Red-necked Parrot
Amazona arausiaca

Red-necked Parrot
Red-necked Parrot (Amazona arausiaca) | By mikko.pyhala

Description:

Anatomy-parrots-eng

40 cm.. length and 650 g. of weight.

The Red-necked Parrot (Amazona arausiaca) has the lores, forecrown, front of crown, orbital area and upper cheeks, bright blue; back of the crown, nape and sides neck, with dark blue or blackish margins.

Mantle, back and scapulars, green with narrow faint dark margins giving subtle barred effect. Wing coverts green; carpal edge brighter yellowish green. Primaries green with blue tips; the three outer secondaries, red at the base, yellow and blue at the tips; four secondaries yellow and blue tips. The remaining secondary they are green. Under the wings, the coverts green; flight feather Blue.

Red-necked Parrot

Chin and top of the throat, blue; the bottom throat and, sometimes, upper region chest, with patch resizable bright red; remaining chest and of the belly, green; undertail-coverts, brighter yellowish green. Tail bright green in the center, their outer feathers green tip yellowish green and red marks on the basis of the innerwebs. Bill horn; iris orange; legs grey

Both sexes are similar. It is thought that the immature It is similar to adult but with irises brown. The young fledglings They are significantly smaller than of adults during its first year.

  • Sound of the Red-necked Parrot.

Habitat:

Video Red-necked Parrot

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Red-necked Parrot inhabits the canopy mountain rainforest, preferring forest areas with trees Tabonuco (Dacryodes excelsa), especially among 300-800 m (the highest density is found and altitudes 500-600 m) although occasionally they reported to 1.200 meters and formerly was a regular visitor (August October ) of the Coast zones.

Generally in small flocks or pairs; more numerous flocks feeding areas, outside the breeding season. Communal roosting in traditional sites, for example in large trees Dacryodes excelsa or Sloanea berteriana, They are using from year to year (but not necessarily all year).

Reproduction:

Nests in the cavity of a large tree with most nests reported in Dacryodes or Sloanea. breeding season from February to June. low productivity probably just a clutch every two years and usually only one young per nest.

Food:

The diet It includes fruits of Dacryodes excelsa, Licania ternatensis, Richeria grandis, Amanoa caribaea, Simarouba amara, Symphonia globulifera, Chimarrhis cymosa, Pouteria pallida, Cordia elliptica, C. laevigata, Pithecellobium jupunba, Byrsonima martinicensis, Dussia martinicensis, Ormosia monosperma, Buchenavia capitata and Palmas Euterpes, egg yolks of Anacardium occidentale and fruits and buds of Lonchocarpus, also orange crops, etc. Forages mainly in the canopy but also in sub-canopy and occasionally ground level. Usually it is fed in the morning and evening.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (reproduction / resident): 190 km2

The Red-necked Parrot It is endemic to the Dominica Island in the Lesser Antilles. Formerly it spreads through the mountainous interior, including the northern peninsula. Contraction range from about 1950 with the existing population centered Morne Diablotin (1.447 m, the highest mountain Dominica) which it may have always been his main strength but whose southern slopes birds have been absent from the hurricane 1992.

small populations, According to reports, in the north of the peninsula (where apparently they are resident) and in the eastern center of the island. They can remain very small populations in the south. Recent sporadic observations of birds in low-lying areas of the north and east; other towns in the south suggest the gradual recolonization of the parts of the former range.

mainly residents but maybe (at least once) some regular seasonal movements of foraging and some nomadism November to January. Although historical accounts tell of the abundance of this species, the drastic contraction in range and population have occurred since the mid-twentieth century with its gradual retreat in the most remote forests of northern and eastern. The decline is due to the loss of habitat, the hunting and capture bird cage.

The small existing population It is especially vulnerable to the loss of food plants and nesting sites due to damage caused by hurricanes. Although the effects of habitat loss may have been especially severe because of the preference of birds through the forests of low level (which it has been under pressure) They tolerate any disturbance and returned to the old feeding areas recently after conversion to plantations of fruit trees. The hunting It was probably the greatest threat to the seventies. Capture for local pet trade now under control due to a successful education campaign.

The population 1977 It was at least 350 birds (probably), but halved by the effects of hurricanes between 1979 and 1980. A Recovery since then 350 estimated birds 1990 and evidence of further increases to more than 500 in 1992. The remaining habitat is partially protected in the North Forest Reserve, but the neighboring areas of critical importance not include conservation. Completely protected by national legislation.

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Vulnerable
Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Increasing.

• Population size: 850-1000.

  • Justification of the red list category

The conservation actions He has helped this species to recover a population down from 1980. Still qualified as vulnerable because its population is still very small and its range of small extent and restricted to a single island. However, if future declines in habitat available, It could requalify as in danger of extinction.

  • Justification of the population

Estimating population most recent is 850-1,000 mature individuals (PR Reillo a slightly. 2012), more or less equivalent to 1.200-1.500 individuals in total.

  • Justification trend

The population size has increased possibly only 150 birds in 1980, possibly even 1.200 birds currently, based on recent surveys and density estimates (PR Reillo in some. 2016). There is no new data on the evolution of the population, but the species is supposed to still rising.

Threats
    The loss of habitat in the lower elevations has been caused mainly by clearance for agriculture (Collar 1997). Although replanting fruit crops has benefited the species (Reillo y Durand 2008), frugivory of diet Red-necked Parrot, conflict is causing local farmers (Douglas 2011). Damage caused by hurricanes has also been important: another hurricane of the magnitude of Hurricane David could reverse recent increases in population. Hunting and illegal trade are now low-level threats, but the illegal wildlife trade throughout the Caribbean is a constant concern and there is increasing pressure from illegal wildlife trade centered in Europe (PR Reillo in some. , 2016).
Conservation Actions Underway
    CITES Appendix I and II. It is fully protected by national legislation. Much of the remaining habitat is in the northern and central forest reserves, national parks and Morne Trois Pitons and Morne Diablotin, but adjacent areas, critical, They are not protected (Juniper and Parr 1998). From 1980, It has benefited from the joint efforts of government and non-governmental organizations to protect their habitat and sensitize the local population of the needs of this species. Research methods have recently improved to maximize ecological information acquired, while minimizing the disturbance of birds, and the study has provided important information on nesting behavior and parental care. In the same way, Census methodologies have improved to provide more accurate estimates of density and population size (Reillo y Durand 2008). The population is monitored annually. A recent doctoral thesis project examined the interaction of species with fruit crops in Dominica (PR Reillo in some. 2012).
Conservation Actions Proposed
    Continue the implementation of the protection of national parks Morne Diablotin and Morne Trois Pitons and forest reserves in central and northern. Continue to monitor the population each year. To investigate the effects of nest site (and the food) competition between this species and Imperial Parrot (Amazona imperialis). Continue to prohibit the trade in this species, exports ex situ captive breeding, and importation of non-native parrots as pets in Dominica (PR Reillo in some. 2012).

Red-necked Parrot in captivity:

CITES Appendix I and II. It is fully protected by national legislation.

