Raiatea Parakeet †
Cyanoramphus ulietanus

Raiatea Parakeet

Description:

25 cm.. length.

The Raiatea Parakeet (Cyanoramphus ulietanus) had the head blackish brown, paler on neck, Rump and wings. The lower part of the back and tail coverts were brownish-red; and under wing-coverts and outerweb the flight feathers were gray-blue. There was a gray border on feathers primaries and secondaries. The chest, the abdomen and the under tail were yellow olive. The feathers of the middle tail were olive brown. The outer feathers tail were gray.

The irises were probably orange-red in the adult and juvenile brown. The legs were grayish brown. The bill was pale blue-gray or gray-brown to black tip. The males and females look alike.

Habitat:

It is believed that it was a kind forest, when the Society Islands They were all wooded.

Reproduction:

It knows nothing about the reproductive habits of this parrot or why died.

Food:

Nothing is known about the eating habits of this parrot.

Distribution:

Of the Raiatea Parakeet only it is known from two specimens in Raiatea, in the Society Islands of the French Polynesia (Forshaw and Cooper 1989), collected on the trip Cook in 1773, and now Vienna and Tring (Knox y Walters 1994).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: EXTINCT.

Justification of the red list category

This species was known in the Isla de Raiatea, French Polynesia, but now it is extinct, probably as a result of habitat or cleaning action of invasive species.

Justification of the population

There remains no existing population.

It is believed that the two bodies of this parrot that remain dissected in two museums, the Natural History Museum London and the Naturhistorisches Museum, They were collected by Georg Forster in 1773 or 1774 during the second voyage of Capitán Cook (Stresemann 1950). However, Medway (2009), based on the travel journal Joseph Banks, He thought they were collected in November 1777 during the third trip Cook. It seems likely that no collection will be made on Raiatea in 1768 during the first trip Cook, since the natives were hostile, which is why Forster probably both specimens obtained in the second. However, There is some confusion as to the locality, but Forster (1844) It refers to a “Psittacus pacificus” seen in Otaheite (Tahiti) and Oriadea (Raiatea), from where Greenway (1967) presumed that found and collected Cyanoramphus zealandicus in Tahiti and C. ulietanus in Raiatea. unusually, Forster He did not consider the two species as different.

Alternative names:

Raiatea Parakeet, Society Parakeet, Society Parrot (English).
Kakariki de Raiatea, Perruche de Raiatea (French).
Braunkopf-Laufsittich, Raiateasittich (German).
Periquito-de-raiatea (Portuguese).
Perico de Raiatea (Spanish).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Cyanoramphus
Scientific name: Cyanoramphus ulietanus
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus ulietanus


Sources:

Avibase
• Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
• Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Illustration of the society parakeet (Cyanoramphus ulietanus) by Mr thrice [CC BY-SA 4.0], from Wikimedia Commons

Seychelles Parakeet †
Psittacula ward

Seychelles Parakeet


Description:

The Seychelles Parakeet (Psittacula wardi) It was a medium-sized parrot with a length of about 41 cm. and a weight between 100 and 125 g..

It was green with a large bill red with yellow tips, a red stain on the shoulders and a long tail. The male had a narrow black band on the cheek and neck which they lacked black female and youth. blueness in nape and eyes yellow. the legs They were greyish

taxonomy:

Phylogenetic studies suggest that this species away from the Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria).

Habitat:

In a report they were seen over the forest along a field maize.

They encuentraban probably in small groups or flocks, making striking flights. It was reported that the birds were cautious, presumably due to its constant pursuit.

Reproduction:

No data.

Food:

It was a forest species, which probably it fed on fruit and seeds.

Distribution:

The Seychelles Parakeet It was endemic to Mahe and Silhouette, Seychelles, with a visual record of Praslin. A considerable number was found in 1811, But it was rare in 1867 and the last specimen was shot in Mahe by Abbott in 1893. It may have survived until the twentieth century (Skerrett y Disley 2011), although apparently he was already extinguished when Nicoll He visited the island 1906 (Lionnet 1984).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Extinct.
• Population trend: The last known individuals were shot dead in 1893.

Clearing forests for plantations and coconut hunting and capture (in particular, to protect maize crops) were the main causes of the disappearance of the species (Forshaw and Cooper 1989).

In captivity:

Recent records captive birds from the year 1883.

At present there are two specimens in museums Liverpool and New York City.

Alternative names:

Green Parakeet, Seychelles Alexandrine Parrot, Seychelles Parakeet, Seychelles Parrot (inglés).
Perruche des Seychelles (francés).
Seychellen-Edelsittich, Seychellensittich, Seychellen-Sittich (alemán).
Periquito-das-seychelles (portugués).
Cotorra de las Seychelles, Cotorra de los Seychelles, Cotorra de Seychelles (español).

