (Campos et al . 2014). These measures have proved effective, with 16 boxes occupied in 2012 give place to 97 eggs and 71 chicks hatched successfully.

A education and awareness campaign large scale was carried out in the Serra de Baturité in 2008 (C. Albano in a little. 2007, 2008) and continues today, with many schools currently participating in education programs AQUASIS (Campos et al . 2014).

A main objective of AQUASIS is to promote the Cotorra pechigrís Como specie of the nsignia, the work being supported by commercial NGOs and ecotourism WATER Trails of the Park (Anonymous 2009).

AQUASIS also it aims to develop the ability to bird watching and a development process of consciousness creating alternative livelihoods (Anonymous 2009). A visitor center has recently been established (Campos et al . 2014).

It breeds well in captivity and stocks are held in Brazil and abroad. Always captive breeding is well managed and coordinated, it could be used for reintroduction into nature.

They are being conducted studies on factors influencing the survival rate of chicks, population's genetics (in future DNA techniques can be used as a deterrent against illegal collection of wild birds); both adults and juveniles have been banded (Campos et al . 2014).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Conduct more studies in areas similar to the mountains Baturité in the northeast of Brazil, such as Sierras de Aratanha, Maranguape and Machado, by the presence of additional existing populations.

continue population monitoring known in Serra de Baturité.

improve conservation management practiced in the Guaramiranga Ecological Park.

Provide incentives for landowners to increase the network of private reserves Baturité mountains.

Monitor and control trade locally, National and international.

Investigate the feasibility of using giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus) as sites for constructing artificial nests (Campos et al . 2014).

continue making awareness campaigns to promote the Grey-breasted Parakeet as a symbol for conservation of rain forests and associated biodiversity in Baturité mountains.

Investigate in situ conservation measures.

Cotorra pechigrís en cautividad:

Its continuous capture, both for domestic and international trade, They have led to this beautiful bird to a critical situation, there are only 200 specimens in the nature. There are probably more animals captivity in its natural habitat

Protected by the Appendix II of CITES, each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure long term survival.

Alternative names:

Gray-breasted Conure, Gray-breasted Parakeet, Grey-breasted Conure, Grey-breasted Parakeet, Maroon-faced Parakeet (Gray-breasted) (English).
Conure à poitrine grise (French).
Graubrustsittich, Salvadori-Weißohrsittich (German).
Tiriba-de-orelha-branca, tiriba-de-peito-cinza, periquito cara-suja (Portuguese).
Cotorra pechigrís, Periquito sujo, Cotorra de pecho gris (Spanish).

Salvadori-Thomas
Salvadori Tommaso

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura griseipectus
Citation: Salvadori, 1900
Protonimo: Pyrrhura griseipectus

Grey-breasted Parakee images:

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Grey-breasted Parakeet (Pyrrhura griseipectus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Grey-breasted Parakeet By writhedhornbill [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Grey-breasted Parakeet by Internet Archive Book ImagesFlickr

Sounds: Ciro Albano, XC7948. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/7948

Maroon-faced Parakeet
Pyrrhura leucotis

Maroon-faced Parakeet

Description:

The Maroon-faced Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis) measured 21 centimeters length and 50-53 g. of weight, It is the smallest species long-tailed parakeets.

Maroon-faced Parakeet

Their cheeks and forecrown, They are brown brown mostly, blue above eyes and on lower cheeks; crown and nape, dark brown, dotted with orange-brown from the ends of pens; ear-coverts white to pale brown; nape with bluish green tones.

Mantle and top of the back, green with scattered dark margins on some feathers; lower back, rump and uppertail-coverts, brown. Wing coverts except green primary coverts which they are blue and patch Red in the bend of wing.

Primaries blue. Under, the wings with the lesser coverts green, the greater coverts dark gray; the flight feathers grey. Feathers of the throat and sides neck, blue base with a yellowish subterminal band and black tips; Feathers of the chest with little blue tones and instead to brown in bases; the underparts They are green with a large patch brown in the center of belly. maroon brown with green edges at the base of the outerweb of the lateral feathers; undertail, the tail It is reddish brown opaque.

Bill black; cere black; bare periophthalmic grey; irises dark orange-brown; legs dark grey.

The plumage of both sexes are similar.

