Orange-cheeked Parrot
Pyrilia barrabandi

Orange-cheeked Parrot


The Orange-cheeked Parrot (Pyrilia barrabandi) measured, approximately, 25 cm., has the head and throat black, except for the bright colored area amarillento-naranja that goes from the base of the bill up to the lower cheek well behind the eyes.


Upperparts green, lesser coverts, yellow-orange; edge front of the wing red; primary coverts blue-black; greater coverts bluish green; other coverts, green. Primary, dark blue at the base and in outerweb, If not black; underwing-coverts, bright red, flight feather opaque green. Upper zone of the chest Golden, its bottom and belly, bright blue green, the thighs with orange-yellow feathers. Tail Green with blue tip, with yellow bases to the innerwebs of outer feathers.

Bill grey; brown the irises; legs grey.

Both sexes are similar.

The immature has the head Brown golden colour with yellowish brown in cheeks inferiores. Younger birds also has less yellow in the bend of wing, some green feathers in the underwing-coverts and yellow on the tips of the primaries.

  • Sound of the Orange-cheeked Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS:// Cabecinegra.mp3]

Description 2 subspecies:

  • Pyrilia barrabandi aurantiigena

    (Gyldenstolpe, 1951) – Lesser coverts, curve of the wing and the thighs intense Orange instead of yellow-orange.

  • Pyrilia barrabandi barrabandi

    (Kuhl, 1820) – Nominal.


They inhabit mainly in lowland forests, apparently less frequently in forests and marshes. They are distributed at the edge of forests and partially disturbed forest, occasionally in small groves in deforested areas. Observed in altitudes of 150-300 metres in Venezuela and 500 meters in the southeast of Colombia. Seen individually, in pairs and in small groups of up to 10 individuals (sometimes more in banks of land rich in minerals). Are activated more early, In the morning, than other parrots and will rest later.


There is no information about the nesting, but that suggests the registration of immature birds in February and March breeding season It can be between the months of September/October until the end of year.


Observed taking seeds or fruits of Ficus sphenophylla, Pourouma, Pseudolmedia, Mimosa, Pithecellobium and Heisteria and possibly larvae of the gall wasps. Usually, they feed in the canopy of the trees, or just below them; less frequently in low branches. Regularly visit areas with soil rich in minerals in the company of other species of parrots.


Size of the area of distribution(reproduction / resident): 3.470.000 km2

This is a kind of basin of the Western Amazon and the Alto Orinoco. Its length extends from the southeast of Colombia, from the Caquetá Western and bass Río Inírida, Guainía, until Venezuela in Amazon and the Center and South of Bolivar and in Brazil in the upper part of the Amazon to the West, from the rivers Black and Madeira through the rivers Juruá and Purus and to the South towards Mato Grosso, through the East of Ecuador and East of Peru and to the Northwest of Bolivia, in Beni.

They are generally considered rare throughout its distribution area, Although they are fairly common in the Northwest of Bolivia and many in the sandy Woods of bass Inírida River, to the southeast of Colombia. Its population has fallen locally due to deforestation, Although large tracts of primary forest remain in all range States. Live in several areas protected.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

  • Pyrilia barrabandi aurantiigena

    (Gyldenstolpe, 1951) – Is located in the East of Ecuador and to the East of Peru, where is this in the Manu National Park. In the North of Bolivia is it described as frequent to numerous. The extension also comes to Brazil: is limited by the Amazon in the North and Rio Madeira from the East (pit et to the., 1997).

  • Pyrilia barrabandi barrabandi

    (Kuhl, 1820) – Nominal.


• Current red list category of the UICN: Almost threatened.

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the population

The size of the world population It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “rare” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

It is suspected that this species has lost 12.1-15% of habitat within its distribution over three generations (21 years) based on a model of Amazon deforestation (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006, Bird et to the., 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to the fragmentation and degradation of forest and potentially your hunting and/or trapping, It is suspected that its population will decrease at a rate close to the 30% during three generations.


The main threat This species is the acceleration of the deforestation on Amazon basin with large tracts of land used for cattle raising and soybean production; It is highly susceptible to degradation and fragmentation due to its dependence of primary forests (Soares-Filho et to the. 2006, Bird et to the. 2011, A. Lees in litt. 2011). It can also be vulnerable to the hunt (A. Lees in litt. 2011). The changes proposed by the Forest code of Brazil they reduce the percentage of land that a private owner has the legal obligation to maintain as forest and include an amnesty for owners who have deforested before July of 2008 (that would be subsequently absolved of the need to reforest lands illegally cleared) (Bird et to the. 2011).

Lorito Carinaranja in captivity:

It is very rare see you in captivity outside of Brazil.

Alternative names:

Orange-cheeked Parrot, Barraband’s Parrot, Orange cheeked Parrot (English).
Caïque de Barraband (French).
Goldwangenpapagei, Goldwangen-Papagei (German).
curica-de-bochecha-laranja, curica, curuca (Portuguese).
Cotorra Cabecinegra, Lorito Carinaranja, Lorito de Mejillas Amarillas (Spanish).
Cotorra Cabecinegra (Colombia).
Loro de Mejilla Naranja (Peru).
Perico Cachete Amarillo (Venezuela).

Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrilia
Scientific name: Pyrilia barrabandi
Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
Protonimo: Psittacus Barrabandi

Orange-cheeked Parrot images:


Orange-cheeked Parrot (Pyrilia barrabandi)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Orange-cheeked Parrot (Pyrilia barrabandi) Cristalino Jungle Lodge, Mato Grosso, Brazil by Amy McAndrewsFlickr
(2) – Orange-cheeked Parrot at Napo Wildlife Reserve, Ecuador by ocelot123Flickr
(3) – Cobalt Winged Parakeet , Scarlet Shouldered Parrotlet and Orange Cheeked Parrot at 3rd lick by Vince SmithFlickr
(4) – Cobalt Winged Parakeet , Scarlet Shouldered Parrotlet and Orange Cheeked Parrot at 3rd lick by Vince SmithFlickr
(5) – Cobalt Winged Parakeet , Scarlet Shouldered Parrotlet and Orange Cheeked Parrot at 3rd lick by Vince SmithFlickr
(6) – Oiseaux brillans du Brésil.. Paris,1834..


Maroon-tailed Parakeet
Pyrrhura melanura

Maroon-tailed Parakeet


26-28 cm.. height.

Maroon-tailed Parakeet

The Maroon-tailed Parakeet (Pyrrhura melanura) is distinguishable mainly by the tail and wings blackish (visible in flight); has the lores, the forecrown, the crown and the rear area of the neck, brownish, with paler reddish brown tips on the crown, forming altogether a speckled pattern; cheeks, ear-coverts and area behind the eyes, green; Brown in the shadows at the back of the crown Green in the nape.

Upperparts Green with tinge of olive in some feathers. Primary coverts Red with yellow tips; Front edge of the wing , red; upperwing-coverts of color green with dye olive. Primaries Dark greenish blue with dark tips. Underwing-coverts green; underside of flight feather blackish. Throat and feathers of the upper part of the chest, Green or greyish green with pale margins, giving a scaly striking effect; pale edges that become less clear on the sides of the neck; the belly and undertail-coverts Green with dye olive dark. Upper, the tail dark brown with green outer feathers; undertail, the tail shiny black.