Alternative names:

Bouquet’s Parrot, Dominican Blue-faced Amazon, Dominican Blue-faced Parrot, Jacquot, Red necked Parrot, Red-necked Amazon, Red-necked Parrot (English).
Amazone à cou rouge, Amazone de Bouquet (French).
Blaukopfamazaone, Blaukopfamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-colar-vermelho (Portuguese).
Amazona de Cuello Rojo, Amazona Gorgirroja, Amazona gorjirroja, Jaco, loro de cuello rojo (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona arausiaca
Citation: (Statius Müller, 1776)
Protonimo: parrot arausiacus

Images Red-necked Parrot:


Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Red-necked Amazon (Amazona arausiaca) – Author: mikko.pyhalaHBW
(2) – Red-necked Amazons at the Parrot Conservation and Research Centre Botanical Gardens, Roseau, Dominica By Andrew Szymanski (originally posted to Flickr as DSCF0031) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Red-necked Amazons at the Parrot Conservation and Research Centre Botanical Gardens, Roseau, Dominica By Amazona_arausiaca_-Roseau_-Dominica_-aviary-6a.jpg: Andrew Szymanskiderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Amazona arausiaca Sunday, West Indies by Don FaulknerFlickr
(5) – BARRABAND, Jacques (1767/8-1809) [Parrot Bouquet (Red-necked Amazon, Amazona arausiaca)] From Natural History of Parrots (by Francois Levaillant, 1801-1805) – Wikimedia
(6) – Natural history of parrots /. In Paris :chez Levrault … ;an IX (1801)-an XIII (1805).. by Biodiversity Heritage LibraryFlickr

Sounds: Aristides Elias Elias, XC211593. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/211593

Red-tailed Parrot
Amazona brasiliensis

Red-tailed Parrot

Content

Description:

37 cm.. length and 430 g. of weight.

The Red-tailed Parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) has forecrown, front of crown and lores, red; Subsequent red feathers crown with purple tips; cheeks, ear-coverts, sides neck and throat, mauve-blue; back of the crown and nape, green with black tips.

Anatomy-parrots-eng
Upperparts green, some feathers rump with yellow points. The median, greater coverts and secondary internal clearly appear yellow; edge front of the wing Red and yellow; primaries grey-black, secondaries green, turning blue towards the tips. Under the wings, brighter yellowish green; flight feather of black and blue color on the basis of innerwebs. Underparts brighter yellowish green, paler in undertail-coverts. Tail green with broad greenish-yellow tips, lateral feathers marked basally with purplish-blue on outerweb and tipped yellowish-green with broad subterminal band red.

Red-tailed Parrot

Bill pale horn with dark tip; irises orange; legs pink-gray.

Both sexes are similar. The immature It is less extensive in red head, a plumage darker overall and irises darker.

  • Sound of the Red-tailed Parrot.

taxonomic note:

The molecular study suggests that this species is closest to the Orange-winged Parrot (Amazona amazonica). Previously it thought to form a group with Blue cheeked Parrot (Amazona dufresniana) and Red-browed Parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha), and it has been treated as conspecific with one or both. Monotypic.

Habitat:

Video Red-tailed Parrot

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Red-tailed Parrot dwells in a restricted area or coastal lowland forest and wetlands with rare species and structural diversity, including lowland rain forests, restinga, freshwater marshes and mangroves. Your preferred coastal habitats have complex channel networks, swamps and wetlands. Among the characteristic trees of their forest habitat are included Luehea and Andira, while the vegetation of the islands, where they sleep and breed, They are dominated by several species Halophyte and formations restinga.

Apparently, some birds are practically living in flooded forests, probably due to increased availability of nests. Sympatric presence and partnership with the Red-spectacled Parrot (Amazona pretrei) in forests Araucaría, probably wrong. Lives in altitudes not exceeding the 300-400 m, Although there are records to 700 metres in Paraná. Forman communal shelters (often in mangroves) during at least part of the year, with more than 750 birds reported at a meeting (1985).

Reproduction:

They nest in the cavity of a living or dead tree, for example, palms Jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffianum) and guanandi (Callophyllum Brasiliense) and occasionally arboreal nests of termites; height generally, but recorded only a nest 1 meter above the floodwater. Usually it played in flooded or swampy areas, including mangroves. Breeding season in September to February, in some cases in April. Clutch 5-4 eggs. The eggs are hatch during 27 to 28 days, and that the period is thought to abandoning the hard nest 50 to 55 days

Food:

The fruits of Callophyllum Brasiliense They are considered of considerable importance in the diet of the Red-tailed Parrot, with fruits Syagrus romanzoffianum and Psidium cattleyanum also taken in quantity; other registered foods include flowers, fruits of Erythrina speciosa, fruits of Euphorbia and Myrcia and insects in fruit. They feed in pairs or groups up 20 birds.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 10.100 km2

The Amazona Colirroja et is confined to a small area in the southeast coastal of Brazil, in the states of São Paulo and Paraná. In coastal areas São Paulo It extends southwest of Itanhaém, including the isla Long and Cardoso Island, and virtually all coastal areas of neighboring Paraná, from Guaraquecaba, Antonina and Paianagua, until Guaratuba and several offshore islands adjacent, eg Mel Island.

Possibly they inhabit the extreme northeast Santa Catarina, adjacent to Paraná, but there are no reliable records. An old record Rio Grande do Sul it seems unlikely. possibly some seasonal movements lower in winter (May-August).

The rapid decline in population in the twentieth century it is due in part to the loss of habitat, with most densely settled areas and deforested, the remaining threatened are given by urbanization (for example, in isla Long), the Deforestation nesting and feeding, as well as the Palmas for human use (shipbuilding and food) and conversion of wetlands for water buffalo and rice production (birds also face competition from grazing animals for consumption of fruits Erythrina speciosa). However, direct human exploitation of the species is not now a less serious problem, some related to their hunting for food, although most suffer their capture illegal for trade. A recent study 49 showed that nests 41 of them they were illegally stolen their young, while the 1,27% available habitat was lost only in 1993.

Total wild population estimated in 3.600 birds (1995) with rapid decline of several hundreds Predicted. Distribution area probably no more than 6.000 km2, with large parts of this extension susceptible to sea level rise caused by climate change.

protected by national legislation. Live in several areas protected (for example, Cardoso Island, Sao Paulo), but in them there is only a very small proportion of birds.

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Vulnerable
Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Increasing.

• Population size : 6000-6700.

  • Justification of the red list category

The catch for cage bird trade and loss of habitat are the major threats to this species. Despite the heavy pressure to capture the early nineties, It is believed that the range of the species remained essentially the same, and populations have remained stable or declined less sharply than feared, according to a recent estimate suggests a population increase. Because of their small breeding range and highly fragmented habitat, the species qualifies as Vulnerable.

Conservation project Amazona Redstart
Amazona brasiliensis - Puffin of red-tailed - Red Parrot-tailled

  • Justification of the population

The winter counts in 2015 registered 7.464 and individuals in Paraná 1.712 in São Paulo, with both populations continuing to increase (D. Waugh in some ., 2015). The population It is estimated, therefore, between 9.000 and 10.000 individuals, equivalent approximately to 6.000 to 6.700 mature individuals.

  • Justification of trend

It is suspected that the conservation measures long term have contributed to a recent increase in population at a rate unquantified, although habitat fragmentation and poaching remain significant threats (Waugh 2006).