Taxonomic status:

Considered one subspecies Pyrrhura [leucotis or emma] by some authors

  • Sound of the Maroon-faced Parakeet.

Habitat:

The Maroon-faced Parakeet inhabits forests, clear edges and adjacent with scattered trees including cocoa plantations shaded Bay, sometimes visiting parks and residential areas. They can be observed, mainly, in lowlands (for example, to 600 meters in east Brazil) and in forests at higher elevations in Northeast Brazil. Gregarious, generally close to flocks 15-20 birds.

Reproduction:

No information about your reproduction in the wild. Clutch 5-9 eggs in captivity.

Food:

Probably you have a diet comparable to his close relatives in the wild, where is recorded the Miconia hypoleuca as one of their food. There are reports of birds feeding in cornfields.

Distribution:

Size of its range (reproductores / residents): 352.000 km2

The distribution of the Maroon-faced Parakeet It is limited to Southeast Brazil, from Bay to the South of the río Jequitinhonha, to the South up to Espirito Santo, including Southeast Minas Gerais, Brazil, and previously São Paulo.

Conservation:

  • Justification of the Red List Category

– This species appears as Near-threatened on the basis that it is suspected that there has been a decrease in moderately rapid population due to the habitat loss and capture.

  • Justification of the population

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened..

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 10000-19999 individuals.

– The Maroon-faced Parakeet is believed to have a small town; However, Marsden et al .(2000) It estimated that there is a combined population of about 19,300 individuals on Biological Federal Reserve Sooretama the Nature Reserve Linhares in the State of Espirito Santo, based on surveys 1998, It is suggesting that the population has been previously underestimated.

– Until an updated estimate available, the population was provisionally placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, representing a population of about 15,000-30,000 individuals in total, although the structure of the subpopulation not known.

  • Justification trend

– It is suspected that the species is in a moderate to rapid decline due to the habitat loss and capture. The rate of decline is thought to be not so fast because tolerance to modified habitats of this species cushion the impacts of deforestation to some extent.

  • Threats

– The logging It has been extensive, It is affecting most of board woods, in Bay and Espirito Santo.

– Most of the original forest cover which distributed the Maroon-faced Parakeet It was eliminated more than a century ago; in the news, are being eliminated very quickly the remaining patches (pit et to the ., 1997).

– This bird often seized in captivity, suggesting that there is a major catch birds for trade. (J. Gilardi in little ., 2010).

Conservation Actions Underway

protected in parts of Bay (Private Reserve Station Veracruz, and national parks Discovery, Pau Brazil and Monte Pascoal) (Lamb 2002).

Monte Pascoal It faces an uncertain future, as it has been invaded by Indians Pataxó they have largely eliminated neighboring area.

– Elsewhere the species is known from reserves Linhares-Sooretama (Espirito Santo), Rio Doce State Park (Minas Gerais, Brazil) and Ting Biological Reserveeructate (Rio de Janeiro).

Conservation Actions Proposed

– continue monitoring of this species in the field and in trade.

– Strengthen the network of protected areas within the Atlantic Forest of Brazil conservation of key sites.

Cotorra orejiblanca en cautividad:

Very rare.

Its diet in captivity it is similar to that of their peers.

Its population in the wild is small and decreasing whereby each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Maroon-faced Parakeet, Maroon-faced Parakeet (White-eared), White-eared Parakeet (English).
Conure emma, Conure leucotique, Conure leucotique (nominal), Conure leucotique (nominale), Conure leucotique (race nominale) (French).
Weißohrsittich (German).
tiriba-de-orelha-branca (Portuguese).
Cotorra orejiblanca, Perico Pintado, Cotorra cariparda (Spanish).

Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura leucotis
Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
Protonimo: Psittacus leucotis

Images Maroon-faced Parakeet:

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Maroon-faced Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Maroon-faced parakeet By Gabriel Resende Veiga (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

(2) – Several White-eared Parakeets (Pyrrhura_leucotis) at Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria, Spain By Bjoertvedt (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons

(3) – A White-eared Parakeet in Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By Kee Yip from Union City, California, USA (IMG_4336_P1030859Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

(4) – White-eared Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis), Vale Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil by Brendan RyanFlickr

(5) – By Almond ButterscotchFlickr

(6) – Parrots in captivity /. London :George Bell and Sons,1884-1887 [i.e. 1883-1888] by Biodiversity Heritage LibraryFlickr

Sounds: Roney Souza, XC265102. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/265102

Pfrimer's Parakeet
Pyrrhura pfrimeri

Pfrimer's Parakeet

Description:

22 to 23 cm.. length and an approximate weight of 80 g..