Bill pale grey; bare periophthalmic naked, whitish: irises dark brown; legs grey.

Both sexes similar. The immature has less red (greener) in the primary coverts.

  • Sound of the Maroon-tailed Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS:// melanura.mp3]
Subspecies description
  • Pyrrhura melanura berlepschi

    (Salvadori, 1891) – Similar to the Pyrrhura melanura souancei, but with even more ample and pale margins in the breast feathers (Some birds of Ecuador with almost entirely white breasts), less red on the front edge of the wing and more pronounced brown patch in the belly. Cheeks dyed with color olive, Red uniform at the edge of the Carpus; abdomen more uniform brown/red color.

  • Pyrrhura melanura chapmani

    (Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1940) – With suspiciously in the chest more width, No yellow in the wing ; yellowish in the area of the ear and the green of the tail darker.

  • Pyrrhura melanura melanura

    (Spix, 1824) – Nominal.

  • Pyrrhura melanura pacifica

    (Chapman, 1915) – More dark, No yellow in the wing , grey around the eye, tail more short and reddish.

  • Pyrrhura melanura souancei

    (Verreaux,J, 1858) – With the edge top of the wing Red and not yellow; Green in the base of the tail more extensive and chest with scaled a little more width.


The Maroon-tailed Parakeet It occupies the temperate tropical formations, including forests of várzea, forests of land low and pre-montanos rainforests and forests cloud, often in areas partially cleared and edges of secondary forests; 150 - 300m in Venezuela (nominal), to 3,200 m in the slopes Andean Eastern (souancei), 1.600-2.800m on the slope of the Andes Central (chapmani), at 1,700 m in Nariño (Pacifica), at 1500m (berlepschi). Usually in flocks of 6-12 individuals, staying in them cups of them trees to rest but moving is toward the branches more low for forage.


Little information on the breeding, observed during the months of April-June, headers of the Rio Napo, Ecuador. Copulation observed in January (Colombia). Clutch four eggs in captivity.


Few details about the diet, with foods known, including fruits of Miconia tkeaezans (Top of the Magdalena valley). Fagara tachuelo and tree bark (Amazon).


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 1.510.000 km2

The distribution of the Maroon-tailed Parakeet is discontinuous. Northwest of South America in the Western Amazon basin, southern portion of the the Orinoco basin and slope of the Pacific of the Andes, in the southwest of Colombia and West Ecuador.

In Venezuela the species is found in the Centre of the South of Bolivar along the upper Western Amazon basin of Brazil between the rivers Black and Solimões. Are also distributed in the Andes Central of Colombia, at the top of the Magdalena valley, from the South of Tolima until Huila and separated to the East from the Andes (in lowlands and up to 500 m in foothills) Since the Macarena mountains, southward through eastern lowlands Ecuador and Northeast and East of Peru.

A separate population is distributed to the West of the Andes, in the Northwest of the South of Ecuador, to the North of The rivers, with a single log in Nariño, to the southwest of Colombia.

Mainly resident Although the apparent absence during some seasons in some parts of Colombia suggests regular movements.

Unevenly distributed, in some areas very common, being the Parrot more numerous in some parts of the range such as high Magdalena valley and perhaps parts of Esmeraldas in the Northwest of Ecuador.

Alleged decrease in some areas (for example, Ecuador's Pacific slope) due to loss of habitat. Little known in the East of Peru. Is not a locally popular cage bird if it has been traded internationally in significant numbers at the end of 1980 and fairly well known in captivity outside of its area of distribution.

Distribution of subspecies
  • Pyrrhura melanura berlepschi

    (Salvadori, 1891) – Valley of Huallaga, East of Peru and Southeast of Ecuador on Cutucú mountain range. A copy with characteristics of this species was observed in the header of the Magdalena valley suggesting their distribution in Colombia.

  • Pyrrhura melanura chapmani

    (Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1940) – Hillside East of the top of the Magdalena valley in the center of the Andes from the South of Tolima until Huila at altitudes of 1600-2, 800 m

  • Pyrrhura melanura melanura

    (Spix, 1824) – Nominal.

  • Pyrrhura melanura pacifica

    (Chapman, 1915) – Northwest of Ecuador and southwest of Colombia.

  • Pyrrhura melanura souancei

    (Verreaux,J, 1858) – East of Colombia since the Sierra de la Macarena Southwest, until Putumayo through the East of Ecuador, possibly up to the north end of Peru. Probably bordered on the eastern slopes of the Andes and for the most part replaced by the nominal species in lowlands.


• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the population

The population size world has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

This species is suspected that he has been able to lose 6,95 a 7,1% of a habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation in the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006, Bird et to the. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to the cazay and/or the capture, It is suspected that will decrease in <25% durante tres generaciones.

Parakeet Cola Negra in captivity:

Bird timid and quiet, get used to people over time. Colonies in large birdcages are possible.

Alternative names:

Maroon-tailed Parakeet, Magdalena Parakeet, Maroon tailed Parakeet, Maroon-tailed Conure, Black-tailed Conure (English).
Conure de Souancé, Perriche de Souancé, Perruche de Souancé (French).
Braunschwanzsittich, Braunschwanz-Sittich (German).
tiriba-fura-mata (Portuguese).
Cotorra Colinegra, Perico de Cola Negra, Periquito Colirrojo (Spanish).
Periquito Colirrojo (Colombia).
Periquito Colirrojo (Peru).
Perico Cola Negra (Venezuela).

Johann Baptist von Spix
Johann Baptist von Spix

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura melanura
Citation: (von Spix, 1824)
Protonimo: Aratinga melanurus


Maroon-tailed Parakeet (Pyrrhura melanura)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) –
(2) – Maroon-tailed parakeet pyrrhura berlepschi = berlepschi, Maroon-tailed Parakeet ssp. by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Peach-fronted Parakeet
Eupsittula aurea

Aratinga Frentidorada



A length between 23-28 cm. and a weight between 74-94 g.

The Peach-fronted Parakeet (Eupsittula aurea) has the forecrown bright orange; the crown a deep blue color.

Each eye It is surrounded by a circle of small orange feathers, delimited in the anterior zone with blue; front part of the lores orange; cheeks Brown olive; ear-coverts green. Nape, the mantle and back dark green; rump and uppertail-coverts green. Scapulars greenish brown; lesser and median coverts dark green; greater primary coverts dark blue. The primaries Blue in the vane inner and tips; the secondaries blue. The flight feather, below, grayish brown; upperwing-coverts colour pale yellowish olive. The throat and the top chest color marron-oliva; the upperparts color olive. Upper, the tail dark green with brown tint in the vane inner and with a bright bluish tinge to an end; by down greyish Brown.

Bill grey-black; close bare periophthalmic bare grey; irises yellowish brown; legs grey.

Both sexes similar.

Immature they have a broad nude patch orbital, frontal band closer, bill pale and the irises grey.


The Peach-fronted Parakeet It is present in a wide variety of habitats, specially cleared but a little forested areas, including all kinds of deciduous forest, Gallery forest (especially in the South of its range), swamps with Palms mauritia and sheets, also in cultivated areas, below the 600 m.

In the Brazilian Amazon, they are distributed under conditions of low shrub vegetation in sandy soils, avoiding dense evergreen forests. On the inside of the Brazil can be seen in areas caatinga and formations closed with natural grassland.

