Green Parakeet
Psittacara holochlorus

Aratinga Verde


Between 28 and 30.5 cm.. of length and a weight of 232 g..

The Green Parakeet (Psittacara holochlorus) is a medium-sized Parrot with the wings in sharp form and the tail long and stitch. Its plumage is bright green, and can present several pens red or orange in the neck. In general, the underwing-coverts are metallic greenish-yellow color, While the the flight feathers and the bottom sides of the the tail feathers are yellow-olive. Presents a eye ring pale beige and the irises orange, the legs yellowish brown.

It has no sexual dimorphism.

The immature has irises Brown.

  • Sound of the Green Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS:// Verde.mp3]

Subspecies description:

  • Psittacara holochlorus brewsteri

    (Nelson, 1928) – Plumage, in general, Green darker than the species nominal, with yellowish green tint and bluish suffusion at the crown.

  • Psittacara holochlorus holochlorus

    (Sclater,PL, 1859) – The species nominal.


The Green Parakeet, as well as their subspecies, avoid humid lowland forests; Instead, they prefer deciduous forests and forests of Gallery, scrub, clear and the edges of the forest.

In East Mexico, mainly seen in upland forest with some movements toward deciduous forests at elevations lower than during the non-breeding season. Registered to 2.100 meters in Mexico (the subspecies “brewsteri” at altitudes between 1,250 and 2,000m).

Views in flocks outside the breeding season, sometimes in groups of more of 100 birds, being larger groupings in places where food is abundant.


The nests of the Green Parakeet they are located in tree cavities (for example, cavities made by woodpeckers), crack in rocks, holes in buildings or termite mounds. Colonial nesting reported in caves in the East of Mexico.

The breeding season has been recorded in the month of January to the East of Mexico (young in the nest); in April in Tamaulipas, to the South of Mexico.

The clutch most common consists of four eggs.


Diet Green Parakeet is based on seeds, nuts, berries and fruits; reported foods include the fruits of Myrica mexicana, seeds of Mimosa and maize (they can be destructive with their crops).


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 275.000 km2

Disjunct in slope populations of the Atlantic, from the East of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas at the center of Veracruz; Southeast of Veracruz, East of Oaxaca and to the East of Chiapas; Southwest of Chihuahua, North of Sinaloa and South of Sonora.

Some specimens were established in Southeastern cities of Texas; It is not clear if they come from Pet escapes or are wild vagrant who emigrated from the North of Mexico. It is generally not migratory, but you can scroll to get food.

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Psittacara holochlorus brewsteri

    (Nelson, 1928) – Mountains of Northwest of Mexico, to the South of Sonora, Northeast of Sinaloa and South of Chihuahua.

  • Psittacara holochlorus holochlorus

    (Sclater,PL, 1859) – The species nominal.


• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern

• Population trend: Decreasing

The population of the Green Parakeet It is suspected that it is between a slow to moderate decline due to the expansion of intensive farming and capture for the wild bird trade (Juniper and Parr 1998).

The State of conservation, globally, regards it as a kind of Least concern because it is abundant and widely distributed. It is considered one endangered species within the Mexican law by its restricted distribution. Nest boxes they have been provided in the South of Texas nest (Brush 2007).

The world population is estimated at 200.000 mature individuals.

Although it is not as popular as other large Amazon parrots, the Green Parakeet is maintained as pet by the local population; have also been exported as pets to the United States. Although there are no accumulated figures, during the period of 9 months between October of 1979 and June of 1980, 327 birds were imported to the United States (Roete et to the. 1982).

While the loss of habitat It is probably the factor affecting the population of the Green Parakeet, their capture for the bird trade It is likely to be negative at the local level.

With the signing of the Wild birds Protection Act of 1991, the Green Parakeet can not be imported to the EE.UU. unless they are part of a breeding program authorized.

The marketing of all the species Mexican species parrots (parakeets, parrots and macaws) is banned in Mexico. Since the year 2008 It is a federal crime to catch, sell, buy this type of animal.

Aratinga Verde in captivity:

Maintained as pet by the locals although its marketing is prohibited in Mexico.

The illegal trade in parrots and macaws is held thanks to demand from consumers. If the demand for these wild species is reduced, then the offer would be reduced and thus the illegal catch.

According to sources, a specimen lived 21,8 years in captivity

Alternative names:

Green Parakeet, Cut-throat Parakeet, Green Conure, Green Parakeet (Green), Red-collared Parakeet, Red-throated Conure (English).
Conure verte, Perriche verte (French).
Grünsittich (German).
Periquito-verde (Portuguese).
Aratinga Verde, perico mexicano, Perico Verde, Perico Verde Mexicano, Periquito verde (Spanish).
perico mexicano, Perico Verde Mexicano (Mexico).
Perico Verde (Nicaragua).
Periquito verde (Honduras).

Philip Sclater
Philip Sclater

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Psittacara
Scientific name: Psittacara holochlorus
Citation: (Sclater, PL, 1859)
Protonimo: Conurus holochlorus

Green Parakeet pictures:


Green Parakeet (Psittacara holochlorus)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Green Parakeet From The Crossley ID Guide Eastern Birds By Richard Crossley (Richard Crossley) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Green Parakeet by Vince Smith – Flickr
(3) – Aratinga verde by G. Lasley/Vireo –
(4) – Aratinga verde by G. Lasley/Vireo –
(5) – Aratinga holochlora (Psittacara holochlorus) – Bellas Aves de El Salvador

Sounds: Peter Boesman (Xeno-canto)

Golden-plumed Parakeet
Leptosittaca branickii

Aratinga de Pinceles



Approximately 36 cm.. of length and a weight of 150 g.

The Golden-plumed Parakeet (Leptosittaca branickii) has the crown, most of the forecrown, the cheeks, the sides of neck and ear-coverts grass-green; close frontal band on bottom of the forecrown orange, extending towards the upper lores; a feature yellowish stripe at the lower lores extending below the eyes to then join in a loop of yellow the part located behind the eyeball.

Upperparts green. At the top the wings green. Underwing-coverts greenish yellow; underside of feathers opaque yellow flight.

Ilustración Aratinga de Pinceles

The underparts green, slightly more yellow than the upper, with a large yellow and orange patch at the bottom of the chest.

Upper, the tail of color green with red off on them vane inner; below its long and acute tail opaque reddish.

The bill color horn; cere grey; bare orbital skin pale whitish-grey; Orange the irises; legs grey.

Both sexes similar. The immature not described.

NOTE: Some authors include the species within the genus Aratinga. However, the facial feathers they are distinctive and monotipicas, so the gender Leptosittaca is justified for this species.


Vídeo Golden-plumed Parakeet

  • >

Parrots in the world

These birds are found in high altitude formations, between 2,400 and 3.400 m, Sometimes you can see them at altitudes lower, about 1.400 m. With distributed in temperate zones, stunted forests, cloud and limits of tree growth. Sometimes they cross cleared areas to visit residual plots.

Its distribution is possibly linked to the trees Podocarpus, at least in the Azuay province and parts of Colombia, Although more studies are needed to confirm this.
The Golden-plumed Parakeet make altitudinal movements day towards the Moors, returning to the lower forests for sleep; in the Puracé national natural park This pattern is reversed, and birds perch on community in paramo areas (above 3.000 m), descending to feed during the day.

In general, in flocks (at least outside of breeding season) of up 20 birds (sometimes more).


The Golden-plumed Parakeet nests on trunks of Palm wax (Ceroxylon quinduense) and encenillo (Weinmania sp.). Played during the first half of the year. Birds in breeding conditions during the month of February, Colombia, and birds mating in August, Ecuador.

The female lays 2-3 eggs they are incubated both during 28 to 32 days. It only incubates the female during the day, while at night, both dealt with the work. The chicks leave the nest 64-68 days after birth and are fed by both parents, While they are in the nest.