Pfrimer's Parakeet

The Pfrimer's Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri) is a small psittacine of tail Long endemic Brazil very similar to Maroon-faced Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis), of which has recently been separated.

Its main color is green with bluish hues in primary rémiges and reddish tones in the back, the belly and retrizes penas. The bend of wing They are reddish.
The neck It has clear blue feathers with lighter edges, giving the whole a scaled aspect. The sides of the face They are red while the crown and nape They are bluish. The bill It is black and tail red-blue color at the tips

It has no sexual dimorphism.

Taxonomic status:

It has often been considered a subspecies of the Maroon-faced Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis)Pyrrhura leucotis pfrimeri. The separation was made based on their distribution and the differences in Habitat and plumage, He was the only member of the complex P. leucotis in which the light spot on ear-coverts It was very small. Recent mitochondrial DNA studies have confirmed this separate species status.

  • Sound of the Pfrimer's Parakeet.

Habitat:

Its distribution is restricted to the forests dry deciduous or semi-evergreen growing on limestone outcrops in the calcareous. This habitat type caatinga is an isolated island within the surrounding savannah closed. The forest caatinga typically it has a closed canopy and dense undergrowth of vines and some cactus, particularly in disturbed areas. The species has been seen recently fragmented woodlots (Olmos et al., 1998), but reportedly did not live far from the edge of the forest.

Social, usually they are seen in flocks of up 10 birds. Noisy and conspicuous when they fly above the canopy. Difficult to observe while feeding or resting among the foliage.

Reproduction:

We know very little about their reproductive habits.

Food:

They fly in flocks in search of fruits, seeds, flowers and larvae insects (wasps Family Agaonidae) .

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (Reproductores / Resident): 20.300 km2

It is located in the Brazilian states of Goiás, Tocantins and the northwestern tip of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population: 20,000-50,000.

Justification of the Red List Category

This species has a range very small very fragmented and where habitat loss and degradation continue. For these reasons, It is classified as endangered.

Justification of the population

The total population is estimated to lie within the band 20,000-49,999 individuals (CA Bianchi in a little. 2006, 2007). The population density of the species has been estimated 11,7 individuals / km2 .

Justification trend

Given the rapid pace of deforestation within restricted range species, and its strong dependence on forest habitats suspected its population is declining rapidly (F. Olmos in some ., 2004).

Threats:

The main threat to this species is the deforestation driven selective logging, fires and conversion of habitat to pasture (Olmos et al . 1998). Dry wood Goiás He declined to be covering 15,8% of the region 1990 only the 5,8% in 1999, and less than 1% of the remaining fragments they were larger than 100 has (F. Olmos a slightly. 2007). There has been a reduction 66% habitat available in the last 31 years, with a current annual deforestation rate 2,1% (Bianchi 2010). Rapid deforestation is occurring within the range of the species to create pastures with widespread burning to improve poor pastures destroying the habitat of dry forest. It is mainly directed to logging forests durable normally used to make fence posts, and cement are starting to target areas of limestone outcroppings (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007). The species is rare while they recorded in the trade waves collections of exotic birds; This poses a potential threat (Olmos et al ., 1998). Population pressures increase as their range is close to the capital, Brasilia (Olmos et al ., 1998).

Conservation Actions Underway

In Brazil, previously considered vulnerable (Silveira y Straube 2008), but now legally designated as endangered national (MMA 2014) and protected by the Brazilian legislation. They are distributed within the proposal Terra Ronca State Park, but this has not yet been fully implemented. (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007). Downs Terra Ronca State Park now they appear to have been deforested, leaving only forest fragments outcrops of limestone karst (Willis in a little .). Other parts of the range are not protected. The species appears in the Brazil Red List as vulnerable and the IBAMA (Federal Environment Agency Brazil) is about to create a conservation group Small parrots understand all the Pyrrhura spp, and establishes conservation efforts. Brasilia zoo began a program captive breeding in 2001 with 10 individuals, but none survived after six years (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007). There are very few known private poultry farmers who maintain the species in captivity (CA Bianchi in a little . 2006, 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Determine the extent of habitat and current rates of deforestation remaining. Closely monitor the species in trade if demand increases.