Threats
    In the municipality of Canaanite (a quarter of the distribution of the species) (Freire 1994), It was captured during the rearing period 1991-1992 for domestic trade and (especially) international with 356 birds. Of 47 controlled nests between 1990 and 1994, six were naturally default and the other 41 stolen by human (Freire 1997). Nest cavities are almost always damaged when the chicks are captured, reducing the number available (Freire 1994). Habitat loss persists for shipbuilding, banana plantations, cattle and buffalo and beach homes (Lalime 1999, Snyder et to the., 2000). They cut the Palmitos for processing in Guaraqueçaba (Lalime 1999). The proposed construction of a bridge to Ilha Comprida increase the pressure of tourism and habitat conversion (Snyder et to the., 2000).
Conservation Actions Underway
    CITES Appendix I and II and protected by Brazilian law. This species is not considered of conservation concern nationwide in Brazil (MMA 2014). They are distributed within 15 protected areas, but these do not apply locally (Freire 1994, Lalime 1999). The Superagui National Park in Paraná, It is a bastion for the protection of the species (R. Bocon in a bit., 2006). The creation of new reserves is hampered by economic interests (Freire 1994). Several programs are increasing local awareness (Freire 1994, Lalime 1999 , Padua et al. 2001). Conservation projects and protected areas created in the area of ​​distribution of species appear to be paying off, although there are still pitfalls. There studbooks and successful captive breeding programs in the European Union and Brazil (Lucker 1998) and the provision of artificial nests and repair of natural nesting cavities is enhancing reproductive success in the wild (Waugh 2006). Conservation Project of the Amazon Redstart is monitoring the population in Paraná (R. Bocon in a bit., 2006).
Conservation Actions Proposed
    Conduct surveys to monitor population trends and support captive breeding programs. Monitoring discount rates for trade. Monitor trade levels. Monitor the rates of loss and degradation of habitat. Apply laws on trafficking, especially in the paths to breeding islands (Lalime 1997, Lalime 1999). effectively protect existing reserves (Lalime 1997, Lalime 1999). formally appoints the Ilha Comprida State Park and Ecological Station Itapanhapina (Snyder et to the., 2000). Expand the National Park Superagüi to include the Pine Island (Snyder et to the., 2000). Reforest breeding islands (Lalime 1999). Continue and expand awareness efforts (Lalime 1999).

The Red-tailed Parrot in captivity:

CITES Appendix I and II and protected by the Brazilian legislation.

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a Program well managed captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure long term survival.

Alternative names:

Blue-cheeked Parrot, Blue-faced Parrot, Brazilian Green Amazon, Brazilian Green Parrot, Red tailed Parrot, Red-tailed Amazon, Red-tailed Parrot (English).
Amazone à joues bleues (French).
Rotschwanzamazone (German).
papagaio, papagaio-de-cara-roxa (Portuguese).
Amazona Brasilera, Amazona Colirroja (Spanish).
Marreco ananai (Brazil)

Carl Linnaeus

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona brasiliensis
Citation: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Protonimo: Psittacus brasiliensis

Images Red-tailed Parrot:


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Red-tailed Amazon at Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By Kee Yip from Union City, California, USA (IMG_4509_P1040018) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A juvenile Red-tailed Amazon which is grasping something in its right foot, probably to chew or eat it By writhedhornbill (originally posted to Flickr as Red tailed amazon) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Red-tailed Amazon (Amazona brasiliensis) bird Park, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By http://www.birdphotos.com (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Red-tailed Amazon at the zoo By Elcio Ferreira [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – A Red-tailed Amazon at Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By Chad Bordes (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – CHEYSOTIS ERYTHRURA By Zoological Society of London.; Zoological Society of London. [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Antonio Silveira, XC109467. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/109467


Red-browed Parrot
Amazona rhodocorytha

Red-browed Parrot

Content

Description:

35-40 cm.. length and 450-650 g. of weight.

The Red-browed Parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha) has the forecrown and front of the crown, bright red; back of the crown, green with brownish purple tips; lores oranges; lower cheeks and throat, pale blue; ear-coverts and sides neck, green with plenty of blue; nape green with black tips.

Anatomy-parrots-eng
Upperparts green, some feathers showing faint dark tips. Wing coverts green with yellow on the carpal edge. Primaries dark grey; three outermost secondary, red at the base, other green with violet blue tips. Underwing-coverts green. Underparts green, paler and more yellowish than above, with some feathers showing faint pale blue tips (especially in the belly and around the thighs). The tail It is green with yellow tip and a large patch in red subterminal innerwebs of the lateral feathers. Bill color pale horn; irises orange; legs grey

Red-browed Parrot

Both sexes are similar. Immature It is less extensive in red head and in the tail, and the red color is confined to only the first two secondaries.

Taxonomic note:

The Red-browed Parrot It has been widely treated as conspecific with Blue cheeked Parrot (Amazona dufresniana) and Red-tailed Parrot (Amazona brasiliensis). According to reports, the birds of Alagoas show the throat orange, suggesting a racial differentiation. It has not proposed any subspecies.

  • Sound of the Red-browed Parrot.

Habitat:

Video Red-browed Parrot

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Red-browed Parrot Living mainly in the humid forests of the lowlands, but forests also date from the highlands (perhaps seasonally) inside (for example, in Serra do Mar and east of Minas Gerais, Brazil) up to approximately 1.000 m. Although records on the edges of forests, probably not adapt to the conditions created, even partial deforestation. They sleep communally on tall trees in forest.

Reproduction:

The eggs possibly they hatch in October and couples with their young were observed in January.

In captivity, sunsets four eggs are common; the incubation hard 24 days, with the young leaving the nest 34 days after hatching.

Food:

Feeds of fruit, seeds, berries and cocoons they get in the treetops; It has also been registered to Red-browed Parrot feeding is of papaya, jaca, Mango, cacao, banana and coffee plantations.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 2.700 km2

The Red-browed Parrot It was first discovered in northern São Paulo at the beginning of the year 90.
This is an Amazon of Atlantic tropical forests of Brazil, in the East of Alagoas and further south, until Rio de Janeiro. No records between Alagoas and northeast of Bay, but if southwards and into neighboring areas, to the East of Minas Gerais, Brazil, through Espirito Santo until Rio de Janeiro.

Obviously, he suffered a drastic decline in its geographical expansion and its population since European settlement. Currently you live confined in the last remaining fragments Atlantic tropical forests. Possibly extinct Alagoas, where the last native lowland forests were cleared in the early 1980, although still quite common in at least one protected area Espirito Santo.

The current population is scattered and is susceptible to continued deforestation (for example, around the the Desengano State Park in Rio de Janeiro) and continued illegal trade in which the birds are highly valued. Live in several areas protected, including the Monte Pascoal National Park (Bay), the Rio Doce State Park (Minas Gerais, Brazil), reservations Sooretama and Linhares in Espirito Santo and the Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro.

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Endangered
Endangered (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 600-1700

  • Justification of the red list category

This species is endangered because of their severely fragmented and declining population. There remains a proper dismantling of Atlantic forest habitat and capture for the bird trade cage is an additional threat. It is considered nationally in peligro de extinctionn in Brazil.

  • Justification of the population

The species has a small population located in the band 1,000-2,499 individuals in total. This is equivalent to 667-1.666 mature individuals, round here 600-1.700 mature individuals.

  • Justification of trend

It is suspected continued rapid population decline on the basis of the destruction and fragmentation of habitat and capture for domestic and international pet trade.