Newton Edward
Newton Edward

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Psittacula
Scientific name: Psittacula wardi
Citation: (Newton, E, 1867)
Protonimo: Palaeornis wardi


Seychelles Parakeet (Psittacula wardi)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Seychelles Parakeet (Psittacula wardi), depiction by John Gerrard Keulemans from ‘Extinct Birds’ by Lionel Walter Rothschild from the year 1907 by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Seychelles Black Parrot
Coracopsis barklyi

Seychelles Black Parrot


Description:

35-40 cm. length and 132-153 g. of weight.

The Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi) They have a pale brown, less black than the plumage Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra), but gray / blue reflections in the outer layers of the primary feathers; pale brown patches with slight pale striae crown.

The tone becomes slightly paler in uppertail-coverts.

Seychelles Black Parrot

The underparts They are pale grayish brown. We can see some short lines in throat, while the chest and the belly show a diffuse pale obstruction. The tail is pale-grey.
The bill dark gray becomes paler during the breeding season. The eyes are dark brown, surrounded by a naked orbital gray area. Legs and feet are dark gray to bluish gray.

Both sexes are very similar.

Youth colorization:

Immature paler than adults with a yellowish tinge bill and tips of the feathers tail with pale gray.

Taxonomic status:

Formerly a subspecies of Black Parrot (Coracopsis nigra), originating from Madagascar. Parrots Gender Coracopsis only found in the Western Indian Ocean.

Habitat:

The Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi) inhabits native and mixed woodland in Praslin, (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). It is also found in cultivated areas and residential areas with gardens, habitats that are suitable feed (A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). They are usually seen alone or in pairs.

Reproduction:

Their main breeding areas They are in a forest dominated by endemic palms coco de mer (Lodoicea maldivica). The tree species nests in cavities primarily in mer coconut dead, but also registered that nests in cavities and other palms living trees broadleaf (Reuleaux et al. 2014to), with reproductive activity October to March (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, Reuleaux et al. 2014to). Preferred deep cavities of hollow logs of L. maldivica with a dense cover canopy over the entrance (Reuleaux et al. 2014to). The reproductive activity It fluctuates widely between years (A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). In a study, the 53% of nests they were successful in 36 nesting attempts, with a 57% incipient year survival (Reuleaux et al. 2014to).

Food:

The Seychelles Black Parrot It feeds on a variety of plant species, most of which are endemic and native (Reuleaux et al. 2014b), mainly from the fruit pulp, seeds and buds, with occasional observations feeding on leaves, flowers, crusts and scale insects (Reuleaux et al. 2014b).

Distribution:

Extending its range (breeding / resident): 70 km2

The Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi) reside in Praslin, with occasional records in Curieuse (to 1 km to the North of Praslin), Seychelles (Reuleaux et al. 2013).

no individual was detected in curious during the specific counts for four days and during extra field work, so it is assumed that there is no resident population there (Reuleaux et al. 2013).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : 340-600 individuals.

Justification of the red list category

This newly divided species is listed as Vulnerable because, but it appears to be stable or possibly increasing, their population is still very small, and therefore it is at risk of stochastic events and human impacts.

Justification of the population

Count surveys conducted in Praslin points in 2010 and 2011 They found a density of 0.14-0.24 individuals / ha, as resultadi giving an estimate of the Total population 520-900 individuals (confidence intervals 95%) obtained through distance sampling methodology (Reuleaux et al. 2013). After reviewing recent survey results, Rocamora and Laboudallon (2013) estimated total breeding population less than 200 couples, I am suggesting that there could be less than 400 mature individuals. Based on these data, it is assumed that there 340-600 mature individuals in the population.

Justification trend

They suspected that the population is stable the absence of evidence of any reduction or immediate threat. It is believed that the species has increased at least until the beginning of the century, but it is unclear if it is still increasing (Reuleaux et al. 2013, Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013).

Threats

It is believed that the decline of Seychelles Black Parrot before age 60 It was mainly due to predation by introduced rats and hunting conducted by settlers and farmers (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Other causes of increased mortality include capture as pets and trade, and bycatch when targeting other species.

The most serious current threats for the species include diseases such as disease Beak and feather, continuous nest predation by rats and cats, competition from introduced species of birds for food and nesting sites, Poaching of their primary nesting tree (coco de mer), and habitat destruction caused by fires, with potential threats including persecution, pesticides, bats and kinship networks (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

The forest fires They may represent the most serious threat to the species, with records since the beginning of the decade 1980 showing that approximately every 10 years a major fire occurs (The Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014). The availability of nesting cavities can be a limiting factor in years of very active reproduction, some females occupying suboptimal cavities.