Cotorra de Goiás en cautividad:

Very rare.

It's a bird in danger of extinction; each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Goias Parakeet, Pfrimer’s Conure, Pfrimer’s Parakeet (English).
Conure de Pfrimer (French).
Goiasittich, Pfrimers Sittich (German).
tiriba de Pfrimer, Tiriba-de-pfrimer, Tiriba-do-paranã , ciganinha, barreirinha, chiriri e periquito-do-morro (Portuguese).
Cotorra de Goiás (Spanish).

Alipio Ribeiro de Miranda, brazilian natural scientist

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura pfrimeri
Citation: Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920
Protonimo: Pyrrhura pfrimeri

Images Pfrimer's Parakeet:

Cotorra videos of Goiás:


Pfrimer's Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by Lander Van NieuwenhuyseFlickr
(2) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by Lander Van NieuwenhuyseFlickr
(3) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by Lander Van NieuwenhuyseFlickr
(4) – Pyrrhura pfrimeri by pyaf.net
(5) – Tiriba-de-Pfrimer, “Pyrrhura pfrimeri” – Pfrimer's Parakeet by Brazilian Claudia Martins
Brazilian Claudia Martins
(6) – Photo of Alipio de Miranda Ribeiro, brazilian natural scientist By File created by Flávio de Miranda Ribeiro (Picture taken by family) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Pearly Parakeet
Pyrrhura lepida

Pearly Parakeet

Description:

24 cm.. in length and 70 to 80 grams.

Pearly Parakeet

The Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida) has the head dark blackish brown with mottled light on nape; ear-coverts creamy white; cheeks pale bluish green.

Upper mantle blue; robe bottom until uppertail-coverts, green. Scapulars green at the base, blue down; lesser wing coverts slightly green tinted olive; median coverts and older, mainly blue; some red at the leading edge of wing . Flight feather Blue above, secondaries with green in the outerweb; dark gray below. Underwing-coverts bright red. Sides of the neck, the throat and the top chest, mainly brown with some blue marks and points yellowish brown, which gives an overall scaled aspect; The underparts remaining are green with blue on the flanks and the thighs. Upper, the tail mainly brown, green in the basal area and narrow blue tips. Bill black-brown; bare periophthalmic grey; irises dark brown; legs black slate.

The plumages of both sexes are, apparently, similar.

taxonomic history

Confusing taxonomic history: until recently known as Pyrrhura perlata, but that name is actually applied to the known way long as Pyrrhura rhodogaster, currently a synonym for the species Pyrrhura perlata; the current species therefore assumes his next oldest name, Pyrrhura lepida. Forms a pair of species with parapatric Pyrrhura perlata, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific; the recent molecular phylogeny indicated that the closest relatives of these two are the Pyrrhura frontalis and Pyrrhura molinae.

  • Sound of the Pearly Parakeet.

Description 3 subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura lepida anerythra

    (Neumann, 1927) – Similar to the species nominal but with the chest, the belly and cheeks green with occasional shades of blue.

  • Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens

    (Neumann, 1927) – Similar to the species nominal, but with the forecrown and crown brown, gray throat and upper chest, green on the upper cheeks; bluer in the lower chest

  • .

  • Pyrrhura lepida lepida

    (Wagler, 1832) – Nominal.

Habitat:

The Pearly Parakeet, usually, inhabits humid forests of mainland. The species has been observed in forest edges, clear areas and second growth.

They are seen in flocks of up to ten birds, particularly in places where food is plentiful.

Reproduction:

They nest hollow logs. The laying is of 3-4 eggs incubados during 23 days; breeding needs about 7 weeks for independence.

Food:

probably catkins, small fruits and flowers.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 585.000 km2

The Cotorra Pulcra is endemic to Northeast Brazil, to the South of the Amazon. Observed around the basin Xingu and its tributaries, from the river Pracuí and the left bank of Tocantins River, and from Belém and the Río grass, in For, east to around Sao Luis in Maranhão, and from northern Maranhão to the East of Rosary, although apparently no longer in some coastal areas, where according to sources, They were formerly quite common.

Today are rare and extinct in many parts of their former range (for example, North of Maranhão) due to large-scale deforestation, although they are, apparently, tolerant habitat alterations.