Feed of seeds of conifers, especially of cones of Podocarpus, as well as seeds and fruit of some plants, among them included the Rosacea, Elaeocarpaceae, Lauraceae, Brunelliaceae, Loranthaceae, Moraceae, Croton, Styrax subargentea, otodectes nitida, Ficus and the maize cultivated. Sometimes it can be powered from leaves.

It forages generally in the canopy (birds frequently moving among the trees), sometimes in the layer of shrubs and fields.


The natural habitat of the Golden-plumed Parakeet It is discontinuous and runs from the North of the Andes from Colombia to the South of Peru.

The species is known in three areas of the Colombian Andes:

In West Cerro Munchique and at the borders of Tolima, Risaralda, Quindio and Caldas; in the Center from the North of Caldas until Cauca, including the Volcano Puracé; in the East, to the East of Nariño.

It has been reported from six or seven areas in Ecuador, including the province of Imbaburato in the North and the mountains of Chilla on The Oro Province, high mountains in the Azuay province and Morona Santiago province, as well as various locations in the Loja province in the South.

In Peru are distributed from the Amazonas Department and South of Departments of Cajamarca through Department of San Martín, Freedom, Department of Huánuco and Junín Department until Guzco.

Seasonal and nomadic, rare and very local, especially in Colombia, in where the drastic decrease of birds is due to the deforestation; in Ecuador It scarce, possibly more common in the Southeast, but absent in apparently suitable habitats in the Eastern Andes. In Peru, where is deforestation less severe, It may be more widespread. Your local observation is unpredictable and may be linked to the fructification of your favorite plants.

They are observed (Although perhaps non-resident) in many protected areas, including the Puracé national natural park in the center of the Andes of Colombia, the Podocarpus national park in the South of Ecuador and the Manu National Park, Peru.



Conservation status ⓘ

Vulnerable (UICN)ⓘ

• Red list category of the UICN current: Vulnerable

•Tendencia of the population: Decreasing

You suspect a rapid descent and ongoing in the population of the Aratinga of brushes based on the destruction, degradation and fragmentation of their habitat to large scale.

Currently its population It is estimated within a range between 1.500 and 7.000 mature individuals.

The habitat loss and fragmentation It has been significant throughout its range, with between the 90% and the 93% lost mountain forests in Colombia. In the Peru the loss of habitat is less (Salaman et to the. 1999b, PGW Salaman in litt., 1999).

Logging of the Quindio wax Palm for the services of the Palm Sunday It is a serious problem in some parts of Ecuador. (1999b Salaman et to the.).

The road construction It is continuous throughout many areas of dwarf and humid forests in Peru, causing a severe loss of habitat in areas such as Málaga (H. Lloyd in litt., 2007).

In Colombia, are persecuted as pests of maize and as birds of company (1999b Salaman et to the.).

Many protected areas they are affected by the burning and grazing Moor, settlements, cleared for agriculture, logging, Narcotics and the extraction of gold (Wege and Long 1995, Salaman et to the., 1999b).

Conservation Actions Underway:

Appendix II of CITES.

Is known of many protected areas (Wege and Long, 1995), including the national parks Los Nevados and Cueva de los Guácharos in Colombia, and the Podocarpus national park in Ecuador (PGW Salaman in litt., 1999, Clements and Shany 2001).

The reserves, Ucumarí Regional Natural Park, Puracé National Park (Colombia), Huashapamba native forest (Ecuador) and the Río Abiseo National Park (Peru) they are apparently well protected (Wege and Long 1995).

In Ecuador, an organized campaign by Birds and conservation and Fundación Jocotoco with the support of the Government is aimed at reducing the unsustainable exploitation of the Quindio wax Palm. The Fundación Jocotoco you have installed nest boxes your reservations, that they are being used (even in preference to the natural cavities) for this and other species of parrot (D. Waugh in litt., 2010).

Conservation Actions Proposed:

Assess their condition from Peru (Flanagan et to the., 2000).

Establish the degree of dependence of the Quindio wax Palm in different regions (Sornoza Molina and Lopez-Lanus 1999).

Develop a network of mountain protected forest. Protect the Nevado del RuizNevado del Tolima and Cordillera de Chilla in the The Manu National Park (Jacobs and Walker 1999, PGW Salman in litt., 1999, Lopez-Lanus et to the., In press).

Golden-plumed Parakeet in Captivity:

Very rare in captivity, Some examples in Colombia.

Alternative names:

Golden-plumed Parakeet, Branicki’s Conure, Golden Plumed Conure, Golden plumed Parakeet, Golden-plumed Conure, Golden-plumed Parrot (English).
Conure à pinceaux d’or, Perriche à pinceaux d’or, Perruche à pinceaux d’or (French).
Pinselsittich, Pinsel-Sittich (German).
Papagaio-de-bochechas-douradas (Portuguese).
Aratinga de Pinceles, Cotorra Moteada, Perico Paramuno, Catanica de páramo (Spanish).
Loro paramuno, Perico Paramuno (Colombia).
Perico de Mejilla Dorada (Peru).
Perico cachetidorado, Cotorra moteada o Loro de mejillas doradas (Ecuador).

Scientific classification:

Jan Sztolcman
Jan Sztolcman

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Leptosittaca
Scientific name: Leptosittaca branickii
Citation: von Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894
Protonimo: Leptosittaca branickii

Golden-plumed Parakeet images:


Golden-plumed Parakeet (Leptosittaca branickii)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Book parrots, Parrots and macaws


(1) – Golden-plumed Parakeet in Tapichalaca Reserve, Ecuador By markaharper1 [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Leptosittaca branickii – Golden-plumed Parakeet by ProAves ColombiaFlickr
(3) – GOLDEN-PLUMED PARAKEET by Bryant OlsenFlickr
(4) – GOLDEN-PLUMED PARAKEET by Bryant OlsenFlickr
(5) – Leptosittaca branickii – Golden-plumed Parakeet by © Carl Downing – NeotropicalBirds
(6) – Leptopsittaca branickii via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Golden Parakeet
Guaruba guarouba

Golden Parakeet

Description Golden Parakeet:

34 cm. of length and a weight of 270 g.

Illustration Aratinga Guaruba

The Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba) has all the head, upperparts, lower andtail , a bright yellow. The greater coverts, primaries and secondaries are dark green (one or two feathers yellow in some birds flying). Underwing-coverts yellow, the bottom of the flight feather dark yellow. Feather shafts of the tail are white.

The bill pale pink, more Brown on the basis of the upper mandible; bare periophthalmic naked whitish; Iris Orange to brownish Orange; legs Rosaceae.

Both sexes similar.

Immature colour olive brown opaque dark green streak. In the transition to adulthood, the head, top of the tail and back they are the latest in acquiring the bright yellow color of the adult plumage.


Dwells in the tropical rainforests, avoiding the forests and marshes (seasonally flooded), Although in the immediate breeding period, You can wander through these habitats from the adjacent dry forests.

When is the breeding season, the Golden Parakeet they occupy the forests next to the clear.

Gregarious in all the seasons of the year. Observed in flocks of 3 to 30 birds, Although on a regular basis in groups between 6 and 10.

Forman communal roosts in tree cavities during the non-breeding season, using the holes in the area, alternately in successive nights. The usual and regular use of resting and feeding areas, is suspected to be due to the predictable daily routines. Sometimes seen feeding with other species of parrots.


Nest at the top of the trunk or main branch of a hollow tree, a height between 15 and 30 m. Nesting tree is usually isolated, but near virgin forests. The old nest of other species It can be used by the Golden Parakeet, expanding its cavity as necessary.

The sexual behavior This species is unusual, and this is one of the most interesting aspects of their biology. With reproduce communally, with several females contributing to the work of the clutch, Although there are also reports of individual couples. Young people at different stages of development sometimes share a same nest.

On the other hand, in the places of breeding during the reproductive period, the Golden Parakeet they react defensively to the presence of flocks of the same species, other species of parrots, especially the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao), and before the approach of birds of prey.