Collection sea ​​coconuts probably reduce the area of ​​palm forest long term.

The presence of the Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) in Mahe, one of which is registered Praslin, increases the risk of disease.

The impacts of introduced species causing nest predation and competition for nesting sites can not be serious enough to limit the population; However, mice are increasing in Praslin.

The crazy ants or zanconas ants (anoplolepis gracilipes) not appear to have impacted the species so far, probably because they use dead palms, where the appropriate cavities Seychelles Black Parrot.

Chicks predation by cats and dogs is probably limited, and post-harvest mortality is not currently a major concern. The persecution of the species by farmers is considered a minor threat.

Other risk factors for the species include their low genetic diversity and unexplained large fluctuations in reproductive activity of one station to another (Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

Conservation actions

Conservation actions underway

The species is protected by law from 1966 (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Endemic palms have been protected from 1991, and the restoration of native palm forest on Praslin and Curieuse is underway. The species is found in the Praslin National Park, created in 1979, and Vallée de Mai It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1983. The Background islas Ferdinand curious y They are administered as nature reserves, but no official protection. Between 1983 and 2005 boxes were provided artificial nesting (Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013, A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016).

In Vallée de Mai there is a firewall around the core breeding, but it is not guaranteed to work in the event of a large fire that can not be contained quickly (The Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014), However, It has only proved partially effective when a fire destroyed several hectares of breeding habitat high quality 2010 (A. Reuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016). Poaching coco de mer nuts it being countered with increased security and a program regeneration, and they have carried out awareness activities to reduce the persecution by farmers. Measures are being taken to eradicate the presence of the Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and also they are conducting tests for the virus Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease Virus (The Seychelles Islands Foundation in litt. 2014).

In 2009 a national plan of action was drawn up for the species, It is including plans to introduce the species Silhouette, along with captive breeding Frégate North Island there, if you can carry out a proper restoration and habitat management (reviewed by Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Other conservation identified for this species include control of introduced, the renovation and improvement of nests, monitoring the population and public awareness campaigns (reviewed by Rocamora and Laboudallon 2013). Analysis by statistical models is provided for 2014, after annual counts have been made for three years without interruption, and conclusions on the trend of the species will be published from 1982 (G. Rocamora in litt. 2014). Repeating the remote sampling survey is scheduled at intervals 5-10 years (A. REuleaux y N. Bunbury a slightly. 2016).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Carry out further surveys to get a more accurate estimate population size and to monitor the demographic trend. Conduct research on the impacts of potential threats. Protect additional areas of native forest of palms. Suitable restore native habitats. Continue awareness activities to eliminate any residual persecution.

Seychelles parrot in captivity:

This species is protected by law from 1966. No copy of Seychelles Black Parrot It should be kept in captivity, unless it were under a controlled breeding program to bird species reinstate their habitat.

Alternative names:

Seychelles Black Parrot, Seychelles Lesser Vasa Parrot, Seychelles Parrot (English).
Vasa des Seychelles, Vaza des Seychelles (French).
Seychellenpapagei (German).
Seychelles Black Parrot (Portuguese).
Loro de Seychelles (Spanish).

Newton Edward
Newton Edward

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Coracopsis
Scientific name: Coracopsis barklyi
Citation: Newton, E, 1867
Protonimo: Coracopsis barklyi

Seychelles Black Parrot images:


Seychelles Black Parrot (Coracopsis barklyi)

Sources:

Avibase
Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Coracopsis barklyi (=Coracopsis nigra barklyi) by Joseph Wolf [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Coracopsis barklyi By Post of Seychelles ([1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sulfur-breasted Parakeet
Aratinga maculata

Sulfur-breasted Parakeet


Description:

30 cm. length and 110 g. of weight.

The Sulfur-breasted Parakeet (Aratinga maculata) is pale orange, with the head and rear of the neck pale yellow

. The throat and the chest are pale yellow, the the thighs are greenish; flanks pale orange, undertail-coverts greenish, the mantle pale greenish yellow; rump pale yellow orange, tail blue-green, wings green-yellow, underwing-coverts pale yellow. Close orange stripe on the front of the crown, in the lores and around eyes. Orbital ring pale grey. Iris dark gray / brown. Bill almost black.

The immature presumably as of adults, but with cheeks and top of the chest Yellow olive. (Observed one specimen).

  • Sound of the Sulfur-breasted Parakeet.

taxonomy:

described in 2005 under the name of Aratinga pintoi, but later it was shown that the current name, It considered invalid for a long time, indeed it applies to this form, and therefore takes precedence; of holotype of Aratinga pintoi It has now been designated as neotype of Psittacus maculatus, which formally stabilizes synonymity. The species was misidentified as a juvenile of the Sun Parakeet (Aratinga solstitialis) or a hybrid between the latter and Jandaya Parakeet (Aratinga jandaya); now generally recognized as a separate taxon, differing greatly reduced due to the orange-red in the face (where it forms an irregular mask), Breast and belly.