The coerulescens subspecies It is near extinction due to the almost total loss of their habitat. The species is found in protected areas but its integrity is compromised by the illegal logging.

Distribution 3 subspecies:

Note:

Pyrrhura lepida is the new name of the taxon Pyrrhura perlata, whose name has been shown to be applied first to an immature bird of that species, Crimson-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura perlata).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 6700 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

From a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, While shows some tolerance degraded landscapes, It suspected that the population of this species decline rapidly over the next three generations and, therefore, It has risen to Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The population It is preliminarily estimated to number at least 10.000 individuals, approximately equivalent to 6.700 mature individuals. This requires confirmation.

Justification of trend

It is suspected that this species has lost between 47 and the 64,5% of habitat suitable within their distribution during three generations (18 years) starting from a model of deforestation Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the ., 2006, Bird et to the ., 2011). However, because the species seems to have some degree of tolerance to habitat degradation (A. Lees in litt ., 2011), It suspected to decline by 30-49% during three generations.

Threats

Despite an apparent tolerance of some degradation of the habitat, It is perhaps close to extinction in coastal areas of northern Maranhão, due to the large scale deforestation (Juniper and Parr, 1998). They are distributed within protected areas, but its integrity is compromised by the illegal logging (Juniper and Parr 1998). It is expected that deforestation in the Amazon basin to increase as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soybean production, provided by the expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et to the. , 2006). The proposed changes to Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land to a private owner is legally obliged to keep as forest and include an amnesty for owners who deforested before July 2008 (That later they would be absolved of the need to reforest the land illegally cleared) (Bird et to the., 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. The species is classified as Vulnerable nationally in Brazil (MMA 2014), with subspecies elegant and coerulescens considered in Danger (Silveira y Straube 2008).

Conservation Actions Proposed

* Census and population monitoring to assess the world's population and demographic trends and refine distribution and locate strengths.

* Investigate their ecology, threats and conservation requirements. Strengthen the network of protected areas within the remaining core habitat.

Effectively manage resources and management of existing protected areas and new, using the emerging opportunities for funding the management of protected areas with the overall goal of reducing carbon emissions and maximize the conservation of biodiversity. It is also essential conservation on private land, through the expansion of market pressures for proper land management and prevention of deforestation on land not suitable for agriculture (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006).

Campaign against the proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the riparian forest protected areas as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), that function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Cotorra Pulcra en cautividad:

Rare in captivity.

It is a bird Vulnerable nationally in Brazil and protected by CITES Appendix II; each captive specimen of this species that is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Pearly Conure, Pearly Parakeet (English).
Conure perlée, Perriche perlée, Perruche perlée (French).
Blausteißsittich (German).
tiriba, tiriba-de-barriga-vermelha, Tiriba-peróla, tiriba-pérola (Portuguese).
Catita cola granate, Cotorra Pulcra, Cotorra Ventrirroja (Spanish).

Johann Georg Wagler
Johann Georg Wagler

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura lepida
Citation: (Wagler, 1832)
Protonimo: Sittace lepida

Images Pearly Parakeet:

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Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Pyrrhura lepida by Florin FeneruFlickr
(2) – Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens Neumann, 1929 – Huub Veldhuijzen van Zanten / Naturalis Biodiversity Center [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida) also known as the Pearly Conure in aviculture. A pet parrot By manginwu (originally posted to Flickr as my name is twoday.) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Tiriba-perola [Pearly Parakeet] by Helio LourenciniFlickr
(5) – Tiriba pearl (Pyrrhura perlata) – www.avesilvestre.com.br
(6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: GABRIEL MILK, XC212988. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/212988

Maroon-bellied Parakeet
Pyrrhura frontalis

Maroon-bellied Parakeet

Description:

24-28 cm.. length and 72-94 g. of weight.

Maroon-bellied Parakeet

The Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis) has a frontal band matte red close with a few more bright red feathers behind cere; lores blackish; feathery cheeks and crown, greyish green blackish tips; ear-coverts olive green.

The upperparts They are green grass with a small area reddish at the bottom of the back. Primary coverts bluish green; wing-coverts grass-green, some feathers sometimes with olive tint. Primaries Blue in the outerweb. Green on innerwebs, with dark tips; secondaries, mainly green. Sides of neck, throat and chest, brown oliváceo, feathers subterminally brown and black black tips, giving the whole a scalloped effect; lower breast green with a patch brown in the center of belly; flanks, the thighs and undertail-coverts, green. Upper, green tail in basal half, Shaded bronze to reddish tones on the tips; below, the tail is opaque brown.