Threats
    less than 10% of the original forest cover remains in Bahia and Espirito Santo, and only 2% en Alagoas (Brown and Brown 1992, Conservation International 1995), mainly due to conversion to plantations and pastures. In fact, now it is estimated that less than 1% the general habitat of this species remains (Klemann-Júnior et al., 2008). In janeiro river, many fragments of important habitats are being cleared, especially around the Desengano State Park. The collapse of the cocoa economy in southern Bahia has resulted in increased logging of landowners and colonization of reserves by former plantation workers (Snyder et to the., 2000). If the seasonal movement of birds is confirmed, This would multiply the problems of habitat loss. In the breeding season 1998-1999, 174 nestlings were captured, especially reservation, for domestic and international trade of birds in cages (Brown and Brown 1992), While 664 individuals were recorded in captivity at the Center for Reintroduction of Wild Animals 2005-2006 and others were found in private cages (L. Klemann-Júnior in a bit., 2007). Illegal trade is apparently the main threat to the species in Espirito Santo (Klemann-Júnior et al., 2008b). Memories containing feathers have been on sale outside the Monte Pascoal National Park (Sweeney 1996). a pest species is considered in some plantations of papaya, coffee and cocoa (Klemann-Junior 2006, L. Klemann-Júnior in a bit., 2012).
Conservation Actions Underway
    CITES Appendix I and II and protected by Brazilian law. Considered endangered in Brazil to 2014 (Klemann-Júnior et al., 2008), It is now classified as Vulnerable (MMA 2014). They live in 14 Reservations (Wege and Long 1995 , RB Pineschi by C. Yamashita in some. 2000), but most of them provide minimal habitat protection and none are effective against poaching. The ex situ population is managed under a European species survival plan (Sweeney 1996) and Curitiba Zoo (L. Klemann-Júnior in some. 2012), which together with Loro Parque Foundation, Foundation Rare Species Conservation and Environmental Idéia, They have successfully developed a captive breeding program (Reinschmidt and Waugh 2005 , L. Klemann-Júnior in some. 2007, 2012) .
Conservation Actions Proposed
    Survey to locate additional populations. Protecting forests where the species is found outside the reserves in Rio de Janeiro. effectively protect the habitat and birds in reserves and further develop captive breeding population. Enforce laws against trafficking, especially on roads connecting the Monte Pascoal National Park with the rest of southern Brazil (Snyder et to the., 2000). Mapping the current distribution of the species within its extent of occurrence. Identify priority areas for conservation. Investigate dietary requirements and nesting. Estimate the range of the house of the species. Study the impact of fragmentation of forests within its population. Implement an education program (L. Klemann-Júnior in some. 2012).

The Red-browed Parrot in captivity:

Suffering from a continuous illegal trade in which the birds are highly valued.
protected by CITES Appendix I, where they are included all endangered species. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a well-managed program captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, with the order to ensure their survival long-term.

The captive breeding, though difficult, It has been successful in United States and Europe and overall management plan for captive birds of this species is underway. The reintroduction into the wild of captive populations can become an important conservation strategy in the future.

Alternative names:

Red browed Parrot, Red-browed Amazon, Red-browed Parrot, Red-fronted Amazon, Red-fronted Parrot (English).
Amazone à sourcils rouges (French).
Granada-Amazone, Rotscheitelamazone (German).
acumatanga, chauá, chauã, cumatanga, jauá (Portuguese).
Amazona Coronirroja, Amazona Crestirroja (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Salvadori Tommaso

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona rhodocorytha
Citation: (Salvadori, 1890)
Protonimo: Chrysotis rhodocorytha

Images Red-browed Parrot:


Red-browed Parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha) at Rare Species Conservatory Foundation, USA By Duncan Rawlinson (originally posted to Flickr as DSC00744) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha) in a zoo By Duncan Rawlinson (originally posted to Flickr as [1]) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha) at a zoo By Duncan Rawlinson (originally posted to Flickr as [1]) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Red-browed Amazon at Rare Species Conservatory Foundation, Florida, USA By Ruth Rogers (originally posted to Flickr as P8120449) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha). Parrot in a zoo By Duncan Rawlinson (originally posted to Flickr as [1]) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha) at Rare Species Conservatory Foundation, USA By Duncan Rawlinson (originally posted to Flickr as [1]) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha) in the Loro Parque zoo of Tenrerife (Spain) By Bjoertvedt (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha) at Rare Species Conservatory Foundation, USA By Duncan Rawlinson (originally posted to Flickr as DSC00736) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – The red-browed Amazon parrot Amazona rhodocorytha at Rare Species Conservatory Foundation, USA By Duncan Rawlinson from Vancouver, BC (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Blue-cheeked Amazon (left); Red-browed Amazon (right) Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (too.. 1880, plate IX) – Wikipedia

Sounds: Eduardo D. Schultz, XC114198. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/114198

Red-crowned Parrot
Amazona viridigenalis

Red-crowned Parrot

Description:

Anatomy-parrots-eng
30.5-33 cm.. length and 294 g. of weight.

The Red-crowned Parrot (Amazona viridigenalis) has the lores, forecrown and crown, bright red, with side margins on the back of the neck and top of the neck, showing blue feathers with black ends; ear-coverts bright green without black ends in feathers; nape boldly festooned with green feathers with their ends in black.

Mantle and back green with some weak black tips; rump and uppertail-coverts, green. Wing coverts green with black margins on some weak feathers. The flight feather, mostly green, the primaries, in general, with dark ends, of dark blue or black, the Outer secondaries, with the ends of blue with red in the outerweb. Under, the wings green. Underparts green, slightly yellowish; some feathers show visible dark tips. The tail is green, in general with its yellow end. Bill pale yellow; irises yellow; legs pale grey.

Red-crowned Parrot

although females They can have on average less red in the head, probably no consistent sexual dimorphism. The immature She has red in the head very small, with feathers in the central part of the crown green tipped black and subterminally banded pale blue; feathers on the side of the crown, forming broad band over eye.

  • Sound of the Red-crowned Parrot.

Habitat:

Video Red-crowned Parrot

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

The Habitat of the Red-crowned Parrot son los Bosques deciduous, evergreen gallery forests and floodplain forests in tropical lowlands, with non-breeding birds on dry ridges extend to 1,200 meters in temperate zones Pinus and Quercus.

frequenting cultivated areas where they remain large trees. Usually in flocks, generally larger than its sympatric congeners (Red-lored Amazon and the Yellow-headed Parrot, with which sometimes mixed); in larger flocks in winter. Used roost communally.

Reproduction:

They nest in tree hollows, including abandoned nests Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus), generally 6-20 meters above the ground. Nests reported in trees Taxodium mucronatum, Bumelia laetivirens and Brosimum alicastrum. Reproduction April-May Tamaulipas. The laying is of 3 or 4 eggs. Only the female incubates. The incubation hard 28 days. The young are cared for nine weeks.

Food:

Foods reported include seeds of Pinus, maize, berries of Ehretia, Jewish of Pithecellobium, acorns and berries Melia azedarach; introduced populations have adapted to the food sources parks, consuming fruitsJuglans, Liquidambar, eucalyptus and Chorisia.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 61.900 km2

Northeast Endemic Mexico, where records from southern Nuevo León (South of Monterrey) through Tamaulipas (mostly in the center and south of the state) and East of San Luis Potosí, to the North of Veracruz and south to near the 21ºN. They can be seen as visitors in the winter Brownsville, southwestern end Texas, USA.