Habitat and behavior:

The species inhabits areas with large tracts of forest and Savannah adjacent (O’ Shea 2005, Mittermeier et to the. 2010). performs movements nomads.

It is similar in behavior and general ecology of the species group Aratinga solstitialis. Are in groups of 2-10 birds and they are relatively Meek, feeding along roads and orchards.

Reproduction:

Not much is known about their breeding habits. A nest observed with an egg of unknown size.

Breeding season: August October

Food:

Feeds of fruit and seeds of Guateria sp., Dalechampia sp., Byrsonima sp. and Myrcia sp.

Distribution:

Extending its range (breeding / resident): 159.000 km2

The Sulfur-breasted Parakeet (Aratinga maculata) (formerly pintoi; see Nemésio y Rasmussen 2009) It has a fragmented range in For and Amapá in Brazil, and at the southern end of Suriname (p. e.g.. Silveira et al. 2005, Mittermeier et to the. 2010, Vieira da Costa et al. 2011). After a three-day survey conducted in 2003, Silveira et al. (2005) They claim that Sulfur-breasted Parakeet It was quite common in Monte Alegre, For. Also, in Suriname species has been characterized as uncommon to fairly common (O’ Shea 2005, Mittermeier et to the. 2010).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Growing.

• Population size : unknown.

Justification of the red list category

The trend of the population It seems to be increase, and therefore the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (> 30% decrease in ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un descenso continuo estimado en >10% in ten years or three generations, or specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern

Threats

The distribution area this species is affected by the deforestation, mainly driven by the expansion of agriculture as they build new roads; However, deforestation Brazil You may be benefiting this species and facilitating their spread to new areas (Vieira da Costa et al. 2011). Long-term, deforestation can become so rapid and extensive that the balance of extensive forest tracts and sheets required by the species will be overcome and the species could begin to decline. Silveira et al. (2005) They claim that Monte Alegre, For, no obvious signs of a strong pressure entrapment. Also, Mittermeier et to the. (2010) They say no reports of any hunting or capture of the species by Amerindians in Savannah Sipaliwini of Suriname meridional.

Aratinga Pechisulfúrea in captivity:

virtually unknown; maintained by local people and zoos Brazil. It can live up 30 years in captivity.

Alternative names:

Sulfur-breasted Parakeet, Sulphur-breasted Parakeet (English).
Conure de Pinto, Conure à poitrine soufrée (French).
Schwefelbrustsittich (German).
cacaué (Portuguese).
Aratinga Pechisulfúrea (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Aratinga
Scientific name: Aratinga maculata
Citation: (Statius Müller, 1776)

Sulfur-breasted Parakeet images:

————————————————————————————————

Sulfur-breasted Parakeet (Aratinga maculata)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
World Parrot Trust

Photos:

(1) – Aratinga maculata by Sidnei DantasFlickr
(2) – alexanderlees, IBC1058449. Accessible at hbw.com/ibc/1058449

Sounds: Thiago V. V. Costa, XC57522. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/57522

Slender-billed Parakeet
Enicognathus leptorhynchus

Slender-billed Parakeet


Description:

40 to 42 cms. length and 200 to 250 g. of weight.

Slender-billed Parakeet

The Slender-billed Parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus) has the lores, forecrown and a narrow ring feathers around the eyes bright crimson red; cheeks and sides neck, green; feathers of the crown, the nape, the the mantle and back, with dark green margins producing a scalloped effect (more pronounced in the crown, where the feathers are brighter and more emerald).

Scapulars, rump and uppertail-coverts They are green. Primary coverts green with blue suffusion; other coverts green. Flight feather green-blue above with dark margins in innerwebs near the tips; light gray below. Underwing-coverts brighter yellowish green. Underparts yellowish green with patch dull red in centre of belly. Upper, the long tail red is off; greenish toward the tip; undertail, dull red suffused greyish.

The upper mandible It is dark gray with colored tip horn, the lower mandible is horn; Strait bare periophthalmic grey; irises orange-red; legs grey.

Both sexes are similar.

Immature darker, with the upper mandible shorter, less red in the face little or no red on belly.

  • Sound of the Slender-billed Parakeet.

Habitat:

The Slender-billed Parakeet dwells in wooded areas, mainly Nothofagus and Araucaria, although they can be seen in more open cultivated fields or pastures, especially in winter. Its range is located from sea level in winter 2.000 meters in summer. Usually in flocks, of a few individuals to several hundred, even during the breeding season; large communal concentrations sometimes composed of several thousand birds.