The normal clutch female is of 2 to 4 eggs (perhaps up to six); 14 reported in a single nest chicks in captive, where six adults helped in the breeding work. The breeding season, usually, takes place from December to April, and it corresponds to the rainy season


The Golden Parakeet, generally, feed in the forests of height, Although they will too of some cultivated plants; toreported foods (all the fruits or pseudo-fruits), They include the Palm trees of the genus Euterpe, that feels special canevale, Anacardium spruceanum, Anacardium occidentale, Protium and Tetragastris, Visnia quail, Inga, Byrsonima crassifobia, Carapa guianensis, Cecropia and Oenocarpus bacaba; also flowers and buds (for example Symphonia), and crops as the corn and mango in some areas.

Golden Parakeet distribution:

Endemic of the Amazon, to the South of Amazon in Brazil, from the west shore of the Tapajós River, to the East through the basins of the Xingu River and North of Tocantins to 5 ° N, For, and up to the eastern shore of the Turiacu River in West Maranhão.

Are not observed in the Marajó island and prevents the forests and marshes (for example, immediately to the South of the Amazon).

Recent records in Rondônia and Mato Grosso, far from their known range, They suggest a little-known distribution. Apparently, they are distributed in large areas, but it is not known whether the movements are predictable or related with, for example, the seasonal availability of food.

Rare range-wide and no doubt in decline due to the very wide, fast and continuous deforestation and fragmentation of forests, both in the Amazon Western as in the Eastern.

The capture illegal for national and international live bird markets and the hunting for food and sport they pose a serious additional pressures. Protected areas in the range are insufficient and are being violated regularly, for example, with the illegal logging of Mahogany Swietenia macrophylla.

Listed in Appendix 1. In danger of extinction.


• Red list category of the UICN current: Vulnerable

• Population trend: Decreasing

The threat most obvious for the survival of the Golden Parakeet is deforestation? The construction of the Tucurui dam, which was completed in 1984, displaced 35.000 settlers from their House to adjoining territories and brought rapid deforestation. Prior to the dam construcicón, Wildlife in the lower basin of Tocantins It was considered among the richest and most diverse in the world. It is estimated that you a 117 species of mammals and 294 species of birds were displaced. So what 120 species of amphibians and reptiles were affected.

The population of the Golden Parakeet was initially in a range between 1,000-2,499 individuals, based on an assessment of the known records, descriptions of the abundance and range size. However, recent information suggests that the population may be greater. The species has been recorded in several additional places. (Laranjeiras and Cohn-Haft 2009), and a recent survey along of the Tapajós River by Laranjeiras (2011) He said that it was so common in the study area as other Psittacidas, not threatened.
On the basis of this information, the population is placed on the band's 10,000-19,999 individuals, that means include c.6,600-13,400 mature individuals.

According to records of the International Species Information System There is a population of 213 scattered individuals in different zoos.

Conservation Actions Underway:

CITES Appendix I and II, managed under the Association of Zoos and Aquariums Parrot Taxon Advisory Group and protected by the Brazilian legislation (being proposal as the national bird of Brazil).

– A campaign attacking trade of birds in Bolivia It can help to reduce international trade (AB Hennessey in litt., 2009).

– A population is relatively well protected in the Tapajos National Park, and a remnant population can survive in the Gurupi biological reserve.

Floresta Nacional do Jamari It is poorly protected and suffer the constant pressure of illegal occupants, loggers and poachers (F. Olmos in litt., 1999).

– The conservation of this species in the reserves is problematic because of its apparent nomadism.

Conservation Actions Proposed:

– Conduct studies to find the populations so far unknown, especially in the South and West of its range.

– The de facto protection the Gurupi biological reserve.

– Maintain the integrity of the Tapajos National Park.

– Protect and manage the land between the existing protected areas to facilitate the movements of nomadic.

– To enforce the legal restrictions on trade, especially in domestic markets.

– Further develop the programme of captive breeding.

Aratinga Guaruba in captivity:

Date back to the first reproductive outcomes of this kind of 1939 in Sri Lanka.

The Golden Parakeet It is probably the most coveted among all the parrots, being the prices demanded by her extremely high. It is very rare and endangered in its natural habitat, and are therefore protected from import.

Reserved for the breeding birds are happier in the presence of members of their species. This is due to the nature of the Golden Parakeet, sociable and cheerful, with an intense need for interaction with their peers.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a specimen lived 23,2 years in captivity. It has been reported that these animals can live up to the 60,9 years in captivity, but this has not been verified; the same study reported that these animals can reproduced from the 3 years age in captivity.

Alternative names:

Golden Parakeet, Golden Conure, Queen of Bavaria’s Conure (English).
Conure dorée, Conure ou, Garouba jaune, Perriche dorée, Perruche dorée, Perruche guarouba (French).
Goldsittich (German).
Arara-juba, ajurujuba, arajuba, Ararajuba, guarajuba, guaruba, guira-juba, marajuba, papagaio-imperial, tanajuba (Portuguese).
Aratinga Guaruba, Guacamayo Guarouba, Periquito Amarillo (Spanish).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Guaruba
Scientific name: Guaruba guarouba
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus Guarouba

Golden Parakeet images:

Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba)


(1) – Avibase
(2) – Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
(3) – Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(4) – Birdlife
(5) – WAZA

  • Photos:

(1) – Golden Parakeet (also known or Golden Conure) at Gramado Zoo, in south Brazil By Ironman br (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Golden Parakeet or the Queen of Bavaria Conure in Burgers Zoo, Arnhem By frank wouters (originally posted to Flickr as goudparkiet) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Two Golden Parakeets at Gramado Zoo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil By diegodobelo (Zoo de GramadoUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Golden Parakeet or the Queen of Bavaria Conure). Two captive By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as Golden Conure) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Photo taken at the National Aviary By Photo by and (C)2007 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) (Self-photographed) [GFDL 1.2 or CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Photo taken at the National Aviary By Photo by and (C)2007 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) (Self-photographed) [GFDL 1.2 or CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Golden Conure at the Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil By Bruno Girin from London, United Kingdom (06680018Uploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Photo taken at the National Aviary By Photo by and (C)2007 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) (Self-photographed) [GFDL 1.2 or CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Golden Conure by Jean – Flickr
(10) – Illustration Guaruba guarouba By Dutton, F. G.; Fawcett, Benjamin; Greene, W. T.; Lydon, A. F.; Lydon, A. F. [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Great Green Macaw
Ara ambiguus

Guacamayo Ambiguo


77 to 85 cm.. length and an average weight of 1300 g..

Ilustración Guacamayo Ambiguo

The Great Green Macaw (Ara ambiguus) has the forecrown and the former area of the lores dark red; crown bright green, bluish in the nape. The the mantle and back Green olive: scapulars of the same colour but some with blue tips; rump and uppertail-coverts bright pale blue, lesser and median coverts greenish oliva-marron; greater coverts bluish green. The primaries and secondaries blue, more dark in the margin of the vane inner. Wing feathers color olive; rest of underwing-coverts color oro-oliva.

Black feathers off at the top of the throat bordering the lower mandible; rest of the throat, the chest and the belly brighter yellowish green, feathers on the lower area of the abdomen with red bases hidden; undertail- coverts pale blue. Under, the tail, reddish orange in the Center with blue tips, increasingly blue outer feathers and more completely blue external; undertail, the tail, color oro-oliva.

Upper mandible Blackish at the base, color Horn towards the tip and edges, lower mandible negruzca; bare skin of the lores posterior and cheeks Pink crossed by narrow dark red feather knowledges and black lines on the cheeks; irises pale yellow, legs dark grey.

Both sexes similar.

The tail of the immature opaque yellow-tipped, the plumage duller than the adult Green (especially below), the irises brown.

The older adult birds sometimes show patches of Turquoise in the plumage, especially in rear of the neck and the chest.