Bill grey, sometimes paler in base mandible; yellow cere; bare periophthalmic whitish grey; irises dark brown; legs dark gray.

Both sexes are similar. The incipient brown lacks the belly. Immature paler than adult with irises darker.

Taxonomic note:

Closely related Blaze-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura devillei), with which it can be conspecific (populations or races that belong to the same species). It has been suggested that the species may also be conspecific with Green-cheeked Parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae).

  • Sound of the Maroon-bellied Parakeet.

Description 2 subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe

    (Vieillot, 1818) – As the nominal, but the upper surface of the tail It is completely green olive. Some orange-red markings on the bend of wing in some birds.

  • Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Subspecies nominal.

Habitat:

The Maroon-bellied Parakeet They extend through several forest habitats, forests, margins and marshy habitats, including the remaining patches Araucaria (for example, in Rio Grande do Sul). In the Paraguayan Chaco They seem almost confined to coastal areas of growth over the Río Paraguay and its main tributaries. In Southeast Brazil They are mainly distributed in the highlands, to 1.400 meters above sea level; in other parts of the lowlands up near 1.000 m, where they are generally tolerant to disturbance, even reaching visit urban parks in the city of Assumption, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, and feeding in gardens (Rio Grande do Sul). Gregarious, usually in flocks of 6-12 birds (until 40).

Reproduction:

They nest in the cavity of the trees. The breeding season It covers the months from October to December. Clutch 5-6 eggs.
The female incubated one for almost 30 days. The young leave the nest after about 45 days, after which they continue to be fed for some time by the two partners.

Food:

In Southeast Brazil, Their diet includes pulp of Euterpe edulis, seeds of Schinus, Xylopia, Cecropia, Croton, Miconia, ficus, Psidium and Pinus; flowers of Ambrosia and Vernonia and aryl of Protium; elsewhere, the Araucaria It is a very important food source, for example in southern Brazil; also they feed dried fruits and fruits of Campomanesia xanthocarpa and Podocarpus lambertii; homoptera sheets Persea pyrifolia and fly larvae. The orange crops and corn sometimes they suffer from their visits, but depredations were lower compared to the damage caused by the Parrot Argentina (Myiopsitta monachus) in cornfields.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (reproductoras/residentes): 2.690.000 km2

The Maroon-bellied Parakeet It is endemic in Southeast South America, from the southeast of Brazil to the North of Argentina.

In Brazil They can be observed from south Bay ,through coastal states, until Rio Grande do Sul, and west, in the southeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil and South of Mato Grosso, through Paraguay (extension of records suggests its presence throughout the west end), North of Uruguay and North of Argentina, in Missions, Currents, Formosa, Chaco and sporadically in the past, in the North of Santa Fe (a population in Buenos Aires probably descended from leaks), and southeastern Bolivia.

Resident. Locally common to very common (for example, in Missions) but rare elsewhere (for example Currents) and extinguished in places due to conversion of forests for agriculture.

With He commercialized in large quantities with substantial late eighties exports averaging over 5.000 birds per year. There is a large captive population.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Central and southern Paraguay, northern Uruguay and northern Argentina.

  • Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Subspecies nominal. Southeastern Brazil from southern Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul including southeastern Minas Gerais and south and southeast of Mato Grosso.

Conservation:

• Red list category: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the red list category

This species has a extremely large range and, therefore, it does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable at the discretion of the distribution area size (Extension <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión o calidad del hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número de lugares o fragmentación severa). La tendencia de la población parece ser estable, por lo que la especie no se aproxima a los umbrales de Vulnerables bajo el criterio de tendencia poblacional (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un declive continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as least concern.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

They suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

Threats

The species has been marketed strongly: from 1981, when it was included in Appendix II of CITES, 52.523 individuals captured in the wild have been recorded in international trade (Trade database of UNEP-WCMC CITES, January 2005).

Cotorra Chiripepé en cautividad:

The species is listed in Appendix II of the CITES.

There is a large captive population. They are intelligent birds, friendly and active. Readily they adapt to human contact and are easy to train. They are among the quietest cotorras, but its powerful high-pitched voices can become very annoying. Like other parakeets, They tend to express emotion with a series of loud cries, chillidos.