Reproduction:

Nests generally treeholes, often at a certain height and several couples using the same tree; very deep holes fill them with twigs to raise the base level. Occasionally nidifican in rock crevices, building the nest with twigs (for example, Bamboo thicket This chusquea) if there is no tree cavities available. Breeding season in November-December. Clutch 5-6 eggs.

Food:

Its diet It consists of seeds of wild and cultivated plants (They are sometimes considered a pest), including grains and thistles, seed cones araucaria (March April) with their beaks open elongated, acorns, seeds of Nothofagus and bulbous roots. generally place vigilantes while the rest of the birds feed.

Distribution and status:

Distribution area (breeding / resident): 195.000 km2

The Slender-billed Parakeet It is confined to the center Chile, from the South of Santiago through coastal lowlands and valleys on the slopes of hills Pacific, south to the Chiloe Island and maybe Palena river in the North of Aysen; They can also be seen in Isla Mocha off the southwest coast Bío Bío.

made some movements altitudinal seasonal, with moving from coastal lowlands to the foothills of the hills between spring and autumn bird (September-May).

Fairly common, although in recent decades its population has decreased due, fundamentally, deforestation, his capture and the Newcastle disease.

Less frequent and perhaps only sporadic in the northern and southern ends of its range.

Caught locally as pets, although quite rare in captivity outside Chile.

Conservation:

  1. Current category Red List UICN: Least concern.
  2. The population trend: Stable.
  3. Population size : Unknown.

(classified in Appendix II of CITES)

Justification of the Red List Category

This species has a range very large, and as a result does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20.000 km2). La tendencia de la population seems to be stable, and therefore the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion population trend (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size It has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or in a particular population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The world population It has not been quantified, but the species according to sources is locally common (pit et to the., 1997).

Justification trend

The population suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

Cotorra Choroy in captivity:

Virtually unknown until 1976.

It is a nice and noisy bird, whose docility and cunning behavior have meant it to be hunted down and captured to commercialize as pets, common practice but absolutely unlawful, because they are removed from their natural means of inhabitancy in South Chile, which they can not be replaced in urban areas and in captivity. People who do sell through a network of illegal trafficking. However, it is a rare bird watching in captivity outside Chile.

In captivity, According to sources, a specimen lived 15,3 years.

Alternative names:

Chilean Parakeet, Long-billed Conure, Long-billed Parakeet, Slender billed Parakeet, Slender-billed Conure, Slender-billed Parakeet, Slight-billed Conure, Slight-billed Parakeet (English).
Conure à long bec, Perriche à long bec, Perruche à long bec (French).
Langschnabelsittich, Langschnabel-Sittich (German).
Periquito Delgado-faturado (Portuguese).
Choroy, Cotorra Choroy (Spanish).

Admiral Phillip Parker King
Admiral Phillip Parker King

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Enicognathus
Scientific name: Enicognathus leptorhynchus
Citation: (King, PP, 1831)
Protonimo: Psittacara leptorhyncha

Images Slender-billed Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Slender-billed Parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife
  • surmagico

Photos:

  • (1) Enicognathus leptorhynchus (Slender-billed parakeet), Vogelpark Walsrode Taken sometime during 1985 by Rüdiger StehnFlickr
  • (2) Enicognathus leptorhynchus Paso Mamuil by Malal xerofitoFlickr
  • (3) they choroy, recovering after being stoned Austral By Blizzard (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
  • (4) Slender-billed Parakeets rehabilitating in a Parque Tumbes in a large aviary, Talcahuano, Bio Bio Region, Chile. In January 2012, about a 100 parrots were rescued from a pet shop in La Granja, Santiago Province, Chile. They were rehabilitated for about three months before being released to the wild. By Municipality of Talcahuano [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
  • (5) Enicognathus leptorhynchus – thin nose cones – Slender-billed conure – conure Beaked by Florin FeneruFlickr
  • (6) A painting of a Slender-billed Parakeet (originally captioned “Psittacara leptorhyncha Long-billed. Parrakeet-Maccaw.”) by Edward Lear 1812-1888 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Ross Gallardy, XC296142. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/296142

Sulphur-winged Parakeet
Pyrrhura hoffmanni

Sulphur-winged Parakeet

Description:

23 cms. length and 84 g. of weight.

Sulphur-winged Parakeet

The Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) It, mostly, green with some individual variations in plumage.

It has a distinctive tail long and round about ear-coverts crimson red. Yellow at the top of the wings, largely hidden when the bird is at rest, but perfectly visible in flight.