The current range appears confined to Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosí, no known breeding records in recent decades in Nuevo León or Veracruz, except for the seemingly wild population in the suburbs Monterrey.

wild populations in California, Florida, Oahu (Hawaiian Islands) and Puerto Ricor (few in dry forests of southern).

Resident but nomadic in winter with some altitudinal movements that lead birds to higher ground in winter (perhaps to exploit the seeds and acorns Pine) and other further away from the breeding range, for example, to the South of Texas. Apparently they return to farming area in February, declining along the ridge, but they are most common near the east coast, especially around the Sierra de Tamaulipas and on the slopes east of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Tamaulipas. Otherwise, sparsely distributed and frequently only some strengths as the Valley Rio Sabinas, Tamaulipas.

Total population estimated in 3.000-6.500. Popular in captivity locally and before traded internationally in large numbers. Clearly the recent population declines are due to excessive trade and to the continued destruction of habitats scale; they are also you fired in some areas due to crop damage. There are no large protected areas within reach and the illegal trade continues.

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Endangered
Endangered (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: In danger of extinction.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

• Population size : 2000-4300.

Justification of the red list category

    The combination of high levels of exploitation for cage bird trade, loss of habitat and long term estimates reduced density It indicates that this species is declining very quickly. Therefore it qualifies as in danger of extinction.

Justification of the population

    In 1992-1994, estimated in an area in Mexico densities indicated a wild population of 3.000 to 6.500 birds (EC Enkerlin-Hoeflich in a bit., 1994). This estimate equals approximately 2.000-4.300 mature individuals.

Justification of trend

    The historical densities recorded for the species were 25,2 in the early birds / km2 1970 (Castro 1976), down to 5,7 birds / km2 in an area 1992-1994 (EC Enkerlin-Hoeflich in 1994, Enkerlin-Hoeflich 1995), indicating a population declines of up to 77,4% on a strip of 20 years. It is suspected that the decline will continue at a higher rate to 50% in ten years, due to threats capture and forest clearing.
Threats

• In 1970-1982, 16.490 birds (mainly chicks) They were imported legally to United States.

• The illegal exports from Mexico and mortality prior to export to the top 50% they are equivalent to 5.000 birds per year (Enkerlin-Hoeflich and Hogan, 1997).

• The hunters damage nests when removing chicks (sometimes cutting whole trees), reducing the availability of the nest and bringing the permanent abandonment of the site (Snyder et to the., 2000).

• Many gallery forests have been cleared or degraded, with more than 80% lowlands of Tamaulipas cleared for agriculture (especially sorghum) and pastures.

• The Habitat of the Red-crowned Parrot It is now distributed unevenly in cattle ranches, where the pressure is greater capture (Enkerlin-Hoeflich and Hogan, 1997).

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix I (1992) and part of the European Endangered Species Programme [Species] of the European Association of Zoos and Aquariums (EAZA).

• The population of Red-crowned Parrot It is distributed in the Biosphere Reserves Heaven and Sierra Gorda (A. G. Navarro in some ., 1998, T. Brush in a bit., 2003), but there are only small colonies in Sierra Gorda and status in Heaven It is unknown (Wege and Long 1995, A. G. Navarro in some 1998).

• The livestock They are increasingly aware of the benefits of keeping large trees, but this is not reflected in practice.

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Conduct surveys to obtain an estimate of total population size.

• Monitor populations to determine the degree of reduction.

• Identify the most important nesting aggregations for protection (Enkerlin-Hoeflich and Hogan 1997).

• Integrate farmers in efforts to reduce the capture and regenerate the habitat (Enkerlin-Hoeflich and Hogan 1997) .

The Red-crowned Parrot in captivity:

CITES Appendix I. (It includes species threatened with extinction. Trade individuals of these species, it is allowed only in exceptional circumstances.)

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It is placed in a program well managed captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, with the order to ensure their survival long-term.

Alternative names:

Green-cheeked Amazon, Green-cheeked Parrot, Mexican Red-headed Amazon, Mexican Red-headed Parrot, Red-crowned Amazon, Red-crowned Parrot, red-crowned parrot parakeet (English).
Amazone à joues vertes, Amazone verte à front rouge (French).
Grünwangenamazon, Grünwangenamazone (German).
Papagaio-de-coroa-vermelha, Papagaio-de-face-verde (Portuguese).
Amazona de Corona Roja, Amazona Tamaulipeca, Cotorra Coronirroja, Loro Tamaulipeco (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

John Cassin
John Cassin

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona viridigenalis
Citation: (Cassin, 1853)
Protonimo: chrysotis viridigenalis

Images Red-crowned Parrot:

————————————————————————————————

Red-crowned Parrot (Amazona viridigenalis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Amazona_viridigenalis is native of Mexico. Specimen in Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria By Bjoertvedt (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Red-crowned Amazon (Amazona viridigenalis) also known as Green-cheeked Amazon, Red-crowned Parrot, or Mexican Red-headed Parrot By rachael fogarty (originally posted to Flickr as Fred) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Red-crowned Amazon (also known as Red-crowned Parrot, Green-cheeked Amazon, or Mexican Red-headed Parrot). Two in a cage By TJ Lin [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Red-crowned Amazon, (Amazona viridigenalis) also known as Green-cheeked Amazon, Red-crowned Parrot, or Mexican Red-headed Parrot by Leonhard F at the German language Wikipedia [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Red-crowned Amazon By Glandauer/Roger Moore (Roger Moore (transfer from en.wiki)) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Red-crowned Amazonian Parrot (Amazona viridigenalis) by Heather PaulFlickr
(7) – Red-crowned Amazon (also known as Red-crowned Parrot, Green-cheeked Amazon, and Mexican Red-headed Parrot) at Tropical Birdland, Leicestershire, England By Dean Sas from Chesterfield, UK (Pieces of eight) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A pet Red-crowned Amazon By jarrett chandler from Rowland Heights, US (zazu) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – (Amazona viridigenalis), photographed in Heidelberg Tiergarten (Baden-Wurttemberg, Deutschland) By 4028mdk09 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – PL XXXI Chrysohs viridigenalis, (tassro) By Blanchard, Emile; Bonaparte, Charles Lucian; Bourjot Saint-Hilaire, Alexandre; Le Vaillant, François; Souancé, Charles de. [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Aidan Place, XC306093. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/306093

Red-spectacled Parrot
Amazona pretrei

Red-spectacled Parrot

Unknown until years 80, when a few came to Europe

Anatomy-parrots-eng

Content

Description:

32 cm.. length and 295 g. of weight.

The Red-spectacled Parrot (Amazona pretrei) has the forecrown, lores, fore crown and upper cheeks up to the ear-coverts, bright red; back of the crown, nape, the mantle, back and rump, green with a narrow terminal band black in most feathers; scapulars green; uppertail-coverts pale green. Leading edge of wing, carpal area, alula and primary coverts, bright red; other coverts, narrow green with black tips.

Flight feather, violet blue green tips. Under wings green. The underparts They are mostly green, slightly tinged with yellowish, with black tips to most feathers giving a scalloped effect; the thighs red; undertail-coverts pale yellowish green. Tail green with broad pale yellowish-green tip and patches of red on base of innerwebs of the three feathers outermost. The bill pale yellow with pale orange based on upper mandible; bare periophthalmic white; iris orange; legs gris pardusco.