In general, they can be views in flocks and in pairs to isolated while the breeding season.

Has been able to observe them is feeding with the Blue-crowned Conure (Psittacara acuticaudatus) in fruit trees and resting on branches with the Blue fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva) and the Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani) in Piauí, Brazil.


Nest in arboreal termite, trunks hollow or in ravines. Birds observed in nests between June and July in Peru and flocks to divide into breeding pairs during the month of January in Mato Grosso. Clutch 2-3 eggs in (Argentina).


Feed of seeds (not of pulp) of Ilex, Banisteriopsis, Campomanesia, eucalyptus and Symplocos, fruits and flowers of Erythrina and Terminalia, flowers of Qualea and Garyocar and insects, including the termites and fly larvae, beetles and moths. They produce crop damage in some areas.

When feeding in soil (for example of the grain after harvest), its plumage tends to get dirty.


Peach-fronted Parakeet Video

Parrots in the world

Especies del género Eupsittula

  • Eupsittula nana
    • —- Eupsittula nana astec
    • —- Eupsittula nana nana
    • —- Eupsittula nana vicinalis
  • Eupsittula canicularis
    • —- Eupsittula canicularis canicularis
    • —- Eupsittula canicularis clarae
    • —- Eupsittula canicularis eburnirostrum
  • Eupsittula aurea
  • Eupsittula pertinax
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax aeruginosa
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax arubensis
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax chrysogenys
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax chrysophrys
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax griseipecta
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax lehmanni
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax margaritensis
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax ocularis
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax paraensis
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax pertinax
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax surinama
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax tortugensis
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax venezuelae
    • —- Eupsittula pertinax xanthogenia
  • Eupsittula cactorum
    • —- Eupsittula cactorum cactorum
    • —- Eupsittula cactorum caixana

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 5.730.000 km2

Distributed by the Centre and East of South America. To the North of the Amazon The species is found in For and Amapá and the island Caviana island (mouth of the Amazon), Brazil, as well as possibly in the South of Suriname. To the South of the Amazon the Peach-fronted Parakeet extends through of For, Eastern Amazonas, Rondônia and Mato Grosso, Brazil, to northeast Bolivia and East of Peru, in where were observed in the Santuario Nacional Pampas del Heath, and eastward through most of the inside of Brazil until Bay, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Mato Grosso from the South and the Northwest of the Alto Paraná Department in Paraguay (in the West and Northeast) and North of Argentina (North of Salta, East of Formosa, Currents and possibly Chaco). The reports of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, They seem to be confused.

Common in the central area of its distribution area, still it most common parakeet in much of the interior of Brazil. Obviously more local and scarce toward the North and South ends of their range, with very few recent reports in Argentina (Formosa in 1987 and Currents in 1983), where the abundance historical suggests a descent on a large scale during the century 20.


Conservation status ⓘ

Least Concern ⓘ (UICN)ⓘ

• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Place previously within the genus Aratinga.

Its global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996). Its population suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

The species has undergone intense trade: from 1981, date on which was included in Appendix II, 61,311 individuals have been captured in the wild for resale in international trade (UNEP-WCMC trade database CITES, January 2005).

Peach-fronted Parakeet in captivity:

It´s common in captivity and widely marketed.
Robust, playful, friendly and not so noisy as other species of parrots.
Regularly provide fresh branches to satisfy their need to crack.

It is not a kind of complicated for reproduction in captivity.

Alternative names:

Peach-fronted Parakeet, Brown-chested Parakeet, Golden-crowned Parakeet, Peach fronted Parakeet, Peach-fronted Conure (English).
Conure couronnée, Conure à front d’or, Perriche couronnée, Perruche couronnée, Perruche ou (French).
Goldstirnsittich (German).
Aratinga-estrela, ararinha, jandaia, jandaia-estrela, maracanã-de-testa-amarela, Periquito-estrela, periquito-rei (Portuguese).
Aratinga Frentidorada, Aratinga frente durazno, Calacante frente dorada, Calancate Frente Dorada, Cotorra de frente naranja, Maracaná frente naranja, Periquito de Frente Dorada (Spanish).
Calacante frente dorada, Calancate Frente Dorada (Argentina).
Cotorra de Frente Dorada (Peru).
Maracaná frente naranja (Paraguay).
Tuíiapyteju, Ajuru-juvakang (Guaraní).

Scientific classification:

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Eupsittula
Scientific name: Eupsittula aurea
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus aureus

Peach-fronted Parakeet images:


Peach-fronted Parakeet (Eupsittula aurea)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Peach-fronted Parakeet (also known as the Peach-fronted Conure) in Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil By Otávio Nogueira [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Peach-fronted Parakeet in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Peach-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga aurea) perching on a termite mound in Minas Gerais, Brazil By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Aratinga_aurea_-Brazil-8.jpg: Glauco Umbelino [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Eupsittula aurea By Petyson Antonio (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Eupsittula aurea By Petyson Antonio (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Mitred Parakeet
Psittacara mitratus

Mitred Parakeet


Of 31 a 38 cm.. length and a weight between 219 and 275 g.

The Mitred Parakeet (Psittacara mitratus) has the forecrown reddish brown with a fusion of bright red at the front of the crown; the lores and cheeks to the rear of the eyes, bright red; the sides of neck dark green with scattered red feathers. The upperparts from the back of the crown up to the uppertail-coverts, dark green with some scattered red feathers (especially in the nape).

Upperwing-coverts and flight feather, at the top, green, sometimes with one or two dark red feathers on the bend of wing; flight feather color marron-oliva below. Underwing-coverts opaque green. The underparts, dull, Green pale with dye olive, usually with scattered red marks, especially in the the thighs. Upper, the tail dark green with Brown tips; Brown down.

The bill off-white; bare periophthalmic creamy white; irises beige color; legs distant.

Both sexes similar.

The Immature with fewer red feathers on the head, in special, in the cheeks and Brown, not Orange, the irises.

Subspecies description:

  • Psittacara mitratus chlorogenys

    (Arndt, 2006) – Front band Red that extends to the lores and Strait, e incomplete bare periophthalmic; upper zone of the cheeks and ear-coverts, green.

  • Psittacara mitratus mitratus

    (Tschudi, 1844) – The subspecies nominal.

  • Psittacara mitratus tucumanus

    (Arndt, 2006) – The front of the crown, the lores up to the cheeks and ear-coverts red.


They usually inhabit in areas of dry subtropical vegetation, There are also records in temperate zones: montane deciduous forest, cloud forests drier, cultivated areas, hills covered with tall grass, areas populated with scattered trees and fields, as well as sheets of legumes dry grasslands with patches of forests of Prosopis.

Often can be seen near high and steep rock walls. Usually, at altitudes of 1.000 a 2.500 Metros in Argentina, Although there are records to 4.000 metres in the Peru. Rarely, or never, descends to the lowlands. Commonly views in groups of 2 a 3 birds, but until 100 individuals outside the breeding season.


They nest in cliffs or hollow trees. There has been a egg laying in Oran, Argentina. Probably the clutch is between 2 and 3 eggs.


It usually feeds in areas of Virgin forest, but also full of grain crops in populated areas. This and other parrots migrate to the Lerma Valley in the Northwest of Argentina for feeding of the berries in maturity during the month of October.