    The Military Macaw (Ara militaris) is so similar to this species, in German are called minor military Macaw (Militaris) and greater (ambiguous).

    An Ecuadorean specimen intermediate between the Great Green Macaw (Ara ambiguus) and the Military Macaw (Ara militaris) suggests one hybridization, increasing the likelihood that the two forms are the same species. Although separate from the ecological point of view.

    The Ambiguous macaws and Military You can be in contact at the bottom of the Valle del Cauca in Colombia, and in the Northwest of Ecuador and West Colombia. The Great Green Macaw (mainly in humid lowland forests) use deciduous forests, While the Military Macaw (mainly of dry upland forest) they are also recorded in lowland moist forests. Both make seasonal movements and in the case of the Military Macaw, they perform movements of long distance between their preferred habitats.

    The length of the tail and of the wings of the Mexican military Macaw and species nominal of the Great Green Macaw, They show a considerable overlap. Waiting to collect more details, the Great Green Macaw and the Military Macaw they are here treated as separate species.

  • Sound of the Great Green Macaw.

Subspecies description:

  • Ara ambiguus ambiguus

    (Bechstein, 1811) – The nominal species

  • Ara ambiguus guayaquilensis

    (Chapman, 1925) – The bill smaller, with a more greenish color under the flight feathers and under the tail.


The Great Green Macaw they are very shy and difficult to see birds, usually found at no lower altitudes of 35 meters in the treetops. They feed in silence and many times could be up to more than five hours in a same tree.

Mainly observed in moist lowland forests, but also in deciduous forests in the Chongon region to the southwest of Ecuador.

In Costa Rica in the primary forest of low and clear land with tall trees, from time to time in the lower montane forests. Crossing open between forest fragments fields and visit remnants of trees of the species Dipteryx on forest pastures.

Remote forests in Panama.

In Ecuador inhabits humid lowland, deciduous forest and Montane forest low but also visit more open areas for feeding.

They come to the 600 metres in the Cordillera de Guanacaste, Costa Rica; between 1.000 and more rarely 1.500 m, in Darien, Panama.

Less sociable than other large macaws, Although usually seen in pairs, in groups of 3-4, and more rarely in groups of up to twelve birds.


Form pairs of lifetime and are almost true to their nests, nesting from December to June. The majority of couples the first egg at the end of January and February the nests are young. The female incubates the eggs, While the male brings food to the nest. Both parents are responsible for feeding the pigeons, to do so approximately every two hours. These are birds that take care of their chicks until they can avail themselves, They even take care of them until that hatch the chicks of the season.

The average clutch consists of 2 – 3 white eggs, they are incubated by the female for a few 26 days. Hatchlings are blind, nude and completely dependent on the care of parents; they weigh around 23 g..

The chicks are fed by both parents and they leave the nest When you have about 12 – 13 weeks of age. At the time they leave the nest, usually weigh between 930-985 g..

A nest in Guayas, Ecuador, in the cavity of a tree of the species Cavanillesia platanifolia. Reported nestings between August-October in Ecuador. Breeding during the dry season (December-April) in Costa Rica.


The diet of the Great Green Macaw includes fruits of Lecythis costaricensis, Dipteryx panamensis, Sloanea, Dalium guianensis and Ficus, and flowers of Symphonia globulifera.

Feeds in the treetops.


Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 100,000 km2

Its distribution ranges from the East of Honduras to western Colombia and West of Ecuador.

Observed in the lowlands of the Caribbean East of Honduras through this of Nicaragua to the lowlands of Costa Rica especially on the slope of the Caribbean, including the Cordillera de Guanacaste.

In Panama especially on the slope of the Caribbean, but also locally in the Pacific. From East Panama to the tropical zone to the West of Colombia, on Western Cordillera of the Andes and South to the upper area of the Atrato river and The Baudó mountains (possibly up to Buenaventura) and East towards the north end of the Andes in the West of the upper part of the Valley of the Rio Sinú.

In West Ecuador observed mostly from the Colonche hills, Northwest of Guayaquil; also further north, in Esmeraldas, possibly in the extreme southwest of Colombia, Although forests here are, Perhaps, too humid (See geographic variation).

The numbers fluctuate locally due to movements of foraging season. Local appearances in Costa Rica they often coincide with the fruiting of trees of the species Dipteryx.

Local, being the most common of the large macaws in Panama. However, in general, rare, with the decline in recent large scale of its population due to obvious deforestation in the range.

Extinguished much of Ecuador, where the population (only 100 birds) It is threatened by loss of habitat due to urbanization and agriculture.

The exploitation of trees of the species Dipteryx It poses a serious threat in Costa Rica.

They occur in several protected areas, including the The Darien biosphere reserve, Panama, The Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve, Honduras and Cotacachi-Cayapas ecological reserve, Ecuador, but seasonal pilgrimages suggest that these areas are insufficient on their own to preserve the populations.

Less common that the Military Macaw (Ara militaris) in captivity and bred rarely. CITES Appendix I. VULNERABLE (included as subspecies of the Military Macaw Necklace et to the. 1994).

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Ara ambiguus ambiguus

    (Bechstein, 1811) – The nominal species

  • Ara ambiguus guayaquilensis

    (Chapman, 1925) – In critically endangered; they live in the wild in limited sectors of the western part of the Ecuador; characteristic is their habitat in tropical and dry damp forests of the Ecuadorian coast


• Current red list of UICN: Danger

• Population trend: Decreasing

Recent estimates suggest that the population has less than 2.500 mature individuals (or less than 3.700 in total if we include juveniles and immature); would be the largest sub-population in Darien, to the East of Panama, with less than 1.700 mature individuals (or less than 2.500 in total). You still must be careful, due to that in non-breeding times can form groups of 50 individuals or more, It can be qe will overestimate their populations. In addition, Although it is most abundant in Darien, It is found in specific areas, finding numerous areas without copies.


HABITAT LOSS: In Central America, deforestation inter alia to increase the banana plantations and livestock, as well as logging for other reasons, they have strongly affected. In fact, annual deforestation rates are very high throughout its range, and deforestation in Panama likely to be superior to the 30% its original range. In other countries such as Costa Rica and Ecuador also reduced its range in the last 100 years. Urbanization and agriculture that have destroyed their habitat have resulted in great part with the subspecies of the Ecuador.

For example, the Zona Norte (Costa Rica) It has been the country highest deforestation rate in two decades, both legal and illegal, leaving less than a 30% the forest on foot. However, It is important to mention that several scientific studies highlight the high level of biodiversity of forests of the North Huetar region, among the most diverse of Central America.

Also, Although there are few protected areas for these birds as the Indio-Maíz biological reserve of Nicaragua, where they found an extensive habitat conducive to its development; However, become every day more frequent incursions by Costa Rican wood on the other side of the San Juan River, so this reserve, one of the most important of Central America It is also not safe from chainsaws.

CAPTURE ILLEGAL: the illegal trade that exists with the Great Green Macaw for use as a pet is a factor that jeopardizes its existence.
They are also captured because their feathers are used to make paintings about them.

HUNTING: It also seems that sometimes fires them as a pest to crops.


With regard to the threats, of course it is your hunt forbidden for the trade, power or to obtain their feathers, Although often living standards are not met.

Is located in the CITES both in Appendix I and II as.

RESERVATIONS: It is very important for these birds the Darien biosphere reserve, Panama, and the adjacent Los Katíos National Park, Colombia. There are also other important reserves in all countries covered although they provide little protection to these birds.

In Costa Rica, Although it was a proposed moratorium on logging the almond trees, This finally was not carried out. On the other hand, a Government-backed conservation strategy is being implemented in Ecuador.

Proof that the investigation in these cases is important, is that in 2007, a rapid assessment survey looking for last survivors in the Cordillera-Chongon Colonche, Ecuador, gave positive results.

On the other hand, There is a bi-national campaign in the lowlands of the San Juan River (Nicaragua and Costa Rica), It is intended to increase knowledge of the biology, threats and conservation, and strengthen the management of natural resources.