Red-spectacled Parrot

The female probably it shows much less red in the wing with the carpal edge and primary coverts, mostly or wholly green. Immature apparently similar to female adult.

Note Taxonomy:

It´s monotypic. Some times it is considered conspecific with Amazona tucumana, but they are best treated as forming a superspecies.

Sound of the Red-spectacled Parrot

Habitat:

Video Red-spectacled Parrot

Parrots in the world

Species of the genus Amazona

This rider is strongly associated with forests Araucaria angustifolia for use as roosts non-breeding season. It prefers open savanna forests and low riparian forests for reproduction, with trees and conifers of the genus Podocarpus, Scutia and Celtis and where they are absent Araucaria angustifolia. Most records located at altitudes between 300-1.000 m, but they are distributed and raised at lower elevations in southern Rio Grande do Sul.

Are dispersed in pairs during breeding but are highly gregarious outside the breeding season. They form large concentrations community, often in plantations pinus exotic and Eucalyptus. The largest winter meetings coincide with the ripening seeds araucaria. flocks of 30 to 50 birds, composed of young adults and newborns, They may meet before the dispersion, from the breeding grounds to winter quarters.

Reproduction:

The Red-spectacled Parrot nest in tree hollows, for example, Casearia, Ouillaja brasiliensis and Ficus. With reproduce at the end of September to January, with young people and fledglings, usually, in early December in the south. Clutch 2-4 eggs.

Food:

Foods reported include seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (especially important in May-August) and Podocarpus lambertii (important in some areas in January-February), fruits of Eugenia, Campomanesia and Melia. The diet is altered with the town and the station. They take a variety of fruit in the spring and summer (October to February), among others: Cupania, Eugenia, Phytolacca, Allophylus, Nectandra, Ocotea, Campomanesia, Cytharexylum, Myrcianthes, Blepharocalyx, Ficus and Symplocos.

The diurnal movements cover up 100 km, perhaps in relation with the availability of food.

Distribution and status:

Size of its range (breeding / resident ): 95.400 km2

This species is endemic to South Brazil and distributed only in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (Martínez, 1996). Some individuals have been recorded in the forests Missions, in the northeast of Argentina (Chebez 1994) and they have recently also been reported from Paraguay (sec Lowcn et al., 1997).

It is a kind Nomad; They tend to focus on the remaining forests Araucaria Southeast Santa Catarina between March and June to feed on seeds production Araucaria augustifolia. During August and January, the Red-spectacled Parrot They are dispersed in small flocks ranging from tens to hundreds of individuals in a wide distribution throughout the state Rio Grande do Sul, particularly in habitats Cima da Serra fields, Plateau East, Alto Uruguay, Depression Central and Southeast Saws.

Reductions in seed supply Araucaria They may have been the cause of change in the feeding of Ecological Station Aracuri-Esmeralda in 1991 (Municipality of many Capões) to areas around Southeast Santa Catarina. Here the remaining forest patches Araucaria They can provide enough seed to feed the populations Red-spectacled Parrot. The intensive cattle grazing and agriculture have almost eradicated habitat Araucaria. These impacts on habitat have reduced natural regeneration and also may have reduced the number of nesting sites in old trees.

a census in 1994 It estimated the total population of the Red-spectacled Parrot in 10.000 individuals, Repeated surveys have shown the sizes of the nearby population 12.600 individuals in 1996. and about 16.300 individuals in 1997 (J. Martinez in the proceedings 1997, N. Prestes in the proceedings 1997).

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Vulnerable
Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the red list category

The combination of a comparison of population estimates 1971 and 1997 and deforestation rates during the same period suggest that the species has declined rapidly, qualifying the species as Vulnerable. Current threats loss of habitat and capture They suggest that this decline is likely to continue.

Justification of trend

Se sospecha una continued rapid population decline due to destruction, degradation and fragmentation of habitat and illegal trade.

Conservation Actions Underway

• Appendix I and II of CITES.

• This species is considered Vulnerable nationwide (Silveira y Straube 2008, MMA 2014) and protected Brazilian law.

• There are breeding populations in five reserves and two austral winter feeding sites are protected (Wege and Long 1995).

• Nevertheless, less than 1% Annual range, and less than 4% of each seasonal range is within protected areas (Marini et al., 2010).

• they have been provided artificial nests but not occupied (Snyder et to the ., 2000).

• Since 1991 It is conducting a campaign public awareness (Prestes et al . , 1997, Snyder et to the . 2000).

Conservation Actions Proposed

• Conduct surveys to get an estimate of population size updated.

• Conduct periodic surveys to assess the population trends.

• Study the current levels of off-take for the trade.

• Monitor the rates of loss and degradation of habitat.

Protect breeding areas in South Cacapava and Santana da Boa Vista.

• Improve management of protected areas.

• Apply the law to collectors and, especially, dealerships, looking vehicles between December and February (Prestes et al ., 1997).

• Continue Campaign sensitization.

The Red-spectacled Parrot in captivity:

Unknown until years 80, when a few reached Europe; not well known elsewhere.

relatively silent compared to other Amazonian species. Inquisitivas although generally quiet. have a nice nature, but they can occasionally be quite noisy, especially first thing in the morning and evening. They become confident relatively quickly. Outside the breeding season, They can be set in a colony system. chewing hard and excellent flying and stair climbers, so they need ample opportunities for exercise.

Its captive breeding rarely it has succeeded.

It is believed that the main threat to this bird is the illegal domestic trade, particularly in the municipalities of Lagoa Vermelha, Barracao, Esmeralda and many Capões. Approximately 500 chicks are taken annually from nests to be sold in large urban centers Caxias do Sul, Florianópolis, Curitiba and São Paulo (Prestcs et al., 1997).

It is a species that should only be kept in captivity for the purpose of achieving their reproduction and subsequent insertion into wildlife.

Alternative names:

1 – Red-spectacled Parrot, Pretre’s Amazon, Pretre’s Parrot, Red spectacled Parrot, Red-spectacled Amazon (English).
2 – Amazone de Prêtre (French).
3 – Prachtamazone (German).
4 – papagaio-da-serra, charã, Charao, charão, chorão, maragato, Papagaio-charão, papagaio-chorão, serrano (Portuguese).
5 – Amazona Charao, Amazona de Cabeza Roja, Charao, CharaoChorao (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Temminck Coenraad Jacob
Temminck Coenraad Jacob

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona pretrei
Citation: (Temminck, 1830)
Protonimo: Psittacus pretrei

Images Red-spectacled Parrot:


Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie (originally posted to Flickr as Perroquet familial) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A pet Red-spectacled Amazon in a parrot cage. It is 32 cm land and 295 gm in wt By Amazona_pretrei_-bird_cage-8c.jpg: The Andrea Guimarãesderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Some of its wing feathers are clipped By Amazona_pretrei_-Rio_Grande_do_Sul_-Brazil-8e.jpg: Mariederivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Amazona_pretrei, a native of the southernmost Brasil. Specimen in Palmitos Park, Gran Canaria By Bjoertvedt (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – A pet Red-spectacled Amazon in captivity. It has a ring on its right leg By Andrea O Guimarães (originally posted to Flickr as I’m watching you) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie (originally posted to Flickr as Temporaire) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Red-spectacled Amazon that is kept as a pet in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By Marie (originally posted to Flickr as Calins… :)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – A pet Red-spectacled Amazon in a parrot cage. It is 32 cm land and 295 gm in wt By Andrea O Guimarães [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Amazona pretrei = = Parrot Psittacus pretei Priest By Jean-Gabriel Priest (1768–1849) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Vitor Q. Piacentini, XC27028. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/27028.