The Mitred Parakeet are distributed in the southwest of South America, from the South of Peru through the Center-West of Bolivia, to the North of Argentina. Observed in the great valleys of the center of the Peru, from Huanuco until Cuzco. Disintegrated in the valleys of the Eastern Andes in the Centre-West of Bolivia, where there are records in Peace, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Oruro, Padilla and South of Sucre, to the Northwest of Argentina in Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán and South of Catamarca, until La Rioja and Córdoba.

In general residents, Although some with seasonal movements in the North of Argentina and Bolivia.

Locally distributed within its range, Although most widespread in the South of Cochabamba, Bolivia. In Argentina, generally common, abundant in some locations (apparently more numerous in Catamarca and Salta), but perhaps decreasing.

Colonies in coastal areas of the southwest of the United States, from Malibu a Long Beach and northwest coast of Orange County, also in the basin of Los Angeles and the San Gabriel Valley; small amounts from San Francisco to the southern region of the San Francisco Bay, and sightings also in San Diego and areas of Sacramento (Garrett 1997).

Maintained in captivity and sold in large quantities at the international level (mainly from Bolivia) at the end of 1980.

Distribution of subspecies:


• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The size of the world population Mitred Parakeet It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” but irregular distribution (Stotz et to the., 1996).

The population suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats, Although it has been the subject of intense trade: from 1981 When it was included in the Appendix II, 158,149 individuals were captured in the wild and reported in the international trade (UNEP-WCMC trade database CITES, January 2005).

Aratinga mitered in captivity:

This bird is usually available in pet stores or breeders.

They are known to be very attached to their owners. Very playful, they can also become good conversadoras and are considered the more strong and lively group of Aratinga parrots. The Mitred Parakeet It is good for owners who want a large bird and is easy to care for and handle. Can entertain herself if you give it a lot of toys, but they also enjoy interacting and playing with his human flock.

Alternative names:

Mitred Parakeet, Mitred Conure, Mitred Parakeet (Mitred) (English).
Conure mitrée (French).
Rotmaskensittich (German).
Aratinga mitrata (Portuguese).
Aratinga Mitrada, Perico mitrata (Spanish).
Calacante cara roja (Argentina).
Buhito menor (Honduras).
Tiakeru (Quechua).

Tschudi-Johann Jakob of
Tschudi-Johann Jakob of

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Psittacara
Scientific name: Psittacara mitratus
Citation: (Tschudi, 1844)
Protonimo: Conurus mitratus

Images Mitred Parakeet:

Mitred Parakeet (Psittacara mitratus)


  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

  • Photos:

(1) – A feral Mitred Parakeet in Fort Lauderdale, Florida By (Own work) [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Mitred Parakeet (Aratinga mitrata), Inka Trail to Machu Picchu, Peru By D. Gordon E. Robertson (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Mitred Parakeet by vil.sandiFlickr
(4) – Mitred Parakeet (Psittacara mitrata) by Gregory “Slobirdr” SmithFlickr
(5) – Member of an escaped flock roughly 35-50 strong in Sunnyvale, CA By Shravans14 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A pair of parakeets in the escaped flock in Sunnyvale, CA. This flock has been around for at least 20 years By Shravans14 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Wild parrot (Mitred Parakeet) in Redondo Beach. (Aratinga mitrata) by Ingrid TaylarFlickr
(8) – A pet Mitred Parakeet (also known as the Mitred Conure) By Lee (originally posted to Flickr as Gaspar4) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – A wild SoCal parrot (Mitred Parakeet) eating Bottlebrush in Redondo Beach. This bird is part of a local flock that frequents the neighborhood by Ingrid TaylarFlickr

Pacific Parakeet
Psittacara strenuus

Periquito Pacífico

Description Periquito Pacific:

Of 33 cm.. length.

The Pacific Parakeet (Psittacara strenuus) has most of its plumage bright green. The underparts are yellowish. Some birds may have some feathers Orange at neck and throat in variable patterns. Blue tint on primary coverts and vane outer of the flight feather. Underwing-coverts off yellowish green. The lower feathers of the wings they are yellowish metal.

The bill color horn. Eye ring bare greyish Brown. Iris orange. The legs greyish pale.

The immature they are similar to the adults but with the irises brown.


The Pacific Parakeet (Psittacara strenuus) for a long time it was considered a subspecies of Psittacara holochlorus

Pacific Parakeet Habitat:

The Pacific Parakeet It is in a wide variety of forest types, including wetlands, semi-Bosque, open scrub forests, plantations and farmland with scattered groves.

In Mexico, they live in semi-deciduous forests, riparian vegetation and in the form of patches of semi-deciduous medium and perennial trees of Manilkara zapota, Ceiba petandra, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobyum ciclocarpum, Cordia allidora, Bursera simaruba, Brosimum alicastrum.

Sedentary, but it probably makes local movements in response to food availability.

Outside the breeding season can be seen in large flocks noisy, often in groups of up to 200 birds or more, especially where is food abundant.

In El Salvador, occupy the suburbs of La Sultana, Antiguo Cuscatlán, which it provided an opportunity to estimate the population in the roost, to assess seasonal variations and changes over one year (October 2003 – September 2004). the resting places were also observed in this area and found that these places are used by other parrots as Brotogeris jugularis, Psittacara rubritorquis and other species that probably escaped from captivity.


Nest in tree cavities, on the walls of rocky cliffs or in termite colonies. Other details about their reproductive behavior remain unknown. The size of the implementation tends to be of 4 eggs.

A colony of the Pacific Parakeet (Psittacara strenuus) was studied in the Masaya Volcano National Park in Nicaragua from 1993 until 1994.

The parakeets nested in two craters of the Nindiri volcano. They dug their nests in the soft Earth of the wall of the volcano and began to settle on the volcano at the end of the dry season. They nested Once a year, in the rainy season, and they gradually abandoned the volcano toward the end of that season, when their offspring could be worth if same. All parakeets left the volcano during the morning and it was a count in the course of the afternoon, When they return from their feeding grounds.


Little is known about of its diet. They feed on fruits and seeds, they sometimes attack cereal crops.

Distribution of the Pacific Parakeet:

Endemic to the Pacific slope of the Isthmus of Central America, of Oaxaca up to the middle of Nicaragua, mountainous areas of Guatemala a 2.100 meters and El Salvador, where there is a common permanent resident that inhabits wooded or semi-boscosas regions at altitudes of 1.350 m.

Distribution in Mexico: The Pacific from the East slope of Oaxaca until Chiapas. In areas in Chiapas and Oaxaca they have disappeared from tropical forests


The Pacific Parakeet is not threatened globally. It is considered one threatened species in Mexican legislation. Threatened on NAME-059-ECOL-2001. CITES Appendix II. This species should be classified as in Danger of extinction by their reduced distribution, deforestation of its Habitat and illegal trafficking.

However,They show a high adaptability to changes in natural ecosystems caused by the human.

There are no programs for the conservation of the species.

Pacific Parakeet in captivity:

Rare in captivity.

Its marketing is prohibited in Mexico.

The illegal trade in parrots and macaws is held thanks to demand from consumers. If the demand for these wild species is reduced, then the offer would be reduced and thus the illegal catch.

If you create an international demand of these captive-bred parrots, There will be traders without scruples who will try to meet the demand with individuals caught illegally, which will only serve to undermine more wild populations.