The feathers of the forecrown, crown, cheeks and nape, They are green with yellow centers (the proportion of the yellow color is higher in the forecrown, lower in the back of the crown). Above predominantly green, It is the leading edges of the wings, sometimes, yellow. The lesser coverts and median are, generally, green, sometimes with some yellow in outer median coverts and feathers alula.

Yellow at the base of the outerweb of the greater coverts. Outerwebs of primaries, to a great extent, blue; primaries and secondaries with bright yellow patch, especially on the basis of innerwebs; flight feather with black tips. Under, the wings with the lesser coverts green, the majors, greenish yellow; a central portion flight feather yellowed with greyish tips.

Chin reddish; throat, sides neck and the top chest, green with yellow tips on feathers, which gives an overall light effect Scaled. The belly, the flanks and undertail-coverts, are green. Upper, the tail is green, below, reddish.

The bill and cere They are pink colored horn; bare periophthalmic white or yellowish white; the irises brown; legs pale grey.

Both sexes are similar, but the male player has yellow stripes on pens crown.
The Immature It has less yellow in head, the chest and wings.

  • Sound of the Sulphur-winged Parakeet.

Subspecies description:

  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni gaudens

    (Bangs, 1906) – Very similar to nominal, although feathers crown and nape They have yellower, with their ends red or red and orange (in some birds, red ends of the feathers may extend over the back, the throat and the chest). Underparts slightly darker.

  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni hoffmanni

    (Cabanis, 1861) – Nominal.

Habitat:

Observed, mainly, in mountainous areas, preferring montane forests in the subtropical zone, mainly 1.000 to 2.400 meters above sea level, although views 550 meters in the region Almirante Bay, Panama and a 3.000 metres in Costa Rica.

They appear to tolerate a considerable disturbance of habitat, including managed forests, areas and the second growth partially cleared, forests and wooded pasture shrubs. Usually seen in pairs or small flocks of 5-15 birds. You can perform altitudinal movements daily to feed, returning to the mountains to rest. Forage occurs in the canopy or smaller trees and bushes near the edge of the woods.

Reproduction:

They nest in tree hollows, including old nests woodpeckers, to 8-20 meters of land. With reproduce dry season (January June). Clutch six eggs in captivity.

Food:

Its diet includes fruit of Ficus, Croton, Leandra, Myrtus and Miconia.

Distribution and status:

Extending its range (players / residents): 18.400 km2

Confined south of Costa Rica and western Panama.

The species is found in the highlands of the southern half of Costa Rica, including the slopes of Caribbean, the mountains of the central plateau south and the two sides of the Cordillera de Talamanca, sometimes the region Cartago and Paradise and the Irazu volcano.

In western Panama They are mainly distributed in the west and center Chiriquí and areas adjacent in Bull's mouths, in the highest mountains (including the Chiriqui volcano and the high ridges on Boquette) and at lower elevations around, for example, of the Chiriqui Lagoon and Admiral Bay.

The easternmost Panamanian registry was found east of the central mountain range in 1868.

Some altitudinal movements (higher in the dry season). Birds are perhaps only sporadic in the extremities of their range. Apparently, It is common in middle to high elevations Cordillera de Talamanca and in isolated areas, and it is believed to be quite numerous throughout the main range.

Its Habitat It is now highly fragmented, though still apparently numerous, even in areas where the forest is partly cloudy. Rare in captivity.

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni gaudens

    (Bangs, 1906) – West of Panama and Caribbean slope of Bull's mouths.

  • Pyrrhura hoffmanni hoffmanni

    (Cabanis, 1861) – Nominal. South of Costa Rica.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the red list category

Although this species may have a small range, it is not believed that approximates the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criteria of size range (Extension <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión / calidad del hábitat o tamaño de la población y un pequeño número de lugares o fragmentación severa). La trend of the population It appears to be stable, so that the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size It has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un declive continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

They suspected that the population of Catana Cotorra is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

Cotorra Catana in captivity:

Rare in captivity. Quieter than other parakeets. In Panama the export of these birds is prohibited from 1980.

Alternative names:

Hoffmann’s Conure, Hoffmann’s Parakeet, Hoffman’s Conure, Hofman’s Conure, Sulfur-winged Parakeet, Sulphur winged Parakeet, Sulphur-winged Conure, Sulphur-winged Parakeet (English).
Conure de Hoffmann, Perriche de Hoffmann, Perruche de Hoffmann (French).
Hoffmann Sittich, Hoffmannsittich, Hoffmann-Sittich (German).
Tiriba-de-asa-amarelada (Portuguese).
Cotorra Catana, Perico aliazufrado, Perico de Hofman (Spanish).
Perico aliazufrado (Costa Rica).