Alternative names:

Maroon bellied Parakeet, Maroon Parakeet, Maroon-bellied Conure, Maroon-bellied Parakeet, Reddish-bellied Parakeet, Scaly-breasted Parakeet (English).
Conure de Vieillot, Conure ou, Perriche de Vieillot, Perruche à oreillons bruns, Perruche d’Azara, Perruche de Vieillot (French).
Braunohrsittich, Braunohr-Sittich (German).
cara-suja, periquito, tiriba, Tiriba-de-testa-vermelha, tiriva (Portuguese).
Chiripepe, Chiripepé, Chiripepé cabeza verde, Chiripepé de cabeza verde, Cotorra Chiripepé, Perico de Vientre Rojo (Spanish).

Vieillot, Jean Pierre Louis
Vieillot, Jean Pierre Louis

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura frontalis
Citation: (Vieillot, 1818)
Protonimo: Psittacus frontalis

Images Maroon-bellied Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Maroon-bellied parakeet Botanical Garden of São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) on a wooden stump. Botanical Garden of São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Pyrrhura Ilhabela-SP By Dario Sanches frontalis from São Paulo, Brazil (Maroon-bellied parakeet ( Pyrrhura frontalis)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) – Horto Florestal de São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Pyrrhura frontalis – Track dos Tucanos – Tapiraí-SP IBA: Forest massif Paranapiacaba By Jairmoreirafotografia (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: Gustavo Luz, XC344423. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/344423

Blue-throated Parakeet
Pyrrhura cruentata

Blue-throated Parakeet

Description:

30 cm.. length and 90 g. of weight.

Blue-throated Parakeet

The Blue-throated Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) It is a very colorful bird; has the forecrown, crown and rear of the neck, dark brown with pale orange sides and with some feathers (especially posteriorly) giving speckled appearance; lores, cheeks top, supercilii area and ear-coverts, dull red, merging on sides of neck with yellowish patch bordered behind by blue band running across nape; bottom of the cheeks, green.

Mantle, back and scapulars, green; broad crimson patch on the lower back and rump; uppertail-coverts green. Bend of wing bright red; upperwing-coverts green. Outerwebs of the primaries, blue, green on the innerwebs; secondaries green on outerweb, Gray on innerwebs; flight feather with dark tips; infra-wing coverts minor, olive green, the gray greater coverts; underside of flight feather, olive gray wash. Chin green; the throat and the top chest, blue with some dark tips; underparts green with variable-sized crimson patch on belly. Upper, the tail It is golden in color with green tint; brown below. Bill grey; bare periophthalmic grey; irises yellow orange; legs grey.

Both sexes similar, but the irises perhaps brighter in the male. Immature more off, with less red at bend of wing.

  • Sound of the Blue-throated Parakeet.

Habitat:

The Blue-throated Parakeet inhabit, mainly, in primary forests of the Atlantic forest or on the edges of forests and, sometimes, in slightly modified natural forests, penetrate in agricultural areas where high forest trees shade cacao. Unknown seasonal and dry forests. (Usually in lowlands below 400 m, but 960 metres in Minas Gerais, Brazil, usually in flocks of 6-20 birds(mainly 8-12), at least where they are locally common.

Reproduction:

Nests in tree hollows. The breeding, apparently, It occurs in the austral spring, from June to October. Clutch 2-4.

Food:

The diet of the Blue-throated Parakeet includes plants of Talisia esculenta, Alchornea iricurana, Mabea fistulifera, Trema micrantha and Cecropia. The fruits of Miconia hypoleuca They may be important in times of shortage. Birds feeding in the canopy and the lower edge vegetation, never out of the woods; Once he observed feeding on the Golden-capped Parakeet (Aratinga auricapillus).

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding / resident): 281.000 km2

Endemic East Brazil, from Bahia until Rio de Janeiro. Formerly they were known from Jequié and islanders, Bay, but the latest reports are North Río Jequitinhonha, south of which, reports come from remaining patches of forest (including the Monte Pascoal National Park) to the border Espírito Santo.