Alternative names:

Pacific Parakeet, Pacific Conure (English).
Conure de Ridgway, Perruche du Pacifique (French).
Mexikosittich, Mexicosittich (German).
Periquito-do-pacífico (Portuguese).
Aratinga del Pacífico, Perico Centroamericano, Perico Gorgirrojo, Perico Verde Centroamericano, Periquito del Pacífico, Periquito Pacífico, Perico Chocoyo, Barranqueño (Spanish).
Periquito del Pacífico (Honduras).
perico centroamericano, Perico Verde Centroamericano, Periquito pacífico (Mexico).
Perico Gorgirrojo (Nicaragua).

Robert Ridgway
Robert Ridgway

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Psittacara
Scientific name: Psittacara strenuus
Citation: (Ridgway, 1915)
Protonimo: Conurus vigorous holochlorus



– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Colony breeding of the Pacific Parakeet Aratinga strenua Ridgway 1915 in the Masaya Volcano National Park, Nicaragua – researchgate


(1) – Psittacara strenuus (Chocoyo) on the cruise, Nicaragua By SergioTorresC (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Frank Lambert (Xeno-canto)

Nanday Parakeet
Aratinga nenday

Aratinga Ñanday


Of a length between 32-37 cm.. and a weight between 120-141 g..

Aratinga Ñanday

The Nanday Parakeet (Aratinga nenday) has the forecrown, crown, lores previous and most of the cheeks tiznadas black: both sides of the neck and ear-coverts pale yellowish green; some feathers Brown or reddish in the margins of the pileum black; the nape grass-green. Mantle and back pale green faded yellowish-green in the rump and uppertail-coverts.

Scapulars mostly green, Although some medium-sized pens are dark blue in the vane inner; under wing-coverts mostly green, with the exception of the primary coverts that are blue. The flight feather dark blue above with vane outer paler in some primaries; then color between Brown and pale black.

Most of the underwing-coverts pale yellowish green. Throat pale yellowish green with shades of pale blue at the top of the chest; underparts remaining of pale yellowish green color, except the the thighs Red and some blue feathers in undertail-coverts.

Upper, the tail reddish brown, distal blue; undertail, dull brown.
The bill black; bare periophthalmic pale grey: the irises reddish brown; legs Pink.

Both sexes similar.

The immature It has less blue on the top of the chest and throat.

  • Sound of the Nanday Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS:// Conure.mp3]


The Nanday Parakeet they live in open lowland some 800 m, including the Humid Chaco or Eastern (a report on the dry Chaco in Bolivia), wetlands and livestock areas with palms. In the Humid Chaco or Eastern and lower basin of the Río Paraguay they prefer areas with fan palmsCopernicia, growing in the seasonal flood plains with xerophytic vegetation drought-related, and observed in areas of swamps with Palm trees in the Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.

Gregarious, with flocks of up to a dozen birds during the breeding season; hundreds of birds often gather in the roosts.


Nest in holes of Palmas, trees or fence posts, for example, of cattle pens.

The breeding season in November in Mato Grosso. The laying is of 3-4 eggs. After breeding their young, all birds build large communal roosts until the next breeding season.


Diet Nanday Parakeet includes the Palm fruits Copernicia, sometimes taken in the ground.

They can cause damage to the crops, for example, corn.

Often seen in water wells.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 260.000 km2

This species is native from South America from the southeast of Bolivia to the southwest of Brazil, the center of Paraguay and North of Argentina, of the region known as the Pantanal.

The species is found in a band of approximately 200 km from East to West, focusing on the wetlands of the upper basin of the Río Paraguay, in the East of the Santa Cruz Department, Southeast Bolivia, South-West of Mato Grosso and West Mato Grosso from the South in Brazil, to the South, by the middle of Paraguay up to the Chaco province, Formosa province and North of Province of Santa Fe in Argentina (occasional in Province of Misiones and Province of Corrientes). A report of the Province of Santiago del Estero is probably wrong.

There are several wild populations in Buenos Aires and California. You can wander, outside the breeding season, the area inside of Central Chaco.

In general locally abundant and common, especially in areas where their favorite plants concentrate. In Argentina they are more numerous in the Formosa province, and is the most common Parrot in some parts of Mato Grosso.

Trapped for the bird trade, with more than 114.000 indivciduos exported from Argentina in the years between 1985-1990, Although many of these birds is probably came from Paraguay.


Copies released observed in the Canary Islands (Spain), in particular in the South of Tenerife and Fuerteventura, sometimes confused with the Rose-ringed Parakeet. It transpires that the species has been reproduced, In addition, in Andalusia, Catalonia. It has also been observed in points of Madrid, País Vasco and Valencia (Spain).

You escape to the South of Portugal.

Copies also introduced at different points of North America and in Asia.


• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern

• Population trend: Growing

Global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

The species has undergone intense trade: from 1981, When it was included in the Appendix II, 267,246 individuals caught in the wild were recorded in international trade (UNEP-WCMC trade database CITES, January 2005).

Thousands are legally exported from Argentina.

Aratinga Nanday in captivity:

Very common in captivity.

In captivity they are wonderful pets if care and properly socialized. They all have distinct personalities and appreciate the toys that are provided with. They like to be out of his cage at least six hours a day.
These birds are escape artists, extremely intelligent and skilful. Some of them speak, others do not, Depending on your personality. They are characterized by having a very strong call and they are not suitable for apartments.

They are birds they reproduce quite easily in spacious accommodations and Cologne. Are, usually, good parents.

There are places, as Puerto Rico, that its possession is illegal.

They can live between 35 and 45 years.

Alternative names:

Nanday Parakeet, Black-headed Parakeet, Black-hooded Conure, Black-hooded Parakeet, Black-masked Parakeet, Nanday Conure (English).
Conure nanday, Perriche nanday, Perruche à tête noire, Perruche nanday (French).
Nandaysittich, Nanday Sittich (German).
jandaia-de-cabeça-negra, maracanã, nendai, periquito-de-cabeça-preta, Periquito-de-cabeça-preta / Periquito-nandaí, Principe-negro, príncipe-negro (Portuguese).
Aratinga Nanday, Aratinga Ñanday, Cotorra de Cabeza Negra, Loro Cabeza Negra, Nanday, Ñanday, Ñenday (Spanish).
Ñanday, Ñenday (Argentina).
Ñanday (Guaraní).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Aratinga
Scientific name: Aratinga nenday
Citation: (Vieillot, 1823)
Protonimo: Psittacus nenday

Nanday Parakeet pictures:


Nanday Parakeet (Aratinga nenday)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Book parrots, Parrots and macaws


(1) – Feral Nanday Parakeet (also known as the Black-hooded Parakeet or Nanday Conure) eating sunflower seeds in a garden in Sarasota, Florida, USA By Apix (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Feral Nanday Parakeets (also known as the Black-hooded Parakeet or Nanday Conure) eating sunflower seeds in a garden in Sarasota, Florida, USA By Apix (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Nanday Parakeet By J. Patrick Fischer (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A pet Black-hooded Parakeet (also known as the Nanday Parakeet and Nanday Conure) By MAULI (originally posted to Flickr as Little Big Mouth) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A pet Nanday Conure, named Jack By Mceder at English Wikipedia (Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons.) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – il·lustració digital /digital illustration – dibuixosnatura

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Maroon-fronted Parrot
Rhynchopsitta terrisi

Cotorra Serrana Oriental


Between 40 and 45 cm.. length and 300 g. of weight.