Jean Louis Cabanis
Jean Louis Cabanis

Scientific classification:

Its name refers to the German naturalist Karl Hoffman.

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura hoffmanni
Citation: (Cabanis, 1861)
Protonimo: Conurus hoffmanni

Sulphur-winged Parakeet Images:

————————————————————————————————

Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni). Photographed at Savegre, in Costa Rica By Dominic Sherony [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Parakeet HOFFMAN (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) Loro Parque, Tenerife by ZOOTOGRAFIANDO
(3) – A Sulphur-winged Parakeet at Savegre, Costa Rica By Dominic Sherony [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Sulphur-winged Parakeet (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) at Savegre Lodge, near San Gerardo, Costa Rica By Michael Woodruff [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Sulphur-winged Parakeet or Hoffmann’s Conure (Pyrrhura hoffmanni) by elite-pets
(6) – Conurus hoffmanni = Pyrrhura hoffmanni by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Mike Nelson, XC107214. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/107214

Red-crowned Parakeet
Pyrrhura roseifrons

Red-crowned Parakeet


Description:

22 cm.. in length and a weight ranging from 54 and 70 g..

The Red-crowned Parakeet (Pyrrhura roseifrons) has the head pinkish red. The neck and the area of ​​the upper chest They are dark with whitish scales. The bill is black. The tail and the central area of belly They are red. The tip of his tail It is dark red. The wings they are blue. Orbital ring dark gray bordered by a yellowish white. the legs are grey.

The immature It has reddish forehead and dark tones in the rest of the head. The pinkish red head in adults it is distinctive. Losl youth They may resemble subspecies Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana or the Deville's Parakeet (Pyrrhura lucianii), but it lacks of the ear-coverts pale.

  • Sound of the Red-crowned Parakeet.

Description 4 subspecies
  • Pyrrhura roseifrons dilutissima

    (Arndt, 2008) – Blue restricted to a narrow strip on the forecrown; yellowish beige in ear-coverts; upper region chest pale brown festooned with pale yellowish beige.

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons roseifrons

    (Gray,GR, 1859) – Nominal. –

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons parvifrons

    (Arndt, 2008) – It looks like the Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana, but with blue, rather than red, on forecrown.

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana

    (Hocking, Blake & Joseph, 2002) – 22 cm., length. Absent in his bright red plumage, It has more dark brown in crown and the area eyes, the crown with bluish.

Habitat:

He lives mostly in small groups of a dozen members and remains in partner during the period breeding. They lead a life Nomad, little little is known about the behavior of this species in the wild.

Reproduction:

build their nest in tree cavities. The laying is of 5 to 7 eggs incubated by both parents for 26 days (captive breeding data). Offspring remain in the nest 2 months, becoming independent at the age of 3 months.

Food:

It feeds on fruits, seeds, leaves and flowers.

Distribution:

Size of its range (reproduction / residents): 1.000.000 km2

It is located in the west of the Amazon, from the state Amazon about the Juruá, in Brazil, and the lowlands of eastern Peru in the North of Bolivia. In Brazil, They spread south and west of habitat Deville's Parakeet (Pyrrhura lucianii)

Distribution 4 subspecies
  • Pyrrhura roseifrons dilutissima

    (Arndt, 2008) – Center of Peru around the rio Ene at the confluence with the rio Quipachiari, and around Hacienda Louisiana, on Cordillera Vilcabamba.

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons roseifrons

    (Gray,GR, 1859) – Nominal. – Amazon Western, to the South of the Amazon, from the North of Peru South to North of Bolivia (Peace) and in the West of Brazil (Western Amazon).

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons parvifrons

    (Arndt, 2008) – Two disjoint regions in northern Peru; in the East of San Martin and adjacent areas, Center west Loreto, and along the Amazon in the northeast of Loreto (only on the southern shore of Amazon).

  • Pyrrhura roseifrons peruviana

    (Hocking, Blake & Joseph, 2002) – Foothills of Andes in the southeast of Ecuador (Morona-Santiago) and North of Peru (Amazon and Loreto Western)

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : Unknown.

Justification of the Red List Category

This species has a very large range, and therefore does not approach the thresholds for vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20.000 km2 combinan con un tamaño gama disminución o fluctuante, hábitat medida / calidad, o de la población tamaño y un pequeño número de localidades o fragmentación severa). A pesar de que la tendencia de la población parece estar disminuyendo, el descenso no se cree que es suficientemente rápido como para acercarse a los umbrales para Vulnerables según el criterio tendencia de la población (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size It has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be reason to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or a specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

Recent world population is unknown given taxonomic divisions.