Red-fronted Parrotlet
Touit costaricensis

Red-fronted Parrotlet

Description:

17,5 cm.. length.

The Red-fronted Parrotlet (Touit costaricensis) has the forecrown, anteriorly of crown, lores and stripe under the eyes, red; sides neck, cheeks and upperparts, green with the back of the crown and nape slightly paler and yellower. Inner wing-coverts green; exterior and median coverts and wing leading edge, red; primary coverts black.

Primaries and outer secondaries, black with green margin to outerweb of the primaries. Inner underwing-coverts, yellow, the outer, red. Feathers on base of the beak, on chin and throat, brighter yellowish green; the chest, the belly and undertail-coverts, green tinted yellowish. The tail greenish yellow with a black tip (except the outermost feathers) and dark green subterminally. Bill pale yellow; cere and bare periophthalmic, grey; irises grey; legs slaty.

The female It has less red on the upperwing-coverts, and perhaps more yellow in the underwing-coverts; probably, on average, are smaller than males. The immature It has little or no red on the head.

  • Sound of the Red-fronted Parrotlet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Cotorrita costarricense.mp3]

Note:

The Red-fronted Parrotlet It has sometimes been treated as conspecific with the Blue-fronted Parrotlet (Touit dilectissimus) North of South America and Panama. While these taxa are clearly allies and share a recent common ancestor, most authors now treat them as separate based on their clear and consistent differences in plumage. The structural divergence can also exist in the Red-fronted Parrotlet longer seems to show the uppertail-coverts (extending almost to the end of the tail) its counterpart Southern, While (although the sample is small) it suggests a sexual dimorphism by the length of the wings and tail on Red-fronted Parrotlet but not in Blue-fronted Parrotlet.

Habitat:

Generally observed in the canopy humid forests at middle altitudes. It moves towards the thicket, on forest edges, flying over the clear, sometimes in the lowlands (sometimes at sea level, especially in southeast Costa Rica), where perhaps it is a seasonal visitor. Tolerates some habitat alterations.

Observed in association with Red-headed Barbet (Eubucco bourcierii) and Blue-and-gold Tanager (Bangsia arcaei), both species associated in very humid cold forests in the upper tropical and subtropical areas.

Observed to 3.000 meters in Costa Rica in the early dry season and reported regularly at altitudes 500-1.000 m during the wet season. Generally in pairs or small flocks family.

Reproduction:

The family size usually between 4-5 birds, suggests the clutch usual 2-3 eggs. probably plays during the season, dry.

Food:

Feed of fruits trees and epiphytes, such as Cavendishia and Clusia, but probably also include flowers and seeds.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 10.000 km2

The few records Red-fronted Parrotlet existing in Costa Rica come, mainly, the highlands of central-south Caribbean slope, where its range seems to extend to the south, from Monteverde, Turrialba volcano and Lemon.

Although there are no records in much of the east of Costa Rica, its existence can be continuous along the Cordillera de Talamanca (perhaps only in the Caribbean slope) to western Panama. The handful of Panamanian specimens and records from observations, They are mainly from the western highlands to a report from the east, about the Cocle Province.

It is obviously a kind rare and presumably declining due to continued deforestation (at least in the lowlands) in a limited range.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Population size : 2500-9999 specimens.

Justification of the red list category

This species is classified as Vulnerable because the clearing and forest fragmentation at middle elevations, mainly in the Cordillera Volcánica Central and in the Sierra de Tilarán of Costa Rica, It is likely to be causing significant slopes in its small range and (presumably) in population.

Justification of the population

It is estimated that the breeding population of Important Bird Areas of Costa Rica is 1.000 to 4.000 mature individuals (J. And others Craido 2007, J. Sánchez et al., In 2007), so it is believed that the total population may be within the range of 2.500-9.999 mature individuals. This is equivalent to 3.750-14.999 individuals in total, round here 3.500-15.000 individuals.

Justification of trend

It is suspected that the population species is decreasing at a moderate rate, in line with the continuous clearance of their forest habitat in the northern part of its range.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. Live in several areas protected, including national parks Braulio Carrillo, Tapantí-Cerro de la Muerte and Monteverde, Costa Rica, and La Amistad International Park and adjacent reserves in both countries. However, The legal protection of Palo Seco Protected Forest (BPPS) (a booking Panama adjacent to La Amistad) has not prevented clearance for agriculture (Angehr and Jordan, 1998).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Evaluate the importance of habitat outside the breeding season (J. Created en lit. 2007, J. Sanchez et al., In 2007). Conduct surveys to determine the total size of the population. Study of the ecology of the species (J. Sanchez et al., in bed. , 2007). Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of loss and recovery of forests (J. Sanchez et al., In 2007). Effectively protect the Bosque Protector Palo Seco (BPPS).

Costa Rican parrot in captivity:

No reports are known captive birds.

Alternative names:

Red-fronted Parrotlet, Red fronted Parrotlet (English).
Toui du Costa Rica (French).
Costa-Rica-Papagei (German).
Red-fronted Parrotlet (Portuguese).
Cotorrita Costarricense, Lorito de Pecho Rojo, Periquito alirrojo (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Touit
Scientific name: Touit costaricensis
Citation: (Cory, 1913)
Protonimo: Urochroma costaricensis

————————————————————————————————

Red-fronted Parrotlet (Touit costaricensis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Papagei am Rincon de la Vieja by KovacGEO Reisencommunity

Sounds:

Tepui Parrotlet
Nannopsittaca panychlora

Cotorrita de tepuy

Description:

Tepui Parrotlet

The Tepui Parrotlet (Nannopsittaca panychlora) measured between 14 and 15,7 cm.. height. Small size, with wings sharp and tail cut and wedge.

The head It is green with yellow tinge oliváceo; the eye area is yellow, color extending below and behind the eyes. The upperparts they are green (brighter and less than oliváceo head). Upperwing-coverts green. Flight feather blackish green tipped primary, brownish opaque below; INFRACA-wing coverts green. The underparts yellowish green turn yellow-green in the undertail-coverts. Upper, the tail is green; undertail, yellower. Bill grey; cere grey; Bello to singr dark gray; irises brown; legs Rosaceae.

Both sexes are similar; the female has the forecrown Off-white to yellowish.

  • Sound of the Tepui Parrotlet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Tepui Parrotlet.mp3]

Habitat:

Montane rain forests inhabit in tropical and subtropical highlands, sometimes in the rainforest of the lowlands around tepuyes, generally 750-1,850 m (Gran Sabana), although they observed at the top of Auyantepui to 2,200 meters and near the summit Monte Roraima A 2,200 m; to 750-950 metres in Sucre.

Can reproduce in subtropical and tropical zone descend to feed. Recent records in the view of birds in the lowlands suggest at least seasonal aparienciones at lower altitudes. Fly very high, fast and in a straight line, in compact flocks of 6 to 150 individuals. It´s resident but it shows seasonal migrations.

Reproduction:

Sleeps and nests in Tepuis. Not much more information about the reproduction of this species in the wild.