The Maroon-fronted Parrot (Rhynchopsitta terrisi) It has a size slightly larger than the Thick-billed Parrot. Its bill is large, hooked and curved black. Of tail short in comparison to other members of the family, by high green and below Brown gray. Upright perching, legs short but strong and the fingers toes zigodactilos, i.e. two toes forward and two backwards. Is bright green, slightly more clear and yellowish on the cheekbones and ears. It has a patch Brown in the forecrown, red spots on the shoulders and in the the thighs.

The color of the irises in adults is yellow amber, While in juveniles is coffee. The eye ring is yellow. Below the wings they have red border. The rest of the inside of the wings darker Green is. The legs they are greyish.

Both sexes of similar shape and color.
Immature with eyes Brown and bill paler.

Often treated as the same species as the Thick-billed Parrot.

  • Sound of the Maroon-fronted Parrot.
[audio:HTTPS:// Serrana Oriental.mp3]


It lives in temperate with dry winter climates, a high altitudes ranging from the 1,900 to the 3,000 m, exceptionally a 1.300 meters and 3.700 m, in mountainous regions with pine forest (Pinus duranguensis, Pinus ayacahuite, and Pinus arizonica among others), forest of Pine-oak (Pinus spp.. and Quercus spp..), isolated forest fragments of pure FIR (Abies spp..), or mixed forests of oyamel, firs (Pseudotsuga spp..) and poplars (Populus tremuloides). Forests may be at the top of the mountains, open areas or be part of abrupt cliffs and crags land.

The Maroon-fronted Parrot is a Diurnal with activity social. To the nestsr meets in large flocks, at times of until 100 individuals and to build their nest, Unlike in the Thick-billed Parrot, don't use holes in trees but cavities and cracks in the rock of the cliffs. With pairs once a year with a single partner throughout the reproductive season. Form flocks to find their food. These groups tend to fly at low altitude moving long distances in search of trees with fruits and seeds that can be eaten. It is also possible to find lonely couples looking for food. They sleep in community, flocking on inaccessible crags. Individuals within the flock to communicate by means of strong vocals similar to harsh squawks and squeaks, While they are looking for food or to warn of threats. In general, the species of this family are known to be noisy, especially when they are in groups.

You know when these birds are approximated by the noises that make, the Group flies in a flock that forms an open "V". The reproductive colony You can move up to 30 km to find food, If it is scarce. With enough food available near the nests, just move in 3 a 5 daily km.


The breeding season It between July and November. To build the nest using cracks and voids in high limestone crags and they tend to use the same sites year after year to nest. The colony nests above the 1,300 and 1,700 m.

They put between 2 and 5 eggs (average is 2.7) between mid-June and late July. When is food scarce, drastically reduces the production of broilers. The female incubates eggs between 24 and 27 days which hatch between early September and late October. Since they are born until they fly chicks they remain in the nest for approximately two months, being fed and cared for by both parents. Of all the eggs laid and incubated in the colony only the 60% fledged young occur. The chicks are bred in sync with the maturation of pine seeds, It usually occurs in late summer and autumn.


They eat mainly seeds of conifer cones, especially of pines (Pinus durangensis, Pinus leiophylla, Pinus ayacahuite, Pinus arizonica, Pinus gregii, Pinus teocote, Pinus montezumae, Pinus cembroides and Pinus engelmannii) and bur-marigold (Pseudotsuga menziesi).

Its beak is specially adapted to extract seeds from the cones (pine nuts) of Pine. When are pine seeds scarce, include in your diet oak acorns (Quercus spp..) and Guatemalan FIR seeds (Abies spp..). Their diet also includes fruits of capulin (Prunus capuli) and flowers of Agave Nectar. In general the diet of both species, the Eastern Mountain Parrot and the Thick-billed Parrot es similar. The Maroon-fronted Parrot has the habit of eating dirt (geophagy) in clay banks.


The distribution of the Maroon-fronted Parrot is restricted in the northeast of Mexico. Confined in Sierra Madre Oriental, in the southeast of Coahuila de Zaragoza, about Saltillo, in the Centre-West of Nuevo León, including mountains to the South-West of Monterrey, and the mountains of the West of Tamaulipas.

Full range of approximately 300 km from North to South, with an average of 60 kilometers from West to East and breeding pairs, possibly, only in the North third.

Similar to the Thick-billed Parrot, ago seasonal movements (Although probably less extensive) in response to the availability of pine seeds, apparently being distributed to the South of their range only between October and April (old reports of the Thick-billed Parrot in Veracruz they may belong to this species).

Rare, very local and extinct in many areas. Now limited to restricted areas in the few pine forests that remain (probably around 7.000 km2 of forests within the 18.000 its range km², they are suitable).

The decrease in its population is mainly due to the loss of habitat by logging, the Agriculture, the burning and the grazing, Although their habits of nesting on cliffs, It avoids the need of old or dead trees. Selective logging can reduce the diversity of pine trees and therefore the availability of food.


In 1981 they were estimated between 2,000 and 3,000 individuals of this species.

• Red list category of the UICN current: In danger of extinction

• Population trend: Decreasing

In 1997 ranked in the The Taray sanctuary, in Coahuila de Zaragoza as the reproductive Center the species to be found there about 100 reproductive couples. A 16 Hence km, in a place known as Condos the second largest colony was located with 60 couples.

Census continued and in 1999, the population was calculated at a minimum of 2,500 individuals.

A recent census based on the large flocks threw an account of approximately 3,500 individuals of Eastern Mountain Parrot.

The main threat facing the Maroon-fronted Parrot is the destruction and modification of their habitat, mainly due to actions such as agriculture, livestock, logging (to produce wood and paper) and forest fires.

Its current Habitat is very limited, as well as the same area of its distribution endemic species that is.

The deforestation continues to decrease more and more forests mountain of the region, and unfortunately the recovery or regeneration of these forests is poor in comparison with other parts of the country pine forests, which is probably due to the layer of soil of the region is thin and Rocky and scarce rain.

In 2006, a forest fire devastated about 2,000 It has pine forest in the Sierra, destroying trees that provided food to the Parrot and causing a decrease in the number of chickens raised in the era of nidation. Additionally, When the average size of the trees that make up a forest and also the area they occupy is reduced seed production decreases and increases the number of faulty cones, Finally affecting to the Maroon-fronted Parrot that feeds on the seeds.

Exist protected natural areas on Sierra Madre Oriental that protect and preserve to the Maroon-fronted Parrot.

From 1939 was decreed the Cumbres de Monterrey National Park, in Nuevo León to protect more than 150 thousand hectares of forest, including half of the areas where the species nests. Shortly before it had decreed, in 1936, The The Potosí National Park, in San Luis Potosí.

In 1985 created the The El Cielo biosphere reserve, in Tamaulipas. And between the three Protected natural areas partially cover the rest of the known colonies and part of the winter range. Also they have formed private protected natural areas, as the The Taray sanctuary in Coahuila de Zaragoza, nail 350 has of forest, created in 1996 specifically to protect to the Maroon-fronted Parrot that contains the nidation largest colony known. This area is managed by the Museum of the birds of Mexico in Saltillo, Coahuila de Zaragoza and has been funded by the National Commission for the knowledge and use of biodiversity (CONABIO) and donations from other national and foreign organizations such as the Zoological Society of San Diego and the Fish and Wildlife Service of United Statess.