The Research and conservation of the Great Green Macaw project dedicated since 1994 the study of the biology of conservation of the Great Green Macaw on Zona Norte (Costa Rica) and it has an important biological database on this species, in fact the only information of this kind that exists in Central America, According to the same source. This project was initiated to concerns that its population was restricted and that the forest was also be sacrificing at a very fast pace. The project is supported from 1997 by the Tropical Science Center, the same body that administers the The Monteverde Cloud forest biological reserve. The concern was justified when the first phase of the study determined that the area of distribution of the Great Green Macaw in Costa Rica had been reduced in a 90% Since the beginning of the 20th century.

In Costa Rica have been reproduced in captivity at some sites, as the ZOOAVE Zoo.


• One of them is to make effective protection in the reserves of Honduras and Nicaragua.

• Another designate the proposed as Maquenque National Park, in Costa Rica.

• We should restrict trade through the application of the law and educational campaigns.

• Finally it would be very interesting to acquire certain areas private reserves, to ensure the same protection.

Guacamayo Ambiguo en cautividad:

Less common that the Military Macaw (Ara militaris) in captivity and bred rarely.

The Great Green Macaw only recommended for experienced handlers and breeders. There are more silent than other macaws and can be kept with other large macaws outside the breeding season.

Breeding pairs require long flights of at least 15 m. These parrots are not suitable for the interior of a House.

With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a specimen was still alive after 29 years in captivity.

Alternative names:

Great Green Macaw, Buffon’s Macaw, Grand Military Macaw, Green Macaw (English).
Ara de Buffon, Grand Ara vert (French).
Bechsteinara, Bechstein-Ara, Grosser Soldatenara (German).
Arara-militar-grande (Portuguese).
Guacamaya Verdelimón, Guacamayo Ambiguo, Guacamayo de Cara Blanca, Guacamayo verde mayor, Guara verde, Lapa Verde (Spanish).
Guacamaya Verdelimón, Gucamaya verde limón (Colombia).
Guacamayo verde mayor, Lapa Verde (Costa Rica).
Guacamayo verde mayor (Ecuador).
Bagarapabara (Emberá).

Johann Matthäus Bechstein
Johann Matthäus Bechstein

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: ARA
Scientific name: Ara ambiguus
Citation: (Bechstein, 1811)
Protonimo: Psittacus ambiguus

Great Green Macaw images:


Great Green Macaw (Ara ambiguus)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Great Green Macaw in the zoo in Hodonín, Czech Republic By Bohuna Mikulicová (Zoologická zahrada Hodonín) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Ara ambigua from Zoo Schmiding By Alois Staudacher (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Great Green Macaw (also known as Buffon’s Macaw). A male in a cage By Ruth Rogers (originally posted to Flickr as Male Buffon’s Macaw) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Ara ambiguus at the zoo at Paradise Village Resort, Nuevo Vallarta, Nayarit, Mexico By Riley Huntley (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Ara ambiguus, La Selva, Costa Rica By Don Faulkner (Great Green Macaw) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Onze vogels in huis en tuin By Keulemans, J. G. [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: (Xeno-canto)

Indigo Macaw
Anodorhynchus leari

Guacamayo de Lear


75 cm.. length and 940 g. of weight.

Ilustración Guacamayo de Lear

The Indigo Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari) It is a beautiful Blue Parrot with a long tail. Similar to the Hyacinth Macaw, but much smaller and chunky, with a large yellow spot in the cheeks. It was described for the first time in 1858 by the nephew of Napoleon, Lucien Bonaparte, from an illustration made by famous Illustrator and English artist known for his absurd poetry, Edward Lear.

This Parrot, However, remained elusive in nature, and it was only accepted as a distinct species in 1978, When the naturalist Helmut Sick finally found a wild population.

The head, the neck and underparts This Parrot are greenish-blue, While the rest of the body looks like a purple / Indigo. The bare skin around the eyes and at the base of the bill It is pale yellow.

The irises are dark brown and the bill, Although predominantly black, You may have a grey stains clear.

Males and females They seem to. The male can have a larger beak and can usually be larger in size, but these differences vary or can be only light and are not considered reliable for the identification of gender.

The youth they can be identified by its shorter tail; the upper beak is pale.

  • Sound of the Indigo Macaw.
[audio:HTTPS:// de Lear.MP3]


They live in drylands, with resistant vegetation of caatinga (thorny scrub), especially in areas with Palm trees Syagrus coronata.

They require sandstone cliffs to perch and nest.

Gregarious and in general in flocks, but usually in very small numbers. Shapes communal roosts in cracks eroded near the top of the walls of canyons of sandstone at altitudes between 30 and 50 m. Many birds perch on the largest holes, while others cling to rocks or rest on the cornices.

The Indigo Macaw leave the roosts in family groups to go to the feeding areas before dawn to return at dusk.


The nests of the Indigo Macaw they are located in crevices in cliffs, Although sometimes they also nest in shallow tree cavities.

The breeding season is located in the month February-April, coinciding with the rainy season and possibly coinciding with the maximum availability of palm nuts.
The average clutch size is two to three eggs. The average period of incubation is of 28 days and the average age of feathered is of 16 to 20 weeks.


The staple food of the Indigo Macaw they are palm nuts Syagrus (a bird can take 350 walnuts in a day). Also take seeds from Melanoxylon, above all when the walnuts Syagrus they are scarce (July-September). Other reported foods include fruits of Jatropha pohliana, Dioclea and Spondias tuberosa, flowers Agave and corn.

Fluid from the unripe fruit of Palms is perhaps the main source of moisture.

The Indigo Macaw they feed in the trees and on the ground.


Confined to the plateau Raso da Catarina, to the northeast of Bay in Brazil; mainly occupy an area close to 8,000 km 2 in the center of River Vasa Barris, in the South of the plateau. Two main colonies are known, one on each side of the Vasa Barris.

These birds make daytime movements South of Holy and Euclides da Cunha and possibly from the North to the north-western edge of the plateau to feed.

There is a peripheral population smaller at several hundred kilometers of Vasa Barris and there are unconfirmed reports of other small groups in remote northern dry inside of Bay.

Resident, remaining close to the cliffs where nest and their favorite roosting birds.

The population of Indigo Macaw is estimated at 139 birds (117 more 22) with an obvious decline over the past 100 years. The pressures arising from the trade in birds, hunting, the loss of plants used as food for livestock, the disturbance and, possibly, inbreeding depression, they could quickly lead to the extinction in freedom of this beautiful species.


• Current red list of UICN: Danger

• Population trend: Unknown

The Indigo Macaw they suffered a historic drop in long term due to the capture, but estimates of population remained fairly stable after its rediscovery in the wild in 1978 until the mid of 1990 When the numbers began to increase rapidly; While this may reflect in part, improvements in the methodology of the survey, also there has been a real increase due to intense conservation efforts.

According to specialists, they only survive in the world, mainly in zoos, a few 1.300 specimens This species whose natural habitat are the rock walls in the arid interior of the State of Bahia (Northeast of Brazil).

For its part, the Spix's Macaw It is considered extinct in the wild since 2000, Although currently survive in captivity a few 90 specimens, they are maintained by institutions of different countries, mostly out of Brazil.

Lear's Macaw in captivity:

The Indigo Macaw It is the most uncommon of all the macaws in captivity. There are three known copies in United States and a similar amount in Europe. The Government of Brazil It does not recognize any other legal copy of this species outside its borders. On the other hand, in the zoos of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo in Brazil, they have several copies. Twelve copies of Indigo Macaw with that features the Zoo's São Paulo they are isolated and cages that can not be visited by the public because of the risk of extinction of the species.

With regard to its longevity, They have News of a captive bird that lived 38,3 years.

Attempts at smuggling of this species have been discovered during the past ten years from Brazil and some birds have confiscated, that have been returned to the country.