Justification trend

This species is suspected that there may be lost 7,0-7,3% of habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of deforestation of the Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the. 2006, Bird et to the. 2011). Given the susceptibility of this species to hunting and / or entrapment, it is suspected that its population can decrease <25% en tres generaciones.

frentirrosa parrot in captivity:

little presence in captivity and found only in some aviaries, where however they reproduce very well. After acclimation is a strong bird that can live outdoors. It is a bird suspicious although curious and playful nature, especially if they feel safe. Young birds in captivity quickly lose their fear and are very attached to their caregivers. It´s noisy, especially in the morning and sleeps in the nest. The female is very aggressive during the breeding period with other other birds.

Alternative names:


Red-crowned Parakeet, Rose-fronted Parakeet, Rose-fronted Parakeet (Rose-fronted) (English).
Conure à calotte rouge, Conure rougissante (French).
Rotscheitelsittich (German).
Tiriba-de-cabeça-vermelha (Portuguese).
Cotorra frentirrosa, Perico de Frente Rosada (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Pyrrhura
Scientific name: Pyrrhura roseifrons
Citation: (Gray, GR, 1859)
Protonimo: Conurus roseifrons

Images Red-crowned Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Red-crowned Parakeet (Pyrrhura roseifrons)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Painted Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta) – the subspecies on this photo, roseifrons, is now often considered a separate species, the Rose-fronted Parakeet (Pyrrhura roseifrons) By http://www.birdphotos.com (http://www.birdphotos.com) [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Micah Riegner, XC208597. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/208597

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet
Forpus spengeli

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet

Description:

12–13 cm. length and 28 g. of weight.

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet

The male of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (Forpus spengeli) It has shades of blue at the bottom of the back, still it rump of a turquoise hue; turquoise / blue with purple on underwing-coverts and axillary.

The wing coverts are dark green. Primary coverts are violet; wing edge bright green. Supracaudals coverts are bright green; undertail-coverts, bright yellow. Dark brown eyes with iris gray; flesh-colored legs; peak light colored horn.

The female It is green instead of blue; their face is green / yellow, It is his forecrown yellower.

taxonomy:

Until now treated as conspecific the species Forpus xanthopterygius, or sometimes as a subspecies of Forpus passerinus, or a subspecies of Forpus cyanopygius. differs, However, of the Forpus xanthopterygius in pale turquoise against the rich color tone blue rump and of the wing-coverts of the male; in the dark blue, against the rich blue color in underwing-coverts of the male; the forecrown and lores yellow in female.

  • Sound of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet.

Habitat:

they prefer forested habitats drier as open forests and riparian, closed caatinga; Also they found in savannas, palm groves, semiarid scrub and grassland areas.

With feed in open areas and sometimes on the floor. Highly social; found in groups of up 50 individuals.

Reproduction:

Breeding season, May-August. Clutch, 3-7 eggs.

Food:

Diet Turquoise-winged Parrotlet in their natural environment it is composed of fruit of Cecropia, seeds of Mikania and tremble mirantha and flowers of Ambrosia and Marcgravia.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 29.200 km2

Restricted north of Colombia, from the coastal region Caribbean western and southern mountains Santa Marta, Atlantic, south along the Magdalena river in Bolivar and César.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the Red List Category

Although this species may have a small range, It not believed to approach the thresholds for vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20.000 km2 combinan con un tamaño gama disminución o fluctuante, hábitat medida / calidad, o tamaño de la población y un pequeño número de localidades o fragmentación severa). La tendencia de la población no se conoce, pero la población no se cree que esté disminuyendo con la rapidez suficiente como para acercarse a los umbrales del criterio tendencia de la población (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable according to the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or a specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as rare and local (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Justification trend

The population trend is unknown, but according to some reports, the species may be declining. (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Cotorrita aliturquesa in captivity:

Rare.

Alternative names:

Blue-winged Parrotlet (spengeli), Blue-winged Parrotlet (Turquoise-winged), Green-rumped Parrotlet (spengeli), Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (English).
oui de Spengel, Toui de Spix (spengeli), Toui été (spengeli) (French).
Türkisflügel-Sperlingspapagei (German).
Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (Portuguese).
Cotorrita aliturquesa (Spanish).

Gustav Hartlaub

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Forpus
Scientific name: Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli
Citation: (Hartlaub, 1885)
Protonimo: Psittacula spengeli

Images Turquoise-winged Parrotlet:

————————————————————————————————

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (Forpus spengeli)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli (24-3-15 Loro Parque) by barFlickr
(2) – (above) Psittacula spengleri [sic] = Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli (Hartlaub, 1885), ?♂ (below) Psittacula cyanochlora = Forpus passerinus cyanochlorus (Schlegel, 1864), ♂ by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: ndrew Spencer, XC165598. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/165598

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