Various research projects they have been conducted from 1995 for the knowledge and conservation of the Maroon-fronted Parrot.

Recently in 2008, the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), carried out a project on the Cumbres de Monterrey National Park. For its part, the Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey (ITESM) and Pronatura After studies in the same area, they have begun to establish landscape-level conservation strategies.

In the Official standard of species at risk (NAME-059-ECOL-2001), The Maroon-fronted Parrot (Rhynchopsitta terrisi) appears as danger of extinction.

The Convention on international trade in endangered species of Fauna and Flora Silvestres (CITES) protects it inside of the Appendix I.

The International Union for the conservation of nature (IUCN for its acronym in English) in his Red list of threatened species, granted the category of threatened to the Maroon-fronted Parrot from 1988. Category changed to vulnerable from 1994 up until the present day.

In the year 2000 the National Consultative Technical Subcommittee for the protection, Conservation and recovery of the Psitacidae, developed the Conservation project, Management and sustainable utilization of the Psitacidae in Mexico (PREP), in which we considered both mountain parrots as priorities for conservation.

The species of Thick-billed Parrot (R. pachyrhyncha) and Maroon-fronted Parrot (R. terrisi), they are considered from 2008 as priority species in the Species at risk conservation program (NATIONAL HERO) of the National Commission of natural Areas protected (CONANP). Due to their biological similarities and a common problem, both were included in a single PACE (Programmes of action for the conservation of species), After the Subcommittee on Psitacidae carried out the Workshop of species identification of priority Psitacidae to be included in a PACE, document that contains among other aspects of the biology of the species, the objectives, goals and strategies for the conservation of both Mountain parrots.

Conservation actions have also been made in the field of the environmental education.

At the end of 2008, in the framework of the Program for the conservation of species at risk (NATIONAL HERO), seven locations of the Cumbres de Monterrey National Park they conducted environmental education activities with the Maroon-fronted Parrot as a priority species.

Perhaps the most important conservation measure, the publication is the 14 in October of 2008, in the Official Journal of the Federation, the decree that reforms to the General wildlife law (Decree Art. 60 Bis 2) What It prohibits the capture of parrots and macaws of Mexico. The law prohibits the extractive use subsistence or commercial, export, import or re-export of these species native to the country. With this law is protected 22 bird species of the family Psittacidae in Mexico. The violation of the above provision, is in a federal crime that is punished with prison, through a penalty ranging from 1 a 9 years in prison and up to 12 years if the offence is committed within a protected natural area or is done for commercial purposes.

The priority regions for the species are located in the Sierra Madre Oriental: The Cumbres de Monterrey National Park, in Nuevo León, The The Potosí National Park, in San Luis Potosí, the The El Cielo biosphere reserve, in Tamaulipas and the The Taray sanctuary in Coahuila de Zaragoza.

Source: Site on the network of knowledge on birds of Mexico

Serrana Oriental magpie in captivity:

The mountainous region of Wood, Chihuahua, It has been inhabited since makes 1500 years by building ethnic groups of "cliff dwellings", those who originally were hunters and gatherers. The archaeological remains of Paquimé, a 350 km to the Northwest of the city of Chihuahua and half a kilometer from Large houses they indicate that the region had a dedicated trade to the production of feathers from macaws, shells, ceramic and copper among others, the being first settlers in capture and breed, both the Eastern Mountain Parrot as to the Thick-billed Parrot.

In the conquest increased interest in capturing individuals from the family of the parrots. Starting at the 16th century, they gained greater popularity among Mexicans, mainly as pets.

During the 20th century This intense trade, In addition to the illegal traffic, has resulted from 1970 and 1982, Mexico It was the largest exporter of live birds to the pet trade from the countries of the Neotropics, exporting on average 14,500 Mexican parrots, annually a United States.

During the period of 1981 a 1985 United States imported a minimum of 703 thousand parrots; and even in 1987 Mexico It was the largest source of smuggling of wild birds. In addition only between 1982 and 1983, 104,530 individuals the family were captured in Mexico for the internal domestic market.

Sale as pets is illegal.

Alternative names:

Maroon-fronted Parrot, Maroon fronted Parrot (English).
Conure à front brun, Perriche à front brun, Perruche à front brun (French).
Maronenstirnsittich, Maronenstirn-Sittich (German).
Papagaio-de-fronte-castanha (Portuguese).
Cotorra Serrana Oriental, Cotorra-serrana Oriental (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Rhynchopsitta
Scientific name: Rhynchopsitta terrisi
Citation: Moore, RT, 1947
Protonimo: Rhynchopsitta terrisi

Maroon-fronted Parrot images:


Maroon-fronted Parrot (Rhynchopsitta terrisi)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– CONABIO. 2011. Priority species sheets. Maroon-fronted Parrot (Rhynchopsitta terrisi). National Commission of protected natural Areas and National Commission for the knowledge and use of biodiversity, Mexico D.F.


(1) – An adult Maroon-fronted Parrot in a cage By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as DSC01484) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Maroon-fronted Parrot by © greglasley –
(3) – Maroon-fronted Parrot by © greglasley –
(4) – Maroon-fronted Parrot by Zócalo Saltillo
(5) – Maroon-fronted Parrot (Rhynchopsitta terrisi) – Loro Parque

Sounds: Jon King (Xeno-canto)

Military Macaw
Ara militaris

Guacamayo Militar


70 a 85 cm.. length and a weight between 900 and 1100 g..

Illustration military Macaw

The Military Macaw (Ara militaris) has a dark green color. The head is a green slightly clearer and the crown blue. The back and the top of the wings they have a slightly greenish tone. The rounding of the wings, the edge of the wings and flight feather exterior are light blue.

The forecrown is bright red and there is a series of lines of Brown and purple feathers on a background of bare skin, since the nose to behind eyes and in the cheeks.

The area of the throat and a narrow strip below the cheeks are olive brown in colour. Breast and belly green; undertail- coverts pale blue.

Upper, the tail orange-red with the ends of the feathers blue; undertail, the tail olive green yellowish.

The eyes has irises yellow. The bill is dark gray, legs dark grey.

Both sexes similar.

Immature not described but as other large macaws, irises probably Brown, tail shorter and the bare facial skin clearer.

  • Sound of the Military Macaw.

Subspecies description:

  • Ara militaris bolivianus

    (Reichenow, 1908) – It differs from the species nominal by the throat reddish brown. The headphones feathers they have a base of reddish and blue present in the wings and at the end of the feathers is a more intense tone.

  • Ara militaris mexicanus

    (Ridgway, 1915) – Almost identical to the species nominal but larger.

  • Ara militaris militaris

    (Linnaeus, 1766) – The nominal species


The Military Macaw they can be mainly observed in foothills of mountainous terrain in woodlands with cannons fields, for the most part between 500 and 1, 500 meters above sea level, at the local level to 2.000 m, (3,100 m reported in Peru, to 2,400 m in Bolivia), but also at sea level in the Pacific Mexico and in the region of Santa Marta, Colombia.