A Special Committee has been formed by the part of the IBAMA of the Government of Brazil to initiate actions for the conservation of this species. Likewise, other countries that have also signed the Treaty CITES they should support Brazil in their attempts to establish pairs of players in captivity and to conserve the habitat of the Indigo Macaw.

If anyone knows the whereabouts of illegal copies of this species must notify the authorities for his immediate intervention. This species is on the verge of extinction and all possible actions to save her must be coordinated through a working group for the conservation.


They are accomplished in Brazil the first reproduction in captivity of a Lear's macaw

Alternative names:

Indigo Macaw, Lear’s Macaw (English).
Ara de Lear (French).
Learara, Lear-Ara (German).
Arara-azul-pequeña, arara-azul-de-Lear, arara-azul-pequena (Portuguese).
Arara-azul-de-lear, arara-azul-pequena (Portuguese (Brazil)).
Guacamayo de Lear, Guacamayo Indio (Spanish).

Charles Lucien Bonaparte
Charles Lucien Bonaparte

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Anodorhynchus
Scientific name: Anodorhynchus leari
Citation: Bonaparte, 1856
Protonimo: Anodorhynchus leari

Indigo Macaw images:


Indigo Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Wildscreen Arkive
– Macaws. A comprehensive guide by Rick Jordan.


(1) – Two Lear’s Macaws at Rio de Janeiro Zoo, Brazil By Marcos Pereira (originally posted to Flickr as blue macaw couple) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Lear’s Macaw Anodorhynchus leari By [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Two Lear’s Macaws at Estação Biológica de Canudos, Bahia, Brazil By Miguelrangeljr (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Anodorhynchus lear By Rick elis.simpson (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Illustration by Edward Lear (1812–88) first published in his book Illustrations of the Family of the Psittacidae, or Parrots in 1832

Sounds: Hans Matheve (Xeno-canto)

Gray-headed Parakeet
Psittacula finschii

Cotorra de Finsch


Of 36 to 40 cm.. length and 120 g. of weight.

Ilustración Cotorra de Finsch

The Gray-headed Parakeet (Psittacula finschii) It is very similar to Slaty-headed Parakeet but smaller, with feathers tail longer, the head slightly paler, upperparts and more yellowish underwing-coverts darker blue-green.

The Gray-headed Parakeet (Psittacula finschii) has the forecrown, crown, lores and ear-coverts Grey Slate-blue; the chin and the lower part of the cheeks, black, It forming a narrow collar that marks a clear boundary between the head dark and a bright ring greenish blue on the back of the neck.

Nape brighter yellowish green, duller green fading in the rest of the upper region.

Upperwing-coverts green except for the brown of the inner coverts, that makes the effect of a distinctive patch on the shoulder; primaries Green with a narrow yellow margin on the vane outer; secondaries green.

Underwing-coverts dark bluish green. Underparts bright pale green. Uppertail lilac blue with pale yellow tips, outer feathers Greens with vane internal and yellow tips; undertail-coverts ochre-coloured.

Upper mandible coral red to vermilion with yellow tip, lower mandible yellow; cere whitish; irises creamy white to yellow; legs greenish.

The females and immature as the Slaty-headed Parakeet.


    Sometimes considered the same species as the Slaty-headed Parakeet, but the lack of intergradation in a possible area of overlap in Bhutan and the northeast of the India (Arunachal Pradesh) suggests appropriate treatment as allospecies.
  • Sound of the Gray-headed Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS:// the Finsch.mp3]


Similar to the Slaty-headed Parakeet. Frequents forests of oak, teak, cedar and pine, wooded hills and open farmland with tall trees. Move altitude between 650 and 3.800 m (in Yunnan, China), rarely drop below 250 m, usually at or near the mountainous terrain.

Mainly distributed in the forest Viet Nam, but, According to sources, laz away from growing areas and tolerant of lower and more open habitats.

In general, obsevadas in flocks or or small family groups, but also it is seen in larger numbers than in Burma.


The breeding season in the central and southern Burma It covers the months January, February and March.

A nest four eggs was observed 12 meter high tree species Xylio dolabiformis.


Diet Gray-headed Parakeet It is thought to resemble that of the Slaty-headed Parakeet; reported items include leaf buds, seeds of Dendrocalamus longispathus, fruit of wild cherries Prunus and flowers.


The Gray-headed Parakeet It is distributed in the east of the Himalayas towards Indochina. They vary from eastern Bhutan towards Arunachal Pradesh and south through Nagaland, Assam (to the South of the rio Brahmaputra). Manipur, Mizoram and Bangladesh oriental (Sylhet Area Chittagong). Through Burma (South of Tenasserim), al sur-oeste de China (center Sichuan and North of Yunnan), the mountainous districts of northern and southwestern Thailand, South of Laos, Kampuchea and Viet Nam, especially the western slopes of the central mountains.

Generally Common resident (very common in some places), but lacking in some areas and subject to local fluctuations and irregular appearances.

Recent decline in Thailand, where it is now rare in the more accessible areas. Uncommon in China. Some seasonal altitudinal movements in some parts of the range. Very popular cage bird in some parts of the home territory.


• Current red list of UICN: Near-threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The size of the world population Gray-headed Parakeet It has not been quantified, but the species, According to sources, It is rare in China, Variable and elsewhere (pit et to the. 1997).

The population is suspected rapid decline because of continued habitat loss and trapping. Observations of local trends in some parts, within its range, support this suspicion, for example in Cambodia, at least since the early 1990 (F. Goes in some. 2013, T. Gray in litt. 2013, RJ Timmins in litt. 2013).

The Gray-headed Parakeet It is widely captured for trade in cage birds and kept locally as a pet, for example, in Laos and China (JW Duckworth in litt. 2013, M. Zhang in some. 2013).

In China, poaching and illegal trade in this species continues: it was reported that in one village, each family has an individual of this species as a pet (M. Zhang in some. 2013).

The pressure at which it is subjected for his capture may also be contributing to the observed decrease in Cambodia (F. Goes in some. 2013).

Lowland forests Indochina They are under intense pressure, above all in Cambodia, because of the authorization for large-scale industrial agriculture. This particularly affects areas with evergreen or semi-evergreen forest, rather than forest deciduous, because the best conditions for growing (S. Mahood in some. 2013).

This species is dependent areas and forests with evergreens, whereby the effects of logging can seriously affect, especially since it is likely to depend on large trees for nesting. Habitats where large trees are scarce, as forests and hill areas with mixed forest deciduous, patches of evergreen forest and semi-evergreen forest, They are under particular pressure from logging, even for local use (S. Mahood in some. 2013).

It is expected that the loss of habitat Cambodia bring a devastating impact on this species over the next decade, although there may be a delay before the actual effects were observed in the population (H. Rainey in some. 2013).

Conservation Actions Underway:

    The species is known to occur in some protected areas across its range, as in the Mondulkiri Protected Forest, Cambodia (T. Gray in litt. 2013).

Parakeet Finsch in captivity:

Cotorra de Finsch

– Rare in captivity outside of its range.

It is unclear how much spread among breeders, as often it was considered a subspecies of the more common Slaty-headed Parakeet. It is a very mountain bird resistant, at low temperatures is not a problem for them, However, must be protected facilities available to avoid sudden changes in temperature and drafts.

How other Psittacula, the Gray-headed Parakeet You need to nibble fresh branches, although not a destructive bird that could demolish a wooden birdhouse.

Alternative names:

Gray-headed Parakeet, Eastern Slaty-headed Parakeet, Finsch’s Parakeet, Finsch’s Slaty-headed Parakeet, Gray headed Parakeet, Grey headed Parakeet, Grey-headed Parakeet, Slaty-headed parakeet (English).
Perruche de Finsch, Perruche à tête grise (French).
Finschsittich, Burma-Schwarzkopfedelsittich, Finschs Edelsittich, Finsch-Sittich, Himalayasittich, Himalayasittich-finschii, Veraguasittich (German).
Periquito-de-cabeça-cinza (Portuguese).
Cotorra de Finsch (Spanish).