Birds remain in the few forested areas of eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil as the Rio Doce State Park, the Book Caratinga (about Raúl Soares) and about Mantena and several locations in northern Espirito Santo, including Biological reserves Great stream and Sooretama and neighboring Linhares Sooretama reserve. It is apparently absent from the southern state but survives near Desengano State Park in the State of Rio de Janeiro, the southernmost site which have been observed recently.

Resident. Common and widespread in the late nineteenth century, but decreased dramatically with massive deforestation within its range due to agriculture, speak, mining, roads and urban development. The final bastion (the only place where birds remain common) It is complex reserve Sooretama / Linhares; there are much smaller numbers in other forest remnants (protected but widely separated). Habitat loss continues Bay with some sites (for example Monte Pascoal) under intense pressure.

Rare in captivity, but trapping for illegal trade is an additional threat. Listed in Appendix I of the CITES and protected by Brazilian law.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 2500-9999 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

This species survives in scattered fragments of Atlantic Forest, where the extent of suitable habitat continues to decline rapidly. The remaining populations are small, severely fragmented into isolated reserves, where protection is largely inadequate and are suspected to be declining rapidly. Therefore, qualifies as Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The population It is calculated on the number 2.500-9.999 mature individuals based on an evaluation of known records, descriptions of abundance and size range. This is consistent with estimates of population density recorded for congeners or close relatives with similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of its distribution area is occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3.750-14.999 individuals, round here 3.500-15.000 individuals.

Justification of trend

continued rapid population decline is suspected because rates loss of habitat.

Threats

The extensive and continuous clearing of the forest You are responsible for its current fragmented distribution. Their apparent tolerance to shade cocoa plantations provides little hope because shading techniques since the early 1980 They have involved the use of banana trees and Erythrina, rather than stand, and unstable prices have led to conversion to pasture. Many other populations are affected by specific threats site, as conflicts between habitat conservation and the rights of local communities in the Monte Pascoal National Park. The capture for the cage bird trade It is a relatively new phenomenon, Although the species is rare in domestic and international markets.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix I. It is considered nationally Vulnerable in Brazil (Silveira y Straube 2008, MMA 2014), and is protected by Brazilian law. It is in the National Parks of Chapada da Diamantina and Monte Pascoal, on Experimental Station Barrolândia, on Linhares Forest Reserve, on Book Caratinga, in sweet River and probably in the Desengano State Parks, and in the Biological Reserves Great Stream, Deer Stream and Sooretama (Wege and Long 1995).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Survey to locate additional populations and protect undetected (Snyder et to the., 2000), especially in southern Bay and northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ensure protection de facto key reserves, especially Sooretama, Linhares and Station Vera Cruz. Confiscation of birds of trade and well-planned release of these birds in areas of the previous range of species to improve recovery and connectivity of disjunct populations (J. Gilardi in little).

Cotorra Tiriba in captivity:

Protected by CITES Appendix I.

Rara in national and international markets. Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-run program of captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Black-tailed Parakeet, Blue throated Conure, Blue throated Parakeet, Blue-chested Parakeet, Blue-throated Conure, Blue-throated Parakeet, Ochre Marked Conure, Ochre-marked Parakeet, Red-eared Parakeet, Red-rumped Parakeet (English).
Conure tiriba, Perriche tiriba, Perruche tiriba (French).
Blaulatzsittich, Blaulatz-Sittich (German).
cara-suja, fura-mato, tiriba, tiriba-fura-mato, Tiriba-grande, tiriva (Portuguese).
Cotorra Tiriba, Perico Grande (Spanish).

Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied
Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura cruentata
Citation: (Wied-Neuwied, 1820)
Protonimo: bloody parrot

Images Blue-throated Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Blue-throated Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Ochre-marked Parakeet (also known as Blue-chested Parakeet, Blue-throated Parakeet, or Blue-throated Conure) at Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria, one of the Canary islands, Spain By ipfreaks (originally posted to Flickr as Papagei) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Blue-chested Parakeet, (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure. Pet parrot By ➨ Redvers (originally posted to Flickr as Hector and toy 8) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Blue-chested Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure at Central Park Zoo, New York, USA By Claire Houck [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Blue-chested Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure. Pet with yellow toy By ➨ Redvers (originally posted to Flickr as Hector and toy 4) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Blue-chested Parakeet (also known as Blue-throated Parakeet or Blue-throated Conure); two on a perch By TJ Lin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr

Sounds: Jeremy Recall, XC85365. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/85365

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