Food:

In their natural habitat, the Tepui Parrotlet normally eat fruits, seeds and small insects.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 486.000 km2

Mainly montana, It is distributed in several scattered populations in eastern Venezuela and the adjacent area of ​​western Guyana; concentrated in Gran Sabana East of Bolivar in Venezuela (for example, Montes Roraima and Auyantepui); It is also present around the meseta del Duida and the lowlands of River Ventauri, Amazon, and in the West of Guyana from the area Río Camera to; a more distant population occupies the Paria peninsula (for example, the Monte Papelón), Sucre, to the northeast of Venezuela. Probably you can be observed at the north end of Roraima, Brazil.

Apparently locally common and stable, but perhaps it diminished in Paria Peninsula due to large-scale deforestation. Much of the range is included in Canaima National Park.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the population

The size of the world population It has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common, but unevenly distributed” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

It is suspected that this species has lost 6,9-11,6% of habitat within its distribution over three generations (15 years) starting from a model of deforestation Amazon (Soares-Filho et to the., 2006, Bird et to the., 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunting and / or capture, It is suspected that its population decline by <25% during three generations.

Cotorrita of tepui in captivity:

It is very rare captive breeding outside South America. It is intelligent, quiet and very sociable.
Can normally live about 20 years.

Alternative names:

Tepui Parrotlet, Tepui Parakeet, Tepui parrolet (English).
Toui des tépuis, Toui tépui (French).
Tepuisittich, Grünsperlingspapagei, Tepui Sittich (German).
Periquito-dos-tepuis, periquito-do-Tepui (Portuguese).
Catita Chirica, Cotorrita de tepuy, Cotorrita Tepuí (Spanish).
Chirica (Venezuela).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Nannopsittaca
Scientific name: Nannopsittaca panychlora
Citation: (Salvin & Godman, 1883)
Protonimo: Brotogerys [sic] panychlorus


Tepui Parrotlet (Nannopsittaca panychlora)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife
  • Book parrots, Parrots and macaws Neotropical

  • Photos:

(1) – Credit: © Scott Echols, DVM
(2) – Brotogerys panychlorus = nannopsittaca panychlora (color green) & Microcerculus ustulatus (color brown) By J G Keulemans (Ibis 1883 (Web)) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Southern Mealy Parrot
Amazona farinosa

Southern Mealy Parrot

Description:

Anatomy-parrots-eng
38 to 45 cm.. from head to tail and 535 to 766 weight g.

The Southern Mealy Parrot (Amazona farinosa) It is the fifth in size among the Amazon parrots of the Americas, and is the Parrot largest in Mexico. The plumage its body is green with a slight yellow tone. Presents some yellow feathers on the crown, Although may not be very well defined.

Is characterized by its crown light blue color that continues to the side of the nape . Their wings are of round shape, and tail is short and square. The primary feathers and secondaries they have the blue-violet end, with a band red in them 4 – 5 Outer secondaries. The feathers of the tail they have a broad band of yellowish-green tip. The irises the eye is red with eye ring white, and the bill horn.

It has no sexual dimorphism and youth they are similar to adults, but with the irises dark brown .

Two more for South America subspecies have been proposed, Chapmani and Inornata but lack of character distinctive clear.

Habitat:

They inhabit in dense, humid rain forests near clear, Although also can inhabit in areas forested of the sheets.
You can see in altitudes of 290 to 1,200 m.

The Southern Mealy Parrot are birds very social, often seen flying in pairs or small flocks of up to 20 individuals. Also form groups more large, hundreds of birds, close the season of breeding. Very enable, is the view often interacting with other species of parrots, such as macaws (ARA).

Is an of the species of parrot more noisy of the Amazon, so they are easier to observe than other species.

Reproduction:

The mating It takes place once a year and usually starts in the spring. Once they mature sexually, the Southern Mealy Parrot they will choose a partner for life.

The breeding varies usually between the months of November to March. The nesting has place in the cavity of a tree. The laying by year tends to be of three eggs. The eggs are hatch for approximately four weeks, After the hatching the males help females in the upbringing of young people, regurgitating food in the crop of the female. The offspring is list to leave the nest after a period of approximately eight weeks.

Food:

It feeds on fruits of various species, some of them are: Euterpe SP.., Brosimum sp., Inga sp., Dussia sp., Eschweilera SP.., Pithecellobium SP.., Tetragastris sp., Dialium guianensis, Peritassa compta, Sloanea grandiflora and It corima macrocarpa. Also consumes flowers, arils of Cassearia sp. and nectar of Tabebuia insignis.

Distribution:

Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 6.790.000 km2

Are in Mexico, Central America and South America, occupying a wide range from the South of Mexico to the North of Bolivia and South of Brazil. They are more common in Costa Rica and Panama, particularly in the costa Caribbean. Observed in the Valley average of the Río Magdalena and to the East of them Andes on Serranía de San Jacinto, Western base of the Serranía de Perijá and the Department of Sucre, in Colombia.

Conservation:

Conservation status ⓘ


Status
Near Threatened (UICN)ⓘ

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Not are currently identified as a species in crisis. Not comply with the criteria for a decrease of the population, that means a loss of thirty per cent of the population in ten years or three generations, as defined in the Red list of the UICN.

Are considered a least concern species. This, However, It does not suggest that the species is completely free from danger.

The important trade of trade in live birds of this species, and loss of habitat caused by deforestation have a significant impact on the decrease of the population of the Southern Mealy Parrot in certain areas.

The Southern Mealy Parrot in captivity:

Of special interest to the international trade in exotic birds; common in captivity. In some areas, they are also hunted for food, due to its relatively large size. With regard to its ability to speak, It seems that can be good talkative, but is true that there are birds that do not come to make it never.

Alternative names:

Southern Mealy Parrot, Mealy Parrot, Mealy Parrot (nominate), Southern Mealy Amazon (English).
Amazone poudrée, Amazone poudrée (nominal), Amazone poudrée (nominale), Amazone poudrée (race nominale) (French).
Mülleramazone (German).
papagaio-moleiro (Portuguese).
Amazona harinosa sureña, Amazona Burrona (Spanish).
Lora Real (Colombia).
Loro verde (Costa Rica).
Lora coroniazul (Honduras).
Loro corona-azul (Mexico).
Loro Harinoso (Peru).
Loro Burrón (Venezuela).

Scientific classification:

Pieter Boddaert
Pieter Boddaert

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Amazona
Scientific name: Amazona farinosa
Citation: (Boddaert, 1783)
Protonimo: Psittacus farinosus

Southern Mealy Parrot images:

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Mealy Amazon at Elmwood Park Zoo. Photograph shows upper body By Art G. from Willow Grove, PA, USA (African Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Mealy Parrot (Amazona farinosa), Tambopata Lodge, Peru By D. Gordon E. Robertson (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Two Mealy Amazons at South Lakes Wild Animal Park, Broughton Road, Dalton in Furness, Cumbria, England By Glen Bowman (originally posted to Flickr as 18:02:2009 14:33:08) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Mealy Amazon at Kobe Oji Zoo, Kobe, Japan By Jun Y (originally posted to Flickr as Poll Parrot) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Mealy Parrot or Mealy Amazon (Amazona farinosa) of the blue crowned variety. Note the characteristic flour-like surface texture of the feathers on shoulder area By Eightball38 at English Wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Diego Caiafa (Xeno-canto)

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