Allan Octavian Hume
Allan Octavian Hume

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Psittacula
Scientific name: Psittacula finschii
Citation: (Hume, 1874)
Protonimo: Palaeornis Finschii


Gray-headed Parakeet (Psittacula finschii)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Bird perched on a home made perch. Part of the tail appears to be missing by Vijay Anand Ismavel – Lynx
(2) – Gould, John, 1804-1881; Sharpe, Richard Bowdler, 1847-1909: Birds of Asia by John Gould [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Finsch’s Parakeet Psittacula finschii by Raju Kasambe. Photo taken in Imphal Zoo, Manipur, India By Dr. Raju Kasambe (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Pritam Baruah (Xeno-canto)

Fischer's Lovebird
Agapornis fischeri

Inseparable de Fischer

Description Inseparable Fischer:

Of 12,7 to 15 cm in length and a weight between 42 and 58 g..

Inseparable de Fischer

The Fischer's Lovebird (Agapornis fischeri) has a frontal band, the lores and cheeks bright red with an orange shaded in red chin and throat. Upper chest is orange-yellow; crown and nape Brown. Width collar adjacent yellowish brown and yellowish orange band at the top of chest.

The the mantle, scapulars and front of the rump, are green; the back of the rump and uppertail-coverts dark blue. Upper, the wing-coverts green; primaries and secondaries blackish brown with green edges to the vane outer. Under, the wing-coverts green; underside of flight feather grey-black. The low area chest up to the undertail- coverts pale yellowish green.

Tail bluish green, with yellow tip and bordered by a black line.

The bill is red, whitish towards the base of the upper mandible; cere white; irises brown; periophthalmic ring white of a 2 mm; legs pale grey.

Both sexes similar, indeed there no sexual dimorphism Between both.
One method that is very effective in distinguishing the sex of our Fischer's Lovebird It is the bone of the pelvis, being more open in females than in males.

The immature They have reduced the blue in the uppertail-coverts and they are both duller than adults, particularly on neck, the head and the chest; black markings, sometimes at the base of the upper mandible.

Habitat Inseparable Fischer:

The Fischer's Lovebird They inhabit wooded grasslands with Acacias, Commiphora; especially in the west, also in more open grasslands with Adansonia and cultivated areas. More common in sheets with different types of Acacias and trees of the genus Egyptian balanites; also in terrestrial flora zones including Penisetum, Digitaria, Themeda and pastures Eustachys.

In the south of its range They are present in the forest with palm trees Borassus aethiopum.

When the season is dry, They can also be seen in areas of riverine forests Ficus, Boolean, Tamarindus, Aphania, Garcinia and Eckberg.

Avoid wooded savannah type miombo.

Generally altitude between 1,100-2.000 m. Often near water, especially in hot weather.

Gregarious, at least outside the breeding season , and generally in small flocks. Sometimes more important meetings form, for example, where abundant food.

In Tanzania They meet roosting nests leveraging Rufous-tailed Weaver (Histurgops ruficauda).

The main known predators Fischer's Lovebird they are the Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus).

Inseparable reproduction Fischer:

The Fischer's Lovebird They breed in colonies.

The breeding It takes place from January to April and in June and July, coinciding with the dry season; the exact timing depends on the locality.

The majority of the nests They are located 2.15 meters above the ground, at the base of leaves overhead palm, in the holes and cracks of dead trees or dead branches and live trees, sometimes nest on cliffs.

The nest It comprises grass stalks and peel strips carried by the female in his beak.

The Clutch size in captivity is three to eight eggs, with a period of incubation of 23 days and the period incipient of 38 days.

Inseparable power Fischer:

The diet of the Fischer's Lovebird is mainly harvester. It feeds on seeds such as Pennisetum mezianum, also it feeds millet and maize, although the species does not come to be considered a serious pest for crops; Also they take seeds Acacia directly from trees, grass Achyranths asper, berries and fruits falls Ficus, Rhus shaggy and Commiphora.

They need to drink daily.


The Fischer's Lovebird They are endemic to the north and northwest Tanzania from Kondoa in the South-East, Serengeti National Park, in the north and the Lago Manyara in the East; possibly closer to the border Kenya in some areas.

In Rwanda and Burundi the species is either a recent natural settler, or I asilvestrado from 1970, or visitor breakthrough in response to drought.

Observed on the islands Ukerewe and KNIT in southern Lago Victoria.

Wild populations established in the region Dar es Salaam and Thong in Tanzania, and around Mombasa, Nairobi, Naivasha and Isiolo, in Kenya.

Probably some Local movements in the dry season with outbreaks in drought years. Within its tiny range, is a common bird, with large flocks in some areas, scarce and seemingly in decline, especially outside protected areas where low density is attributed to the capture for trade.

There is a self-sustaining wild population derived from escapes from captivity in Southeast France, where Yellow-collared Lovebird (Agapornis personatus) also they escaped, along with hybrid also observed.

A great number of Fischer's Lovebird in captivity.


• Current red list of UICN: Near threatened

• Population trend: Decreasing

The population of the Fischer's Lovebird release has been estimated to range between 290.205 and 1.002.210 birds.

There has been a significant population decline Since the Decade of 1970, mainly because of widespread trapping for the wild bird trade.

The Fischer's Lovebird wild bird was the most traded in the world 1987 and was the most popular wild parrot imported into the then European economic community, representing about 80% exports of parrots in Tanzania (RSPB 1991).

The legal collection for export has been stopped, but the population remains much lower than it was, and trade could start again (Moyer 1995).

The species hybridized with the Yellow-collared Lovebird (Agapornis personatus) in the nature, but not within the natural range of the species (there is a range of overlap but the Fischer's Lovebird It appears to be a non-breeding visitor habitat Yellow-collared Lovebird [N. Baker a slightly. 1999, Morton y Bhatia 1992]) so this is unlikely to represent a threat.

Conservation Actions Proposed

– Conduct surveys to obtain an estimate of the population-date.
– Monitor population trends through regular surveys.
– It prevent capture for export to start again. Investigate the extent of hybridization with the Yellow-collared Lovebird (Agapornis personatus).

Fischer's Lovebird captive:

The Fischer's Lovebird They have been kept as pets from, approximately, mid-sixteenth century. They became part of the trade in live birds 1926. The first captive breeding success Agapornis fischeri It was documented 11 in January of 1928. For the year 1931, the Berlin Zoo (Germany) They had raised 68 copies successfully in captivity. Today they are bred and sold as pets, mainly in the United States and Europe. In 1987 was the most traded bird species in the world.

The Fischer's Lovebird they are difficult to maintain healthy birds in captivity. Are active birds they need a lot of space. When you are confined in a cage, health tends to deteriorate. Instead of being active and vocal, often they sit on the floor of the cage in a corner. Physical Problems such as negative young and the overweight also they shortened their longevity.

Being very active birds and require wide cage (a minimum of 50 x 50 x 75 cm. to a bird and 65 x 65 x 75 cm for a couple.). It is appropriate to give a little spot inside the cage to hide in when they feel insecure.

Surprisingly, They not seem to have much problem to acclimatize to the cold weather even though their original habitat is tropical. If they kept away from drafts, they can withstand the long winters on other continents.

If allowed out of his cage must be very careful not to have utensils close that they can damage or may damage, they are avid chewers, they have strong beaks and can quickly cause damage.

They are very vocal birds and their shrill noise can be a nuisance.
Of all species of Agapornis, the Fischer's Lovebird He is known to be the most acrobatic.

With regard to its longevity, a demographic study suggested that these birds are aging rapidly with maximum longevity 7,7 years. An exemplary, as indicated sources, lived 12.6 years in captivity. The maximum longevity may be underestimated; More studies are needed. It has also been informed by other sources that these animals can live up 32,2 years in captivity, but this has not been verified.