In Mexico, most are distributed in isolated forests and arid and semi-arid highlands, as well as in forests of Quercus and Pinus; sometimes in formations humid and coastal lowlands, with altitudinal movements to lower altitude to dense scrub forests between November and January.

Observed in moist forests in the Colombian Andes.

In Venezuela, in the rainforest, in some mountainous areas 600 m, sometimes also in more open dry forests.

Generally in pairs or small flocks (until 10 birds), but much larger swarms reported in flights to the roosts. Communal roosts on cliffs or in trees.


Nest, usually, in crevices of cliffs; sometimes in large trees (for example, Acer, Pinus or Enterolobium).

In Mexico It has been observed to the Military Macaw making use of old nests of the Imperial Woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis) in dead pine.

Breeding pairs are for life.

The egg laying takes place in the month of June in Mexico. They are of two to three eggs that it will take 24 days in hatch, and where the young will remain with the parents about a year.

The first flights the chicks are produced between the 97 and 140 days of age and reach the sexual maturity to the 3 or 4 years of age.


The diet of the Military Macaw It consists of a wide variety of fruits and nuts, including fruit of the Melia azedarach, Ficus and seeds of the Hura crepitans.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 276.000 km2

Distributed Mexico, In addition to several separate populations of South America, heading south to northwest of Argentina.

Widely distributed in Mexico from Sonora (where observed at 28 ° 45 ’ N) and Chihuahua in the North, until Chiapas, in the South and the East, where the birds may be geographically isolated.

Absent from the lowlands of the Caribbean; ancient appearances in Guatemala not confirmed.

In Colombia to the West of the Andes to the South of Dagua, of the The Magdalena River Valley, and on the West side of the Andes, to the East of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, in the North, through the East of the Ecuadorian Andes until Huanuco in the Peruvian Andes.

Also distributed by the North of Venezuela on Serranía del Perijá and from Northwest of Zulia until Federal District.

In Peru, in its most, observed in the East of the Andes, above all in the Marañón region, where at least, formerly, It was a common migrant from the slope of the Pacific between September-October(reported on the West side at 6 ° 50 ’ S) to feed on the fruit available seasonally.

In the East of the slopes of the the Bolivian Andes, in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Chuquisaca and Tarija and Northwest corner of Argentina in Salta and possibly Jujuy.

Seasonal movements in many areas, for example, visitors to the West of Caquetá in Colombia, from the western slope of the Andes up to this.

Rare in the South of Mexico (in Chiapas possibly extinct), more numerous in the East and Northwest, where flocks of several hundred birds were reported at the end of 1970.

Very local in the Andes and at risk in Venezuela due to habitat loss and trade.

Fairly common in the North of the region of Santa Marta, but sporadic in other parts of Colombia.

Flocks of up to 60 birds observed in the Manu National Park in Peru and in the Amboró National Park of Bolivia.

Very rare in Argentina with only sporadic reports in recent years. Recent declines due to low habitat and bird trade, a large numbers of birds in captivity.

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Ara militaris bolivianus

    (Reichenow, 1908) – South of Bolivia and Northwest of Argentina.

  • Ara militaris mexicanus

    (Ridgway, 1915) – Mexico

  • Ara militaris militaris

    (Linnaeus, 1766) – The species nominal


• Current red list of UICN: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

The population size is estimated, provisionally, You can be in the band between 10.000 and 20.0000 individuals.

It is suspected that the population This species can be decreasing due to ongoing habitat loss and capture for national trade.

The loss of habitat and especially the national trade they are major threats to this species, even within the reserves (Snyder et to the. 2000).

In 1991-1995, 96 wild-caught specimens were found in the international trade, with Bolivia and Mexico, possibly, major exporters (Chebez 1994, D. Brightsmith in litt., 2007).

In Mexico, remains one of the most sought after species for the illegal trade of birds in cage; between 1995 and 2005, It was the fifth country with more parrots seized by the Environmental Control Agency the country's, becoming the fourth with more seizures between 2007 and 2010 (JC Cantu in litt. 2010).

In many areas it nests in cavities of difficult access in the walls of the cliffs, that provide some protection against the pressures of plundering of nests. However, the plundering of nests is a serious threat in Jalisco and Nayarit, where the species nests in tree cavities (C. Bonilla in litt. 2007, K. Renton in litt., 2007).

In Jalisco, Mexico, These macaws were not found in deforested areas, even when it was abundant the Hura polyandra (an important source of food), leaving, in the news, as trees to provide shade for cattle (Renton 2004).

An analysis of the GARP believes that the species has undergone a 23% loss of habitat within its distribution area in Mexico (Ríos Muñoz 2002).

A subpopulation in the Valle del Cauca, Colombia, account for less than 50 mature individuals, little is you may lose expected a dam to flood the only nesting cliff (Fundación ProAves 2011).

Military macaw in captivity:

Very popular in poultry.

Although the Macaw Militar is present for more than one century in Europe, He has never enjoyed special interest among the fans, It's a shame, Since it is a being Intelligent. The main reason should be your little flamboyant plumage; especially compared to the one of other macaws. Other failures affect its presence in aviaries: is very loud and has a strong tendency to gnaw.

The power of their vocal organ is much higher than of any other species of Macaw. On the other hand it also good qualities: is very applied to learn, has a great talented imitator and it had an intelligence out of the ordinary.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a specimen lived 46 years in captivity. In captivity, these animals have been known that they can raise some 5 years of age.

Alternative names:

Military Macaw (English).
Ara militaire (French).
Soldatenara (German).
Arara-militar (Portuguese).
Guacamaya Verde, Guacamayo Militar, Guacamayo Verde, Papagayo verde (Spanish).
Guacamaya verde oscura (Colombia).
Guacamayo verde (Venezuela).
Guacamayo militar (Ecuador).
Maracan, Paraba militar (Bolivia).
Jarcia, Sarea (Chaka).
Panicco (Cofán.).

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: ARA
Scientific name: Ara militaris
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Protonimo: parrot military

Military Macaw images:


Military Macaw (Ara militaris)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Military Macaw (Ara militaris) at London Zoo, England By jon hanson (originally posted to Flickr as military macaw) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Military Macaw Ara militaris in captivity at Occidental Grand Xcaret Resort, Yucatan, Mexico By Tony Hisgett (originally posted to Flickr as Green Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Military Macaw flying at Whipsnade Zoo, Bedfordshire, England By Ara_militaris_-Whipsnade_Zoo_-flying-8a.jpg: Alex Smithderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Three Military Macaws at Zoológico Los Coyotes, Mexico By Gary Denness (originally posted to Flickr as Squawk No Evil) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Two Military Macaws at Whipsnade Zoo, Bedfordshire, England. The macaw on the left has damaged feathers on its chest and abdomen probably because of a feather plucking habit By Mark Fosh (originally posted to Flickr as Macaw) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Two Military Macaws at Moody Gardens, Galveston, Texas, USA By joannapoe (originally posted to Flickr as 2005-06-18_11-52-47) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A Military Macaw at Whipsnade Zoo, Bedfordshire, England. Some of its feathers are damaged probably due to feather plucking By William Warby from London, England (Military MacawUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Military Macaws in Mexico By Gregg (originally posted to Flickr as YOU WANT SOME?) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Military Macaw (Ara militaris). Details of the head and face By Mary Mueller (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Arara militaris by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

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