Alternative names:

Fischer’s Lovebird (English).
Inséparable de Fischer (French).
Pfirsichköpfchen (German).
Inseparável-de-fisher (Portuguese).
Inseparable de Fischer, Agapornis Fischer (Spanish).

Fischer's Lovebird - Anton Reichenow
Anton Reichenow

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Agapornis
Scientific name: Agapornis fischeri
Citation: Reichenow, 1887
Protonimo: Agapornis Fischeri

Fischer's Lovebird Images:


Fischer's Lovebird (Agapornis fischeri)


– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – Fischer's lovebird, (Agapornis fischeri); side view of a pet on a perch By Peter Békési (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two Fischer’s Lovebirds, (Agapornis fischeri). Pets on a perch By Peter Békési from Budapest, Hungary (IMG_2303) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Three Fischer’s Lovebirds at Ueno Zoo, Japan By Agapornis_fischeri_-Ueno_Zoo,_Japan_-three-8a.jpg: Takashi Hososhima from Tokyo, Japanderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Fischer’s Lovebirds, Agapornis fischeri, social grooming By Peter Békési (originally posted to Flickr as IMG_0692) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Fischer’s Lovebird perching on a branch in captivity By Françoise Walthéry from Bruxelles, Belgium (8_Buiten_reeks_8) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Fischer’s Lovebirds at World of Birds Wildlife Sanctuary and Monkey Park in Cape Town, South Africa By Mara 1 (originally posted to Flickr as I Love You !) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Fischer's lovebird (Agapornis fischeri). Two on a branch By Lucia Smit (originally posted to Flickr as Sonny & Cher) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Fischer’s Lovebirds, Agapornis fischeri By Peter Békési (originally posted to Flickr as IMG_0736) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – A group of Fischer’s Lovebirds feeding at Ueno Zoo, Japan By kanegen (originally posted to Flickr as Ueno Zoo) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Fischer's lovebird, (Agapornis fischeri) perching on a box By Peter Békési (Flickr) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Rory Nefdt (Xeno-canto)

Gray-headed Lovebird
Agapornis canus

Gray-headed Lovebird


Between 13 and 15 cm in length and a weight between 25 and 31 g..

Gray-headed Lovebird

The Gray-headed Lovebird (Agapornis canus) has the head and the neck pale grey. Mantle and green scapulars; rump with a much brighter green than the rest of the tops. Upper, the wing-coverts green, alula Dark. Flight feather green above, darker towards tip and margins to the vane outer; grayish brown below. Under, the wing-coverts black. The throat to the top of the chest pale grey; low area chest up to the undertail- coverts pale yellowish green. Upper, the tail green, by bright side, with broad subterminal black band; undertail, the tail greenish-grey.

The upper mandible bluish white, the lower white pink; irises dark brown; legs pale grey.

The female has the head, neck and chest green; upperparts sometimes more brown than the male. Under, the wing-coverts green.

The immature adults resemble, but the gray hood the male is steeped in green, especially in the nape; bill yellow with black on the basis of upper mandible.

  • Sound of the Gray-headed Lovebird.
[audio:HTTPS:// Malgache.mp3]

Subspecies description:

It notes that within the species Grey-headed Lovebird, given the presence of 2 subspecies, which are Agapornis canus canus (Gmelin); Agapornis canus ablectaneus (Bangs); However, not known any mutation, What is something special in this genre, as usually, each species has different mutations, you change the color of its plumage.

  • Agapornis canus ablectaneus (Bangs, 1918) – Greener (less yellowish) below, head violet gray con held tinkles.
  • Agapornis canus canus (Gmelin, 1788) – The nominal species


In Madagascar They are in some wooded areas, palm savannas, forest edges, degraded forests, bush and farmland and rice paddies to altitudes 1.500 m. Use the clear in the dense forest along the mountainsides.

Observed in the outskirts of cities and towns and, often seen on the roads. Introduced populations show similar habitat preferences.

Gregarious, usually in flocks of up to 50 birds, can concentrate in greater numbers in areas where food is abundant, sometimes it partnering with Madagascar Red Fody (Foudia madagascariensis), the Sakalava Weaver (Ploceus sakalava) or the Madagascar Munia (Lepidopygia nana). They often gather at communal roosts in the bare branches.



The nests of the Gray-headed Lovebird are treeholes; Inside the hole is lined with fragments of chewed leaves or wood chips and stalks of grass worn by females between body feathers.

Nesting They were recorded in the months of November and December in Madagascar. Probably they breed during the rainy season (November–April) in Comoros.

The laying is of 4-5 eggs, but up to eight they have been recorded in captivity.

The incubation, probably, the female performs single, lasts a few 23 days and the young leave the nest after forty days.


The diet Gray-headed Lovebird consists, mainly, grass seed.

In Seychelles They have a preference for the crop pasto guinea (Megathyrsus maximus); in the Comoros islands by flower buds Stenotaphrum. They also eat rice out to dry around the villages and farms.


Madagascar It is the natural range of the Gray-headed Lovebird, where usually are common, especially in coastal regions, but today they are rare in eastern and absent or scarce in the central plateau.

Introduced Comoros, Seychelles, Rodrigues, Meeting, Mauritius, Zanzibar and Mafia; apparently disappeared in the last three islands and only a small number Rodrigues and Meeting, but generally widespread and common in Comoros.

In Seychelles, initially established extensively in Mahe but now confined to the suburbs around Victoria and some towns of the West Coast; small town, According to sources, in Silhouette.

Attempts to introduce them to other islands and in Africa have failed.

Distribution of subspecies:

  • Agapornis canus ablectaneus (Bangs, 1918) – Arid lowlands of southwestern Madagascar, intergrades the species nominal about Beth kopaka and Ankavandra
  • Agapornis canus canus (Gmelin, 1788) – The nominal species


• Current red list of UICN: Least concern

• Population trend: Stable

The size of the world population Gray-headed Lovebird It has not been quantified, but the species, According to sources, It common and it is generally Extended. (pit et to the. 1997).

The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.

The species has undergone intense trade: from 1981 when it was listed in Appendix II of CITES, 107,829 wild-caught individuals They were recorded in international trade (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, January 2005).

After a total ban on exports from Madagascar, in recent years it has been possible to have some specimens imported.

Inseparable Malgache in captivity:

The Gray-headed Lovebird they are very rarely seen in captivity, Since this species it is not widespread today.

The Gray-headed Lovebird It is a pretty bird silent; Active; often timid and elusive; Just get used to his caregiver patiently and in a gradual manner; newly imported birds, initially they are very susceptible; reared in aviaries not usually give complications; It hard chewer; enjoy bath; his voice is not too loud; communal aviary is not recommended because its something rowdiness; He tolerates only birds of the same species in large aviaries where you can implement your flight.

With regard to its longevity, they can live between 10 and 20 years.

Alternative names:

Gray-headed Lovebird, Gray headed Lovebird, Grey headed Lovebird, Grey-headed Lovebird, Madagascar Lovebird (English).
Inséparable à tête grise, Inséparable cana (French).
Grauköpfchen, Grauköpchen (German).
Inseparável-de-faces-cinzentas (Portuguese).
Inseparable de Cabeza Gris, Inseparable Malgache, Agapornis Cana, Inseparable de Madagascar (Spanish).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Genus: Agapornis
Scientific name: Agapornis canus
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus canus

Gray-headed Lovebird Images:

Gray-headed Lovebird (Agapornis canus)


Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr


(1) – A male Grey-headed Lovebird at Beale Park, Berkshire, England By Tony Austin (originally posted to Flickr as Parrot) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Grey-headed Lovebird, Ankarafantsika, Madagascar By Frank Vassen [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Grey-headed Lovebird or Madagascar Lovebird By [email protected](Opiate ~ @ sugar groups and the) -> (Self-photographed) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – the whole family… by ZaR – ipernity
(5) – we Pedia

Sounds: Mike Nelson (Xeno-canto)

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